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1<?xml version="1.0"?>
2<!DOCTYPE rfc SYSTEM "rfc2629.dtd" [
3<!ENTITY rfc2119 SYSTEM "">
4<!ENTITY rfc2130 SYSTEM "">
5<!ENTITY rfc2141 SYSTEM "">
6<!ENTITY rfc2192 SYSTEM "">
7<!ENTITY rfc2277 SYSTEM "">
8<!ENTITY rfc2384 SYSTEM "">
9<!ENTITY rfc2396 SYSTEM "">
10<!ENTITY rfc2397 SYSTEM "">
11<!ENTITY rfc2616 SYSTEM "">
12<!ENTITY rfc2640 SYSTEM "">
13<!ENTITY rfc3491 SYSTEM "">
14<!ENTITY rfc3986 SYSTEM "">
15<!ENTITY rfc5122 SYSTEM "">
16<!ENTITY rfc5890 SYSTEM "">
17<!ENTITY rfc5891 SYSTEM "">
18<!ENTITY rfc6055 SYSTEM "">
19<!ENTITY DRAFT "draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-13">
20<!ENTITY YEAR "2012">
22<?rfc strict='yes'?>
24<?xml-stylesheet type='text/css' href='rfc2629.css' ?>
25<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='rfc2629.xslt' ?>
26<?rfc symrefs='yes'?>
27<?rfc sortrefs='yes'?>
28<?rfc iprnotified="no" ?>
29<?rfc toc='yes'?>
30<?rfc compact='yes'?>
31<?rfc subcompact='no'?>
32<rfc ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="&DRAFT;" category="std" xml:lang="en" obsoletes="3987">
34<title abbrev="IRIs">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</title>
36<author initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst"
37  fullname="Martin J. Duerst (Note: Please write &quot;Duerst&quot; with u-umlaut wherever possible, for example as &quot;D&amp;#252;rst&quot; in XML and HTML.)">
38    <organization>Aoyama Gakuin University<ionly> (青山学院大学)</ionly> </organization>
39    <address>
40  <postal>
41  <street>5-10-1 Fuchinobe</street>
42  <street>Chuo-ku</street>
43  <city>Sagamihara</city>
44  <region>Kanagawa</region>
45  <code>252-5258</code>
46  <country>Japan</country>
47  </postal>
48  <phone>+81 42 759 6329</phone>
49  <facsimile>+81 42 759 6495</facsimile>
50  <email></email>
51  <uri><aonly> (Note: This is the percent-encoded form of an IRI)</aonly><ionly>ürst/</ionly></uri>
52  </address>
55  <author initials="M.L." surname="Suignard" fullname="Michel Suignard">
56   <organization>Unicode Consortium</organization>
57   <address>
58   <postal>
59   <street></street>
60   <street>P.O. Box 391476</street>
61   <city>Mountain View</city>
62   <region>CA</region>
63   <code>94039-1476</code>
64   <country>U.S.A.</country>
65   </postal>
66   <phone>+1-650-693-3921</phone>
67   <email></email>
68   <uri></uri>
69   </address>
71<author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
72   <organization>Adobe</organization>
73   <address>
74   <postal>
75   <street>345 Park Ave</street>
76   <city>San Jose</city>
77   <region>CA</region>
78   <code>95110</code>
79   <country>U.S.A.</country>
80   </postal>
81   <phone>+1-408-536-3024</phone>
82   <email></email>
83   <uri></uri>
84   </address>
87  <date year="&YEAR;" />
89<workgroup>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (iri)</workgroup>
91<keyword>Internationalized Resource Identifier</keyword>
98<t>This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier
99(IRI) protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource
100Identifier (URI).  An IRI is a sequence of characters from the
101Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing
102rules are given for IRIs and related syntactic forms.</t>
104<t>Defining IRI as a new protocol element (rather than updating or
105extending the definition of URI) allows independent orderly
106transitions: protocols and languages that use URIs must
107explicitly choose to allow IRIs.</t>
109<t>Guidelines are provided for the use and deployment of IRIs and
110related protocol elements when revising protocols, formats, and
111software components that currently deal only with URIs.</t>
113<t>This document is part of a set of documents intended to
114replace RFC 3987.</t>
117  <note title='RFC Editor: Please remove the next paragraph before publication.'>
118    <t>This document, and several companion documents, are intended to obsolete RFC 3987.
119    For discussion and comments on these
120    drafts, please join the IETF IRI WG by subscribing to the mailing
121    list, archives at
122    For a list of open issues, please see
123    the issue tracker of the WG at
124    For a list of individual edits, please see the change history at
126    <t>This document is available in (line-printer ready) plaintext ASCII and PDF.
127      It is also available in HTML from
128      <eref target=";/pub/&DRAFT;.html"
129        >;/pub/&DRAFT;.html</eref>,
130      and in UTF-8 plaintext from
131      <eref target=";/pub/&DRAFT;.utf8.txt"
132        >;/pub/&DRAFT;.utf8.txt</eref>.
133      While all these versions are identical in their technical content,
134      the HTML, PDF, and UTF-8 plaintext versions show non-Unicode characters directly.
135      This often makes it easier to understand examples, and readers are therefore advised
136      to consult these versions in preference or as a supplement to the ASCII version.</t>
141<section title="Introduction">
143<section title="Overview and Motivation" anchor="overview">
145<t>A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is defined in <xref
146target="RFC3986"/> as a sequence of characters chosen from a limited
147subset of the repertoire of US-ASCII <xref target="ASCII"/>
150<t>The characters in URIs are frequently used for representing words
151of natural languages.  This usage has many advantages: Such URIs are
152easier to memorize, easier to interpret, easier to transcribe, easier
153to create, and easier to guess. For most languages other than English,
154however, the natural script uses characters other than A - Z. For many
155people, handling Latin characters is as difficult as handling the
156characters of other scripts is for those who use only the Latin
157script. Many languages with non-Latin scripts are transcribed with
158Latin letters. These transcriptions are now often used in URIs, but
159they introduce additional difficulties.</t>
161<t>The infrastructure for the appropriate handling of characters from
162additional scripts is now widely deployed in operating system and
163application software. Software that can handle a wide variety of
164scripts and languages at the same time is increasingly common. Also,
165an increasing number of protocols and formats can carry a wide range of
168<t>URIs are composed out of a very limited repertoire of characters;
169this design choice was made to support global transcription (see <xref
170target="RFC3986"/> section 1.2.1.).  Reliable transition between a URI
171(as an abstract protocol element composed of a sequence of characters)
172and a presentation of that URI (written on a napkin, read out loud)
173and back is relatively straightforward, because of the limited
174repertoire of characters used.  IRIs are designed to satisfy a
175different set of use requirements; in particular, to allow IRIs to be
176written in ways that are more meaningful to their users, even at the
177expense of global transcribability. However, ensuring reliability of
178the transition between an IRI and its presentation and back is more
179difficult and complex when dealing with the larger set of Unicode
180characters.  For example, Unicode supports multiple ways of encoding
181complex combinations of characters and accents, with multiple
182character sequences that can result in the same presentation.</t>
184<t>This document defines the protocol element called Internationalized
185Resource Identifier (IRI), which allows applications of URIs to be
186extended to use resource identifiers that have a much wider repertoire
187of characters. It also provides corresponding "internationalized"
188versions of other constructs from <xref target="RFC3986"/>, such as
189URI references. The syntax of IRIs is defined in <xref
193<t>Within this document,
194               <xref target="IRIuse"/> discusses the use
195of IRIs in different situations.  <xref target="guidelines"/> gives
196additional informative guidelines.  <xref target="security"/>
197discusses IRI-specific security considerations.</t>
199<t>This specification is part of a collection of specifications
200intended to replace <xref target="RFC3987"/>.
201<xref target="Bidi"/> discusses the special case of
202bidirectional IRIs, IRIs using characters from scripts written
204<xref target="Equivalence"/> gives guidelines for applications wishing
205to determine if two IRIs are equivalent, as well as defining
206some equivalence methods.
207<xref target="RFC4395bis"/> updates the URI scheme registration
208guidelines and procedures to note that every URI scheme is also
209automatically an IRI scheme and to allow scheme definitions
210to be directly described in terms of Unicode characters.
213</section> <!-- overview -->
215<section title="Applicability" anchor="Applicability">
217<t>IRIs are designed to allow protocols and software that deal with
218URIs to be updated to handle IRIs. Processing of
219IRIs is accomplished by extending the URI syntax while retaining (and
220not expanding) the set of "reserved" characters, such that the syntax
221for any URI scheme may be extended to allow non-ASCII
222characters. In addition, following parsing of an IRI, it is possible
223to construct a corresponding URI by first encoding characters outside
224of the allowed URI range and then reassembling the components.
227<t>Practical use of IRIs forms in place of URIs forms depends on the
228following conditions being met:</t>
230<t><list style="hanging">
232<t hangText="a.">A protocol or format element MUST be explicitly designated to be
233  able to carry IRIs. The intent is to avoid introducing IRIs into
234  contexts that are not defined to accept them.  For example, XML
235  schema <xref target="XMLSchema"/> has an explicit type "anyURI" that
236  includes IRIs and IRI references. Therefore, IRIs and IRI references
237  can be used in attributes and elements of type "anyURI".  On the other
238  hand, in HTTP/1.1 (<xref target="RFC2616"/>) , the
239  Request URI is defined as a URI, which means that direct use of IRIs
240  is not allowed in HTTP requests.</t>
242<t hangText="b.">The protocol or format carrying the IRIs MUST have a
243  mechanism to represent the wide range of characters used in IRIs,
244  either natively or by some protocol- or format-specific escaping
245  mechanism (for example, numeric character references in <xref
246  target="XML1"/>).</t>
248<t hangText="c.">The URI scheme definition, if it explicitly allows a
249  percent sign ("%") in any syntactic component, SHOULD define the
250  interpretation of sequences of percent-encoded octets (using "%XX"
251  hex octets) as octets from sequences of UTF-8 encoded characters; this
252  is recommended in the guidelines for registering new schemes, <xref
253  target="RFC4395bis"/>.  For example, this is the practice for IMAP URLs
254  <xref target="RFC2192"/>, POP URLs <xref target="RFC2384"/> and the
255  URN syntax <xref target="RFC2141"/>). Note that use of
256  percent-encoding may also be restricted in some situations, for
257  example, URI schemes that disallow percent-encoding might still be
258  used with a fragment identifier which is percent-encoded (e.g.,
259  <xref target="XPointer"/>). See <xref target="UTF8use"/> for further
260  discussion.</t>
263</section> <!-- applicability -->
265<section title="Definitions" anchor="sec-Definitions">
267<t>The following definitions are used in this document; they follow the
268terms in <xref target="RFC2130"/>, <xref target="RFC2277"/>, and
269<xref target="ISO10646"/>.</t>
270<t><list style="hanging">
272<t hangText="character:">A member of a set of elements used for the
273    organization, control, or representation of data. For example,
274    "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A" names a character.</t>
276<t hangText="octet:">An ordered sequence of eight bits considered as a
277    unit.</t>
279<t hangText="character repertoire:">A set of characters (set in the
280    mathematical sense).</t>
282<t hangText="sequence of characters:">A sequence of characters (one
283    after another).</t>
285<t hangText="sequence of octets:">A sequence of octets (one after
286    another).</t>
288<t hangText="character encoding:">A method of representing a sequence
289    of characters as a sequence of octets (maybe with variants). Also,
290    a method of (unambiguously) converting a sequence of octets into a
291    sequence of characters.</t>
293<t hangText="charset:">The name of a parameter or attribute used to
294    identify a character encoding.</t>
296<t hangText="UCS:">Universal Character Set. The coded character set
297    defined by ISO/IEC 10646 <xref target="ISO10646"/> and the Unicode
298    Standard <xref target="UNIV6"/>.</t>
300<t hangText="IRI reference:">Denotes the common usage of an
301    Internationalized Resource Identifier. An IRI reference may be
302    absolute or relative.  However, the "IRI" that results from such a
303    reference only includes absolute IRIs; any relative IRI references
304    are resolved to their absolute form.  Note that in <xref
305    target="RFC2396"/> URIs did not include fragment identifiers, but
306    in <xref target="RFC3986"/> fragment identifiers are part of
307    URIs.</t>
309<t hangText="LEIRI (Legacy Extended IRI):">  This term is used in
310   various XML specifications to refer
311   to strings that, although not valid IRIs, are acceptable input to
312   the processing rules in <xref target="LEIRIspec" />.</t>
314<t hangText="protocol element:">Any portion of a message that affects
315    processing of that message by the protocol in question.</t>
317<t hangText="create (a URI or IRI):">With respect to URIs and IRIs,
318     the term is used for the initial creation. This may be the
319     initial creation of a resource with a certain identifier, or the
320     initial exposition of a resource under a particular
321     identifier.</t>
323<t hangText="generate (a URI or IRI):">With respect to URIs and IRIs,
324     the term is used when the identifier is generated by derivation
325     from other information.</t>
327<t hangText="parsed URI component:">When a URI processor parses a URI
328   (following the generic syntax or a scheme-specific syntax, the result
329   is a set of parsed URI components, each of which has a type
330   (corresponding to the syntactic definition) and a sequence of URI
331   characters.  </t>
333<t hangText="parsed IRI component:">When an IRI processor parses
334   an IRI directly, following the general syntax or a scheme-specific
335   syntax, the result is a set of parsed IRI components, each of
336   which has a type (corresponding to the syntactic definition)
337   and a sequence of IRI characters. (This definition is analogous
338   to "parsed URI component".)</t>
340<t hangText="IRI scheme:">A URI scheme may also be known as
341   an "IRI scheme" if the scheme's syntax has been extended to
342   allow non-US-ASCII characters according to the rules in this
343   document.</t>
346</section> <!-- definitions -->
347<section title="Notation" anchor="sec-Notation">
349<t>RFCs and Internet Drafts currently do not allow any characters
350outside the US-ASCII repertoire. Therefore, this document uses various
351special notations for such characters in examples.</t>
353<t>In text, characters outside US-ASCII are sometimes referenced by
354using a prefix of 'U+', followed by four to six hexadecimal
357  <t>To represent characters outside US-ASCII in a document format
358    that is limited to US-ASCII, this document
359    uses 'XML Notation'.
360    XML Notation uses a leading '&amp;#x', a trailing ';', and the
361hexadecimal number of the character in the UCS in between. For
362example, &amp;#x42F; stands for CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YA<ionly> (Я)</ionly>.
363In this notation, an actual '&amp;' is denoted by '&amp;amp;'.
364This notation is only used in the ASCII version(s) of this document,
365because in the other versions, non-ASCII characters are used directly.</t>
367<t>To denote actual octets in examples (as opposed to percent-encoded
368octets), the two hex digits denoting the octet are enclosed in "&lt;"
369and "&gt;".  For example, the octet often denoted as 0xc9 is denoted
370here as &lt;c9&gt;.</t>
372<t> In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
374and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in <xref
377</section> <!-- notation -->
378</section> <!-- introduction -->
380<section title="IRI Syntax" anchor="syntax">
381<t>This section defines the syntax of Internationalized Resource
382Identifiers (IRIs).</t>
384<t>As with URIs, an IRI is defined as a sequence of characters, not as
385a sequence of octets.
386This definition accommodates the fact that IRIs
387may be written on paper or read over the radio as well as stored or
388transmitted digitally.  The same IRI might be represented as different
389sequences of octets in different protocols or documents if these
390protocols or documents use different character encodings (and/or
391transfer encodings).  Using the same character encoding as the
392containing protocol or document ensures that the characters in the IRI
393can be handled (e.g., searched, converted, displayed) in the same way
394as the rest of the protocol or document.</t>
396<section title="Summary of IRI Syntax" anchor="summary">
398<t>The IRI syntax extends the URI syntax in <xref
399target="RFC3986"/> by extending the class of unreserved characters,
400primarily by adding the characters of the UCS (Universal Character Set, <xref
401target="ISO10646"/>) beyond U+007F, subject to the limitations given
402in the syntax rules below and in <xref target="limitations"/>.</t>
404<t>The syntax and use of components and reserved characters is the
405same as that in <xref target="RFC3986"/>. Each URI scheme thus also
406functions as an IRI scheme, in that scheme-specific parsing rules
407for URIs of a scheme are extended to allow parsing of IRIs using
408the same parsing rules.</t>
410<t>All the operations defined in <xref target="RFC3986"/>, such as the
411resolution of relative references, can be applied to IRIs by
412IRI-processing software in exactly the same way as they are for URIs
413by URI-processing software.</t>
415<t>Characters outside the US-ASCII repertoire MUST NOT be reserved and
416therefore MUST NOT be used for syntactical purposes, such as to
417delimit components in newly defined schemes. For example, U+00A2, CENT
418SIGN, is not allowed as a delimiter in IRIs, because it is in the
419'iunreserved' category. This is similar to the fact that it is not
420possible to use '-' as a delimiter in URIs, because it is in the
421'unreserved' category.</t>
423</section> <!-- summary -->
424<section title="ABNF for IRI References and IRIs" anchor="abnf">
426<t>An ABNF definition for IRI references (which are the most general
427concept and the start of the grammar) and IRIs is given here. The
428syntax of this ABNF is described in <xref target="STD68"/>. Character
429numbers are taken from the UCS, without implying any actual binary
430encoding. Terminals in the ABNF are characters, not octets.</t>
432<t>The following grammar closely follows the URI grammar in <xref
433target="RFC3986"/>, except that the range of unreserved characters is
434expanded to include UCS characters, with the restriction that private
435UCS characters can occur only in query parts. The grammar is split
436into two parts: Rules that differ from <xref target="RFC3986"/>
437because of the above-mentioned expansion, and rules that are the same
438as those in <xref target="RFC3986"/>. For rules that are different
439than those in <xref target="RFC3986"/>, the names of the non-terminals
440have been changed as follows. If the non-terminal contains 'URI', this
441has been changed to 'IRI'. Otherwise, an 'i' has been prefixed.
442The rule &lt;pct-form> has been introduced in order to be able to reference it from other parts of
443the document.</t>
446for line length measuring in artwork (max 72 chars, three chars at start):
447      1         2         3         4         5         6         7
451<preamble>The following rules are different from those in <xref target="RFC3986"/>:</preamble>
453IRI            = scheme ":" ihier-part [ "?" iquery ]
454                 [ "#" ifragment ]
456ihier-part     = "//" iauthority ipath-abempty
457               / ipath-absolute
458               / ipath-rootless
459               / ipath-empty
461IRI-reference  = IRI / irelative-ref
463absolute-IRI   = scheme ":" ihier-part [ "?" iquery ]
465irelative-ref  = irelative-part [ "?" iquery ] [ "#" ifragment ]
467irelative-part = "//" iauthority ipath-abempty
468               / ipath-absolute
469               / ipath-noscheme
470               / ipath-empty
472iauthority     = [ iuserinfo "@" ] ihost [ ":" port ]
473iuserinfo      = *( iunreserved / pct-form / sub-delims / ":" )
474ihost          = IP-literal / IPv4address / ireg-name
476pct-form       = pct-encoded
478ireg-name      = *( iunreserved / sub-delims )
480ipath          = ipath-abempty   ; begins with "/" or is empty
481               / ipath-absolute  ; begins with "/" but not "//"
482               / ipath-noscheme  ; begins with a non-colon segment
483               / ipath-rootless  ; begins with a segment
484               / ipath-empty     ; zero characters
486ipath-abempty  = *( path-sep isegment )
487ipath-absolute = path-sep [ isegment-nz *( path-sep isegment ) ]
488ipath-noscheme = isegment-nz-nc *( path-sep isegment )
489ipath-rootless = isegment-nz *( path-sep isegment )
490ipath-empty    = ""
491path-sep       = "/"
493isegment       = *ipchar
494isegment-nz    = 1*ipchar
495isegment-nz-nc = 1*( iunreserved / pct-form / sub-delims
496                     / "@" )
497               ; non-zero-length segment without any colon ":"
499ipchar         = iunreserved / pct-form / sub-delims / ":"
500               / "@"
502iquery         = *( ipchar / iprivate / "/" / "?" )
504ifragment      = *( ipchar / "/" / "?" )
506iunreserved    = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / ucschar
508ucschar        = %xA0-D7FF / %xF900-FDCF / %xFDF0-FFEF
509               / %x10000-1FFFD / %x20000-2FFFD / %x30000-3FFFD
510               / %x40000-4FFFD / %x50000-5FFFD / %x60000-6FFFD
511               / %x70000-7FFFD / %x80000-8FFFD / %x90000-9FFFD
512               / %xA0000-AFFFD / %xB0000-BFFFD / %xC0000-CFFFD
513               / %xD0000-DFFFD / %xE1000-EFFFD
515iprivate       = %xE000-F8FF / %xE0000-E0FFF / %xF0000-FFFFD
516               / %x100000-10FFFD
520<t>Some productions are ambiguous. The "first-match-wins" (a.k.a. "greedy")
521algorithm applies. For details, see <xref target="RFC3986"/>.</t>
524<preamble>The following rules are the same as those in <xref target="RFC3986"/>:</preamble>
526scheme         = ALPHA *( ALPHA / DIGIT / "+" / "-" / "." )
528port           = *DIGIT
530IP-literal     = "[" ( IPv6address / IPvFuture  ) "]"
532IPvFuture      = "v" 1*HEXDIG "." 1*( unreserved / sub-delims / ":" )
534IPv6address    =                            6( h16 ":" ) ls32
535               /                       "::" 5( h16 ":" ) ls32
536               / [               h16 ] "::" 4( h16 ":" ) ls32
537               / [ *1( h16 ":" ) h16 ] "::" 3( h16 ":" ) ls32
538               / [ *2( h16 ":" ) h16 ] "::" 2( h16 ":" ) ls32
539               / [ *3( h16 ":" ) h16 ] "::"    h16 ":"   ls32
540               / [ *4( h16 ":" ) h16 ] "::"              ls32
541               / [ *5( h16 ":" ) h16 ] "::"              h16
542               / [ *6( h16 ":" ) h16 ] "::"
544h16            = 1*4HEXDIG
545ls32           = ( h16 ":" h16 ) / IPv4address
547IPv4address    = dec-octet "." dec-octet "." dec-octet "." dec-octet
549dec-octet      = DIGIT                 ; 0-9
550               / %x31-39 DIGIT         ; 10-99
551               / "1" 2DIGIT            ; 100-199
552               / "2" %x30-34 DIGIT     ; 200-249
553               / "25" %x30-35          ; 250-255
555pct-encoded    = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG
557unreserved     = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"
558reserved       = gen-delims / sub-delims
559gen-delims     = ":" / "/" / "?" / "#" / "[" / "]" / "@"
560sub-delims     = "!" / "$" / "&amp;" / "'" / "(" / ")"
561               / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="
564<t>This syntax does not support IPv6 scoped addressing zone identifiers.</t>
566</section> <!-- abnf -->
568</section> <!-- syntax -->
570<section title="Processing IRIs and related protocol elements" anchor="processing">
572<t>IRIs are meant to replace URIs in identifying resources within new
573versions of protocols, formats, and software components that use a
574UCS-based character repertoire.  Protocols and components may use and
575process IRIs directly. However, there are still numerous systems and
576protocols which only accept URIs or components of parsed URIs; that is,
577they only accept sequences of characters within the subset of US-ASCII
578characters allowed in URIs. </t>
580<t>This section defines specific processing steps for IRI consumers
581which establish the relationship between the string given and the
582interpreted derivatives. These
583processing steps apply to both IRIs and IRI references (i.e., absolute
584or relative forms); for IRIs, some steps are scheme specific. </t>
586<section title="Converting to UCS" anchor="ucsconv"> 
588<t>Input that is already in a Unicode form (i.e., a sequence of Unicode
589 characters or an octet-stream representing a Unicode-based character
590 encoding such as UTF-8 or UTF-16) should be left as is and not
591 normalized or changed.</t>
593  <t>An IRI or IRI reference is a sequence of characters from the UCS.
