Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
Nov 5, 2016, 8:28:13 AM (3 years ago)
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(System)
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Initial page import

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  • TracEnvironment

    v1 v1  
     1= The Trac Environment
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
     5
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
     7
     8== Creating an Environment
     9
     10A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     11{{{#!sh
     12$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     13}}}
     14
     15`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below.
     16
     17=== Useful Tips
     18
     19 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
     20
     21 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     22 
     23 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using optional the arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
     24
     25 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     26
     27 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment].
     28
     29{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     30**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     31
     32This is a common beginners' mistake.
     33It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     34}}}
     35
     36== Database Connection Strings
     37
     38Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     39
     40Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     41
     42=== SQLite Connection String
     43
     44The connection string for an SQLite database is:
     45{{{
     46sqlite:db/trac.db
     47}}}
     48where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
     49
     50=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     51
     52If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with the password `letmein` use:
     53{{{
     54postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     55}}}
     56
     57If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
     58{{{
     59postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
     60}}}
     61
     62On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     63{{{
     64postgres://user:password@/database
     65}}}
     66
     67or a specific one:
     68{{{
     69postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
     70}}}
     71
     72Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     73
     74See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
     75Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     76{{{#!sh
     77$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     78$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
     79}}}
     80
     81When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     82
     83Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     84{{{#!sh
     85$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     86$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     87}}}
     88
     89Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     90{{{
     91postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
     92}}}
     93
     94=== MySQL Connection String
     95
     96The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
     97{{{
     98mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     99}}}
     100
     101== Source Code Repository
     102
     103Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as `type`, `url`, `description`.
     104
     105In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
     106You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components, which are otherwise still loaded:
     107{{{#!ini
     108[components]
     109trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
     110}}}
     111
     112For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     113
     114Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
     115{{{#!ini
     116[trac]
     117repository_type = svn
     118repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
     119}}}
     120
     121The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
     122{{{#!ini
     123[trac]
     124repository_type = svn
     125repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
     126}}}
     127
     128== Directory Structure
     129
     130An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     131
     132 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
     133 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     134 * `files`
     135  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
     136 * `conf`
     137  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     138 * `db`
     139  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     140 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     141 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     142 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     143 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     144  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
     145
     146----
     147See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide