Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
Nov 5, 2016, 11:49:48 AM (3 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracFastCgi

    v1 v2  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI =
    2 
    3 Since version 0.9, Trac supports being run through the [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface. Like [wiki:TracModPython mod_python], this allows Trac to remain resident, and is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, it is able to support [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html SuEXEC]. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    4 
    5 '''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, your choice may be [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
    6 
    7 == Simple Apache configuration ==
    8 
    9 There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
    10 `mod_fcgid`.  The `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives discussed
    11 below are `mod_fastcgi` directives; the `DefaultInitEnv` is a `mod_fcgid`
    12 directive.
    13 
    14 For `mod_fastcgi`, add the following to an appropriate Apache configuration
    15 file:
    16 {{{
     1= Trac with FastCGI
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     5
     6[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. Additionally, it is supported by a much wider variety of web servers.
     7
     8Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
     9
     10'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
     11
     12== Apache configuration
     13
     14There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     15
     16The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
     17
     18Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done: `Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server`.
     19
     20=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
     21
     22`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
     23{{{#!apache
    1724# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
    1825# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     
    2431LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
    2532}}}
     33
    2634Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
    2735
    28 Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
    29 calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    30 
    31 You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    32 {{{
     36Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     37
     38Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     39{{{#!apache
    3340FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    3441}}}
    3542
    36 Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
    37 {{{
     43Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
     44{{{#!apache
    3845FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    3946}}}
    4047
    41 But neither of these will work for `mod_fcgid`.  A similar but partial
    42 solution for `mod_fcgid` is:
    43 {{{
     48=== Set up with `mod_fcgid`
     49
     50Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
     51{{{#!apache
     52ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     53}}}
     54
     55Note the slash at the end.
     56
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try the alternative environment setup below:
     58{{{#!apache
    4459DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    4560}}}
    46 But this cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, which makes it
    47 difficult to support multiple projects.
    48 
    49 A better method which works for both of these modules (and for  [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well), because it involves
    50 no server configuration settings for environment variables, is to set one
    51 of the variables in `trac.fcgi`, e.g.:
    52 {{{
     61
     62=== Alternative environment setup
     63
     64A better method to specify the path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
     65{{{#!python
    5366import os
    5467os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    5568}}}
    56 or
    57 {{{
     69
     70or:
     71{{{#!python
    5872import os
    5973os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
    6074}}}
    6175
    62 Using this method, different projects can be supported by using different
    63 `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`, copying and appropriately
    64 renaming `trac.fcgi` and adding the above code to create each such script.
     76With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    6577
    6678See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
    67 {{{
     79{{{#!apache
    6880ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    6981}}}
    7082
    71 == Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
    72 
    73 The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
    74 You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
    75 First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
     83== Cherokee Configuration
     84
     85Configuring [http://cherokee-project.com/ Cherokee] with Trac is straightforward, if you spawn Trac as an SCGI process. You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     86
     87First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
    7688
    7789{{{
     
    8698
    8799After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
    88 The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/chrome/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''/usr/share/trac/htdocs/''
    89 
    90 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
    91 
    92 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
    93 
    94 lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
    95 environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    96 
    97 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    98 {{{
    99 #var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     100The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local Trac resources).
     101
     102'''Note:''' If the tracd process fails to start up, and Cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package ([trac:#9903]). Python-flup is a dependency which provides Trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on Debian based systems with:
     103{{{#!sh
     104sudo apt-get install python-flup
     105}}}
     106
     107== Lighttpd Configuration
     108
     109The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
     110
     111Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     112
     113For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     114{{{
     115#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
    100116var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
    101117fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    112128}}}
    113129
    114 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
    115 and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
    116 using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     130Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
     131
     132Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    117133
    118134For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     
    138154                )
    139155}}}
    140 Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
    141 variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
    142 `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    143 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
    144 if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
    145 {{{
    146 #!div class=important
    147 '''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    148 }}}
     156
     157Note that the field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     158Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     159
     160{{{#!div class=important
     161'''Note:''' The order in which the server.modules are loaded is very important: if mod_auth is not loaded '''before''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     162}}}
     163
    149164For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
    150165{{{
     
    183198               )
    184199
    185 
    186 }}}
    187 Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
    188 
    189 Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    190 
    191 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     200}}}
     201
     202Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
     203
     204Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     205
     206Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    192207{{{
    193208# Aliasing functionality is needed
    194209server.modules += ("mod_alias")
    195210
    196 # Setup an alias for the static resources
     211# Set up an alias for the static resources
    197212alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
    198213
     
