Changeset 391


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Nov 14, 2008, 4:44:55 PM (11 years ago)
Author:
julian.reschke@…
Message:

Merge in Roy's changes wrt Introduction and HTTP Architecture, replace Request-URI by request-target and relative-URI by partial-URI throughout.

Location:
draft-ietf-httpbis/latest
Files:
10 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p1-messaging.html

    r390 r391  
    365365      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
    366366      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
    367       <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Protocol Parameters" href="#rfc.section.2">
    368       <link rel="Chapter" title="3 HTTP Message" href="#rfc.section.3">
    369       <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Request" href="#rfc.section.4">
    370       <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Response" href="#rfc.section.5">
    371       <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Connections" href="#rfc.section.6">
    372       <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.7">
    373       <link rel="Chapter" title="8 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.8">
    374       <link rel="Chapter" title="9 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.9">
    375       <link rel="Chapter" title="10 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.10">
    376       <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.11" title="11 References">
     367      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 HTTP architecture" href="#rfc.section.2">
     368      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Protocol Parameters" href="#rfc.section.3">
     369      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 HTTP Message" href="#rfc.section.4">
     370      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Request" href="#rfc.section.5">
     371      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Response" href="#rfc.section.6">
     372      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Connections" href="#rfc.section.7">
     373      <link rel="Chapter" title="8 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.8">
     374      <link rel="Chapter" title="9 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.9">
     375      <link rel="Chapter" title="10 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.10">
     376      <link rel="Chapter" title="11 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.11">
     377      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.12" title="12 References">
    377378      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Tolerant Applications" href="#rfc.section.A">
    378379      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Compatibility with Previous Versions" href="#rfc.section.B">
     
    521522                  </ul>
    522523               </li>
    523                <li class="tocline1">1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></li>
    524524            </ul>
    525525         </li>
    526          <li class="tocline0">2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a><ul class="toc">
    527                <li class="tocline1">2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></li>
    528                <li class="tocline1">2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a><ul class="toc">
    529                      <li class="tocline1">2.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.uri">http URI scheme</a></li>
    530                      <li class="tocline1">2.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></li>
     526         <li class="tocline0">2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#architecture">HTTP architecture</a><ul class="toc">
     527               <li class="tocline1">2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a><ul class="toc">
     528                     <li class="tocline1">2.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.uri">http URI scheme</a></li>
     529                     <li class="tocline1">2.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></li>
     530                     <li class="tocline1">2.1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#scheme.aliases">Scheme aliases considered harmful</a></li>
    531531                  </ul>
    532532               </li>
    533                <li class="tocline1">2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a><ul class="toc">
    534                      <li class="tocline1">2.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#full.date">Full Date</a></li>
     533               <li class="tocline1">2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></li>
     534               <li class="tocline1">2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.proxy">Use of HTTP for proxy communication</a></li>
     535               <li class="tocline1">2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.intercept">Interception of HTTP for access control</a></li>
     536               <li class="tocline1">2.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.others">Use of HTTP by other protocols</a></li>
     537               <li class="tocline1">2.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.media">Use of HTTP by media type specification</a></li>
     538            </ul>
     539         </li>
     540         <li class="tocline0">3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a><ul class="toc">
     541               <li class="tocline1">3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></li>
     542               <li class="tocline1">3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a><ul class="toc">
     543                     <li class="tocline1">3.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#full.date">Full Date</a></li>
    535544                  </ul>
    536545               </li>
    537                <li class="tocline1">2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a><ul class="toc">
    538                      <li class="tocline1">2.4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></li>
     546               <li class="tocline1">3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a><ul class="toc">
     547                     <li class="tocline1">3.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></li>
    539548                  </ul>
    540549               </li>
    541                <li class="tocline1">2.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></li>
     550               <li class="tocline1">3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></li>
    542551            </ul>
    543552         </li>
    544          <li class="tocline0">3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a><ul class="toc">
    545                <li class="tocline1">3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.types">Message Types</a></li>
    546                <li class="tocline1">3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></li>
    547                <li class="tocline1">3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.body">Message Body</a></li>
    548                <li class="tocline1">3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.length">Message Length</a></li>
    549                <li class="tocline1">3.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></li>
     553         <li class="tocline0">4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a><ul class="toc">
     554               <li class="tocline1">4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.types">Message Types</a></li>
     555               <li class="tocline1">4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></li>
     556               <li class="tocline1">4.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.body">Message Body</a></li>
     557               <li class="tocline1">4.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.length">Message Length</a></li>
     558               <li class="tocline1">4.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></li>
    550559            </ul>
    551560         </li>
    552          <li class="tocline0">4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request">Request</a><ul class="toc">
    553                <li class="tocline1">4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-line">Request-Line</a><ul class="toc">
    554                      <li class="tocline1">4.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#method">Method</a></li>
    555                      <li class="tocline1">4.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-uri">Request-URI</a></li>
     561         <li class="tocline0">5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request">Request</a><ul class="toc">
     562               <li class="tocline1">5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-line">Request-Line</a><ul class="toc">
     563                     <li class="tocline1">5.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#method">Method</a></li>
     564                     <li class="tocline1">5.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-target">request-target</a></li>
    556565                  </ul>
    557566               </li>
    558                <li class="tocline1">4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></li>
     567               <li class="tocline1">5.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></li>
    559568            </ul>
    560569         </li>
    561          <li class="tocline0">5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response">Response</a><ul class="toc">
    562                <li class="tocline1">5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status-line">Status-Line</a><ul class="toc">
    563                      <li class="tocline1">5.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></li>
     570         <li class="tocline0">6.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response">Response</a><ul class="toc">
     571               <li class="tocline1">6.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status-line">Status-Line</a><ul class="toc">
     572                     <li class="tocline1">6.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></li>
    564573                  </ul>
    565574               </li>
    566575            </ul>
    567576         </li>
    568          <li class="tocline0">6.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connections">Connections</a><ul class="toc">
    569                <li class="tocline1">6.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a><ul class="toc">
    570                      <li class="tocline1">6.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
    571                      <li class="tocline1">6.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a><ul class="toc">
    572                            <li class="tocline1">6.1.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></li>
    573                            <li class="tocline1">6.1.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></li>
     577         <li class="tocline0">7.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connections">Connections</a><ul class="toc">
     578               <li class="tocline1">7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a><ul class="toc">
     579                     <li class="tocline1">7.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
     580                     <li class="tocline1">7.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a><ul class="toc">
     581                           <li class="tocline1">7.1.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></li>
     582                           <li class="tocline1">7.1.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></li>
    574583                        </ul>
    575584                     </li>
    576                      <li class="tocline1">6.1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></li>
    577                      <li class="tocline1">6.1.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></li>
     585                     <li class="tocline1">7.1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></li>
     586                     <li class="tocline1">7.1.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></li>
    578587                  </ul>
    579588               </li>
    580                <li class="tocline1">6.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a><ul class="toc">
    581                      <li class="tocline1">6.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></li>
    582                      <li class="tocline1">6.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></li>
    583                      <li class="tocline1">6.2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></li>
    584                      <li class="tocline1">6.2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></li>
     589               <li class="tocline1">7.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a><ul class="toc">
     590                     <li class="tocline1">7.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></li>
     591                     <li class="tocline1">7.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></li>
     592                     <li class="tocline1">7.2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></li>
     593                     <li class="tocline1">7.2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></li>
    585594                  </ul>
    586595               </li>
    587596            </ul>
    588597         </li>
    589          <li class="tocline0">7.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul class="toc">
    590                <li class="tocline1">7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.connection">Connection</a></li>
    591                <li class="tocline1">7.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-length">Content-Length</a></li>
    592                <li class="tocline1">7.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.date">Date</a><ul class="toc">
    593                      <li class="tocline1">7.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#clockless.origin.server.operation">Clockless Origin Server Operation</a></li>
     598         <li class="tocline0">8.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul class="toc">
     599               <li class="tocline1">8.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.connection">Connection</a></li>
     600               <li class="tocline1">8.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-length">Content-Length</a></li>
     601               <li class="tocline1">8.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.date">Date</a><ul class="toc">
     602                     <li class="tocline1">8.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#clockless.origin.server.operation">Clockless Origin Server Operation</a></li>
    594603                  </ul>
    595604               </li>
    596                <li class="tocline1">7.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.host">Host</a></li>
    597                <li class="tocline1">7.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.te">TE</a></li>
    598                <li class="tocline1">7.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.trailer">Trailer</a></li>
    599                <li class="tocline1">7.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.transfer-encoding">Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
    600                <li class="tocline1">7.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.upgrade">Upgrade</a></li>
    601                <li class="tocline1">7.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.via">Via</a></li>
     605               <li class="tocline1">8.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.host">Host</a></li>
     606               <li class="tocline1">8.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.te">TE</a></li>
     607               <li class="tocline1">8.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.trailer">Trailer</a></li>
     608               <li class="tocline1">8.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.transfer-encoding">Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
     609               <li class="tocline1">8.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.upgrade">Upgrade</a></li>
     610               <li class="tocline1">8.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.via">Via</a></li>
    602611            </ul>
    603612         </li>
    604          <li class="tocline0">8.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul class="toc">
    605                <li class="tocline1">8.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.header.registration">Message Header Registration</a></li>
    606                <li class="tocline1">8.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri.scheme.registration">URI Scheme Registration</a></li>
    607                <li class="tocline1">8.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registrations</a><ul class="toc">
    608                      <li class="tocline1">8.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.message.http">Internet Media Type message/http</a></li>
    609                      <li class="tocline1">8.3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.application.http">Internet Media Type application/http</a></li>
     613         <li class="tocline0">9.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul class="toc">
     614               <li class="tocline1">9.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.header.registration">Message Header Registration</a></li>
     615               <li class="tocline1">9.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri.scheme.registration">URI Scheme Registration</a></li>
     616               <li class="tocline1">9.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registrations</a><ul class="toc">
     617                     <li class="tocline1">9.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.message.http">Internet Media Type message/http</a></li>
     618                     <li class="tocline1">9.3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.application.http">Internet Media Type application/http</a></li>
    610619                  </ul>
    611620               </li>
    612621            </ul>
    613622         </li>
    614          <li class="tocline0">9.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul class="toc">
    615                <li class="tocline1">9.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#personal.information">Personal Information</a></li>
    616                <li class="tocline1">9.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abuse.of.server.log.information">Abuse of Server Log Information</a></li>
    617                <li class="tocline1">9.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></li>
    618                <li class="tocline1">9.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#dns.spoofing">DNS Spoofing</a></li>
    619                <li class="tocline1">9.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.proxies">Proxies and Caching</a></li>
    620                <li class="tocline1">9.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.DoS">Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies</a></li>
     623         <li class="tocline0">10.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul class="toc">
     624               <li class="tocline1">10.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#personal.information">Personal Information</a></li>
     625               <li class="tocline1">10.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abuse.of.server.log.information">Abuse of Server Log Information</a></li>
     626               <li class="tocline1">10.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></li>
     627               <li class="tocline1">10.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#dns.spoofing">DNS Spoofing</a></li>
     628               <li class="tocline1">10.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.proxies">Proxies and Caching</a></li>
     629               <li class="tocline1">10.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.DoS">Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies</a></li>
    621630            </ul>
    622631         </li>
    623          <li class="tocline0">10.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
    624          <li class="tocline0">11.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul class="toc">
    625                <li class="tocline1">11.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
    626                <li class="tocline1">11.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
     632         <li class="tocline0">11.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
     633         <li class="tocline0">12.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul class="toc">
     634               <li class="tocline1">12.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
     635               <li class="tocline1">12.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
    627636            </ul>
    628637         </li>
     
    655664      <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a id="introduction" href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
    656665      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level request/response protocol that uses extensible semantics and
    657          MIME-like message payloads for flexible interaction with network-based hypermedia information systems. HTTP relies upon the
    658          Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) standard <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a> to indicate resource targets for interaction and to identify other resources. Messages are passed in a format similar to that
    659          used by Internet mail <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.1"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a> (see <a href="p3-payload.html#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities" title="Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities">Appendix A</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a> for the differences between HTTP and MIME messages).
    660       </p>
    661       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">HTTP is also designed for use as a generic protocol for translating communication to and from other Internet information systems,
     666         MIME-like message payloads for flexible interaction with network-based hypertext information systems. HTTP relies upon the
     667         Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) standard <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a> to indicate resource targets and relationships between resources. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by
     668         Internet mail <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.1"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a> (see <a href="p3-payload.html#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities" title="Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities">Appendix A</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a> for the differences between HTTP and MIME messages).
     669      </p>
     670      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">HTTP is a generic interface protocol for informations systems. It is designed to hide the details of how a service is implemented
     671         by presenting a uniform interface to clients that is independent of the types of resources provided. Likewise, servers do
     672         not need to be aware of each client's purpose: an HTTP request can be considered in isolation rather than being associated
     673         with a specific type of client or a predetermined sequence of application steps. The result is a protocol that can be used
     674         effectively in many different contexts and for which implementations can evolve independently over time.
     675      </p>
     676      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">HTTP is also designed for use as a generic protocol for translating communication to and from other Internet information systems,
    662677         such as USENET news services via NNTP <a href="#RFC3977" id="rfc.xref.RFC3977.1"><cite title="Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)">[RFC3977]</cite></a>, file services via FTP <a href="#RFC959" id="rfc.xref.RFC959.1"><cite title="File Transfer Protocol">[RFC959]</cite></a>, Gopher <a href="#RFC1436" id="rfc.xref.RFC1436.1"><cite title="The Internet Gopher Protocol (a distributed document search and retrieval protocol)">[RFC1436]</cite></a>, and WAIS <a href="#WAIS" id="rfc.xref.WAIS.1"><cite title="WAIS Interface Protocol Prototype Functional Specification (v1.5)">[WAIS]</cite></a>. HTTP proxies and gateways provide access to alternative information services by translating their diverse protocols into
    663678         a hypermedia format that can be viewed and manipulated by clients in the same way as HTTP services.
    664679      </p>
    665       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">This document is Part 1 of the seven-part specification of HTTP, defining the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and obsoleting <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>. Part 1 defines how clients determine when to use HTTP, the URI schemes specific to HTTP-based resources, overall network
    666          operation with transport protocol connection management, and HTTP message framing. Our goal is to define all of the mechanisms
    667          necessary for HTTP message handling that are independent of message semantics, thereby defining the complete set of requirements
    668          for an HTTP message relay or generic message parser.
     680      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.4">One consequence of HTTP flexibility is that we cannot define the protocol in terms of how to implement it behind the interface.
     681         Instead, we are limited to restricting the syntax of communication, defining the intent of received communication, and the
     682         expected behavior of recipients. If the communication is considered in isolation, then successful actions should be reflected
     683         in the observable interface provided by servers. However, since many clients are potentially acting in parallel and perhaps
     684         at cross-purposes, it would be meaningless to require that such behavior be observable.
     685      </p>
     686      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.5">This document is Part 1 of the seven-part specification of HTTP, defining the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and obsoleting <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>. Part 1 defines the URI schemes specific to HTTP-based resources, overall network operation, transport protocol connection
     687         management, and HTTP message framing and forwarding requirements. Our goal is to define all of the mechanisms necessary for
     688         HTTP message handling that are independent of message semantics, thereby defining the complete set of requirements for a message
     689         parser and transparent message-forwarding intermediaries.
    669690      </p>
    670691      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.requirements" href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></h2>
     
    720741      </div>
    721742      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.2.p.3">Historically, HTTP/1.1 header field values allow linear white space folding across multiple lines. However, this specification
    722          deprecates its use; senders <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> produce messages that include LWS folding (i.e., use the obs-fold rule), except within the message/http media type (<a href="#internet.media.type.message.http" title="Internet Media Type message/http">Section&nbsp;8.3.1</a>). Receivers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> still parse folded linear white space.
     743         deprecates its use; senders <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> produce messages that include LWS folding (i.e., use the obs-fold rule), except within the message/http media type (<a href="#internet.media.type.message.http" title="Internet Media Type message/http">Section&nbsp;9.3.1</a>). Receivers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> still parse folded linear white space.
    723744      </p>
    724745      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.2.p.4">This specification uses three rules to denote the use of linear white space; BWS ("Bad" White Space), OWS (Optional White
     
    751772      </p>
    752773      <div id="rule.token.separators">
    753          <p id="rfc.section.1.2.2.p.12">    Many HTTP/1.1 header field values consist of words separated by LWS or special characters. These special characters <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in a quoted string to be used within a parameter value (as defined in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>).
     774         <p id="rfc.section.1.2.2.p.12">    Many HTTP/1.1 header field values consist of words separated by LWS or special characters. These special characters <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in a quoted string to be used within a parameter value (as defined in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>).
    754775         </p>
    755776      </div>
     
    790811  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Pragma</a>          = &lt;Pragma, defined in <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.pragma" title="Pragma">Section 16.4</a>&gt;
    791812  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Warning</a>         = &lt;Warning, defined in <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.warning" title="Warning">Section 16.6</a>&gt;
    792 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.overall.operation" href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></h2>
    793       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.1">HTTP is a request/response protocol. A client sends a request to the server in the form of a request method, URI, and protocol
     813</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="architecture" href="#architecture">HTTP architecture</a></h1>
     814      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">HTTP was created with a specific architecture in mind, the World Wide Web, and has evolved over time to support the scalability
     815         needs of a worldwide hypertext system. Much of that architecture is reflected in the terminology and syntax productions used
     816         to define HTTP.
     817      </p>
     818      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri" href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a></h2>
     819      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.2"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a> are used throughout HTTP as the means for identifying resources. URI references are used to target requests, redirect responses,
     820         and define relationships. HTTP does not limit what a resource may be; it merely defines an interface that can be used to interact
     821         with a resource via HTTP. More information on the scope of URIs and resources can be found in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.3"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>.
     822      </p>
     823      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference", "absolute-URI", "relative-part", "fragment", "port", "host",
     824         "path-abempty", "path-absolute", "query", and "authority" from <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.4"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>. In addition, we define a partial-URI rule for protocol elements that allow a relative URI without a fragment.
     825      </p>
     826      <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.26"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.27"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.28"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.30"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.31"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.32"></span>  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">URI</a>           = &lt;URI, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.5"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3">Section 3</a>&gt;
     827  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">URI-reference</a> = &lt;URI-reference, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.6"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>&gt;
     828  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a>  = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.7"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-4.3">Section 4.3</a>&gt;
     829  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">relative-part</a> = &lt;relative-part, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.8"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-4.2">Section 4.2</a>&gt;
     830  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">authority</a>     = &lt;authority, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.9"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.2">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
     831  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">fragment</a>      = &lt;fragment, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.10"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.5">Section 3.5</a>&gt;
     832  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-abempty</a>  = &lt;path-abempty, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.11"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.3">Section 3.3</a>&gt;
     833  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-absolute</a> = &lt;path-absolute, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.12"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.3">Section 3.3</a>&gt;
     834  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">port</a>          = &lt;port, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.13"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.2.3">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
     835  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">query</a>         = &lt;query, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.14"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.4">Section 3.4</a>&gt;
     836  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">uri-host</a>      = &lt;host, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.15"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.2.2">Section 3.2.2</a>&gt;
     837 
     838  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">partial-URI</a>   = relative-part [ "?" query ]
     839</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">Each protocol element in HTTP that allows a URI reference will indicate in its ABNF production whether the element allows
     840         only a URI in absolute form (absolute-URI), any relative reference (relative-ref), or some other subset of the URI-reference
     841         grammar. Unless otherwise indicated, URI references are parsed relative to the request target (the default base URI for both
     842         the request and its corresponding response).
     843      </p>
     844      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1.1">2.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.uri" href="#http.uri">http URI scheme</a></h3>
     845      <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
     846      <div id="rfc.iref.u.1"></div>
     847      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.1.p.1">The "http" scheme is used to locate network resources via the HTTP protocol. This section defines the syntax and semantics
     848         for identifiers using the http or https URI schemes.
     849      </p>
     850      <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.33"></span>  <a href="#http.uri" class="smpl">http-URI</a> = "http:" "//" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">authority</a> <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-abempty</a> [ "?" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">query</a> ]
     851</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.1.p.3">If the port is empty or not given, port 80 is assumed. The semantics are that the identified resource is located at the server
     852         listening for TCP connections on that port of that host, and the request-target for the resource is path-absolute (<a href="#request-target" title="request-target">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>). The use of IP addresses in URLs <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be avoided whenever possible (see <a href="#RFC1900" id="rfc.xref.RFC1900.1"><cite title="Renumbering Needs Work">[RFC1900]</cite></a>). If the path-absolute is not present in the URL, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" when used as a request-target for a resource (<a href="#request-target" title="request-target">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>). If a proxy receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives a fully qualified domain name, the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the host name.
     853      </p>
     854      <dl class="empty">
     855         <dd> <span id="rfc.iref.h.2"></span>  <span id="rfc.iref.u.2"></span>  <b>Note:</b> the "https" scheme is defined in <a href="#RFC2818" id="rfc.xref.RFC2818.1"><cite title="HTTP Over TLS">[RFC2818]</cite></a>.
     856         </dd>
     857      </dl>
     858      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1.2">2.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri.comparison" href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></h3>
     859      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.2.p.1">When comparing two URIs to decide if they match or not, a client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use a case-sensitive octet-by-octet comparison of the entire URIs, with these exceptions:
     860      </p>
     861      <ul>
     862         <li>A port that is empty or not given is equivalent to the default port for that URI-reference;</li>
     863         <li>Comparisons of host names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
     864         </li>
     865         <li>Comparisons of scheme names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
     866         </li>
     867         <li>An empty path-absolute is equivalent to an path-absolute of "/".</li>
     868      </ul>
     869      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.2.p.2">Characters other than those in the "reserved" set (see <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.16"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.2">Section 2.2</a>) are equivalent to their ""%" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>" encoding.
     870      </p>
     871      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.2.p.3">For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:</p>
     872      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="text">   http://example.com:80/~smith/home.html
     873   http://EXAMPLE.com/%7Esmith/home.html
     874   http://EXAMPLE.com:/%7esmith/home.html
     875</pre><h3 id="rfc.section.2.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1.3">2.1.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="scheme.aliases" href="#scheme.aliases">Scheme aliases considered harmful</a></h3>
     876      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.overall.operation" href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></h2>
     877      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">HTTP is a request/response protocol. A client sends a request to the server in the form of a request method, URI, and protocol
    794878         version, followed by a MIME-like message containing request modifiers, client information, and possible body content over
    795879         a connection with a server. The server responds with a status line, including the message's protocol version and a success
    796880         or error code, followed by a MIME-like message containing server information, entity metainformation, and possible entity-body
    797          content. The relationship between HTTP and MIME is described in <a href="p3-payload.html#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities" title="Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities">Appendix A</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>.
    798       </p>
    799       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.2">Most HTTP communication is initiated by a user agent and consists of a request to be applied to a resource on some origin
     881         content.
     882      </p>
     883      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">Most HTTP communication is initiated by a user agent and consists of a request to be applied to a resource on some origin
    800884         server. In the simplest case, this may be accomplished via a single connection (v) between the user agent (UA) and the origin
    801885         server (O).
    802886      </p>
    803       <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain ------------------------&gt;
     887      <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain ------------------------&gt;
    804888    UA -------------------v------------------- O
    805889       &lt;----------------------- response chain
    806 </pre><p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.4">A more complicated situation occurs when one or more intermediaries are present in the request/response chain. There are three
     890</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.4">A more complicated situation occurs when one or more intermediaries are present in the request/response chain. There are three
    807891         common forms of intermediary: proxy, gateway, and tunnel. A proxy is a forwarding agent, receiving requests for a URI in its
    808892         absolute form, rewriting all or part of the message, and forwarding the reformatted request toward the server identified by
     
    812896         cannot understand the contents of the messages.
    813897      </p>
    814       <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain --------------------------------------&gt;
     898      <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain --------------------------------------&gt;
    815899    UA -----v----- A -----v----- B -----v----- C -----v----- O
    816900       &lt;------------------------------------- response chain
    817 </pre><p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.6">The figure above shows three intermediaries (A, B, and C) between the user agent and origin server. A request or response
     901</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.6">The figure above shows three intermediaries (A, B, and C) between the user agent and origin server. A request or response
    818902         message that travels the whole chain will pass through four separate connections. This distinction is important because some
    819903         HTTP communication options may apply only to the connection with the nearest, non-tunnel neighbor, only to the end-points
     
    822906         to servers other than C, at the same time that it is handling A's request.
    823907      </p>
    824       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.7">Any party to the communication which is not acting as a tunnel may employ an internal cache for handling requests. The effect
     908      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.7">Any party to the communication which is not acting as a tunnel may employ an internal cache for handling requests. The effect
    825909         of a cache is that the request/response chain is shortened if one of the participants along the chain has a cached response
    826910         applicable to that request. The following illustrates the resulting chain if B has a cached copy of an earlier response from
    827911         O (via C) for a request which has not been cached by UA or A.
    828912      </p>
    829       <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="drawing">          request chain ----------&gt;
     913      <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="drawing">          request chain ----------&gt;
    830914       UA -----v----- A -----v----- B - - - - - - C - - - - - - O
    831915          &lt;--------- response chain
    832 </pre><p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.9">Not all responses are usefully cacheable, and some requests may contain modifiers which place special requirements on cache
     916</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.9">Not all responses are usefully cacheable, and some requests may contain modifiers which place special requirements on cache
    833917         behavior. HTTP requirements for cache behavior and cacheable responses are defined in <a href="p6-cache.html#caching" title="Introduction">Section 1</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>.
    834918      </p>
    835       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.10">In fact, there are a wide variety of architectures and configurations of caches and proxies currently being experimented with
     919      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.10">In fact, there are a wide variety of architectures and configurations of caches and proxies currently being experimented with
    836920         or deployed across the World Wide Web. These systems include national hierarchies of proxy caches to save transoceanic bandwidth,
    837921         systems that broadcast or multicast cache entries, organizations that distribute subsets of cached data via CD-ROM, and so
     
    841925         failing that, at least reliable indications of failure.
    842926      </p>
    843       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.11">HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP/IP connections. The default port is TCP 80 (&lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers</a>&gt;), but other ports can be used. This does not preclude HTTP from being implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet,
     927      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.11">HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP/IP connections. The default port is TCP 80 (&lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers</a>&gt;), but other ports can be used. This does not preclude HTTP from being implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet,
    844928         or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used; the
    845929         mapping of the HTTP/1.1 request and response structures onto the transport data units of the protocol in question is outside
    846930         the scope of this specification.
    847931      </p>
    848       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.12">In HTTP/1.0, most implementations used a new connection for each request/response exchange. In HTTP/1.1, a connection may
    849          be used for one or more request/response exchanges, although connections may be closed for a variety of reasons (see <a href="#persistent.connections" title="Persistent Connections">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>).
    850       </p>
    851       <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="protocol.parameters" href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a></h1>
    852       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.version" href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></h2>
    853       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended
     932      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.12">In HTTP/1.0, most implementations used a new connection for each request/response exchange. In HTTP/1.1, a connection may
     933         be used for one or more request/response exchanges, although connections may be closed for a variety of reasons (see <a href="#persistent.connections" title="Persistent Connections">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>).
     934      </p>
     935      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.proxy" href="#http.proxy">Use of HTTP for proxy communication</a></h2>
     936      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">Configured to use HTTP to proxy HTTP or other protocols.</p>
     937      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.intercept" href="#http.intercept">Interception of HTTP for access control</a></h2>
     938      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.1">Interception of HTTP traffic for initiating access control.</p>
     939      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.5"><a href="#rfc.section.2.5">2.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.others" href="#http.others">Use of HTTP by other protocols</a></h2>
     940      <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.1">Profiles of HTTP defined by other protocol. Extensions of HTTP like WebDAV.</p>
     941      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.6"><a href="#rfc.section.2.6">2.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.media" href="#http.media">Use of HTTP by media type specification</a></h2>
     942      <p id="rfc.section.2.6.p.1">Instructions on composing HTTP requests via hypertext formats.</p>
     943      <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="protocol.parameters" href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a></h1>
     944      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.version" href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></h2>
     945      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended
    854946         to allow the sender to indicate the format of a message and its capacity for understanding further HTTP communication, rather
    855947         than the features obtained via that communication. No change is made to the version number for the addition of message components
     
    859951         of a message within the protocol is changed. See <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.1"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a> for a fuller explanation.
    860952      </p>
    861       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">The version of an HTTP message is indicated by an HTTP-Version field in the first line of the message. HTTP-Version is case-sensitive.</p>
    862       <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.26"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.27"></span>  <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Version</a>   = <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Prot-Name</a> "/" 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a> "." 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
     953      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">The version of an HTTP message is indicated by an HTTP-Version field in the first line of the message. HTTP-Version is case-sensitive.</p>
     954      <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.34"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.35"></span>  <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Version</a>   = <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Prot-Name</a> "/" 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a> "." 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
    863955  <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Prot-Name</a> = %x48.54.54.50 ; "HTTP", case-sensitive
    864 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">Note that the major and minor numbers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be treated as separate integers and that each <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be incremented higher than a single digit. Thus, HTTP/2.4 is a lower version than HTTP/2.13, which in turn is lower than HTTP/12.3.
     956</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">Note that the major and minor numbers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be treated as separate integers and that each <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be incremented higher than a single digit. Thus, HTTP/2.4 is a lower version than HTTP/2.13, which in turn is lower than HTTP/12.3.
    865957         Leading zeros <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored by recipients and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent.
    866958      </p>
    867       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">An application that sends a request or response message that includes HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be at least conditionally compliant with this specification. Applications that are at least conditionally compliant with this
     959      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">An application that sends a request or response message that includes HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be at least conditionally compliant with this specification. Applications that are at least conditionally compliant with this
    868960         specification <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use an HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" in their messages, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> do so for any message that is not compatible with HTTP/1.0. For more details on when to send specific HTTP-Version values,
    869961         see <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.2"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a>.
    870962      </p>
    871       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">The HTTP version of an application is the highest HTTP version for which the application is at least conditionally compliant.</p>
    872       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">Proxy and gateway applications need to be careful when forwarding messages in protocol versions different from that of the
     963      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">The HTTP version of an application is the highest HTTP version for which the application is at least conditionally compliant.</p>
     964      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.7">Proxy and gateway applications need to be careful when forwarding messages in protocol versions different from that of the
    873965         application. Since the protocol version indicates the protocol capability of the sender, a proxy/gateway <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a message with a version indicator which is greater than its actual version. If a higher version request is received,
    874966         the proxy/gateway <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> either downgrade the request version, or respond with an error, or switch to tunnel behavior.
    875967      </p>
    876       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">Due to interoperability problems with HTTP/1.0 proxies discovered since the publication of <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>, caching proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>, gateways <em class="bcp14">MAY</em>, and tunnels <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> upgrade the request to the highest version they support. The proxy/gateway's response to that request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in the same major version as the request.
    877       </p>
    878       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9"> </p>
     968      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.8">Due to interoperability problems with HTTP/1.0 proxies discovered since the publication of <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>, caching proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>, gateways <em class="bcp14">MAY</em>, and tunnels <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> upgrade the request to the highest version they support. The proxy/gateway's response to that request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in the same major version as the request.
     969      </p>
     970      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.9"> </p>
    879971      <dl class="empty">
    880972         <dd> <b>Note:</b> Converting between versions of HTTP may involve modification of header fields required or forbidden by the versions involved.
    881973         </dd>
    882974      </dl>
    883       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri" href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a></h2>
    884       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.2"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a> are used in HTTP to indicate the target of a request and to identify additional resources related to that resource, the request,
    885          or the response. Each protocol element in HTTP that allows a URI reference will indicate in its ABNF whether the element allows
    886          only a URI in absolute form, any relative reference, or some limited subset of the URI-reference grammar. Unless otherwise
    887          indicated, relative URI references are to be parsed relative to the URI corresponding to the request target (the base URI).
    888       </p>
    889       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference", "absolute-URI", "fragment", "port", "host", "path-abempty",
    890          "path-absolute", "query", and "authority" from <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.3"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>:
    891       </p>
    892       <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.28"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.30"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.31"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.32"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.33"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.34"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.35"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.36"></span>  <a href="#uri" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a>   = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.4"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-4.3">Section 4.3</a>&gt;
    893   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">authority</a>     = &lt;authority, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.5"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.2">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
    894   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">fragment</a>      = &lt;fragment, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.6"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.5">Section 3.5</a>&gt;
    895   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-abempty</a>  = &lt;path-abempty, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.7"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.3">Section 3.3</a>&gt;
    896   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-absolute</a> = &lt;path-absolute, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.8"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.3">Section 3.3</a>&gt;
    897   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">port</a>          = &lt;port, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.9"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.2.3">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
    898   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">query</a>         = &lt;query, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.10"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.4">Section 3.4</a>&gt;
    899   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">uri-host</a>      = &lt;host, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.11"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.2.2">Section 3.2.2</a>&gt;
    900 
    901   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">relative-part</a> = &lt;relative-part, defined in <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.12"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-4.2">Section 4.2</a>&gt;
    902   <a href="#uri" class="smpl">relativeURI</a>   = <a href="#uri" class="smpl">relative-part</a> [ "?" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">query</a> ]
    903 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.4">HTTP does not place an a priori limit on the length of a URI. Servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to handle the URI of any resource they serve, and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be able to handle URIs of unbounded length if they provide GET-based forms that could generate such URIs. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 414 (Request-URI Too Long) status if a URI is longer than the server can handle (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 Request-URI Too Long">Section 9.4.15</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    904       </p>
    905       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.5"> </p>
    906       <dl class="empty">
    907          <dd> <b>Note:</b> Servers ought to be cautious about depending on URI lengths above 255 bytes, because some older client or proxy implementations
    908             might not properly support these lengths.
    909          </dd>
    910       </dl>
    911       <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.1">2.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.uri" href="#http.uri">http URI scheme</a></h3>
    912       <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
    913       <div id="rfc.iref.u.1"></div>
    914       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.1">The "http" scheme is used to locate network resources via the HTTP protocol. This section defines the syntax and semantics
    915          for identifiers using the http or https URI schemes.
    916       </p>
    917       <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.37"></span>  <a href="#http.uri" class="smpl">http-URI</a> = "http:" "//" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">authority</a> <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-abempty</a> [ "?" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">query</a> ]
    918 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.3">If the port is empty or not given, port 80 is assumed. The semantics are that the identified resource is located at the server
    919          listening for TCP connections on that port of that host, and the Request-URI for the resource is path-absolute (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;4.1.2</a>). The use of IP addresses in URLs <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be avoided whenever possible (see <a href="#RFC1900" id="rfc.xref.RFC1900.1"><cite title="Renumbering Needs Work">[RFC1900]</cite></a>). If the path-absolute is not present in the URL, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" when used as a Request-URI for a resource (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;4.1.2</a>). If a proxy receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives a fully qualified domain name, the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the host name.
    920       </p>
    921       <dl class="empty">
    922          <dd> <span id="rfc.iref.h.2"></span>  <span id="rfc.iref.u.2"></span>  <b>Note:</b> the "https" scheme is defined in <a href="#RFC2818" id="rfc.xref.RFC2818.1"><cite title="HTTP Over TLS">[RFC2818]</cite></a>.
    923          </dd>
    924       </dl>
    925       <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.2">2.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri.comparison" href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></h3>
    926       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.1">When comparing two URIs to decide if they match or not, a client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use a case-sensitive octet-by-octet comparison of the entire URIs, with these exceptions:
    927       </p>
    928       <ul>
    929          <li>A port that is empty or not given is equivalent to the default port for that URI-reference;</li>
    930          <li>Comparisons of host names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
    931          </li>
    932          <li>Comparisons of scheme names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
    933          </li>
    934          <li>An empty path-absolute is equivalent to an path-absolute of "/".</li>
    935       </ul>
    936       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.2">Characters other than those in the "reserved" set (see <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.13"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.2">Section 2.2</a>) are equivalent to their ""%" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>" encoding.
    937       </p>
    938       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.3">For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:</p>
    939       <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="text">   http://example.com:80/~smith/home.html
    940    http://EXAMPLE.com/%7Esmith/home.html
    941    http://EXAMPLE.com:/%7esmith/home.html
    942 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="date.time.formats" href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a></h2>
    943       <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="full.date" href="#full.date">Full Date</a></h3>
    944       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.1">HTTP applications have historically allowed three different formats for the representation of date/time stamps:</p>
     975      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="date.time.formats" href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a></h2>
     976      <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="full.date" href="#full.date">Full Date</a></h3>
     977      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.1">HTTP applications have historically allowed three different formats for the representation of date/time stamps:</p>
    945978      <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="text">   Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT  ; RFC 1123
    946979   Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT ; obsolete RFC 850 format
    947980   Sun Nov  6 08:49:37 1994       ; ANSI C's asctime() format
    948 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.3">The first format is preferred as an Internet standard and represents a fixed-length subset of that defined by <a href="#RFC1123" id="rfc.xref.RFC1123.1"><cite title="Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support">[RFC1123]</cite></a>. The other formats are described here only for compatibility with obsolete implementations. HTTP/1.1 clients and servers
     981</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.3">The first format is preferred as an Internet standard and represents a fixed-length subset of that defined by <a href="#RFC1123" id="rfc.xref.RFC1123.1"><cite title="Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support">[RFC1123]</cite></a>. The other formats are described here only for compatibility with obsolete implementations. HTTP/1.1 clients and servers
    949982         that parse the date value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept all three formats (for compatibility with HTTP/1.0), though they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only generate the RFC 1123 format for representing HTTP-date values in header fields. See <a href="#tolerant.applications" title="Tolerant Applications">Appendix&nbsp;A</a> for further information.
    950983      </p>
     
    954987         </dd>
    955988      </dl>
    956       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.5">All HTTP date/time stamps <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), without exception. For the purposes of HTTP, GMT is exactly equal to UTC (Coordinated
     989      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.5">All HTTP date/time stamps <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), without exception. For the purposes of HTTP, GMT is exactly equal to UTC (Coordinated
    957990         Universal Time). This is indicated in the first two formats by the inclusion of "GMT" as the three-letter abbreviation for
    958991         time zone, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be assumed when reading the asctime format. HTTP-date is case sensitive and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include additional LWS beyond that specifically included as SP in the grammar.
    959992      </p>
    960       <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.38"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.39"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.40"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.41"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.42"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.43"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.44"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.45"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.46"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.47"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.48"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.49"></span>  <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>    = <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">rfc1123-date</a> / <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">obsolete-date</a>
     993      <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.36"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.37"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.38"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.39"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.40"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.41"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.42"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.43"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.44"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.45"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.46"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.47"></span>  <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>    = <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">rfc1123-date</a> / <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">obsolete-date</a>
    961994  <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">obsolete-date</a> = <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">rfc850-date</a> / <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">asctime-date</a>
    962995  <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">rfc1123-date</a> = <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">wkday</a> "," <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> date1 <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> time <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> GMT
     
    10091042  s-Nov = %x4E.6F.76 ; "Nov", case-sensitive
    10101043  s-Dec = %x44.65.63 ; "Dec", case-sensitive
    1011 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.7"> <b>Note:</b> HTTP requirements for the date/time stamp format apply only to their usage within the protocol stream. Clients and servers
     1044</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.7"> <b>Note:</b> HTTP requirements for the date/time stamp format apply only to their usage within the protocol stream. Clients and servers
    10121045         are not required to use these formats for user presentation, request logging, etc.
    10131046      </p>
    1014       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="transfer.codings" href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a></h2>
    1015       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.1">Transfer-coding values are used to indicate an encoding transformation that has been, can be, or may need to be applied to
     1047      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="transfer.codings" href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a></h2>
     1048      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.1">Transfer-coding values are used to indicate an encoding transformation that has been, can be, or may need to be applied to
    10161049         an entity-body in order to ensure "safe transport" through the network. This differs from a content coding in that the transfer-coding
    10171050         is a property of the message, not of the original entity.
    10181051      </p>
    1019       <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.50"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.51"></span>  <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-coding</a>         = "chunked" / <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-extension</a>
     1052      <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.48"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.49"></span>  <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-coding</a>         = "chunked" / <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-extension</a>
    10201053  <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-extension</a>      = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a> *( <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">parameter</a> )
    10211054</pre><div id="rule.parameter">
    1022          <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.3">      Parameters are in the form of attribute/value pairs.</p>
     1055         <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.3">      Parameters are in the form of attribute/value pairs.</p>
    10231056      </div>
    1024       <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.52"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.53"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.54"></span>  <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">parameter</a>               = <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">attribute</a> <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">BWS</a> "=" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">BWS</a> <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">value</a>
     1057      <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.50"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.51"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.52"></span>  <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">parameter</a>               = <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">attribute</a> <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">BWS</a> "=" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">BWS</a> <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">value</a>
    10251058  <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">attribute</a>               = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    10261059  <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">value</a>                   = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a> / <a href="#rule.quoted-string" class="smpl">quoted-string</a>
    1027 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.5">All transfer-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses transfer-coding values in the TE header field (<a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.1" title="TE">Section&nbsp;7.5</a>) and in the Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;7.7</a>).
    1028       </p>
    1029       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.6">Whenever a transfer-coding is applied to a message-body, the set of transfer-codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include "chunked", unless the message indicates it is terminated by closing the connection. When the "chunked" transfer-coding
     1060</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.5">All transfer-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses transfer-coding values in the TE header field (<a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.1" title="TE">Section&nbsp;8.5</a>) and in the Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;8.7</a>).
     1061      </p>
     1062      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.6">Whenever a transfer-coding is applied to a message-body, the set of transfer-codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include "chunked", unless the message indicates it is terminated by closing the connection. When the "chunked" transfer-coding
    10301063         is used, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be the last transfer-coding applied to the message-body. The "chunked" transfer-coding <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be applied more than once to a message-body. These rules allow the recipient to determine the transfer-length of the message
    1031          (<a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>).
    1032       </p>
    1033       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.7">Transfer-codings are analogous to the Content-Transfer-Encoding values of MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>, which were designed to enable safe transport of binary data over a 7-bit transport service. However, safe transport has
     1064         (<a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>).
     1065      </p>
     1066      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.7">Transfer-codings are analogous to the Content-Transfer-Encoding values of MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>, which were designed to enable safe transport of binary data over a 7-bit transport service. However, safe transport has
    10341067         a different focus for an 8bit-clean transfer protocol. In HTTP, the only unsafe characteristic of message-bodies is the difficulty
    1035          in determining the exact body length (<a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>), or the desire to encrypt data over a shared transport.
    1036       </p>
    1037       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.8">The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for transfer-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry
    1038          contains the following tokens: "chunked" (<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;2.4.1</a>), "gzip", "compress", and "deflate" (<a href="p3-payload.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>).
    1039       </p>
    1040       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.9">New transfer-coding value tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered in the same way as new content-coding value tokens (<a href="p3-payload.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>).
    1041       </p>
    1042       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.10">A server which receives an entity-body with a transfer-coding it does not understand <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 501 (Not Implemented), and close the connection. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send transfer-codings to an HTTP/1.0 client.
    1043       </p>
    1044       <h3 id="rfc.section.2.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4.1">2.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="chunked.transfer.encoding" href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></h3>
    1045       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.1">The chunked encoding modifies the body of a message in order to transfer it as a series of chunks, each with its own size
     1068         in determining the exact body length (<a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>), or the desire to encrypt data over a shared transport.
     1069      </p>
     1070      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.8">The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for transfer-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry
     1071         contains the following tokens: "chunked" (<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;3.3.1</a>), "gzip", "compress", and "deflate" (<a href="p3-payload.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>).
     1072      </p>
     1073      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.9">New transfer-coding value tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered in the same way as new content-coding value tokens (<a href="p3-payload.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>).
     1074      </p>
     1075      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.10">A server which receives an entity-body with a transfer-coding it does not understand <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 501 (Not Implemented), and close the connection. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send transfer-codings to an HTTP/1.0 client.
     1076      </p>
     1077      <h3 id="rfc.section.3.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.1">3.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="chunked.transfer.encoding" href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></h3>
     1078      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.1">The chunked encoding modifies the body of a message in order to transfer it as a series of chunks, each with its own size
    10461079         indicator, followed by an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> trailer containing entity-header fields. This allows dynamically produced content to be transferred along with the information
    10471080         necessary for the recipient to verify that it has received the full message.
    10481081      </p>
    1049       <div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.55"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.56"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.57"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.58"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.59"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.60"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.61"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.62"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.63"></span>  <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">Chunked-Body</a>   = *<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">chunk</a>
     1082      <div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.53"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.54"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.55"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.56"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.57"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.58"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.59"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.60"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.61"></span>  <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">Chunked-Body</a>   = *<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">chunk</a>
    10501083                   <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">last-chunk</a>
    10511084                   <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">trailer-part</a>
     
    10631096  <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">chunk-data</a>     = 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OCTET</a> ; a sequence of chunk-size octets
    10641097  <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" class="smpl">trailer-part</a>   = *(<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-header</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>)
    1065 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.3">The chunk-size field is a string of hex digits indicating the size of the chunk-data in octets. The chunked encoding is ended
     1098</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.3">The chunk-size field is a string of hex digits indicating the size of the chunk-data in octets. The chunked encoding is ended
    10661099         by any chunk whose size is zero, followed by the trailer, which is terminated by an empty line.
    10671100      </p>
    1068       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.4">The trailer allows the sender to include additional HTTP header fields at the end of the message. The Trailer header field
    1069          can be used to indicate which header fields are included in a trailer (see <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.1" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;7.6</a>).
    1070       </p>
    1071       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.5">A server using chunked transfer-coding in a response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the trailer for any header fields unless at least one of the following is true:
     1101      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.4">The trailer allows the sender to include additional HTTP header fields at the end of the message. The Trailer header field
     1102         can be used to indicate which header fields are included in a trailer (see <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.1" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;8.6</a>).
     1103      </p>
     1104      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.5">A server using chunked transfer-coding in a response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the trailer for any header fields unless at least one of the following is true:
    10721105      </p>
    10731106      <ol>
    10741107         <li>the request included a TE header field that indicates "trailers" is acceptable in the transfer-coding of the response, as
    1075             described in <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.2" title="TE">Section&nbsp;7.5</a>; or,
     1108            described in <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.2" title="TE">Section&nbsp;8.5</a>; or,
    10761109         </li>
    10771110         <li>the server is the origin server for the response, the trailer fields consist entirely of optional metadata, and the recipient
     
    10801113         </li>
    10811114      </ol>
    1082       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.6">This requirement prevents an interoperability failure when the message is being received by an HTTP/1.1 (or later) proxy and
     1115      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.6">This requirement prevents an interoperability failure when the message is being received by an HTTP/1.1 (or later) proxy and
    10831116         forwarded to an HTTP/1.0 recipient. It avoids a situation where compliance with the protocol would have necessitated a possibly
    10841117         infinite buffer on the proxy.
    10851118      </p>
    1086       <p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.7">A process for decoding the "chunked" transfer-coding can be represented in pseudo-code as:</p>
     1119      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.7">A process for decoding the "chunked" transfer-coding can be represented in pseudo-code as:</p>
    10871120      <div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div><pre class="text">  length := 0
    10881121  read chunk-size, chunk-ext (if any) and CRLF
     
    11001133  Content-Length := length
    11011134  Remove "chunked" from Transfer-Encoding
    1102 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.4.1.p.9">All HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to receive and decode the "chunked" transfer-coding, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore chunk-ext extensions they do not understand.
    1103       </p>
    1104       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.5"><a href="#rfc.section.2.5">2.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="product.tokens" href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></h2>
    1105       <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.1">Product tokens are used to allow communicating applications to identify themselves by software name and version. Most fields
     1135</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.9">All HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to receive and decode the "chunked" transfer-coding, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore chunk-ext extensions they do not understand.
     1136      </p>
     1137      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="product.tokens" href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></h2>
     1138      <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">Product tokens are used to allow communicating applications to identify themselves by software name and version. Most fields
    11061139         using product tokens also allow sub-products which form a significant part of the application to be listed, separated by white
    11071140         space. By convention, the products are listed in order of their significance for identifying the application.
    11081141      </p>
    1109       <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.64"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.65"></span>  <a href="#product.tokens" class="smpl">product</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a> ["/" <a href="#product.tokens" class="smpl">product-version</a>]
     1142      <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.62"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.63"></span>  <a href="#product.tokens" class="smpl">product</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a> ["/" <a href="#product.tokens" class="smpl">product-version</a>]
    11101143  <a href="#product.tokens" class="smpl">product-version</a> = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    1111 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.3">Examples:</p>
     1144</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.3">Examples:</p>
    11121145      <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div><pre class="text">    User-Agent: CERN-LineMode/2.15 libwww/2.17b3
    11131146    Server: Apache/0.8.4
    1114 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.5">Product tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be short and to the point. They <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be used for advertising or other non-essential information. Although any token character <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> appear in a product-version, this token <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be used for a version identifier (i.e., successive versions of the same product <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only differ in the product-version portion of the product value).
    1115       </p>
    1116       <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.message" href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a></h1>
    1117       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.types" href="#message.types">Message Types</a></h2>
    1118       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">HTTP messages consist of requests from client to server and responses from server to client.</p>
    1119       <div id="rfc.figure.u.27"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.66"></span>  <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">HTTP-message</a>   = <a href="#request" class="smpl">Request</a> / <a href="#response" class="smpl">Response</a>     ; HTTP/1.1 messages
    1120 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">Request (<a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;4</a>) and Response (<a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;5</a>) messages use the generic message format of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.2"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> for transferring entities (the payload of the message). Both types of message consist of a start-line, zero or more header
     1147</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.5">Product tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be short and to the point. They <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be used for advertising or other non-essential information. Although any token character <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> appear in a product-version, this token <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be used for a version identifier (i.e., successive versions of the same product <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only differ in the product-version portion of the product value).
     1148      </p>
     1149      <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.message" href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a></h1>
     1150      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.types" href="#message.types">Message Types</a></h2>
     1151      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">HTTP messages consist of requests from client to server and responses from server to client.</p>
     1152      <div id="rfc.figure.u.27"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.64"></span>  <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">HTTP-message</a>   = <a href="#request" class="smpl">Request</a> / <a href="#response" class="smpl">Response</a>     ; HTTP/1.1 messages
     1153</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">Request (<a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;5</a>) and Response (<a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;6</a>) messages use the generic message format of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.2"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> for transferring entities (the payload of the message). Both types of message consist of a start-line, zero or more header
    11211154         fields (also known as "headers"), an empty line (i.e., a line with nothing preceding the CRLF) indicating the end of the header
    11221155         fields, and possibly a message-body.
    11231156      </p>
    1124       <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.67"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.68"></span>  <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">generic-message</a> = <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">start-line</a>
     1157      <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.65"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.66"></span>  <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">generic-message</a> = <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">start-line</a>
    11251158                    *(<a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">message-header</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>)
    11261159                    <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
    11271160                    [ <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> ]
    11281161  <a href="#message.types" class="smpl">start-line</a>      = <a href="#request-line" class="smpl">Request-Line</a> / <a href="#status-line" class="smpl">Status-Line</a>
    1129 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">In the interest of robustness, servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ignore any empty line(s) received where a Request-Line is expected. In other words, if the server is reading the protocol
     1162</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">In the interest of robustness, servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ignore any empty line(s) received where a Request-Line is expected. In other words, if the server is reading the protocol
    11301163         stream at the beginning of a message and receives a CRLF first, it should ignore the CRLF.
    11311164      </p>
    1132       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">Certain buggy HTTP/1.0 client implementations generate extra CRLF's after a POST request. To restate what is explicitly forbidden
     1165      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">Certain buggy HTTP/1.0 client implementations generate extra CRLF's after a POST request. To restate what is explicitly forbidden
    11331166         by the BNF, an HTTP/1.1 client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> preface or follow a request with an extra CRLF.
    11341167      </p>
    1135       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.headers" href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></h2>
    1136       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">HTTP header fields, which include general-header (<a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>), request-header (<a href="p2-semantics.html#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>), response-header (<a href="p2-semantics.html#response.header.fields" title="Response Header Fields">Section 6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>), and entity-header (<a href="p3-payload.html#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>) fields, follow the same generic format as that given in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322#section-2.1">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.3"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a>. Each header field consists of a name followed by a colon (":") and the field value. Field names are case-insensitive. The
     1168      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.headers" href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></h2>
     1169      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">HTTP header fields, which include general-header (<a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>), request-header (<a href="p2-semantics.html#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>), response-header (<a href="p2-semantics.html#response.header.fields" title="Response Header Fields">Section 6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>), and entity-header (<a href="p3-payload.html#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>) fields, follow the same generic format as that given in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322#section-2.1">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.3"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a>. Each header field consists of a name followed by a colon (":") and the field value. Field names are case-insensitive. The
    11371170         field value <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be preceded by any amount of LWS, though a single SP is preferred. Header fields can be extended over multiple lines by preceding
    11381171         each extra line with at least one SP or HTAB. Applications ought to follow "common form", where one is known or indicated,
     
    11401173         forms.
    11411174      </p>
    1142       <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.69"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.70"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.71"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.72"></span>  <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">message-header</a> = <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-name</a> ":" [ <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-value</a> ]
     1175      <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.67"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.68"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.69"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.70"></span>  <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">message-header</a> = <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-name</a> ":" [ <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-value</a> ]
    11431176  <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-name</a>     = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    11441177  <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-value</a>    = *( <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-content</a> / <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> )
    11451178  <a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-content</a>  = &lt;field content&gt;
    1146 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3"> <span class="comment">[rfc.comment.1: whitespace between field-name and colon is an error and MUST NOT be accepted]</span>
    1147       </p>
    1148       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">The field-content does not include any leading or trailing LWS: linear white space occurring before the first non-whitespace
     1179</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3"> <span class="comment">[rfc.comment.1: whitespace between field-name and colon is an error and MUST NOT be accepted]</span>
     1180      </p>
     1181      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">The field-content does not include any leading or trailing LWS: linear white space occurring before the first non-whitespace
    11491182         character of the field-value or after the last non-whitespace character of the field-value. Such leading or trailing LWS <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be removed without changing the semantics of the field value. Any LWS that occurs between field-content <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be replaced with a single SP before interpreting the field value or forwarding the message downstream.
    11501183      </p>
    1151       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.5">The order in which header fields with differing field names are received is not significant. However, it is "good practice"
     1184      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">The order in which header fields with differing field names are received is not significant. However, it is "good practice"
    11521185         to send general-header fields first, followed by request-header or response-header fields, and ending with the entity-header
    11531186         fields.
    11541187      </p>
    1155       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.6">Multiple message-header fields with the same field-name <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be present in a message if and only if the entire field-value for that header field is defined as a comma-separated list [i.e.,
     1188      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.6">Multiple message-header fields with the same field-name <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be present in a message if and only if the entire field-value for that header field is defined as a comma-separated list [i.e.,
    11561189         #(values)]. It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be possible to combine the multiple header fields into one "field-name: field-value" pair, without changing the semantics
    11571190         of the message, by appending each subsequent field-value to the first, each separated by a comma. The order in which header
     
    11591192         thus a proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the order of these field values when a message is forwarded.
    11601193      </p>
    1161       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.7"> </p>
     1194      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.7"> </p>
    11621195      <dl class="empty">
    11631196         <dd> <b>Note:</b> the "Set-Cookie" header as implemented in practice (as opposed to how it is specified in <a href="#RFC2109" id="rfc.xref.RFC2109.1"><cite title="HTTP State Management Mechanism">[RFC2109]</cite></a>) can occur multiple times, but does not use the list syntax, and thus cannot be combined into a single line. (See Appendix
     
    11651198         </dd>
    11661199      </dl>
    1167       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.body" href="#message.body">Message Body</a></h2>
    1168       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.1">The message-body (if any) of an HTTP message is used to carry the entity-body associated with the request or response. The
     1200      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.body" href="#message.body">Message Body</a></h2>
     1201      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">The message-body (if any) of an HTTP message is used to carry the entity-body associated with the request or response. The
    11691202         message-body differs from the entity-body only when a transfer-coding has been applied, as indicated by the Transfer-Encoding
    1170          header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;7.7</a>).
    1171       </p>
    1172       <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.73"></span>  <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-body</a>
     1203         header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;8.7</a>).
     1204      </p>
     1205      <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.71"></span>  <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-body</a>
    11731206               / &lt;entity-body encoded as per <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>&gt;
    1174 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.3">Transfer-Encoding <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be used to indicate any transfer-codings applied by an application to ensure safe and proper transfer of the message. Transfer-Encoding
    1175          is a property of the message, not of the entity, and thus <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be added or removed by any application along the request/response chain. (However, <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a> places restrictions on when certain transfer-codings may be used.)
    1176       </p>
    1177       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.4">The rules for when a message-body is allowed in a message differ for requests and responses.</p>
    1178       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.5">The presence of a message-body in a request is signaled by the inclusion of a Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding header field
    1179          in the request's message-headers. A message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be included in a request if the specification of the request method (<a href="p2-semantics.html#method" title="Method">Section 3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) explicitly disallows an entity-body in requests. When a request message contains both a message-body of non-zero length
     1207</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.3">Transfer-Encoding <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be used to indicate any transfer-codings applied by an application to ensure safe and proper transfer of the message. Transfer-Encoding
     1208         is a property of the message, not of the entity, and thus <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be added or removed by any application along the request/response chain. (However, <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a> places restrictions on when certain transfer-codings may be used.)
     1209      </p>
     1210      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.4">The rules for when a message-body is allowed in a message differ for requests and responses.</p>
     1211      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.5">The presence of a message-body in a request is signaled by the inclusion of a Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding header field
     1212         in the request's message-headers. A message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be included in a request if the specification of the request method (<a href="p2-semantics.html#method" title="Method">Section 3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) explicitly disallows an entity-body in requests. When a request message contains both a message-body of non-zero length
    11801213         and a method that does not define any semantics for that request message-body, then an origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> either ignore the message-body or respond with an appropriate error message (e.g., 413). A proxy or gateway, when presented
    11811214         the same request, <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> either forward the request inbound with the message-body or ignore the message-body when determining a response.
    11821215      </p>
    1183       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.6">For response messages, whether or not a message-body is included with a message is dependent on both the request method and
    1184          the response status code (<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" title="Status Code and Reason Phrase">Section&nbsp;5.1.1</a>). All responses to the HEAD request method <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body, even though the presence of entity-header fields might lead one to believe they do. All 1xx (informational),
     1216      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.6">For response messages, whether or not a message-body is included with a message is dependent on both the request method and
     1217         the response status code (<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" title="Status Code and Reason Phrase">Section&nbsp;6.1.1</a>). All responses to the HEAD request method <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body, even though the presence of entity-header fields might lead one to believe they do. All 1xx (informational),
    11851218         204 (No Content), and 304 (Not Modified) responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body. All other responses do include a message-body, although it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be of zero length.
    11861219      </p>
    1187       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.length" href="#message.length">Message Length</a></h2>
    1188       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">The transfer-length of a message is the length of the message-body as it appears in the message; that is, after any transfer-codings
     1220      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.length" href="#message.length">Message Length</a></h2>
     1221      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">The transfer-length of a message is the length of the message-body as it appears in the message; that is, after any transfer-codings
    11891222         have been applied. When a message-body is included with a message, the transfer-length of that body is determined by one of
    11901223         the following (in order of precedence):
    11911224      </p>
    1192       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.2"> </p>
     1225      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2"> </p>
    11931226      <ol>
    11941227         <li>
     
    11981231         </li>
    11991232         <li>
    1200             <p>If a Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;7.7</a>) is present and the "chunked" transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>) is used, the transfer-length is defined by the use of this transfer-coding. If a Transfer-Encoding header field is present
     1233            <p>If a Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;8.7</a>) is present and the "chunked" transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>) is used, the transfer-length is defined by the use of this transfer-coding. If a Transfer-Encoding header field is present
    12011234               and the "chunked" transfer-coding is not present, the transfer-length is defined by the sender closing the connection.
    12021235            </p>
    12031236         </li>
    12041237         <li>
    1205             <p>If a Content-Length header field (<a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.1" title="Content-Length">Section&nbsp;7.2</a>) is present, its decimal value in OCTETs represents both the entity-length and the transfer-length. The Content-Length header
     1238            <p>If a Content-Length header field (<a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.1" title="Content-Length">Section&nbsp;8.2</a>) is present, its decimal value in OCTETs represents both the entity-length and the transfer-length. The Content-Length header
    12061239               field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent if these two lengths are different (i.e., if a Transfer-Encoding header field is present). If a message is received
    12071240               with both a Transfer-Encoding header field and a Content-Length header field, the latter <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
     
    12241257         </li>
    12251258      </ol>
    1226       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.3">For compatibility with HTTP/1.0 applications, HTTP/1.1 requests containing a message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a valid Content-Length header field unless the server is known to be HTTP/1.1 compliant. If a request contains a message-body
     1259      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.3">For compatibility with HTTP/1.0 applications, HTTP/1.1 requests containing a message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a valid Content-Length header field unless the server is known to be HTTP/1.1 compliant. If a request contains a message-body
    12271260         and a Content-Length is not given, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with 400 (Bad Request) if it cannot determine the length of the message, or with 411 (Length Required) if it wishes
    12281261         to insist on receiving a valid Content-Length.
    12291262      </p>
    1230       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.4">All HTTP/1.1 applications that receive entities <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the "chunked" transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>), thus allowing this mechanism to be used for messages when the message length cannot be determined in advance.
    1231       </p>
    1232       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.5">Messages <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include both a Content-Length header field and a transfer-coding. If the message does include a transfer-coding, the Content-Length <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
    1233       </p>
    1234       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.6">When a Content-Length is given in a message where a message-body is allowed, its field value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> exactly match the number of OCTETs in the message-body. HTTP/1.1 user agents <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> notify the user when an invalid length is received and detected.
    1235       </p>
    1236       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.5"><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="general.header.fields" href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></h2>
    1237       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.1">There are a few header fields which have general applicability for both request and response messages, but which do not apply
     1263      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.4">All HTTP/1.1 applications that receive entities <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the "chunked" transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>), thus allowing this mechanism to be used for messages when the message length cannot be determined in advance.
     1264      </p>
     1265      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.5">Messages <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include both a Content-Length header field and a transfer-coding. If the message does include a transfer-coding, the Content-Length <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
     1266      </p>
     1267      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.6">When a Content-Length is given in a message where a message-body is allowed, its field value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> exactly match the number of OCTETs in the message-body. HTTP/1.1 user agents <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> notify the user when an invalid length is received and detected.
     1268      </p>
     1269      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.5"><a href="#rfc.section.4.5">4.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="general.header.fields" href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></h2>
     1270      <p id="rfc.section.4.5.p.1">There are a few header fields which have general applicability for both request and response messages, but which do not apply
    12381271         to the entity being transferred. These header fields apply only to the message being transmitted.
    12391272      </p>
    1240       <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.74"></span>  <a href="#general.header.fields" class="smpl">general-header</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>            ; <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.cache-control" title="Cache-Control">Section 16.2</a>
    1241                  / <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a>               ; <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.1" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>
    1242                  / <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a>                     ; <a href="#header.date" id="rfc.xref.header.date.1" title="Date">Section&nbsp;7.3</a>
     1273      <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.72"></span>  <a href="#general.header.fields" class="smpl">general-header</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>            ; <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.cache-control" title="Cache-Control">Section 16.2</a>
     1274                 / <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a>               ; <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.1" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>
     1275                 / <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a>                     ; <a href="#header.date" id="rfc.xref.header.date.1" title="Date">Section&nbsp;8.3</a>
    12431276                 / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Pragma</a>                   ; <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.pragma" title="Pragma">Section 16.4</a>
    1244                  / <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer</a>                  ; <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.2" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;7.6</a>
    1245                  / <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>        ; <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.4" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;7.7</a>
    1246                  / <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade</a>                  ; <a href="#header.upgrade" id="rfc.xref.header.upgrade.1" title="Upgrade">Section&nbsp;7.8</a>
    1247                  / <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via</a>                      ; <a href="#header.via" id="rfc.xref.header.via.1" title="Via">Section&nbsp;7.9</a>
     1277                 / <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer</a>                  ; <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.2" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;8.6</a>
     1278                 / <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>        ; <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.4" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;8.7</a>
     1279                 / <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade</a>                  ; <a href="#header.upgrade" id="rfc.xref.header.upgrade.1" title="Upgrade">Section&nbsp;8.8</a>
     1280                 / <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via</a>                      ; <a href="#header.via" id="rfc.xref.header.via.1" title="Via">Section&nbsp;8.9</a>
    12481281                 / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Warning</a>                  ; <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.warning" title="Warning">Section 16.6</a>
    1249 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.3">General-header field names can be extended reliably only in combination with a change in the protocol version. However, new
     1282</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.5.p.3">General-header field names can be extended reliably only in combination with a change in the protocol version. However, new
    12501283         or experimental header fields may be given the semantics of general header fields if all parties in the communication recognize
    12511284         them to be general-header fields. Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
    12521285      </p>
    1253       <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a id="request" href="#request">Request</a></h1>
    1254       <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the
     1286      <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="request" href="#request">Request</a></h1>
     1287      <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the
    12551288         resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use.
    12561289      </p>
    1257       <div id="rfc.figure.u.32"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.75"></span>  <a href="#request" class="smpl">Request</a>       = <a href="#request-line" class="smpl">Request-Line</a>              ; <a href="#request-line" title="Request-Line">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>
    1258                   *(( <a href="#general.header.fields" class="smpl">general-header</a>        ; <a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>
    1259                    / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">request-header</a>         ; <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section 4</a>
    1260                    / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-header</a> ) <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>)  ; <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="p3-payload.html#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section 4.1</a>
     1290      <div id="rfc.figure.u.32"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.73"></span>  <a href="#request" class="smpl">Request</a>       = <a href="#request-line" class="smpl">Request-Line</a>              ; <a href="#request-line" title="Request-Line">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>
     1291                  *(( <a href="#general.header.fields" class="smpl">general-header</a>        ; <a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>
     1292                   / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">request-header</a>         ; <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section 4</a>
     1293                   / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-header</a> ) <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>)  ; <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="p3-payload.html#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section 4.1</a>
    12611294                  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
    1262                   [ <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> ]          ; <a href="#message.body" title="Message Body">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>
    1263 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="request-line" href="#request-line">Request-Line</a></h2>
    1264       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">The Request-Line begins with a method token, followed by the Request-URI and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF. The
    1265          elements are separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final CRLF sequence.
    1266       </p>
    1267       <div id="rfc.figure.u.33"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.76"></span>  <a href="#request-line" class="smpl">Request-Line</a>   = <a href="#method" class="smpl">Method</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#request-uri" class="smpl">Request-URI</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Version</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
    1268 </pre><h3 id="rfc.section.4.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1.1">4.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="method" href="#method">Method</a></h3>
    1269       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.1.p.1">The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-sensitive.</p>
    1270       <div id="rfc.figure.u.34"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.77"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.78"></span>  <a href="#method" class="smpl">Method</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    1271 </pre><h3 id="rfc.section.4.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1.2">4.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="request-uri" href="#request-uri">Request-URI</a></h3>
    1272       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.1">The Request-URI is a Uniform Resource Identifier (<a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>) and identifies the resource upon which to apply the request.
    1273       </p>
    1274       <div id="rfc.figure.u.35"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.79"></span>  <a href="#request-uri" class="smpl">Request-URI</a>    = "*"
     1295                  [ <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> ]          ; <a href="#message.body" title="Message Body">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>
     1296</pre><h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="request-line" href="#request-line">Request-Line</a></h2>
     1297      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The Request-Line begins with a method token, followed by the request-target and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF.
     1298         The elements are separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final CRLF sequence.
     1299      </p>
     1300      <div id="rfc.figure.u.33"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.74"></span>  <a href="#request-line" class="smpl">Request-Line</a>   = <a href="#method" class="smpl">Method</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#request-target" class="smpl">request-target</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Version</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
     1301</pre><h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="method" href="#method">Method</a></h3>
     1302      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the request-target. The method is case-sensitive.</p>
     1303      <div id="rfc.figure.u.34"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.75"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.76"></span>  <a href="#method" class="smpl">Method</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
     1304</pre><h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="request-target" href="#request-target">request-target</a></h3>
     1305      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.1">The request-target is a Uniform Resource Identifier (<a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>) and identifies the resource upon which to apply the request.
     1306      </p>
     1307      <div id="rfc.figure.u.35"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.77"></span>  <a href="#request-target" class="smpl">request-target</a>    = "*"
    12751308                 / <a href="#uri" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a>
    12761309                 / ( <a href="#uri" class="smpl">path-absolute</a> [ "?" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">query</a> ] )
    12771310                 / <a href="#uri" class="smpl">authority</a>
    1278 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.3">The four options for Request-URI are dependent on the nature of the request. The asterisk "*" means that the request does
     1311</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.3">The four options for request-target are dependent on the nature of the request. The asterisk "*" means that the request does
    12791312         not apply to a particular resource, but to the server itself, and is only allowed when the method used does not necessarily
    12801313         apply to a resource. One example would be
    12811314      </p>
    12821315      <div id="rfc.figure.u.36"></div><pre class="text">    OPTIONS * HTTP/1.1
    1283 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.5">The absolute-URI form is <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> when the request is being made to a proxy. The proxy is requested to forward the request or service it from a valid cache,
     1316</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.5">The absolute-URI form is <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> when the request is being made to a proxy. The proxy is requested to forward the request or service it from a valid cache,
    12841317         and return the response. Note that the proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> forward the request on to another proxy or directly to the server specified by the absolute-URI. In order to avoid request
    12851318         loops, a proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recognize all of its server names, including any aliases, local variations, and the numeric IP address. An example
     
    12871320      </p>
    12881321      <div id="rfc.figure.u.37"></div><pre class="text">    GET http://www.example.org/pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
    1289 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.7">To allow for transition to absolute-URIs in all requests in future versions of HTTP, all HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the absolute-URI form in requests, even though HTTP/1.1 clients will only generate them in requests to proxies.
    1290       </p>
    1291       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.8">The authority form is only used by the CONNECT method (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 8.9</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    1292       </p>
    1293       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.9">The most common form of Request-URI is that used to identify a resource on an origin server or gateway. In this case the absolute
    1294          path of the URI <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted (see <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.2.1</a>, path-absolute) as the Request-URI, and the network location of the URI (authority) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted in a Host header field. For example, a client wishing to retrieve the resource above directly from the origin
     1322</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.7">To allow for transition to absolute-URIs in all requests in future versions of HTTP, all HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the absolute-URI form in requests, even though HTTP/1.1 clients will only generate them in requests to proxies.
     1323      </p>
     1324      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.8">The authority form is only used by the CONNECT method (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 8.9</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     1325      </p>
     1326      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.9">The most common form of request-target is that used to identify a resource on an origin server or gateway. In this case the
     1327         absolute path of the URI <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted (see <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.1.1</a>, path-absolute) as the request-target, and the network location of the URI (authority) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted in a Host header field. For example, a client wishing to retrieve the resource above directly from the origin
    12951328         server would create a TCP connection to port 80 of the host "www.example.org" and send the lines:
    12961329      </p>
    12971330      <div id="rfc.figure.u.38"></div><pre class="text">    GET /pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
    12981331    Host: www.example.org
    1299 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.11">followed by the remainder of the Request. Note that the absolute path cannot be empty; if none is present in the original
     1332</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.11">followed by the remainder of the Request. Note that the absolute path cannot be empty; if none is present in the original
    13001333         URI, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" (the server root).
    13011334      </p>
    1302       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.12">The Request-URI is transmitted in the format specified in <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.2.1</a>. If the Request-URI is encoded using the "% <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>" encoding (<a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.14"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.4">Section 2.4</a>), the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> decode the Request-URI in order to properly interpret the request. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond to invalid Request-URIs with an appropriate status code.
    1303       </p>
    1304       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.13">A transparent proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> rewrite the "path-absolute" part of the received Request-URI when forwarding it to the next inbound server, except as noted
     1335      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.12">The request-target is transmitted in the format specified in <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.1.1</a>. If the request-target is encoded using the "% <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HEXDIG</a>" encoding (<a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.17"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.4">Section 2.4</a>), the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> decode the request-target in order to properly interpret the request. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond to invalid request-targets with an appropriate status code.
     1336      </p>
     1337      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.13">A transparent proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> rewrite the "path-absolute" part of the received request-target when forwarding it to the next inbound server, except as noted
    13051338         above to replace a null path-absolute with "/".
    13061339      </p>
    1307       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.14"> </p>
     1340      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.14"> </p>
    13081341      <dl class="empty">
    13091342         <dd> <b>Note:</b> The "no rewrite" rule prevents the proxy from changing the meaning of the request when the origin server is improperly using
    13101343            a non-reserved URI character for a reserved purpose. Implementors should be aware that some pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies have been
    1311             known to rewrite the Request-URI.
     1344            known to rewrite the request-target.
    13121345         </dd>
    13131346      </dl>
    1314       <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="the.resource.identified.by.a.request" href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></h2>
    1315       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">The exact resource identified by an Internet request is determined by examining both the Request-URI and the Host header field.</p>
    1316       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.2">An origin server that does not allow resources to differ by the requested host <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Host header field value when determining the resource identified by an HTTP/1.1 request. (But see <a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses">Appendix&nbsp;B.1.1</a> for other requirements on Host support in HTTP/1.1.)
    1317       </p>
    1318       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">An origin server that does differentiate resources based on the host requested (sometimes referred to as virtual hosts or
     1347      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.15">HTTP does not place a pre-defined limit on the length of a request-target. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and respond with the 414 (URI too long) status if the received request-target
     1348         would be longer than the server wishes to handle (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 Request-URI Too Long">Section 9.4.15</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     1349      </p>
     1350      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.16">Various ad-hoc limitations on request-target length are found in practice. It is <em class="bcp14">RECOMMENDED</em> that all HTTP senders and recipients support request-target lengths of 8000 or more OCTETs.
     1351      </p>
     1352      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="the.resource.identified.by.a.request" href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></h2>
     1353      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The exact resource identified by an Internet request is determined by examining both the request-target and the Host header
     1354         field.
     1355      </p>
     1356      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">An origin server that does not allow resources to differ by the requested host <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Host header field value when determining the resource identified by an HTTP/1.1 request. (But see <a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses">Appendix&nbsp;B.1.1</a> for other requirements on Host support in HTTP/1.1.)
     1357      </p>
     1358      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.3">An origin server that does differentiate resources based on the host requested (sometimes referred to as virtual hosts or
    13191359         vanity host names) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the following rules for determining the requested resource on an HTTP/1.1 request:
    13201360      </p>
    13211361      <ol>
    1322          <li>If Request-URI is an absolute-URI, the host is part of the Request-URI. Any Host header field value in the request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
    1323          </li>
    1324          <li>If the Request-URI is not an absolute-URI, and the request includes a Host header field, the host is determined by the Host
    1325             header field value.
     1362         <li>If request-target is an absolute-URI, the host is part of the request-target. Any Host header field value in the request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
     1363         </li>
     1364         <li>If the request-target is not an absolute-URI, and the request includes a Host header field, the host is determined by the
     1365            Host header field value.
    13261366         </li>
    13271367         <li>If the host as determined by rule 1 or 2 is not a valid host on the server, the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be a 400 (Bad Request) error message.
    13281368         </li>
    13291369      </ol>
    1330       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">Recipients of an HTTP/1.0 request that lacks a Host header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt to use heuristics (e.g., examination of the URI path for something unique to a particular host) in order to determine
     1370      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.4">Recipients of an HTTP/1.0 request that lacks a Host header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt to use heuristics (e.g., examination of the URI path for something unique to a particular host) in order to determine
    13311371         what exact resource is being requested.
    13321372      </p>
    1333       <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="response" href="#response">Response</a></h1>
    1334       <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message.</p>
    1335       <div id="rfc.figure.u.39"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.80"></span>  <a href="#response" class="smpl">Response</a>      = <a href="#status-line" class="smpl">Status-Line</a>               ; <a href="#status-line" title="Status-Line">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>
    1336                   *(( <a href="#general.header.fields" class="smpl">general-header</a>        ; <a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>
     1373      <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="response" href="#response">Response</a></h1>
     1374      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message.</p>
     1375      <div id="rfc.figure.u.39"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.78"></span>  <a href="#response" class="smpl">Response</a>      = <a href="#status-line" class="smpl">Status-Line</a>               ; <a href="#status-line" title="Status-Line">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>
     1376                  *(( <a href="#general.header.fields" class="smpl">general-header</a>        ; <a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>
    13371377                   / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">response-header</a>        ; <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#response.header.fields" title="Response Header Fields">Section 6</a>
    1338                    / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-header</a> ) <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>)  ; <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="p3-payload.html#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section 4.1</a>
     1378                   / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-header</a> ) <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>)  ; <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="p3-payload.html#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section 4.1</a>
    13391379                  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
    1340                   [ <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> ]          ; <a href="#message.body" title="Message Body">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>
    1341 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status-line" href="#status-line">Status-Line</a></h2>
    1342       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The first line of a Response message is the Status-Line, consisting of the protocol version followed by a numeric status code
     1380                  [ <a href="#message.body" class="smpl">message-body</a> ]          ; <a href="#message.body" title="Message Body">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>
     1381</pre><h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status-line" href="#status-line">Status-Line</a></h2>
     1382      <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The first line of a Response message is the Status-Line, consisting of the protocol version followed by a numeric status code
    13431383         and its associated textual phrase, with each element separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final
    13441384         CRLF sequence.
    13451385      </p>
    1346       <div id="rfc.figure.u.40"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.81"></span>  <a href="#status-line" class="smpl">Status-Line</a> = <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Version</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Status-Code</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Reason-Phrase</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
    1347 </pre><h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.and.reason.phrase" href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></h3>
    1348       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">The Status-Code element is a 3-digit integer result code of the attempt to understand and satisfy the request. These codes
     1386      <div id="rfc.figure.u.40"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.79"></span>  <a href="#status-line" class="smpl">Status-Line</a> = <a href="#http.version" class="smpl">HTTP-Version</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Status-Code</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Reason-Phrase</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CRLF</a>
     1387</pre><h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.1">6.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.and.reason.phrase" href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></h3>
     1388      <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.1">The Status-Code element is a 3-digit integer result code of the attempt to understand and satisfy the request. These codes
    13491389         are fully defined in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Status Code Definitions">Section 9</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>. The Reason Phrase exists for the sole purpose of providing a textual description associated with the numeric status code,
    13501390         out of deference to earlier Internet application protocols that were more frequently used with interactive text clients. A
    13511391         client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ignore the content of the Reason Phrase.
    13521392      </p>
    1353       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.2">The first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response. The last two digits do not have any categorization role.
     1393      <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.2">The first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response. The last two digits do not have any categorization role.
    13541394         There are 5 values for the first digit:
    13551395      </p>
     
    13611401         <li>5xx: Server Error - The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request</li>
    13621402      </ul>
    1363       <div id="rfc.figure.u.41"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.82"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.83"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.84"></span>  <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Status-Code</a>    = 3<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
     1403      <div id="rfc.figure.u.41"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.80"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.81"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.82"></span>  <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Status-Code</a>    = 3<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
    13641404  <a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" class="smpl">Reason-Phrase</a>  = *&lt;<a href="#rule.TEXT" class="smpl">TEXT</a>, excluding <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">CR</a>, <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">LF</a>&gt;
    1365 </pre><h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="connections" href="#connections">Connections</a></h1>
    1366       <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.connections" href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a></h2>
    1367       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.1">6.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.purpose" href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></h3>
    1368       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.1">Prior to persistent connections, a separate TCP connection was established to fetch each URL, increasing the load on HTTP
     1405</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a id="connections" href="#connections">Connections</a></h1>
     1406      <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.connections" href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a></h2>
     1407      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1.1">7.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.purpose" href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></h3>
     1408      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.1.p.1">Prior to persistent connections, a separate TCP connection was established to fetch each URL, increasing the load on HTTP
    13691409         servers and causing congestion on the Internet. The use of inline images and other associated data often require a client
    13701410         to make multiple requests of the same server in a short amount of time. Analysis of these performance problems and results
    13711411         from a prototype implementation are available <a href="#Pad1995" id="rfc.xref.Pad1995.1"><cite title="Improving HTTP Latency">[Pad1995]</cite></a>  <a href="#Spe" id="rfc.xref.Spe.1"><cite title="Analysis of HTTP Performance Problems">[Spe]</cite></a>. Implementation experience and measurements of actual HTTP/1.1 (<cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.2">RFC 2068</cite>) implementations show good results <a href="#Nie1997" id="rfc.xref.Nie1997.1"><cite title="Network Performance Effects of HTTP/1.1, CSS1, and PNG">[Nie1997]</cite></a>. Alternatives have also been explored, for example, T/TCP <a href="#Tou1998" id="rfc.xref.Tou1998.1"><cite title="Analysis of HTTP Performance">[Tou1998]</cite></a>.
    13721412      </p>
    1373       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.2">Persistent HTTP connections have a number of advantages: </p>
     1413      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.1.p.2">Persistent HTTP connections have a number of advantages: </p>
    13741414      <ul>
    13751415         <li>By opening and closing fewer TCP connections, CPU time is saved in routers and hosts (clients, servers, proxies, gateways,
     
    13881428         </li>
    13891429      </ul>
    1390       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.3">HTTP implementations <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> implement persistent connections.
    1391       </p>
    1392       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.2">6.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.overall" href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a></h3>
    1393       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.p.1">A significant difference between HTTP/1.1 and earlier versions of HTTP is that persistent connections are the default behavior
     1430      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.1.p.3">HTTP implementations <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> implement persistent connections.
     1431      </p>
     1432      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1.2">7.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.overall" href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a></h3>
     1433      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.p.1">A significant difference between HTTP/1.1 and earlier versions of HTTP is that persistent connections are the default behavior
    13941434         of any HTTP connection. That is, unless otherwise indicated, the client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> assume that the server will maintain a persistent connection, even after error responses from the server.
    13951435      </p>
    1396       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.p.2">Persistent connections provide a mechanism by which a client and a server can signal the close of a TCP connection. This signaling
    1397          takes place using the Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.2" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>). Once a close has been signaled, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send any more requests on that connection.
    1398       </p>
    1399       <h4 id="rfc.section.6.1.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.2.1">6.1.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.negotiation" href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></h4>
    1400       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.1.p.1">An HTTP/1.1 server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> assume that a HTTP/1.1 client intends to maintain a persistent connection unless a Connection header including the connection-token
     1436      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.p.2">Persistent connections provide a mechanism by which a client and a server can signal the close of a TCP connection. This signaling
     1437         takes place using the Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.2" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>). Once a close has been signaled, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send any more requests on that connection.
     1438      </p>
     1439      <h4 id="rfc.section.7.1.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1.2.1">7.1.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.negotiation" href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></h4>
     1440      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.1.p.1">An HTTP/1.1 server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> assume that a HTTP/1.1 client intends to maintain a persistent connection unless a Connection header including the connection-token
    14011441         "close" was sent in the request. If the server chooses to close the connection immediately after sending the response, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Connection header including the connection-token close.
    14021442      </p>
    1403       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.1.p.2">An HTTP/1.1 client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> expect a connection to remain open, but would decide to keep it open based on whether the response from a server contains
     1443      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.1.p.2">An HTTP/1.1 client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> expect a connection to remain open, but would decide to keep it open based on whether the response from a server contains
    14041444         a Connection header with the connection-token close. In case the client does not want to maintain a connection for more than
    14051445         that request, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Connection header including the connection-token close.
    14061446      </p>
    1407       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.1.p.3">If either the client or the server sends the close token in the Connection header, that request becomes the last one for the
     1447      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.1.p.3">If either the client or the server sends the close token in the Connection header, that request becomes the last one for the
    14081448         connection.
    14091449      </p>
    1410       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.1.p.4">Clients and servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> assume that a persistent connection is maintained for HTTP versions less than 1.1 unless it is explicitly signaled. See <a href="#compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections" title="Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections">Appendix&nbsp;B.2</a> for more information on backward compatibility with HTTP/1.0 clients.
    1411       </p>
    1412       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.1.p.5">In order to remain persistent, all messages on the connection <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have a self-defined message length (i.e., one not defined by closure of the connection), as described in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>.
    1413       </p>
    1414       <h4 id="rfc.section.6.1.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.2.2">6.1.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="pipelining" href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></h4>
    1415       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.2.p.1">A client that supports persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> "pipeline" its requests (i.e., send multiple requests without waiting for each response). A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send its responses to those requests in the same order that the requests were received.
    1416       </p>
    1417       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.2.p.2">Clients which assume persistent connections and pipeline immediately after connection establishment <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be prepared to retry their connection if the first pipelined attempt fails. If a client does such a retry, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> pipeline before it knows the connection is persistent. Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> also be prepared to resend their requests if the server closes the connection before sending all of the corresponding responses.
    1418       </p>
    1419       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.2.2.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent methods or non-idempotent sequences of methods (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 8.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
     1450      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.1.p.4">Clients and servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> assume that a persistent connection is maintained for HTTP versions less than 1.1 unless it is explicitly signaled. See <a href="#compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections" title="Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections">Appendix&nbsp;B.2</a> for more information on backward compatibility with HTTP/1.0 clients.
     1451      </p>
     1452      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.1.p.5">In order to remain persistent, all messages on the connection <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have a self-defined message length (i.e., one not defined by closure of the connection), as described in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>.
     1453      </p>
     1454      <h4 id="rfc.section.7.1.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1.2.2">7.1.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="pipelining" href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></h4>
     1455      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.2.p.1">A client that supports persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> "pipeline" its requests (i.e., send multiple requests without waiting for each response). A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send its responses to those requests in the same order that the requests were received.
     1456      </p>
     1457      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.2.p.2">Clients which assume persistent connections and pipeline immediately after connection establishment <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be prepared to retry their connection if the first pipelined attempt fails. If a client does such a retry, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> pipeline before it knows the connection is persistent. Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> also be prepared to resend their requests if the server closes the connection before sending all of the corresponding responses.
     1458      </p>
     1459      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.2.2.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent methods or non-idempotent sequences of methods (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 8.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
    14201460         send a non-idempotent request <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> wait to send that request until it has received the response status for the previous request.
    14211461      </p>
    1422       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.3">6.1.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.proxy" href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></h3>
    1423       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.3.p.1">It is especially important that proxies correctly implement the properties of the Connection header field as specified in <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>.
    1424       </p>
    1425       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.3.p.2">The proxy server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> signal persistent connections separately with its clients and the origin servers (or other proxy servers) that it connects
     1462      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1.3">7.1.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.proxy" href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></h3>
     1463      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.3.p.1">It is especially important that proxies correctly implement the properties of the Connection header field as specified in <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>.
     1464      </p>
     1465      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.3.p.2">The proxy server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> signal persistent connections separately with its clients and the origin servers (or other proxy servers) that it connects
    14261466         to. Each persistent connection applies to only one transport link.
    14271467      </p>
    1428       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.3.p.3">A proxy server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> establish a HTTP/1.1 persistent connection with an HTTP/1.0 client (but see <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a> for information and discussion of the problems with the Keep-Alive header implemented by many HTTP/1.0 clients).
    1429       </p>
    1430       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.4">6.1.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.practical" href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></h3>
    1431       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.4.p.1">Servers will usually have some time-out value beyond which they will no longer maintain an inactive connection. Proxy servers
     1468      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.3.p.3">A proxy server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> establish a HTTP/1.1 persistent connection with an HTTP/1.0 client (but see <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a> for information and discussion of the problems with the Keep-Alive header implemented by many HTTP/1.0 clients).
     1469      </p>
     1470      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1.4">7.1.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.practical" href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></h3>
     1471      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.4.p.1">Servers will usually have some time-out value beyond which they will no longer maintain an inactive connection. Proxy servers
    14321472         might make this a higher value since it is likely that the client will be making more connections through the same server.
    14331473         The use of persistent connections places no requirements on the length (or existence) of this time-out for either the client
    14341474         or the server.
    14351475      </p>
    1436       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.4.p.2">When a client or server wishes to time-out it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> issue a graceful close on the transport connection. Clients and servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> both constantly watch for the other side of the transport close, and respond to it as appropriate. If a client or server does
     1476      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.4.p.2">When a client or server wishes to time-out it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> issue a graceful close on the transport connection. Clients and servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> both constantly watch for the other side of the transport close, and respond to it as appropriate. If a client or server does
    14371477         not detect the other side's close promptly it could cause unnecessary resource drain on the network.
    14381478      </p>
    1439       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.4.p.3">A client, server, or proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> close the transport connection at any time. For example, a client might have started to send a new request at the same time
     1479      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.4.p.3">A client, server, or proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> close the transport connection at any time. For example, a client might have started to send a new request at the same time
    14401480         that the server has decided to close the "idle" connection. From the server's point of view, the connection is being closed
    14411481         while it was idle, but from the client's point of view, a request is in progress.
    14421482      </p>
    1443       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.4.p.4">This means that clients, servers, and proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recover from asynchronous close events. Client software <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> reopen the transport connection and retransmit the aborted sequence of requests without user interaction so long as the request
     1483      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.4.p.4">This means that clients, servers, and proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recover from asynchronous close events. Client software <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> reopen the transport connection and retransmit the aborted sequence of requests without user interaction so long as the request
    14441484         sequence is idempotent (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 8.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>). Non-idempotent methods or sequences <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be automatically retried, although user agents <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> offer a human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by user-agent software with semantic understanding
    14451485         of the application <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> substitute for user confirmation. The automatic retry <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be repeated if the second sequence of requests fails.
    14461486      </p>
    1447       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.4.p.5">Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> always respond to at least one request per connection, if at all possible. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> close a connection in the middle of transmitting a response, unless a network or client failure is suspected.
    1448       </p>
    1449       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.4.p.6">Clients that use persistent connections <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> limit the number of simultaneous connections that they maintain to a given server. A single-user client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> maintain more than 2 connections with any server or proxy. A proxy <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use up to 2*N connections to another server or proxy, where N is the number of simultaneously active users. These guidelines
     1487      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.4.p.5">Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> always respond to at least one request per connection, if at all possible. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> close a connection in the middle of transmitting a response, unless a network or client failure is suspected.
     1488      </p>
     1489      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.4.p.6">Clients that use persistent connections <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> limit the number of simultaneous connections that they maintain to a given server. A single-user client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> maintain more than 2 connections with any server or proxy. A proxy <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use up to 2*N connections to another server or proxy, where N is the number of simultaneously active users. These guidelines
    14501490         are intended to improve HTTP response times and avoid congestion.
    14511491      </p>
    1452       <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.transmission.requirements" href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a></h2>
    1453       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2.1">6.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.flow" href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></h3>
    1454       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.1.p.1">HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> maintain persistent connections and use TCP's flow control mechanisms to resolve temporary overloads, rather than terminating
     1492      <h2 id="rfc.section.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.transmission.requirements" href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a></h2>
     1493      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.1">7.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.flow" href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></h3>
     1494      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.1.p.1">HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> maintain persistent connections and use TCP's flow control mechanisms to resolve temporary overloads, rather than terminating
    14551495         connections with the expectation that clients will retry. The latter technique can exacerbate network congestion.
    14561496      </p>
    1457       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2.2">6.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.monitor" href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></h3>
    1458       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.2.p.1">An HTTP/1.1 (or later) client sending a message-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> monitor the network connection for an error status while it is transmitting the request. If the client sees an error status,
    1459          it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> immediately cease transmitting the body. If the body is being sent using a "chunked" encoding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>), a zero length chunk and empty trailer <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to prematurely mark the end of the message. If the body was preceded by a Content-Length header, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> close the connection.
    1460       </p>
    1461       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2.3">6.2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="use.of.the.100.status" href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></h3>
    1462       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.3.p.1">The purpose of the 100 (Continue) status (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" title="100 Continue">Section 9.1.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) is to allow a client that is sending a request message with a request body to determine if the origin server is willing
     1497      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.2">7.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.monitor" href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></h3>
     1498      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.2.p.1">An HTTP/1.1 (or later) client sending a message-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> monitor the network connection for an error status while it is transmitting the request. If the client sees an error status,
     1499         it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> immediately cease transmitting the body. If the body is being sent using a "chunked" encoding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>), a zero length chunk and empty trailer <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to prematurely mark the end of the message. If the body was preceded by a Content-Length header, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> close the connection.
     1500      </p>
     1501      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.3">7.2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="use.of.the.100.status" href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></h3>
     1502      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.3.p.1">The purpose of the 100 (Continue) status (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" title="100 Continue">Section 9.1.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) is to allow a client that is sending a request message with a request body to determine if the origin server is willing
    14631503         to accept the request (based on the request headers) before the client sends the request body. In some cases, it might either
    14641504         be inappropriate or highly inefficient for the client to send the body if the server will reject the message without looking
    14651505         at the body.
    14661506      </p>
    1467       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.3.p.2">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 clients: </p>
     1507      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.3.p.2">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 clients: </p>
    14681508      <ul>
    14691509         <li>If a client will wait for a 100 (Continue) response before sending the request body, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send an Expect request-header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" title="Expect">Section 10.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) with the "100-continue" expectation.
     
    14721512         </li>
    14731513      </ul>
    1474       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.3.p.3">Because of the presence of older implementations, the protocol allows ambiguous situations in which a client may send "Expect:
     1514      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.3.p.3">Because of the presence of older implementations, the protocol allows ambiguous situations in which a client may send "Expect:
    14751515         100-continue" without receiving either a 417 (Expectation Failed) status or a 100 (Continue) status. Therefore, when a client
    14761516         sends this header field to an origin server (possibly via a proxy) from which it has never seen a 100 (Continue) status, the
    14771517         client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> wait for an indefinite period before sending the request body.
    14781518      </p>
    1479       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.3.p.4">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 origin servers: </p>
     1519      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.3.p.4">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 origin servers: </p>
    14801520      <ul>
    14811521         <li>Upon receiving a request which includes an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation, an origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> either respond with 100 (Continue) status and continue to read from the input stream, or respond with a final status code.
     
    15011541         </li>
    15021542      </ul>
    1503       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.3.p.5">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 proxies: </p>
     1543      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.3.p.5">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 proxies: </p>
    15041544      <ul>
    15051545         <li>If a proxy receives a request that includes an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation, and the proxy
     
    15161556         </li>
    15171557      </ul>
    1518       <h3 id="rfc.section.6.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2.4">6.2.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="connection.premature" href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></h3>
    1519       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.4.p.1">If an HTTP/1.1 client sends a request which includes a request body, but which does not include an Expect request-header field
     1558      <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.4">7.2.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="connection.premature" href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></h3>
     1559      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.4.p.1">If an HTTP/1.1 client sends a request which includes a request body, but which does not include an Expect request-header field
    15201560         with the "100-continue" expectation, and if the client is not directly connected to an HTTP/1.1 origin server, and if the
    15211561         client sees the connection close before receiving any status from the server, the client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> retry the request. If the client does retry this request, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use the following "binary exponential backoff" algorithm to be assured of obtaining a reliable response:
     
    15341574         </li>
    15351575      </ol>
    1536       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.4.p.2">If at any point an error status is received, the client </p>
     1576      <p id="rfc.section.7.2.4.p.2">If at any point an error status is received, the client </p>
    15371577      <ul>
    15381578         <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> continue and
     
    15411581         </li>
    15421582      </ul>
    1543       <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.fields" href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
    1544       <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to message framing and transport protocols.</p>
    1545       <p id="rfc.section.7.p.2">For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who
     1583      <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.fields" href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
     1584      <p id="rfc.section.8.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to message framing and transport protocols.</p>
     1585      <p id="rfc.section.8.p.2">For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who
    15461586         receives the entity.
    15471587      </p>
    15481588      <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
    15491589      <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
    1550       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.connection" href="#header.connection">Connection</a></h2>
    1551       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">The general-header field "Connection" allows the sender to specify options that are desired for that particular connection
     1590      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.connection" href="#header.connection">Connection</a></h2>
     1591      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.1">The general-header field "Connection" allows the sender to specify options that are desired for that particular connection
    15521592         and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be communicated by proxies over further connections.
    15531593      </p>
    1554       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.2">The Connection header's value has the following grammar:</p>
    1555       <div id="rfc.figure.u.42"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.85"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.86"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.87"></span>  <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a>       = "Connection" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection-v</a>
     1594      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.2">The Connection header's value has the following grammar:</p>
     1595      <div id="rfc.figure.u.42"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.83"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.84"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.85"></span>  <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a>       = "Connection" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection-v</a>
    15561596  <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection-v</a>     = 1#<a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">connection-token</a>
    15571597  <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">connection-token</a> = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    1558 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.4">HTTP/1.1 proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> parse the Connection header field before a message is forwarded and, for each connection-token in this field, remove any header
     1598</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.4">HTTP/1.1 proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> parse the Connection header field before a message is forwarded and, for each connection-token in this field, remove any header
    15591599         field(s) from the message with the same name as the connection-token. Connection options are signaled by the presence of a
    15601600         connection-token in the Connection header field, not by any corresponding additional header field(s), since the additional
    15611601         header field may not be sent if there are no parameters associated with that connection option.
    15621602      </p>
    1563       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.5">Message headers listed in the Connection header <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include end-to-end headers, such as Cache-Control.
    1564       </p>
    1565       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.6">HTTP/1.1 defines the "close" connection option for the sender to signal that the connection will be closed after completion
     1603      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.5">Message headers listed in the Connection header <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include end-to-end headers, such as Cache-Control.
     1604      </p>
     1605      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.6">HTTP/1.1 defines the "close" connection option for the sender to signal that the connection will be closed after completion
    15661606         of the response. For example,
    15671607      </p>
    15681608      <div id="rfc.figure.u.43"></div><pre class="text">  Connection: close
    1569 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.8">in either the request or the response header fields indicates that the connection <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be considered `persistent' (<a href="#persistent.connections" title="Persistent Connections">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>) after the current request/response is complete.
    1570       </p>
    1571       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.9">An HTTP/1.1 client that does not support persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the "close" connection option in every request message.
    1572       </p>
    1573       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.10">An HTTP/1.1 server that does not support persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the "close" connection option in every response message that does not have a 1xx (informational) status code.
    1574       </p>
    1575       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.11">A system receiving an HTTP/1.0 (or lower-version) message that includes a Connection header <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>, for each connection-token in this field, remove and ignore any header field(s) from the message with the same name as the
     1609</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.8">in either the request or the response header fields indicates that the connection <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be considered `persistent' (<a href="#persistent.connections" title="Persistent Connections">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>) after the current request/response is complete.
     1610      </p>
     1611      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.9">An HTTP/1.1 client that does not support persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the "close" connection option in every request message.
     1612      </p>
     1613      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.10">An HTTP/1.1 server that does not support persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the "close" connection option in every response message that does not have a 1xx (informational) status code.
     1614      </p>
     1615      <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.11">A system receiving an HTTP/1.0 (or lower-version) message that includes a Connection header <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>, for each connection-token in this field, remove and ignore any header field(s) from the message with the same name as the
    15761616         connection-token. This protects against mistaken forwarding of such header fields by pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies. See <a href="#compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections" title="Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections">Appendix&nbsp;B.2</a>.
    15771617      </p>
    15781618      <div id="rfc.iref.c.2"></div>
    15791619      <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
    1580       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.content-length" href="#header.content-length">Content-Length</a></h2>
    1581       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.1">The entity-header field "Content-Length" indicates the size of the entity-body, in decimal number of OCTETs, sent to the recipient
     1620      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.content-length" href="#header.content-length">Content-Length</a></h2>
     1621      <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.1">The entity-header field "Content-Length" indicates the size of the entity-body, in decimal number of OCTETs, sent to the recipient
    15821622         or, in the case of the HEAD method, the size of the entity-body that would have been sent had the request been a GET.
    15831623      </p>
    1584       <div id="rfc.figure.u.44"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.88"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.89"></span>  <a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a>   = "Content-Length" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> 1*<a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length-v</a>
     1624      <div id="rfc.figure.u.44"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.86"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.87"></span>  <a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a>   = "Content-Length" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> 1*<a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length-v</a>
    15851625  <a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length-v</a> = 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
    1586 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.3">An example is</p>
     1626</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.3">An example is</p>
    15871627      <div id="rfc.figure.u.45"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Length: 3495
    1588 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.5">Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use this field to indicate the transfer-length of the message-body, unless this is prohibited by the rules in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>.
    1589       </p>
    1590       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.6">Any Content-Length greater than or equal to zero is a valid value. <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;3.4</a> describes how to determine the length of a message-body if a Content-Length is not given.
    1591       </p>
    1592       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.7">Note that the meaning of this field is significantly different from the corresponding definition in MIME, where it is an optional
     1628</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.5">Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use this field to indicate the transfer-length of the message-body, unless this is prohibited by the rules in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>.
     1629      </p>
     1630      <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.6">Any Content-Length greater than or equal to zero is a valid value. <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a> describes how to determine the length of a message-body if a Content-Length is not given.
     1631      </p>
     1632      <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.7">Note that the meaning of this field is significantly different from the corresponding definition in MIME, where it is an optional
    15931633         field used within the "message/external-body" content-type. In HTTP, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be sent whenever the message's length can be determined prior to being transferred, unless this is prohibited by the rules
    1594          in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>.
     1634         in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>.
    15951635      </p>
    15961636      <div id="rfc.iref.d.1"></div>
    15971637      <div id="rfc.iref.h.5"></div>
    1598       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.3"><a href="#rfc.section.7.3">7.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.date" href="#header.date">Date</a></h2>
    1599       <p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.1">The general-header field "Date" represents the date and time at which the message was originated, having the same semantics
    1600          as orig-date in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322#section-3.6.1">Section 3.6.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.4"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a>. The field value is an HTTP-date, as described in <a href="#full.date" title="Full Date">Section&nbsp;2.3.1</a>; it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be sent in rfc1123-date format.
    1601       </p>
    1602       <div id="rfc.figure.u.46"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.90"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.91"></span>  <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a>   = "Date" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date-v</a>
     1638      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.3"><a href="#rfc.section.8.3">8.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.date" href="#header.date">Date</a></h2>
     1639      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.1">The general-header field "Date" represents the date and time at which the message was originated, having the same semantics
     1640         as orig-date in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322#section-3.6.1">Section 3.6.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.4"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a>. The field value is an HTTP-date, as described in <a href="#full.date" title="Full Date">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>; it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be sent in rfc1123-date format.
     1641      </p>
     1642      <div id="rfc.figure.u.46"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.88"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.89"></span>  <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a>   = "Date" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date-v</a>
    16031643  <a href="#header.date" class="smpl">Date-v</a> = <a href="#full.date" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
    1604 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.3">An example is</p>
     1644</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.3">An example is</p>
    16051645      <div id="rfc.figure.u.47"></div><pre class="text">  Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 08:12:31 GMT
    1606 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.5">Origin servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Date header field in all responses, except in these cases:
     1646</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.5">Origin servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Date header field in all responses, except in these cases:
    16071647      </p>
    16081648      <ol>
     
    16121652            is inconvenient or impossible to generate a valid Date.
    16131653         </li>
    1614          <li>If the server does not have a clock that can provide a reasonable approximation of the current time, its responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a Date header field. In this case, the rules in <a href="#clockless.origin.server.operation" title="Clockless Origin Server Operation">Section&nbsp;7.3.1</a>  <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be followed.
     1654         <li>If the server does not have a clock that can provide a reasonable approximation of the current time, its responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a Date header field. In this case, the rules in <a href="#clockless.origin.server.operation" title="Clockless Origin Server Operation">Section&nbsp;8.3.1</a>  <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be followed.
    16151655         </li>
    16161656      </ol>
    1617       <p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.6">A received message that does not have a Date header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be assigned one by the recipient if the message will be cached by that recipient or gatewayed via a protocol which requires
     1657      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.6">A received message that does not have a Date header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be assigned one by the recipient if the message will be cached by that recipient or gatewayed via a protocol which requires
    16181658         a Date. An HTTP implementation without a clock <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> cache responses without revalidating them on every use. An HTTP cache, especially a shared cache, <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use a mechanism, such as NTP <a href="#RFC1305" id="rfc.xref.RFC1305.1"><cite title="Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation">[RFC1305]</cite></a>, to synchronize its clock with a reliable external standard.
    16191659      </p>
    1620       <p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.7">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only send a Date header field in messages that include an entity-body, as in the case of the PUT and POST requests, and even
     1660      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.7">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only send a Date header field in messages that include an entity-body, as in the case of the PUT and POST requests, and even
    16211661         then it is optional. A client without a clock <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a Date header field in a request.
    16221662      </p>
    1623       <p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.8">The HTTP-date sent in a Date header <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> represent a date and time subsequent to the generation of the message. It <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> represent the best available approximation of the date and time of message generation, unless the implementation has no means
     1663      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.8">The HTTP-date sent in a Date header <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> represent a date and time subsequent to the generation of the message. It <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> represent the best available approximation of the date and time of message generation, unless the implementation has no means
    16241664         of generating a reasonably accurate date and time. In theory, the date ought to represent the moment just before the entity
    16251665         is generated. In practice, the date can be generated at any time during the message origination without affecting its semantic
    16261666         value.
    16271667      </p>
    1628       <h3 id="rfc.section.7.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.3.1">7.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="clockless.origin.server.operation" href="#clockless.origin.server.operation">Clockless Origin Server Operation</a></h3>
    1629       <p id="rfc.section.7.3.1.p.1">Some origin server implementations might not have a clock available. An origin server without a clock <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> assign Expires or Last-Modified values to a response, unless these values were associated with the resource by a system or
     1668      <h3 id="rfc.section.8.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.3.1">8.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="clockless.origin.server.operation" href="#clockless.origin.server.operation">Clockless Origin Server Operation</a></h3>
     1669      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.1.p.1">Some origin server implementations might not have a clock available. An origin server without a clock <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> assign Expires or Last-Modified values to a response, unless these values were associated with the resource by a system or
    16301670         user with a reliable clock. It <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> assign an Expires value that is known, at or before server configuration time, to be in the past (this allows "pre-expiration"
    16311671         of responses without storing separate Expires values for each resource).
     
    16331673      <div id="rfc.iref.h.6"></div>
    16341674      <div id="rfc.iref.h.7"></div>
    1635       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.4"><a href="#rfc.section.7.4">7.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.host" href="#header.host">Host</a></h2>
    1636       <p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.1">The request-header field "Host" specifies the Internet host and port number of the resource being requested, as obtained from
    1637          the original URI given by the user or referring resource (generally an HTTP URL, as described in <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.2.1</a>). The Host field value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> represent the naming authority of the origin server or gateway given by the original URL. This allows the origin server or
     1675      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.4"><a href="#rfc.section.8.4">8.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.host" href="#header.host">Host</a></h2>
     1676      <p id="rfc.section.8.4.p.1">The request-header field "Host" specifies the Internet host and port number of the resource being requested, as obtained from
     1677         the original URI given by the user or referring resource (generally an http URI, as described in <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.1.1</a>). The Host field value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> represent the naming authority of the origin server or gateway given by the original URL. This allows the origin server or
    16381678         gateway to differentiate between internally-ambiguous URLs, such as the root "/" URL of a server for multiple host names on
    16391679         a single IP address.
    16401680      </p>
    1641       <div id="rfc.figure.u.48"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.92"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.93"></span>  <a href="#header.host" class="smpl">Host</a>   = "Host" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.host" class="smpl">Host-v</a>
    1642   <a href="#header.host" class="smpl">Host-v</a> = <a href="#uri" class="smpl">uri-host</a> [ ":" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">port</a> ] ; <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.2.1</a>
    1643 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.3">A "host" without any trailing port information implies the default port for the service requested (e.g., "80" for an HTTP
     1681      <div id="rfc.figure.u.48"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.90"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.91"></span>  <a href="#header.host" class="smpl">Host</a>   = "Host" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.host" class="smpl">Host-v</a>
     1682  <a href="#header.host" class="smpl">Host-v</a> = <a href="#uri" class="smpl">uri-host</a> [ ":" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">port</a> ] ; <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.1.1</a>
     1683</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.4.p.3">A "host" without any trailing port information implies the default port for the service requested (e.g., "80" for an HTTP
    16441684         URL). For example, a request on the origin server for &lt;http://www.example.org/pub/WWW/&gt; would properly include:
    16451685      </p>
    16461686      <div id="rfc.figure.u.49"></div><pre class="text">  GET /pub/WWW/ HTTP/1.1
    16471687  Host: www.example.org
    1648 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.5">A client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Host header field in all HTTP/1.1 request messages. If the requested URI does not include an Internet host name
     1688</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.4.p.5">A client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Host header field in all HTTP/1.1 request messages. If the requested URI does not include an Internet host name
    16491689         for the service being requested, then the Host header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given with an empty value. An HTTP/1.1 proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ensure that any request message it forwards does contain an appropriate Host header field that identifies the service being
    16501690         requested by the proxy. All Internet-based HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respond with a 400 (Bad Request) status code to any HTTP/1.1 request message which lacks a Host header field.
    16511691      </p>
    1652       <p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.6">See Sections <a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request" title="The Resource Identified by a Request">4.2</a> and <a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses">B.1.1</a> for other requirements relating to Host.
     1692      <p id="rfc.section.8.4.p.6">See Sections <a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request" title="The Resource Identified by a Request">5.2</a> and <a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses">B.1.1</a> for other requirements relating to Host.
    16531693      </p>
    16541694      <div id="rfc.iref.t.1"></div>
    16551695      <div id="rfc.iref.h.8"></div>
    1656       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.5"><a href="#rfc.section.7.5">7.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.te" href="#header.te">TE</a></h2>
    1657       <p id="rfc.section.7.5.p.1">The request-header field "TE" indicates what extension transfer-codings it is willing to accept in the response and whether
     1696      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.5"><a href="#rfc.section.8.5">8.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.te" href="#header.te">TE</a></h2>
     1697      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.1">The request-header field "TE" indicates what extension transfer-codings it is willing to accept in the response and whether
    16581698         or not it is willing to accept trailer fields in a chunked transfer-coding. Its value may consist of the keyword "trailers"
    1659          and/or a comma-separated list of extension transfer-coding names with optional accept parameters (as described in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>).
    1660       </p>
    1661       <div id="rfc.figure.u.50"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.94"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.95"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.96"></span>  <a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE</a>        = "TE" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE-v</a>
     1699         and/or a comma-separated list of extension transfer-coding names with optional accept parameters (as described in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>).
     1700      </p>
     1701      <div id="rfc.figure.u.50"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.92"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.93"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.94"></span>  <a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE</a>        = "TE" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE-v</a>
    16621702  <a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE-v</a>      = #<a href="#header.te" class="smpl">t-codings</a>
    16631703  <a href="#header.te" class="smpl">t-codings</a> = "trailers" / ( <a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-extension</a> [ <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">accept-params</a> ] )
    1664 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.5.p.3">The presence of the keyword "trailers" indicates that the client is willing to accept trailer fields in a chunked transfer-coding,
    1665          as defined in <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;2.4.1</a>. This keyword is reserved for use with transfer-coding values even though it does not itself represent a transfer-coding.
    1666       </p>
    1667       <p id="rfc.section.7.5.p.4">Examples of its use are:</p>
     1704</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.3">The presence of the keyword "trailers" indicates that the client is willing to accept trailer fields in a chunked transfer-coding,
     1705         as defined in <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;3.3.1</a>. This keyword is reserved for use with transfer-coding values even though it does not itself represent a transfer-coding.
     1706      </p>
     1707      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.4">Examples of its use are:</p>
    16681708      <div id="rfc.figure.u.51"></div><pre class="text">  TE: deflate
    16691709  TE:
    16701710  TE: trailers, deflate;q=0.5
    1671 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.5.p.6">The TE header field only applies to the immediate connection. Therefore, the keyword <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be supplied within a Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.4" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>) whenever TE is present in an HTTP/1.1 message.
    1672       </p>
    1673       <p id="rfc.section.7.5.p.7">A server tests whether a transfer-coding is acceptable, according to a TE field, using these rules: </p>
     1711</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.6">The TE header field only applies to the immediate connection. Therefore, the keyword <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be supplied within a Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.4" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>) whenever TE is present in an HTTP/1.1 message.
     1712      </p>
     1713      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.7">A server tests whether a transfer-coding is acceptable, according to a TE field, using these rules: </p>
    16741714      <ol>
    16751715         <li>
     
    16851725         <li>
    16861726            <p>If the transfer-coding being tested is one of the transfer-codings listed in the TE field, then it is acceptable unless it
    1687                is accompanied by a qvalue of 0. (As defined in <a href="p3-payload.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 3.4</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, a qvalue of 0 means "not acceptable.")
     1727               is accompanied by a qvalue of 0. (As defined in <a href="p3-payload.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 3.4</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, a qvalue of 0 means "not acceptable.")
    16881728            </p>
    16891729         </li>
     