594    For input from presentations (written on paper, read aloud)
595    or translation from other representations (a text stream using a legacy character
596    encoding), convert the input to Unicode.
597    Note that some character encodings or transcriptions can be converted
598    to or represented by more than one sequence of Unicode characters.
600    Ideally the resulting IRI would use a normalized form,
601    such as Unicode Normalization Form C <xref target="UTR15"/>,
602    since that ensures a stable, consistent representation
603    that is most likely to produce the intended results.
604    Previous versions of this specification required
605    normalization at this step. However, attempts to
606    require normalization in other protocols have met with
607    strong enough resistance that requiring normalization
608    here was considered impractical.
609    Implementers and users are cautioned that, while denormalized character sequences are valid,
610    they might be difficult for other users or processes to reproduce
611    and might lead to unexpected results.
612  <!-- raise on list:
613    It is recommended
614    that the processing of IRI components treat
615    strings with the same normalized forms as equivalent.
616   -->
617  </t>
619</section> <!-- ucsconv -->
621<section title="Parse the IRI into IRI components">
623<t>Parse the IRI, either as a relative reference (no scheme)
624or using scheme specific processing (according to the scheme
625given); the result is a set of parsed IRI components.</t>
627</section> <!-- parse -->
629<section title="General percent-encoding of IRI components" anchor="compmapping">
631<t>Except as noted in the following subsections, IRI components are mapped
632to the equivalent URI components by percent-encoding those characters
633not allowed in URIs. Previous processing steps will have removed
634some characters, and the interpretation of reserved characters will
635have already been done (with the syntactic reserved characters outside
636of the IRI component). This mapping is defined for all sequences
637of Unicode characters, whether or not they are valid for the component
638in question. </t>
640<t>For each character which is not allowed anywhere in a valid URI
641 apply the following steps. </t>
642<t><list style="hanging">
644<t hangText="Convert to UTF-8:">Convert the character to a sequence of
645  one or more octets using UTF-8 <xref target="STD63"/>.</t>
647<t hangText="Percent encode:">Convert each octet of this sequence to %HH,
648   where HH is the hexadecimal notation of the octet value. The
649   hexadecimal notation SHOULD use uppercase letters. (This is the
650   general URI percent-encoding mechanism in Section 2.1 of <xref
651   target="RFC3986"/>.)</t>
655<t>Note that the mapping is an identity transformation for parsed URI
656components of valid URIs, and is idempotent: applying the mapping a
657second time will not change anything.</t>
658</section> <!-- general conversion -->
660<section title="Mapping ireg-name" anchor="dnsmapping">
661  <t>The mapping from &lt;ireg-name> to a &lt;reg-name> requires a choice
662    between one of the two methods described below.</t>
663  <section title='Mapping using Percent-Encoding' anchor='dnspercent'>
664  <t>The ireg-name component SHOULD be converted
665    according to the general procedure for percent-encoding
666    of IRI components described in <xref target="compmapping"/>.</t>
668  <t>For example, the IRI
669    <vspace/><aonly>"http://r&amp;#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;"</aonly><ionly>"http://résumé"</ionly><vspace/> will be
670    converted to <vspace/>"".</t>
672  <t>This conversion for ireg-name is in line with Section 3.2.2
673    of <xref target="RFC3986"/>, which does not mandate
674    a particular registered name lookup technology. For further background,
675    see <xref target="RFC6055"/> and <xref target="Gettys"/>.</t>
676</section> <!-- dnspercent -->
677<section title="Mapping using Punycode" anchor='dnspunycode'>
678  <t>In situations where it is certain that &lt;ireg-name> is intended
679    to be used as a domain name to be processed by Domain Name Lookup
680    (as per <xref target="RFC5891"/>), an alternative method MAY be
681    used, converting &lt;ireg-name> as follows:</t>
683  <t>If there are any sequences of &lt;pct-encoded&gt;, and their
684    corresponding octets all represent valid UTF-8
685    octet sequences, then convert these back to Unicode
686    character sequences. (If any &lt;pct-encoded&gt; sequences are not
687    valid UTF-8 octet sequences, then leave the entire field as is
688    without any change, since punycode encoding would not succeed.)</t>
690<t>Replace the ireg-name part of the IRI by the part converted using
691the Domain Name Lookup procedure (Subsections 5.3 to 5.5) of <xref target="RFC5891"/>.
692  on each dot-separated label, and by using U+002E
693(FULL STOP) as a label separator.
694This procedure may fail, but this would mean that the IRI cannot be resolved.
695In such cases, if the domain name conversion fails, then the
696entire IRI conversion fails. Processors that have no mechanism for
697signalling a failure MAY instead substitute an otherwise
698invalid host name, although such processing SHOULD be avoided.</t>
700<t>For example, the IRI
701  <vspace/><aonly>"http://r&amp;#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;"</aonly><ionly>"http://résumé"</ionly><vspace/> is
702converted to <vspace/>"".</t>
703  <t>This conversion for ireg-name will be better able to deal with legacy
704    infrastructure that cannot handle percent-encoding in domain names.</t>
705</section> <!-- punicode -->
706  <section title="Additional Considerations">
708<t><list style="hanging"> 
709<t hangText="Note:">Domain Names may appear in parts of an IRI other
710than the ireg-name part.  It is the responsibility of scheme-specific
711implementations (if the Internationalized Domain Name is part of the
712scheme syntax) or of server-side implementations (if the
713Internationalized Domain Name is part of 'iquery') to apply the
714necessary conversions at the appropriate point. Example: Trying to
715validate the Web page at<vspace/>
716  <aonly>http://r&amp;#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;</aonly><ionly>http://résumé</ionly>
717  would lead to an IRI of
718  <vspace/><aonly>r&amp;#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;</aonly><ionly>résumé</ionly><vspace/>,
719which would convert to a URI
721The server-side implementation is responsible for making the
722necessary conversions to be able to retrieve the Web page.</t>
724<t hangText="Note:">In this process, characters allowed in URI
725references and existing percent-encoded sequences are not encoded further.
726(This mapping is similar to, but different from, the encoding applied
727when arbitrary content is included in some part of a URI.)
729For example, an IRI of
731  (in XML notation)</aonly><ionly>"é#red"</ionly>
732  is converted to
733<vspace/>"", not to
734something like
738</section> <!-- additional -->
739</section> <!-- dnsmapping -->
741<section title="Mapping query components" anchor="querymapping">
743<t>For compatibility with existing deployed HTTP infrastructure,
744the following special case applies for the schemes "http" and "https"
745when an IRI is found in a document whose charset is not based on UCS
746(e.g., not UTF-8 or UTF-16). In such a case, the "query"
747component of an IRI is mapped into a URI by using the document
748charset rather than UTF-8 as the binary representation before
749pct-encoding. This mapping is not applied for any other scheme
750or component.</t>
752</section> <!-- querymapping -->
754<section title="Mapping IRIs to URIs" anchor="mapping">
756<t>The mapping from an IRI to URI is accomplished by applying the
757mapping above (from IRI to URI components) and then reassembling a URI
758from the parsed URI components using the original punctuation that
759delimited the IRI components. </t>
761</section> <!-- mapping -->
762</section> <!-- processing -->
764<section title="Converting URIs to IRIs" anchor="URItoIRI">
766  <t>In some situations, for presentation and further processing,
767it is desirable to convert a URI into an equivalent IRI
768without unnecessary percent encoding.
769Of course, every URI is already an IRI in its own right without any
770conversion. This section gives one possible procedure for URI to IRI mapping.</t>
773The conversion described in this section, if given a valid URI, will
774result in an IRI that maps back to the URI used as an input for the
775conversion (except for potential case differences in percent-encoding
776and for potential percent-encoded unreserved characters).
778However, the IRI resulting from this conversion may differ
779from the original IRI (if there ever was one).</t> 
781<t>URI-to-IRI conversion removes percent-encodings, but not all
782percent-encodings can be eliminated. There are several reasons for
785<t><list style="hanging">
787<t hangText="1.">Some percent-encodings are necessary to distinguish
788    percent-encoded and unencoded uses of reserved characters.</t>
790<t hangText="2.">Some percent-encodings cannot be interpreted as sequences
791    of UTF-8 octets.<vspace blankLines="1"/>
792    (Note: The octet patterns of UTF-8 are highly regular.
793    Therefore, there is a very high probability, but no guarantee,
794    that percent-encodings that can be interpreted as sequences of UTF-8
795    octets actually originated from UTF-8. For a detailed discussion,
796    see <xref target="Duerst97"/>.)</t>
798<t hangText="3.">The conversion may result in a character that is not
799    appropriate in an IRI. See <xref target="abnf"/>,
800      and <xref target="limitations"/> for further details.</t>
802<t hangText="4.">IRI to URI conversion has different rules for
803    dealing with domain names and query parameters.</t>
807<t>Conversion from a URI to an IRI MAY be done by using the following
810<list style="hanging">
811<t hangText="1.">Represent the URI as a sequence of octets in
812       US-ASCII.</t>
814<t hangText="2.">Convert all percent-encodings ("%" followed by two
815      hexadecimal digits) to the corresponding octets, except those
816      corresponding to "%", characters in "reserved", and characters
817      in US-ASCII not allowed in URIs.</t> 
819<t hangText="3.">Re-percent-encode any octet produced in step 2 that
820      is not part of a strictly legal UTF-8 octet sequence.</t>
823<t hangText="4.">Re-percent-encode all octets produced in step 3 that
824      in UTF-8 represent characters that are not appropriate according
825      to <xref target="abnf"/>  and <xref
826      target="limitations"/>.</t> 
828<t hangText="5.">Interpret the resulting octet sequence as a sequence
829      of characters encoded in UTF-8.</t>
831<t hangText="6.">URIs known to contain domain names in the reg-name
832      component SHOULD convert punycode-encoded domain name labels to
833      the corresponding characters using the ToUnicode procedure. </t>
836<t>This procedure will convert as many percent-encoded characters as
837possible to characters in an IRI. Because there are some choices when
838step 4 is applied (see <xref target="limitations"/>), results may
841<t>Conversions from URIs to IRIs MUST NOT use any character
842encoding other than UTF-8 in steps 3 and 4, even if it might be
843possible to guess from the context that another character encoding
844than UTF-8 was used in the URI.  For example, the URI
845"" might with some guessing be
846interpreted to contain two e-acute characters encoded as
847iso-8859-1. It must not be converted to an IRI containing these
848e-acute characters. Otherwise, in the future the IRI will be mapped to
849"", which is a different
850URI from "".</t>
852<section title="Examples">
854<t>This section shows various examples of converting URIs to IRIs.
855Each example shows the result after each of the steps 1 through 6 is
856applied. XML Notation is used for the final result.  Octets are
857denoted by "&lt;" followed by two hexadecimal digits followed by
860<t>The following example contains the sequence "%C3%BC", which is a
861strictly legal UTF-8 sequence, and which is converted into the actual
862character U+00FC, LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS (also known as
865<list style="hanging">
866<t hangText="1."></t>
867<t hangText="2.">;c3&gt;&lt;bc&gt;rst</t>
868<t hangText="3.">;c3&gt;&lt;bc&gt;rst</t>
869<t hangText="4.">;c3&gt;&lt;bc&gt;rst</t>
870  <t hangText="5."><aonly>;#xFC;rst</aonly><ionly>ürst</ionly></t>
871  <t hangText="6."><aonly>;#xFC;rst</aonly><ionly>ürst</ionly></t>
875<t>The following example contains the sequence "%FC", which might
877the<vspace/>iso-8859-1 character encoding.  (It might represent other
878characters in other character encodings. For example, the octet
879&lt;fc&gt; in iso-8859-5 represents U+045C, CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
880KJE.)  Because &lt;fc&gt; is not part of a strictly legal UTF-8
881sequence, it is re-percent-encoded in step 3.
884<list style="hanging">
885<t hangText="1."></t>
886<t hangText="2.">;fc&gt;rst</t>
887<t hangText="3."></t>
888<t hangText="4."></t>
889<t hangText="5."></t>
890<t hangText="6."></t>
894<t>The following example contains "%e2%80%ae", which is the percent-encoded<vspace/>UTF-8
895character encoding of U+202E, RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE.
896The direct use of this character is forbidden in an IRI. Therefore, the
897corresponding octets are re-percent-encoded in step 4. This example shows
898that the case (upper- or lowercase) of letters used in percent-encodings may not be preserved.
899The example also contains a punycode-encoded domain name label (xn--99zt52a),
900which is not converted.
902<list style="hanging">
903<t hangText="1."></t>
904<t hangText="2.">;e2&gt;&lt;80&gt;&lt;ae&gt;</t>
905<t hangText="3.">;e2&gt;&lt;80&gt;&lt;ae&gt;</t>
906<t hangText="4."></t>
907<t hangText="5."></t>
908  <t hangText="6."><aonly>http://&amp;#x7D0D;&amp;#x8C46;</aonly><ionly>http://納豆</ionly></t>
911<t>Note that the label "xn--99zt52a" is converted to U+7D0D U+8C46
912(Japanese Natto<ionly>, 納豆</ionly>). ((EDITOR NOTE: There is some inconsistency in this note.))</t>
914</section> <!-- examples -->
915</section> <!-- URItoIRI -->
918<section title="Use of IRIs" anchor="IRIuse">
920<section title="Limitations on UCS Characters Allowed in IRIs" anchor="limitations">
922<t>This section discusses limitations on characters and character
923sequences usable for IRIs beyond those given in <xref target="abnf"/>.
924The considerations in this section are
925relevant when IRIs are created and when URIs are converted to
930<list style="hanging"><t hangText="a.">The repertoire of characters allowed
931    in each IRI component is limited by the definition of that component.
932    For example, the definition of the scheme component does not allow
933    characters beyond US-ASCII.
934    <vspace blankLines="1"/>
935    (Note: In accordance with URI practice, generic IRI
936    software cannot and should not check for such limitations.)</t>
938<t hangText="b.">The UCS contains many areas of characters for which
939    there are strong visual look-alikes. Because of the likelihood of
940    transcription errors, these also should be avoided. This includes
941    the full-width equivalents of Latin characters, half-width
942    Katakana characters for Japanese, and many others. It also
943    includes many look-alikes of "space", "delims", and "unwise",
944    characters excluded in <xref target="RFC3491"/>.</t>
946<t hangText="c.">At the start of a component, the use of combining marks is strongly discouraged. As
947    an example, a COMBINING TILDE OVERLAY (U+0334) would be very confusing at the start of
948    a &lt;isegment>. Combined with the preceeding '/', it might look like a solidus
949    with combining tilde overlay, but IRI processing software will parse and process the
950    '/' separately.</t>
951<t hangText='d.'>The ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER (U+200C) and ZERO WIDTH
952    JOINER (U+200D) are invisible in most contexts, but are crucial in
953    some very limited contexts. Appendix A of <xref target="RFC5892"/>
954    contains contextual restrictions for these and some other characters.
955    The use of these characters are strongly discouraged except
956    in the relevant contexts.</t>
960<t>Additional information is available from <xref target="UNIXML"/>.
961    <xref target="UNIXML"/> is written in the context of general purpose text
962    rather than in that of identifiers. Nevertheless, it discusses
963    many of the categories of characters not appropriate for IRIs.</t>
964</section> <!-- limitations -->
966<section title="Software Interfaces and Protocols">
968<t>Although an IRI is defined as a sequence of characters, software
969interfaces for URIs typically function on sequences of octets or other
970kinds of code units. Thus, software interfaces and protocols MUST
971define which character encoding is used.</t>
973<t>Intermediate software interfaces between IRI-capable components and
974URI-only components MUST map the IRIs per <xref target="mapping"/>,
975when transferring from IRI-capable to URI-only components.
977This mapping SHOULD be applied as late as possible. It SHOULD NOT be
978applied between components that are known to be able to handle IRIs.</t>
979</section> <!-- software -->
981<section title="Format of URIs and IRIs in Documents and Protocols">
983<t>Document formats that transport URIs may have to be upgraded to allow
984the transport of IRIs. In cases where the document as a whole
985has a native character encoding, IRIs MUST also be encoded in this
986character encoding and converted accordingly by a parser or interpreter.
988IRI characters not expressible in the native character encoding SHOULD
989be escaped by using the escaping conventions of the document format if
990such conventions are available. Alternatively, they MAY be
991percent-encoded according to <xref target="mapping"/>. For example, in
992HTML or XML, numeric character references SHOULD be used. If a
993document as a whole has a native character encoding and that character
994encoding is not UTF-8, then IRIs MUST NOT be placed into the document
995in the UTF-8 character encoding.</t>
997<t>((UPDATE THIS NOTE)) Note: Some formats already accommodate IRIs,
998although they use different terminology. HTML 4.0 <xref
999target="HTML4"/> defines the conversion from IRIs to URIs as
1000error-avoiding behavior. XML 1.0 <xref target="XML1"/>, XLink <xref
1001target="XLink"/>, XML Schema <xref target="XMLSchema"/>, and
1002specifications based upon them allow IRIs. Also, it is expected that
1003all relevant new W3C formats and protocols will be required to handle
1004IRIs <xref target="CharMod"/>.</t>
1006</section> <!-- format -->
1008<section title="Use of UTF-8 for Encoding Original Characters" anchor="UTF8use">
1010<t>This section discusses details and gives examples for point c) in
1011<xref target="Applicability"/>. To be able to use IRIs, the URI
1012corresponding to the IRI in question has to encode original characters
1013into octets by using UTF-8.  This can be specified for all URIs of a
1014URI scheme or can apply to individual URIs for schemes that do not
1015specify how to encode original characters.  It can apply to the whole
1016URI, or only to some part. For background information on encoding
1017characters into URIs, see also Section 2.5 of <xref
1020<t>For new URI schemes, using UTF-8 is recommended in <xref
1021target="RFC4395bis"/>.  Examples where UTF-8 is already used are the URN
1022syntax <xref target="RFC2141"/>, IMAP URLs <xref target="RFC2192"/>,
1023POP URLs <xref target="RFC2384"/>, XMPP URLs <xref target='RFC5122'/>,
1024and the 'mailto:' scheme <xref target='RFC6068'/>. On the other hand, because the
1025HTTP URI scheme does not specify how to encode original characters,
1026only some HTTP URLs can have corresponding but different IRIs.</t>
1028<t>For example, for a document with a URI
1029of<vspace/>"", it is
1030possible to construct a corresponding IRI
1031  <aonly>(in XML notation, see <xref target="sec-Notation"/>):
1032    ";#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;.html"
1033    ("&amp;#xE9;" stands for the e-acute character, and "%C3%A9" is the UTF-8 encoded
1034    and percent-encoded representation of that character).</aonly>
1035  <ionly>: "ésumé.html"
1036    ("é" is the e-acute character, and "%C3%A9" is the UTF-8 encoded
1037    and percent-encoded representation of that character).</ionly>
1038  On the other hand, for a document with a URI of
1039"", the percent-encoded octets
1040cannot be converted to actual characters in an IRI, as the
1041percent-encoding is not based on UTF-8.</t>
1043<t>For most URI schemes, there is no need to upgrade their scheme
1044definition in order for them to work with IRIs.  The main case where
1045upgrading makes sense is when a scheme definition, or a particular
1046component of a scheme, is strictly limited to the use of US-ASCII
1047characters with no provision to include non-ASCII characters/octets
1048via percent-encoding, or if a scheme definition currently uses highly
1049scheme-specific provisions for the encoding of non-ASCII characters.</t>
1051<t>This specification updates the IANA registry of URI schemes to note
1052their applicability to IRIs, see <xref target="iana"/>.  All IRIs use
1053URI schemes, and all URIs with URI schemes can be used as IRIs, even
1054though in some cases only by using URIs directly as IRIs, without any
1057<t>Scheme definitions can impose restrictions on the syntax of
1058scheme-specific URIs; i.e., URIs that are admissible under the generic
1059URI syntax <xref target="RFC3986"/> may not be admissible due to
1060narrower syntactic constraints imposed by a URI scheme
1061specification. URI scheme definitions cannot broaden the syntactic
1062restrictions of the generic URI syntax; otherwise, it would be
1063possible to generate URIs that satisfied the scheme-specific syntactic
1064constraints without satisfying the syntactic constraints of the
1065generic URI syntax. However, additional syntactic constraints imposed
1066by URI scheme specifications are applicable to IRI, as the
1067corresponding URI resulting from the mapping defined in <xref
1068target="mapping"/> MUST be a valid URI under the syntactic
1069restrictions of generic URI syntax and any narrower restrictions
1070imposed by the corresponding URI scheme specification.</t>
1072<t>The requirement for the use of UTF-8 generally applies to all parts
1073of a URI.  However, it is possible that the capability of IRIs to
1074represent a wide range of characters directly is used just in some
1075parts of the IRI (or IRI reference). The other parts of the IRI may
1076only contain US-ASCII characters, or they may not be based on
1077UTF-8. They may be based on another character encoding, or they may
1078directly encode raw binary data (see also <xref
1079target="RFC2397"/>). </t>
1081<t>For example, it is possible to have a URI reference
1083where the document name is encoded in iso-8859-1 based on server
1084settings, but where the fragment identifier is encoded in UTF-8 according
1085to <xref target="XPointer"/>. The IRI corresponding to the above URI would be
1086  <aonly>(in XML notation)<vspace/>";#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;".</aonly>
1087  <ionly><vspace/>"ésumé".</ionly>
1090<t>Similar considerations apply to query parts. The functionality
1091of IRIs (namely, to be able to include non-ASCII characters) can
1092only be used if the query part is encoded in UTF-8.</t>
1094</section> <!-- utf8 -->
1096<section title="Relative IRI References">
1097<t>Processing of relative IRI references against a base is handled
1098straightforwardly; the algorithms of <xref target="RFC3986"/> can
1099be applied directly, treating the characters additionally allowed
1100in IRI references in the same way that unreserved characters are treated in URI
1103</section> <!-- relative -->
1104</section> <!-- IRIuse -->
1106  <section title="Legacy Extended IRIs (LEIRIs)">
1107    <t>In some cases, there have been formats which have used a protocol element
1108      which is a variant of the IRI definition; these variants have usually been
1109      somewhat less restricted in syntax. This section provides
1110      a definition and a name (Legacy Extended IRI or LEIRI) for one of these
1111      variants used widely in XML-based protocols. This variant has to be used with care;
1112      it requires further processing before being fully interchangeable as IRIs.
1114      New protocols and formats SHOULD NOT use Legacy Extended IRIs.
1115      Even where Legacy Extended IRIs are allowed, only IRIs fully conforming
1116      to the syntax definition in <xref target="abnf"></xref> SHOULD be created,
1117      generated, and used. The provisions in this section also apply to
1118      Legacy Extended IRI references.</t>
1120    <section title="Legacy Extended IRI Syntax">
1121      <figure>
1123        <preamble>This section defines Legacy Extended IRIs (LEIRIs).  The syntax of
1124   Legacy Extended IRIs is the same as that for &lt;IRI-reference&gt;, except
1125   that the ucschar production is replaced by the leiri-ucschar
1126   production:
1129        <artwork>
1130leiri-ucschar  = " " / "&lt;" / "&gt;" / '"' / "{" / "}" / "|"
1131               / "\" / "^" / "`" / %x0-1F / %x7F-D7FF
1132               / %xE000-FFFD / %x10000-10FFFF
1133        </artwork>
1134        <postamble>The restriction on bidirectional formatting characters in <xref target="Bidi"></xref> is lifted.
1135        The iprivate production becomes redundant.</postamble>
1136      </figure>
1138      <t>Likewise, the syntax for Legacy Extended IRI references
1139      (LEIRI references) is the same as that for IRI references with
1140      the above replacement of ucschar with leiri-ucschar.</t>
1142     </section>
1143    <section title="Conversion of Legacy Extended IRIs to IRIs" anchor="LEIRIspec">
1144      <t>To convert a Legacy Extended IRI (reference) to
1145      an IRI (reference), each character allowed in a Legacy Extended IRI (reference)
1146      but not allowed in an IRI (reference) (see <xref target="notAllowed"></xref>)  MUST be percent-encoded
1147      by applying the steps in <xref target="compmapping"></xref>.</t>
1148    </section>
1150    <section title="Characters Allowed in Legacy Extended IRIs but not in IRIs" anchor="notAllowed">
1151      <t>This section provides a list of the groups of characters and code points
1152        that are allowed in Legacy Extedend IRIs, but are not allowed in IRIs
1153        or are allowed in IRIs only in the query part. For each group of characters,
1154        advice on the usage of these characters is also given, concentrating on the
1155        reasons for why not to use them.</t>
1156      <t>
1157        <list>
1158          <t>Space (U+0020): Some formats and applications use space as a delimiter,
1159            e.g., for items in a list. Appendix C of <xref target="RFC3986"></xref>
1160            also mentions that white space may have to be added when displaying
1161            or printing long URIs; the same applies to long IRIs.
1162            Spaces might disappear, or a single Legacy Extended IRI
1163            might incorrectly be interpreted as two or more separate ones.</t>
1165          <t>Delimiters "&lt;" (U+003C), "&gt;" (U+003E), and '"' (U+0022):
1166            Appendix C of <xref target="RFC3986"></xref> suggests the use of
1167            double-quotes ("") and angle brackets
1168        (&lt;;) as delimiters for URIs in plain text.
1169        These conventions are often used, and also apply to IRIs.
1170        Legacy Extended IRIs using these characters might be cut off at the wrong place.</t>
1172          <t>Unwise characters "\" (U+005C),
1173          "^" (U+005E), "`" (U+0060), "{" (U+007B), "|" (U+007C), and "}" (U+007D):
1174          These characters originally were excluded from URIs because
1175          the respective codepoints are assigned to different graphic characters
1176          in some 7-bit or 8-bit encoding. Despite the move to Unicode,
1177          some of these characters are still occasionally displayed differently
1178          on some systems, e.g., U+005C as a Japanese Yen symbol.
1180          Also, the fact that these characters are not used in URIs or IRIs
1181          has encouraged their use outside URIs or IRIs in contexts that may
1182          include URIs or IRIs. In case a Legacy Extended IRI with such a character
1183          is used in such a context, the Legacy Extended IRI will be interpreted piecemeal.</t>
1185          <t>The controls (C0 controls, DEL, and C1 controls, #x0  - #x1F  #x7F - #x9F):
1186            There is no way to transmit these characters reliably except potentially
1187            in electronic form. Even when in electronic form, some software components
1188            might silently filter out some of these characters,
1189            or may stop processing alltogether when encountering some of them.
1190            These characters may affect text display in subtle, unnoticable ways
1191            or in drastic, global, and irreversible ways depending
1192            on the hardware and software involved.
1193            The use of some of these characters may allow malicious users
1194            to manipulate the display of a Legacy Extended IRI and its context.</t>
1195          <t>Bidi formatting characters (U+200E, U+200F, U+202A-202E):
1196            These characters affect the display ordering of characters.
1197            Displayed Legacy Extended IRIs containing these characters
1198            cannot be converted back to electronic form (logical order) unambiguously.
1199            These characters may allow malicious users to manipulate
1200            the display of a Legacy Extended IRI and its context.</t>
1201          <t>Specials (U+FFF0-FFFD): These code points provide functionality
1202            beyond that useful in a Legacy Extended IRI, for example byte order identification,
1203            annotation, and replacements for unknown characters and objects.
1204            Their use and interpretation in a Legacy Extended IRI
1205            serves no purpose and may lead to confusing display variations.</t>
1206          <t>Private use code points (U+E000-F8FF, U+F0000-FFFFD, U+100000-10FFFD):
1207            Display and interpretation of these code points is by definition
1208            undefined without private agreement. Therefore, these code points
1209            are not suited for use on the Internet. They are not interoperable and may have
1210            unpredictable effects.</t>
1211          <t>Tags (U+E0000-E0FFF): These characters provide a way to language tag in Unicode plain text.
1212            They are not appropriate for Legacy Extended IRIs because language information
1213            in identifiers cannot reliably be input, transmitted
1214            (e.g., on a visual medium such as paper), or recognized.</t>
1215          <t>Non-characters (U+FDD0-FDEF, U+1FFFE-1FFFF, U+2FFFE-2FFFF, U+3FFFE-3FFFF,
1216            U+4FFFE-4FFFF, U+5FFFE-5FFFF, U+6FFFE-6FFFF, U+7FFFE-7FFFF, U+8FFFE-8FFFF,
1218            U+EFFFE-EFFFF, U+FFFFE-FFFFF, U+10FFFE-10FFFF):
1219            These code points are defined as non-characters. Applications may use
1220            some of them internally, but are not prepared to interchange them.</t>
1221        </list>
1222      </t>
1223      <t>For reference, we here also list the code points and code units
1224        not even allowed in Legacy Extended IRIs:
1225        <list>
1227          <t>Surrogate code units (D800-DFFF):
1228          These do not represent Unicode codepoints.</t>
1229           <t>Non-characters (U+FFFE-FFFF): These are not allowed in XML nor LEIRIs.</t>
1231        </list>
1232      </t>
1233    </section>
1234  </section>
1236<section title="URI/IRI Processing Guidelines (Informative)" anchor="guidelines">
1238<t>This informative section provides guidelines for supporting IRIs in
1239the same software components and operations that currently process
1240URIs: Software interfaces that handle URIs, software that allows users
1241to enter URIs, software that creates or generates URIs, software that
1242displays URIs, formats and protocols that transport URIs, and software
1243that interprets URIs. These may all require modification before
1244functioning properly with IRIs. The considerations in this section
1245also apply to URI references and IRI references.</t>
1247<section title="URI/IRI Software Interfaces">
1248<t>Software interfaces that handle URIs, such as URI-handling APIs and
1249protocols transferring URIs, need interfaces and protocol elements
1250that are designed to carry IRIs.</t>
1252<t>In case the current handling in an API or protocol is based on
1253US-ASCII, UTF-8 is recommended as the character encoding for IRIs, as
1254it is compatible with US-ASCII, is in accordance with the
1255recommendations of <xref target="RFC2277"/>, and makes converting to
1256URIs easy. In any case, the API or protocol definition must clearly
1257define the character encoding to be used.</t>
1259<t>The transfer from URI-only to IRI-capable components requires no
1260mapping, although the conversion described in <xref
1261target="URItoIRI"/> above may be performed. It is preferable not to
1262perform this inverse conversion unless it is certain this can be done
1264</section><!-- software interfaces -->
1266<section title="URI/IRI Entry">
1268<t>Some components allow users to enter URIs into the system
1269by typing or dictation, for example. This software must be updated to allow
1270for IRI entry.</t>
1272<t>A person viewing a visual presentation of an IRI (as a sequence
1273of glyphs, in some order, in some visual display)
1274will use an entry method for characters in the user's language to
1275input the IRI. Depending on the script and the input method used, this
1276may be a more or less complicated process.</t>
1278<t>The process of IRI entry must ensure, as much as possible, that the
1279restrictions defined in <xref target="abnf"/> are met. This may be
1280done by choosing appropriate input methods or variants/settings
1281thereof, by appropriately converting the characters being input, by
1282eliminating characters that cannot be converted, and/or by issuing a
1283warning or error message to the user.</t>
1285<t>As an example of variant settings, input method editors for East
1286Asian Languages usually allow the input of Latin letters and related
1287characters in full-width or half-width versions. For IRI input, the
1288input method editor should be set so that it produces half-width Latin
1289letters and punctuation and full-width Katakana.</t>
1291<t>An input field primarily or solely used for the input of URIs/IRIs
1292might allow the user to view an IRI as it is mapped to a URI.  Places
1293where the input of IRIs is frequent may provide the possibility for
1294viewing an IRI as mapped to a URI. This will help users when some of
1295the software they use does not yet accept IRIs.</t>
1297<t>An IRI input component interfacing to components that handle URIs,
1298but not IRIs, must map the IRI to a URI before passing it to these
1301<t>For the input of IRIs with right-to-left characters, please see
1302<xref target="Bidi"></xref>.</t>
1303</section><!-- entry -->
1305<section title="URI/IRI Transfer between Applications">
1307<t>Many applications (for example, mail user agents) try to detect
1308URIs appearing in plain text. For this, they use some heuristics based
1309on URI syntax. They then allow the user to click on such URIs and
1310retrieve the corresponding resource in an appropriate (usually
1311scheme-dependent) application.</t>
1313<t>Such applications would need to be upgraded, in order to use the
1314IRI syntax as a base for heuristics. In particular, a non-ASCII
1315character should not be taken as the indication of the end of an IRI.
1316Such applications also would need to make sure that they correctly
1317convert the detected IRI from the character encoding of the document
1318or application where the IRI appears, to the character encoding used
1319by the system-wide IRI invocation mechanism, or to a URI (according to
1320<xref target="mapping"/>) if the system-wide invocation mechanism only
1321accepts URIs.</t>
1323<t>The clipboard is another frequently used way to transfer URIs and
1324IRIs from one application to another. On most platforms, the clipboard
1325is able to store and transfer text in many languages and scripts.
1326Correctly used, the clipboard transfers characters, not octets, which
1327will do the right thing with IRIs.</t>
1328</section><!-- transfer -->
1330<section title="URI/IRI Generation">
1332<t>Systems that offer resources through the Internet, where those
1333resources have logical names, sometimes automatically generate URIs
1334for the resources they offer. For example, some HTTP servers can
1335generate a directory listing for a file directory and then respond to
1336the generated URIs with the files.</t>
1338<t>Many legacy character encodings are in use in various file systems.
1339Many currently deployed systems do not transform the local character
1340representation of the underlying system before generating URIs.</t>
1342<t>For maximum interoperability, systems that generate resource
1343identifiers should make the appropriate transformations. For example,
1344if a file system contains a file named
1345  <aonly>"r&amp;#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;.html"</aonly><ionly>"résumé.html"</ionly>,
1346  a server should expose this as
1347"r%C3%A9sum%C3%A9.html" in a URI, which allows use of
1348  <aonly>"r&amp;#xE9;sum&amp;#xE9;.html"</aonly><ionly>"résumé.html"</ionly>
1349  in an IRI, even if locally the file
1350name is kept in a character encoding other than UTF-8.
1353<t>This recommendation particularly applies to HTTP servers. For FTP
1354servers, similar considerations apply; see <xref target="RFC2640"/>.</t>
1355</section><!-- generation -->
1357<section title="URI/IRI Selection" anchor="selection">
1358<t>In some cases, resource owners and publishers have control over the
1359IRIs used to identify their resources. This control is mostly
1360executed by controlling the resource names, such as file names,
1363<t>In these cases, it is recommended to avoid choosing IRIs that are
1364easily confused. For example, for US-ASCII, the lower-case ell ("l") is
1365easily confused with the digit one ("1"), and the upper-case oh ("O") is
1366easily confused with the digit zero ("0"). Publishers should avoid
1367confusing users with "br0ken" or "1ame" identifiers.</t>
1369<t>Outside the US-ASCII repertoire, there are many more opportunities for
1370confusion; a complete set of guidelines is too lengthy to include
1371here. As long as names are limited to characters from a single script,
1372native writers of a given script or language will know best when
1373ambiguities can appear, and how they can be avoided. What may look
1374ambiguous to a stranger may be completely obvious to the average
1375native user. On the other hand, in some cases, the UCS contains
1376variants for compatibility reasons; for example, for typographic purposes.
1377These should be avoided wherever possible. Although there may be exceptions,
1378newly created resource names should generally be in NFKC
1379<xref target="UTR15"></xref> (which means that they are also in NFC).</t>
1381<t>As an example, the UCS contains the "fi" ligature at U+FB01
1382for compatibility reasons.
1383Wherever possible, IRIs should use the two letters "f" and "i" rather
1384than the "fi" ligature. An example where the latter may be used is
1385in the query part of an IRI for an explicit search for a word written
1386containing the "fi" ligature.</t>
1388<t>In certain cases, there is a chance that characters from different
1389scripts look the same. The best known example is the similarity of the
1390Latin "A", the Greek "Alpha", and the Cyrillic "A". To avoid such
1391cases, IRIs should only be created where all the characters in a
1392single component are used together in a given language. This usually
1393means that all of these characters will be from the same script, but
1394there are languages that mix characters from different scripts (such
1395as Japanese).  This is similar to the heuristics used to distinguish
1396between letters and numbers in the examples above. Also, for Latin,
1397Greek, and Cyrillic, using lowercase letters results in fewer
1398ambiguities than using uppercase letters would.</t>
1399</section><!-- selection -->
1401<section title="Display of URIs/IRIs" anchor="display">
1403In situations where the rendering software is not expected to display
1404non-ASCII parts of the IRI correctly using the available layout and font
1405resources, these parts should be percent-encoded before being displayed.</t>
1407<t>For display of Bidi IRIs, please see <xref target="Bidi"/>.</t>
1408</section> <!-- display -->
1410<section title="Interpretation of URIs and IRIs">
1411<t>Software that interprets IRIs as the names of local resources should
1412accept IRIs in multiple forms and convert and match them with the
1413appropriate local resource names.</t>
1415<t>First, multiple representations include both IRIs in the native
1416character encoding of the protocol and also their URI counterparts.</t>
1418<t>Second, it may include URIs constructed based on character
1419encodings other than UTF-8. These URIs may be produced by user agents that do
1420not conform to this specification and that use legacy character encodings to
1421convert non-ASCII characters to URIs. Whether this is necessary, and what
1422character encodings to cover, depends on a number of factors, such as
1423the legacy character encodings used locally and the distribution of
1424various versions of user agents. For example, software for Japanese
1425may accept URIs in Shift_JIS and/or EUC-JP in addition to UTF-8.</t>
1427<t>Third, it may include additional mappings to be more user-friendly
1428and robust against transmission errors. These would be similar to how
1429some servers currently treat URIs as case insensitive or perform
1430additional matching to account for spelling errors. For characters
1431beyond the US-ASCII repertoire, this may, for example, include
1432ignoring the accents on received IRIs or resource names. Please note
1433that such mappings, including case mappings, are language
1436<t>It can be difficult to identify a resource unambiguously if too
1437many mappings are taken into consideration. However, percent-encoded
1438and not percent-encoded parts of IRIs can always be clearly distinguished.
1439Also, the regularity of UTF-8 (see <xref target="Duerst97"/>) makes the
1440potential for collisions lower than it may seem at first.</t>
1441</section> <!-- interpretation -->
1443<section title="Upgrading Strategy">
1444<t>Where this recommendation places further constraints on software
1445for which many instances are already deployed, it is important to
1446introduce upgrades carefully and to be aware of the various
1449<t>If IRIs cannot be interpreted correctly, they should not be created,
1450generated, or transported. This suggests that upgrading URI interpreting
1451software to accept IRIs should have highest priority.</t>
1453<t>On the other hand, a single IRI is interpreted only by a single or
1454very few interpreters that are known in advance, although it may be
1455entered and transported very widely.</t>
1457<t>Therefore, IRIs benefit most from a broad upgrade of software to be
1458able to enter and transport IRIs. However, before an
1459individual IRI is published, care should be taken to upgrade the corresponding
1460interpreting software in order to cover the forms expected to be
1461received by various versions of entry and transport software.</t>
1463<t>The upgrade of generating software to generate IRIs instead of using a
1464local character encoding should happen only after the service is upgraded
1465to accept IRIs. Similarly, IRIs should only be generated when the service
1466accepts IRIs and the intervening infrastructure and protocol is known
1467to transport them safely.</t>
1469<t>Software converting from URIs to IRIs for display should be upgraded
1470only after upgraded entry software has been widely deployed to the
1471population that will see the displayed result.</t>
1474<t>Where there is a free choice of character encodings, it is often
1475possible to reduce the effort and dependencies for upgrading to IRIs
1476by using UTF-8 rather than another encoding. For example, when a new
1477file-based Web server is set up, using UTF-8 as the character encoding
1478for file names will make the transition to IRIs easier. Likewise, when
1479a new Web form is set up using UTF-8 as the character encoding of the
1480form page, the returned query URIs will use UTF-8 as the character
1481encoding (unless the user, for whatever reason, changes the character
1482encoding) and will therefore be compatible with IRIs.</t>
1485<t>These recommendations, when taken together, will allow for the
1486extension from URIs to IRIs in order to handle characters other than
1487US-ASCII while minimizing interoperability problems. For
1488considerations regarding the upgrade of URI scheme definitions, see
1489<xref target="UTF8use"/>.</t>
1491</section> <!-- upgrading -->
1492</section> <!-- guidelines -->
1494<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="iana">
1498<t>RFC Editor and IANA note: Please Replace RFC XXXX with the
1499number of this document when it issues as an RFC, and RFC YYYY
1500with the number of the RFC issued for draft-ietf-iri-rfc3987bis. </t>
1502<t>IANA maintains a registry of "URI schemes".  This document attempts
1503to make it clear from the registry that a "URI scheme" also serves an
1504"IRI scheme", and makes several changes to the registry. </t>
1506<t>The description of the registry should be changed: "RFC 4395
1507defined an IANA-maintained registry of URI Schemes. RFC XXXX updates
1508this registry to make it clear that the registered values also serve
1509as IRI schemes, as defined in RFC YYYY." </t>
1511<t>The registry includes schemes marked as Permanent or Provisional.
1512Previously, this was accomplished by having two sections, "Permanent"
1513and "Provisional". However, in order to allow other status
1514("Historical", and possibly a Proposed status for proposals which have
1515been received but not accepted), the registry should be changed so
1516that the status is indicated in a separate "Status" column, whose
1517values may be "Permanent", "Provisional" or "Historical".
1518Changes in status as well as updates to the entire registration
1519may be accomplished by requests and expert review.
1523</section> <!-- IANA -->
1525<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security">
1526<t>The security considerations discussed in <xref target="RFC3986"/>
1527also apply to IRIs. In addition, the following issues require
1528particular care for IRIs.</t>
1529<t>Incorrect encoding or decoding can lead to security problems.
1530For example, some UTF-8 decoders do not check against overlong
1531byte sequences. See <xref target='UTR36'/> Section 3 for details.</t>
1533  <t>There are serious difficulties with relying on a human to verify that a
1534    an IRI (whether presented visually or aurally)
1535    is the same as another IRI or is the one intended.
1536    These problems exist with ASCII-only URIs ( vs.
1537    but are strongly exacerbated when using the much larger character repertoire of Unicode.
1538    For details, see Section 2 of <xref target='UTR36'/>.
1539    Using administrative and technical means to reduce the availability
1540    of such exploits is possible, but they are difficult to eliminate altogether.
1541    User agents SHOULD NOT rely on visual or perceptual comparison or verification of IRIs
1542    as a means of validating or assuring safety, correctness or appropriateness of an IRI.
1543    Other means of presenting users with the validity, safety, or appropriateness
1544    of visited sites are being developed in the browser community
1545    as an alternative means of avoiding these difficulties.</t>
1547<t>Besides the large character repertoire of Unicode, reasons for
1548  confusion include different forms of normalization and different normalization
1549  expectations, use of percent-encoding with various legacy encodings,
1550  and bidirectionality issues. See also <xref target="Bidi"/>.</t>
1552<t>Confusion can occur in various IRI components, such as the
1553domain name part or the path part, or between IRI components. For considerations specific
1554to the domain name part, see <xref target="RFC5890"/>. For considerations specific to
1555particular protocols or schemes, see the security sections of the relevant specifications
1556and registration templates.
1557Administrators of sites that allow independent
1558users to create resources in the same sub area have to be careful.
1559Details are discussed in <xref target="selection"/>.</t>
1561  <t>The characters additionally allowed in Legacy Extended IRIs
1562    introduce additional security issues. For details, see <xref target='notAllowed'/>.</t>
1563</section><!-- security -->
1565<section title="Acknowledgements">
1566<t>This document was derived from <xref target="RFC3987"/>; the acknowledgments from
1567that specification still apply.</t>
1568<t>In addition, this document was influenced by contributions from (in no particular order)
1569  Norman Walsh, Richard Tobin,
1570  Henry S. Thomson, John Cowan, Paul Grosso, the XML Core Working Group of the W3C,
1571  Chris Lilley, <aonly>Bjoern Hoehrmann</aonly><ionly>Björn Höhrmann</ionly>,
1572Felix Sasaki, Jeremy Carroll, Frank Ellermann, Michael Everson, Cary Karp, Matitiahu Allouche,
1573Richard Ishida, Addison Phillips, Jonathan Rosenne, Najib Tounsi, Debbie Garside, Mark Davis,
1574Sarmad Hussain, Ted Hardie, Konrad Lanz, Thomas Roessler, Lisa Dusseault, Julian Reschke,
1575Giovanni Campagna, Anne van Kesteren, Mark Nottingham, Erik van der Poel, Marcin Hanclik, Marcos Caceres,
1576Roy Fielding, Greg Wilkins, Pieter Hintjens, Daniel R. Tobias, Marko Martin, Maciej Stanchowiak,
1577Wil Tan, Yui Naruse<ionly> (成瀬ゆい)</ionly>, Michael A. Puls II, Dave Thaler, Tom Petch, John Klensin, Shawn Steele,
1578Peter Saint-Andre, Geoffrey Sneddon, Chris Weber, Alex Melnikov, Slim Amamou, S. Moonesamy, Tim Berners-Lee,
1579Yaron Goland, Sam Ruby, Adam Barth, Abdulrahman I. ALGhadir, Aharon Lanin, Thomas Milo, Murray Sargent,
1580Marc Blanchet, and Mykyta Yevstifeyev.</t>
1581</section> <!-- Acknowledgements -->
1583<section title="Main Changes Since RFC 3987">
1584  <t>This section describes the main changes since <xref target="RFC3987"></xref>.</t>
1585  <section title="Split out Bidi, processing guidelines, comparison sections">
1586    <t>Move some components (comparison, bidi, processing) into separate documents.</t>
1587  </section>
1588  <section title="Major restructuring of IRI processing model" anchor="forkChanges">
1589    <t>Major restructuring of IRI processing model to make scheme-specific translation
1590      necessary to handle IDNA requirements and for consistency with web implementations. </t>
1591    <t>Starting with IRI, you want one of:
1592      <list style="hanging">
1593        <t hangText="a"> IRI components (IRI parsed into UTF8 pieces)</t>
1594        <t hangText="b"> URI components (URI parsed into ASCII pieces, encoded correctly) </t>
1595        <t hangText="c"> whole URI  (for passing on to some other system that wants whole URIs) </t>
1596      </list></t>
1598    <section title="OLD WAY">
1599      <t><list style="numbers">
1601        <t>Pct-encoding on the whole thing to a URI.
1602          (c1) If you want a (maybe broken) whole URI, you might
1603          stop here.</t>
1605        <t>Parsing the URI into URI components.
1606          (b1) If you want (maybe broken) URI components, stop here.</t>
1608        <t> Decode the components (undoing the pct-encoding).
1609          (a) if you want IRI components, stop here.</t>
1611        <t> reencode:  Either using a different encoding some components
1612          (for domain names, and query components in web pages, which
1613          depends on the component, scheme and context), and otherwise
1614          using pct-encoding.
1615          (b2) if you want (good) URI components, stop here.</t>
1617        <t> reassemble the reencoded components.
1618          (c2) if you want a (*good*) whole URI stop here.</t>
1619      </list>
1621      </t>
1623    </section>
1625    <section title="NEW WAY">
1626      <t>
1627        <list style="numbers">
1629          <t> Parse the IRI into IRI components using the generic syntax.
1630            (a) if you want IRI components, stop here.</t>
1632          <t> Encode each components, using pct-encoding, IDN encoding, or
1633            special query part encoding depending on the component
1634            scheme or context. (b) If you want URI components, stop here.</t>
1635          <t> reassemble the a whole URI from URI components.
1636            (c) if you want a whole URI stop here.</t>
1637        </list></t>
1638    </section>
1639    <section title="Extension of Syntax">
1640      <t>Added the tag range (U+E0000-E0FFF) to the iprivate production.
1641        Some IRIs generated with the new syntax may fail to pass very strict checks
1642        relying on the old syntax. But characters in this range should be extremely infrequent
1643        anyway.</t>
1644    </section>
1645    <section title="More to be added"><t>TODO: There are more main changes that need to be
1646      documented in this section.</t></section>
1649<section title="Change Log">
1651<t>Note to RFC Editor: Please completely remove this section before publication.</t>
1653<section title='Changes after draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-01'>
1654    <t>Changes from draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-01 onwards are available as changesets
1655      in the IETF tools subversion repository at
1659<section title='Changes from draft-duerst-iri-bis-07 to draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00'>
1660     <t>Changed draft name, date, last paragraph of abstract, and titles in change log, and added this section
1661     in moving from draft-duerst-iri-bis-07 (personal submission) to draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00 (WG document).</t>
1664<section title="Changes from -06 to -07 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1665  <t>Major restructuring of the processing model, see <xref target="forkChanges"></xref>.</t>
1669<section title='Changes from -00 to -01'><t><list style="symbols">
1670  <t>Removed 'mailto:' before mail addresses of authors.</t>
1671  <t>Added "&lt;to be done&gt;" as right side of 'href-strip' rule. Fixed '|' to '/' for
1672    alternatives.</t>
1676<section title="Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis-00"><t><list style="symbols">
1677<t>Add HyperText Reference, change abstract, acks and references for it</t>
1678<t>Add Masinter back as another editor.</t>
1679<t>Masinter integrates HRef material from HTML5 spec.</t>
1680<t>Rewrite introduction sections to modernize.</t>
1684<section title="Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1685  <t><list style="symbols">
1686    <t>Updated references.</t>
1687    <t>Changed IPR text to pre5378Trust200902.</t></list></t>
1690<section title="Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1691  <t><list style="symbols">
1692    <t>Added explicit abbreviation for LEIRIs.</t>
1693    <t>Mentioned LEIRI references.</t>
1694    <t>Completed text in LEIRI section about tag characters and about specials.</t></list></t>
1697<section title="Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1698  <t><list style="symbols">
1699    <t>Updated some references.</t>
1700    <t>Updated Michel Suginard's coordinates.</t></list></t>
1703<section title="Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1704  <t><list style="symbols">
1705    <t>Added tag range to iprivate (issue private-include-tags-115).</t>
1706    <t>Added Specials (U+FFF0-FFFD) to Legacy Extended IRIs.</t></list></t>
1708<section title="Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1709  <t><list style="symbols">
1710    <t>Changed from "IRIs with Spaces/Controls" to "Legacy Extended IRI"
1711      based on input from the W3C XML Core WG.