    213228}
    214229}}}
     230
    215231The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    216 Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     232
     233Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it uses `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` instead of `TRAC_ENV` as well as global authentication:
    217234{{{
    218235#  This is for handling multiple projects
     
    244261}}}
    245262
    246 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     263Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
    247264{{{
    248265fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    258275                 )
    259276}}}
     277
    260278For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    261279
    262 Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    263 
    264 If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
    265 
    266 Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    267 
    268 Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
    269 
    270   If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings __server.username = "www-data"__, __server.groupname = "www-data"__, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    271 
    272 
    273 == Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     280Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     281
     282Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     283
     284Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     285
     286== !LiteSpeed Configuration
    274287
    275288The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     
    277290!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    278291
    279 Setup
    280 
    281 1) Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
    282 
    283 2) Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
    284 
     292 1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
     293 1. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
    285294{{{
    286295http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    287296}}}
    288 
    289 3) Go “TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
    290 
     297 1. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application":
    291298{{{
    292299Name: MyTracFCGI       
     
    304311Instances: 10
    305312}}}
    306 
    307 4) Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
    308 
    309 {{{
     313 1. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm:
     314 {{{
    310315DB Type: Password File
    311316Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
    312317User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
    313318}}}
    314 
    315 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    316 
    317 5) Go to “PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
    318 
    319 {{{
     319 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     320 1. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context:
     321 {{{
    320322URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
    321 Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
     323Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the Trac fcgi extapp we just created
    322324Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
    323325}}}
    324 
    325 6) Modify /fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini
    326 
    327 {{{
     326 1. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`:
     327 {{{
    328328#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
    329329base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     
    331331link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
    332332}}}
    333 
    334 7) Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
    335 
    336 {{{
    337 http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    338 }}}
    339 
    340 === Simple Nginx Configuration ===
    341 
    342 1) Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
    343 {{{
     333 1. Restart !LiteSpeed: `lswsctrl restart`, and access your new Trac project at {{{http://yourdomain.com/trac/}}}.
     334
     335== Nginx Configuration
     336
     337[http://nginx.org/en/ Nginx] is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     338
     339 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     340 {{{#!nginx
    344341    server {
    345342        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     
    356353        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    357354
    358         # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
    359         if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
    360              set $path_info /$1;
     355        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
     356        location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
     357             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
    361358        }
    362359
    363         # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
     360        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
    364361        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
    365362        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
    366363        # for accessing the whole site.
    367         # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
    368         location / {
     364        # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
     365        location ~ (/.*) {
    369366            auth_basic            "trac realm";
    370367            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     
    380377            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
    381378            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
    382             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     379            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
    383380
    384381            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     
    387384            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
    388385            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
    389 
    390             # for authentication to work
     386            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
     387
     388            # For Nginx authentication to work - do not forget to comment these
     389            # lines if not using Nginx for authentication
    391390            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
    392391            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     392
     393            # for ip to work
     394            fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR         $remote_addr;
     395
     396            # For attchments to work
     397            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_TYPE     $content_type;
     398            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
    393399        }
    394400    }
    395401}}}
    396 
    397 2) Modified trac.fcgi:
    398 
    399 {{{
     402 1. Modified trac.fcgi:
     403 {{{#!python
    400404#!/usr/bin/env python
    401405import os
     
    428432
    429433}}}
    430 
    431 3) reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
    432 
    433 {{{
     434 1. Reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi:
     435 {{{#!sh
    434436trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    435437}}}
    436438
    437439The above assumes that:
    438  * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
    439  * /home/trac/instance contains a trac environment
    440  * /home/trac/htpasswd contains authentication information
    441  * /home/trac/run is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
    442   * and if your system is Linux the /home/trac/run has setgid bit set (chmod g+s run)
    443   * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    444 
    445 Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    446 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
    447 
    448 If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
    449 
    450 Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     440 * There is a user named 'trac' for running Trac instances and keeping Trac environments in its home directory
     441 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a Trac environment
     442 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
     443 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the Nginx runs under
     444  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
     445  * and patch from [trac:#7239] is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     446
     447Unfortunately Nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     448Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
     449
     450If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
     451
     452Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in [trac:#6224].
    451453
    452454----
    453 See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]
     455See also: TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]