1712      Moved the relevant subsections to the back and promoted them to a section.</t>
1713    <t>Added some text re. Legacy Extended IRIs to the security section.</t>
1714    <t>Added a IANA Consideration Section.</t>
1715    <t>Added this Change Log Section.</t>
1716    <t>Added a section about "IRIs with Spaces/Controls" (converting from a Note in RFC 3987).</t></list></t>
1717</section> <!-- -00 to -01 -->
1718<section title="Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis">
1719  <t><list>
1720    <t>Fixed errata (see</t></list></t>
1721</section> <!-- from 3987 -->
1726<references title="Normative References">
1728<reference anchor="ASCII">
1730<title>Coded Character Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
1733<organization>American National Standards Institute</organization>
1735<date year="1986"/>
1737<seriesInfo name="ANSI" value="X3.4"/>
1740  <reference anchor="ISO10646" target=''>
1742<title>ISO/IEC 10646:2011: Information Technology -
1743Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS)</title>
1745<organization>International Organization for Standardization</organization>
1747<date month="March" year="20011"/>
1749<seriesInfo name="ISO" value="Standard 10646"/>
1755  <reference anchor="STD63">
1756    <front>
1757      <title abbrev="UTF-8">UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</title>
1758      <author initials="F." surname="Yergeau" ifullname="François Yergeau" fullname="Francois Yergeau"></author>
1759      <date month="November" year="2003"/>
1760    </front>
1761    <seriesInfo name="STD" value="63"/>
1762    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3629"/>
1764  </reference>
1768<reference anchor="STD68">
1770<title abbrev="ABNF">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
1771<author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker"><organization/></author>
1772<author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell"><organization/></author>
1773<date month="January" year="2008"/></front>
1774<seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/><seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1780  <reference anchor="RFC5892">
1781    <front>
1782      <title>The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)</title>
1783      <author initials="P." surname="Faltstrom" isurname="Fältström" fullname="P. Faltstrom" ifullname="P. Fältström">
1784        <organization/>
1785      </author>
1786      <date year="2010" month="August"/>
1787    </front>
1788    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5892"/>
1789    <format type="TXT" octets="187370" target=""/>
1790  </reference>
1792  <reference anchor="UNIV6">
1793    <front>
1794      <title>The Unicode Standard, Version 6.2.0 (Mountain View, CA, The
1795        Unicode Consortium, 2012, ISBN 978-1-936213-07-8)</title>
1796      <author>
1797        <organization>The Unicode Consortium</organization>
1798      </author>
1799      <date year="2012" month="October"/>
1800    </front>
1801  </reference>
1803<reference anchor="UTR15" target="">
1805<title>Unicode Normalization Forms</title>
1806<author initials="M." surname="Davis" fullname="Mark Davis"><organization/></author>
1807  <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"><organization/></author>
1808<date year="2008" month="March"/>
1810<seriesInfo name="Unicode Standard Annex" value="#15"/>
1815<references title="Informative References">
1817  <reference anchor='CharMod' target=''>
1818    <front>
1819      <title>Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Resource Identifiers</title>
1820      <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"/>
1821      <author initials="F." surname="Yergeau" ifullname="François Yergeau" fullname="Francois Yergeau"></author>
1822      <author fullname='Richard Ishida' surname='Ishida' initials='R. '/>
1823      <author fullname='Misha Wolf' surname='Wolf' initials='M. '/>
1824      <author fullname='Tex Texin' surname='Texin' initials='T. '/>
1825      <date year='2004' month='November' day='22'/>
1826    </front>
1827    <seriesInfo name='W3C Candidate Recommendation' value='CR-charmod-resid-20041122'/>
1828  </reference>
1830  <reference anchor="Duerst97" target="">
1832<title>The Properties and Promises of UTF-8</title>
1833  <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"></author>
1834<date year="1997" month="September"/>
1836<seriesInfo name="Proc. 11th International Unicode Conference, San Jose" value=""/>
1839<reference anchor="Gettys" target="">
1841<title>URI Model Consequences</title>
1842<author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys"><organization/></author>
1843<date month="" year=""/>
1847<reference anchor='HTML4' target=''>
1849<title>HTML 4.01 Specification</title>
1850<author fullname='David Raggett' surname='Raggett' initials='D. '/>
1851<author fullname='Arnaud Le Hors' surname='Le Hors' initials='A. '/>
1852<author fullname='Ian Jacobs' surname='Jacobs' initials='I. '/>
1853<date year='1999' month='December' day='24'/>
1855<seriesInfo name='W3C Recommendation' value='REC-html401-19991224'/>
1867  <reference anchor="RFC3987">
1868    <front>
1869      <title>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</title>
1870      <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"/>
1871      <author initials="M." surname="Suignard" fullname="M. Suignard">
1872        <organization/>
1873      </author>
1874      <date year="2005" month="January"/>
1875    </front>
1876    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3987"/>
1877    <format type="TXT" octets="111190" target=""/>
1878  </reference>
1883  <reference anchor="RFC6068">
1884    <front>
1885      <title>
1886        The 'mailto' URI Scheme
1887      </title>
1888      <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"/>
1889      <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1890        <organization/>
1891      </author>
1892      <author initials="J." surname="Zawinski" fullname="J. Zawinski">
1893        <organization/>
1894      </author>
1895      <date year="2010" month="October"/>
1896    </front>
1897    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="6068"/>
1898    <format type="TXT" octets="36683" target=""/>
1899  </reference>
1901<reference anchor='Bidi'>
1902  <front>
1903    <title>Guidelines for Internationalized Resource Identifiers with Bi-directional Characters (Bidi IRIs)</title>
1904    <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"/>
1905    <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' />
1906    <author initials="A." isurname="Allawi (عادل علاوي)" surname="Allawi"
1907      ifullname="عادل علاوي" fullname="Adil Allawi"/>    <date year="2012" month="March" day="9" />
1908  </front>
1909  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-iri-bidi-guidelines-02"/>
1912<reference anchor='Equivalence'>
1913  <front>
1914    <title>Equivalence and Canonicalization of Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</title>
1915    <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' />
1916    <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"/>
1917    <date year="2012" month="March" day="2" />
1918  </front>
1919  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-iri-comparison-01"/>
1922<reference anchor='RFC4395bis'>
1923  <front>
1924    <title>Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI/IRI Schemes</title>
1925    <author initials='T.' surname='Hansen' fullname="Tony Hansen"><organization/></author>
1926    <author initials='T.' surname='Hardie' fullname="Ted Hardie"><organization/></author>
1927    <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname="Larry Masinter"><organization/></author>
1928    <date year='2011' month='December'/>
1929    <workgroup>IRI</workgroup>
1930  </front>
1931  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-iri-4395bis-irireg-04"/>
1935<reference anchor="UNIXML" target="">
1937<title>Unicode in XML and other Markup Languages</title>
1938  <author  initials="M.J." isurname="Dürst" surname="Duerst" ifullname="Martin J. Dürst" fullname="Martin J. Duerst"><organization/></author>
1939<author initials="A." surname="Freytag" fullname="Asmus Freytag"><organization/></author>
1940<date year="2003" month="June" day="18"/>
1942<seriesInfo name="Unicode Technical Report" value="#20"/>
1943<seriesInfo name="World Wide Web Consortium" value="Note"/>
1946<reference anchor="UTR36" target="">
1948<title>Unicode Security Considerations</title>
1949<author initials="M." surname="Davis" fullname="Mark Davis"><organization/></author>
1950<author initials="M." surname="Suignard" fullname="Michel Suignard"><organization/></author>
1951<date year="2010" month="August" day="4"/>
1953<seriesInfo name="Unicode Technical Report" value="#36"/>
1956<reference anchor='XLink' target=''>
1958<title>XML Linking Language (XLink) Version 1.1</title>
1959<author fullname='Steve DeRose' surname='DeRose' initials='S. '/>
1960<author fullname='Eve Maler' surname='Maler' initials='E. '/>
1961<author fullname='David Orchard' surname='Orchard' initials='D. '/>
1962<author fullname='Norman Walsh' surname='Walsh' initials='N. '/>
1963<date year='2010' month='May' day='06'/>
1965<seriesInfo name='W3C Recommendation' value='REC-xlink11-20100506'/>
1968<reference anchor='XML1' target=''>
1970<title>Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)</title>
1971<author fullname='Tim Bray' surname='Bray' initials='T. '/>
1972<author fullname='Jean Paoli' surname='Paoli' initials='J. '/>
1973<author fullname='C. M. Sperberg-McQueen' surname='Sperberg-McQueen' initials='C. M. '/>
1974<author fullname='Eve Maler' surname='Maler' initials='E. '/>
1975<author initials="F." surname="Yergeau" ifullname="François Yergeau" fullname="Francois Yergeau"/>
1976<date year='2008' month='November' day='26'/>
1978<seriesInfo name='W3C Recommendation' value='REC-xml-20081126'/>
1981<reference anchor="XMLSchema" target="">
1983<title>XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition</title>
1984<author fullname='Paul V. Biron' surname='Biron' initials='P. V. '/>
1985<author fullname='Ashok Malhotra' surname='Malhotra' initials='A. '/>
1986<date year='2004' month='October' day='28'/>
1988<seriesInfo name='W3C Recommendation' value='REC-xmlschema-2-20041028'/>
1991<reference anchor="XPointer" target="">
1993<title>XPointer Framework</title>
1994<author fullname='Paul Grosso' surname='Grosso' initials='P. '/>
1995<author fullname='Eve Maler' surname='Maler' initials='E. '/>
1996<author fullname='Jonathan Marsh' surname='Marsh' initials='J. '/>
1997<author fullname='Norman Walsh' surname='Walsh' initials='N. '/>
1998<date year='2003' month='March' day='25'/>
2000<seriesInfo name='W3C Recommendation' value='REC-xptr-framework-20030325'/>
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