    16941734         </li>
    16951735      </ol>
    1696       <p id="rfc.section.7.5.p.8">If the TE field-value is empty or if no TE field is present, the only transfer-coding is "chunked". A message with no transfer-coding
     1736      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.8">If the TE field-value is empty or if no TE field is present, the only transfer-coding is "chunked". A message with no transfer-coding
    16971737         is always acceptable.
    16981738      </p>
    16991739      <div id="rfc.iref.t.2"></div>
    17001740      <div id="rfc.iref.h.9"></div>
    1701       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.6"><a href="#rfc.section.7.6">7.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.trailer" href="#header.trailer">Trailer</a></h2>
    1702       <p id="rfc.section.7.6.p.1">The general field "Trailer" indicates that the given set of header fields is present in the trailer of a message encoded with
     1741      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.6"><a href="#rfc.section.8.6">8.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.trailer" href="#header.trailer">Trailer</a></h2>
     1742      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.1">The general field "Trailer" indicates that the given set of header fields is present in the trailer of a message encoded with
    17031743         chunked transfer-coding.
    17041744      </p>
    1705       <div id="rfc.figure.u.52"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.97"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.98"></span>  <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer</a>   = "Trailer" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer-v</a>
     1745      <div id="rfc.figure.u.52"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.95"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.96"></span>  <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer</a>   = "Trailer" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer-v</a>
    17061746  <a href="#header.trailer" class="smpl">Trailer-v</a> = 1#<a href="#message.headers" class="smpl">field-name</a>
    1707 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.6.p.3">An HTTP/1.1 message <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Trailer header field in a message using chunked transfer-coding with a non-empty trailer. Doing so allows the recipient
     1747</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">An HTTP/1.1 message <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Trailer header field in a message using chunked transfer-coding with a non-empty trailer. Doing so allows the recipient
    17081748         to know which header fields to expect in the trailer.
    17091749      </p>
    1710       <p id="rfc.section.7.6.p.4">If no Trailer header field is present, the trailer <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include any header fields. See <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;2.4.1</a> for restrictions on the use of trailer fields in a "chunked" transfer-coding.
    1711       </p>
    1712       <p id="rfc.section.7.6.p.5">Message header fields listed in the Trailer header field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include the following header fields:
     1750      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.4">If no Trailer header field is present, the trailer <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include any header fields. See <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;3.3.1</a> for restrictions on the use of trailer fields in a "chunked" transfer-coding.
     1751      </p>
     1752      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.5">Message header fields listed in the Trailer header field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include the following header fields:
    17131753      </p>
    17141754      <ul>
     
    17191759      <div id="rfc.iref.t.3"></div>
    17201760      <div id="rfc.iref.h.10"></div>
    1721       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7.7">7.7</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.transfer-encoding" href="#header.transfer-encoding">Transfer-Encoding</a></h2>
    1722       <p id="rfc.section.7.7.p.1">The general-header "Transfer-Encoding" field indicates what (if any) type of transformation has been applied to the message
     1761      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.7"><a href="#rfc.section.8.7">8.7</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.transfer-encoding" href="#header.transfer-encoding">Transfer-Encoding</a></h2>
     1762      <p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.1">The general-header "Transfer-Encoding" field indicates what (if any) type of transformation has been applied to the message
    17231763         body in order to safely transfer it between the sender and the recipient. This differs from the content-coding in that the
    17241764         transfer-coding is a property of the message, not of the entity.
    17251765      </p>
    1726       <div id="rfc.figure.u.53"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.99"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.100"></span>  <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>   = "Transfer-Encoding" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a>
     1766      <div id="rfc.figure.u.53"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.97"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.98"></span>  <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>   = "Transfer-Encoding" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a>
    17271767                        <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding-v</a>
    17281768  <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding-v</a> = 1#<a href="#transfer.codings" class="smpl">transfer-coding</a>
    1729 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.7.p.3">Transfer-codings are defined in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>. An example is:
     1769</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.3">Transfer-codings are defined in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>. An example is:
    17301770      </p>
    17311771      <div id="rfc.figure.u.54"></div><pre class="text">  Transfer-Encoding: chunked
    1732 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.7.p.5">If multiple encodings have been applied to an entity, the transfer-codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be listed in the order in which they were applied. Additional information about the encoding parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be provided by other entity-header fields not defined by this specification.
    1733       </p>
    1734       <p id="rfc.section.7.7.p.6">Many older HTTP/1.0 applications do not understand the Transfer-Encoding header.</p>
     1772</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.5">If multiple encodings have been applied to an entity, the transfer-codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be listed in the order in which they were applied. Additional information about the encoding parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be provided by other entity-header fields not defined by this specification.
     1773      </p>
     1774      <p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.6">Many older HTTP/1.0 applications do not understand the Transfer-Encoding header.</p>
    17351775      <div id="rfc.iref.u.3"></div>
    17361776      <div id="rfc.iref.h.11"></div>
    1737       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.8"><a href="#rfc.section.7.8">7.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.upgrade" href="#header.upgrade">Upgrade</a></h2>
    1738       <p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.1">The general-header "Upgrade" allows the client to specify what additional communication protocols it supports and would like
     1777      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8.8">8.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.upgrade" href="#header.upgrade">Upgrade</a></h2>
     1778      <p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.1">The general-header "Upgrade" allows the client to specify what additional communication protocols it supports and would like
    17391779         to use if the server finds it appropriate to switch protocols. The server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the Upgrade header field within a 101 (Switching Protocols) response to indicate which protocol(s) are being switched.
    17401780      </p>
    1741       <div id="rfc.figure.u.55"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.101"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.102"></span>  <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade</a>   = "Upgrade" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade-v</a>
     1781      <div id="rfc.figure.u.55"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.99"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.100"></span>  <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade</a>   = "Upgrade" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade-v</a>
    17421782  <a href="#header.upgrade" class="smpl">Upgrade-v</a> = 1#<a href="#product.tokens" class="smpl">product</a>
    1743 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.3">For example,</p>
     1783</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.3">For example,</p>
    17441784      <div id="rfc.figure.u.56"></div><pre class="text">  Upgrade: HTTP/2.0, SHTTP/1.3, IRC/6.9, RTA/x11
    1745 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.5">The Upgrade header field is intended to provide a simple mechanism for transition from HTTP/1.1 to some other, incompatible
     1785</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.5">The Upgrade header field is intended to provide a simple mechanism for transition from HTTP/1.1 to some other, incompatible
    17461786         protocol. It does so by allowing the client to advertise its desire to use another protocol, such as a later version of HTTP
    17471787         with a higher major version number, even though the current request has been made using HTTP/1.1. This eases the difficult
     
    17501790         the server, possibly according to the nature of the method and/or resource being requested).
    17511791      </p>
    1752       <p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.6">The Upgrade header field only applies to switching application-layer protocols upon the existing transport-layer connection.
     1792      <p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.6">The Upgrade header field only applies to switching application-layer protocols upon the existing transport-layer connection.
    17531793         Upgrade cannot be used to insist on a protocol change; its acceptance and use by the server is optional. The capabilities
    17541794         and nature of the application-layer communication after the protocol change is entirely dependent upon the new protocol chosen,
    17551795         although the first action after changing the protocol <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be a response to the initial HTTP request containing the Upgrade header field.
    17561796      </p>
    1757       <p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.7">The Upgrade header field only applies to the immediate connection. Therefore, the upgrade keyword <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be supplied within a Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.5" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>) whenever Upgrade is present in an HTTP/1.1 message.
    1758       </p>
    1759       <p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.8">The Upgrade header field cannot be used to indicate a switch to a protocol on a different connection. For that purpose, it
     1797      <p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.7">The Upgrade header field only applies to the immediate connection. Therefore, the upgrade keyword <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be supplied within a Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.5" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>) whenever Upgrade is present in an HTTP/1.1 message.
     1798      </p>
     1799      <p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.8">The Upgrade header field cannot be used to indicate a switch to a protocol on a different connection. For that purpose, it
    17601800         is more appropriate to use a 301, 302, 303, or 305 redirection response.
    17611801      </p>
    1762       <p id="rfc.section.7.8.p.9">This specification only defines the protocol name "HTTP" for use by the family of Hypertext Transfer Protocols, as defined
    1763          by the HTTP version rules of <a href="#http.version" title="HTTP Version">Section&nbsp;2.1</a> and future updates to this specification. Any token can be used as a protocol name; however, it will only be useful if both
     1802      <p id="rfc.section.8.8.p.9">This specification only defines the protocol name "HTTP" for use by the family of Hypertext Transfer Protocols, as defined
     1803         by the HTTP version rules of <a href="#http.version" title="HTTP Version">Section&nbsp;3.1</a> and future updates to this specification. Any token can be used as a protocol name; however, it will only be useful if both
    17641804         the client and server associate the name with the same protocol.
    17651805      </p>
    17661806      <div id="rfc.iref.v.1"></div>
    17671807      <div id="rfc.iref.h.12"></div>
    1768       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.9"><a href="#rfc.section.7.9">7.9</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.via" href="#header.via">Via</a></h2>
    1769       <p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.1">The general-header field "Via" <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be used by gateways and proxies to indicate the intermediate protocols and recipients between the user agent and the server
     1808      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.9"><a href="#rfc.section.8.9">8.9</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.via" href="#header.via">Via</a></h2>
     1809      <p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.1">The general-header field "Via" <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be used by gateways and proxies to indicate the intermediate protocols and recipients between the user agent and the server
    17701810         on requests, and between the origin server and the client on responses. It is analogous to the "Received" field defined in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322#section-3.6.7">Section 3.6.7</a> of <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.5"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> and is intended to be used for tracking message forwards, avoiding request loops, and identifying the protocol capabilities
    17711811         of all senders along the request/response chain.
    17721812      </p>
    1773       <div id="rfc.figure.u.57"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.103"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.104"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.105"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.106"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.107"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.108"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.109"></span>  <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via</a>               = "Via" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via-v</a>
     1813      <div id="rfc.figure.u.57"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.101"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.102"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.103"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.104"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.105"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.106"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.107"></span>  <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via</a>               = "Via" ":" <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via-v</a>
    17741814  <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">Via-v</a>             = 1#( <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">received-protocol</a> <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">RWS</a> <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">received-by</a>
    17751815                          [ <a href="#rule.whitespace" class="smpl">RWS</a> <a href="#rule.comment" class="smpl">comment</a> ] )
     
    17791819  <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">received-by</a>       = ( <a href="#uri" class="smpl">uri-host</a> [ ":" <a href="#uri" class="smpl">port</a> ] ) / <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">pseudonym</a>
    17801820  <a href="#header.via" class="smpl">pseudonym</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    1781 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.3">The received-protocol indicates the protocol version of the message received by the server or client along each segment of
     1821</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.3">The received-protocol indicates the protocol version of the message received by the server or client along each segment of
    17821822         the request/response chain. The received-protocol version is appended to the Via field value when the message is forwarded
    17831823         so that information about the protocol capabilities of upstream applications remains visible to all recipients.
    17841824      </p>
    1785       <p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.4">The protocol-name is optional if and only if it would be "HTTP". The received-by field is normally the host and optional port
     1825      <p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.4">The protocol-name is optional if and only if it would be "HTTP". The received-by field is normally the host and optional port
    17861826         number of a recipient server or client that subsequently forwarded the message. However, if the real host is considered to
    17871827         be sensitive information, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be replaced by a pseudonym. If the port is not given, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be assumed to be the default port of the received-protocol.
    17881828      </p>
    1789       <p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.5">Multiple Via field values represents each proxy or gateway that has forwarded the message. Each recipient <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> append its information such that the end result is ordered according to the sequence of forwarding applications.
    1790       </p>
    1791       <p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.6">Comments <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used in the Via header field to identify the software of the recipient proxy or gateway, analogous to the User-Agent and
     1829      <p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.5">Multiple Via field values represents each proxy or gateway that has forwarded the message. Each recipient <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> append its information such that the end result is ordered according to the sequence of forwarding applications.
     1830      </p>
     1831      <p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.6">Comments <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used in the Via header field to identify the software of the recipient proxy or gateway, analogous to the User-Agent and
    17921832         Server header fields. However, all comments in the Via field are optional and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be removed by any recipient prior to forwarding the message.
    17931833      </p>
    1794       <p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.7">For example, a request message could be sent from an HTTP/1.0 user agent to an internal proxy code-named "fred", which uses
     1834      <p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.7">For example, a request message could be sent from an HTTP/1.0 user agent to an internal proxy code-named "fred", which uses
    17951835         HTTP/1.1 to forward the request to a public proxy at p.example.net, which completes the request by forwarding it to the origin
    17961836         server at www.example.com. The request received by www.example.com would then have the following Via header field:
    17971837      </p>
    17981838      <div id="rfc.figure.u.58"></div><pre class="text">  Via: 1.0 fred, 1.1 p.example.net (Apache/1.1)
    1799 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.9">Proxies and gateways used as a portal through a network firewall <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em>, by default, forward the names and ports of hosts within the firewall region. This information <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be propagated if explicitly enabled. If not enabled, the received-by host of any host behind the firewall <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be replaced by an appropriate pseudonym for that host.
    1800       </p>
    1801       <p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.10">For organizations that have strong privacy requirements for hiding internal structures, a proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine an ordered subsequence of Via header field entries with identical received-protocol values into a single such entry.
     1839</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.9">Proxies and gateways used as a portal through a network firewall <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em>, by default, forward the names and ports of hosts within the firewall region. This information <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be propagated if explicitly enabled. If not enabled, the received-by host of any host behind the firewall <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be replaced by an appropriate pseudonym for that host.
     1840      </p>
     1841      <p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.10">For organizations that have strong privacy requirements for hiding internal structures, a proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine an ordered subsequence of Via header field entries with identical received-protocol values into a single such entry.
    18021842         For example,
    18031843      </p>
    18041844      <div id="rfc.figure.u.59"></div><pre class="text">  Via: 1.0 ricky, 1.1 ethel, 1.1 fred, 1.0 lucy
    1805 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.12">could be collapsed to</p>
     1845</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.12">could be collapsed to</p>
    18061846      <div id="rfc.figure.u.60"></div><pre class="text">  Via: 1.0 ricky, 1.1 mertz, 1.0 lucy
    1807 </pre><p id="rfc.section.7.9.p.14">Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> combine multiple entries unless they are all under the same organizational control and the hosts have already been replaced
     1847</pre><p id="rfc.section.8.9.p.14">Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> combine multiple entries unless they are all under the same organizational control and the hosts have already been replaced
    18081848         by pseudonyms. Applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> combine entries which have different received-protocol values.
    18091849      </p>
    1810       <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a id="IANA.considerations" href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
    1811       <h2 id="rfc.section.8.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.header.registration" href="#message.header.registration">Message Header Registration</a></h2>
    1812       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.1">The Message Header Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; should be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
     1850      <h1 id="rfc.section.9"><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;<a id="IANA.considerations" href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
     1851      <h2 id="rfc.section.9.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.header.registration" href="#message.header.registration">Message Header Registration</a></h2>
     1852      <p id="rfc.section.9.1.p.1">The Message Header Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; should be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
    18131853      </p>
    18141854      <div id="rfc.table.1">
     
    18281868                  <td>http</td>
    18291869                  <td>standard</td>
    1830                   <td> <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.6" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>
     1870                  <td> <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.6" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>
    18311871                  </td>
    18321872               </tr>
     
    18351875                  <td>http</td>
    18361876                  <td>standard</td>
    1837                   <td> <a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.2" title="Content-Length">Section&nbsp;7.2</a>
     1877                  <td> <a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.2" title="Content-Length">Section&nbsp;8.2</a>
    18381878                  </td>
    18391879               </tr>
     
    18421882                  <td>http</td>
    18431883                  <td>standard</td>
    1844                   <td> <a href="#header.date" id="rfc.xref.header.date.2" title="Date">Section&nbsp;7.3</a>
     1884                  <td> <a href="#header.date" id="rfc.xref.header.date.2" title="Date">Section&nbsp;8.3</a>
    18451885                  </td>
    18461886               </tr>
     
    18491889                  <td>http</td>
    18501890                  <td>standard</td>
    1851                   <td> <a href="#header.host" id="rfc.xref.header.host.1" title="Host">Section&nbsp;7.4</a>
     1891                  <td> <a href="#header.host" id="rfc.xref.header.host.1" title="Host">Section&nbsp;8.4</a>
    18521892                  </td>
    18531893               </tr>
     
    18561896                  <td>http</td>
    18571897                  <td>standard</td>
    1858                   <td> <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.3" title="TE">Section&nbsp;7.5</a>
     1898                  <td> <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.3" title="TE">Section&nbsp;8.5</a>
    18591899                  </td>
    18601900               </tr>
     
    18631903                  <td>http</td>
    18641904                  <td>standard</td>
    1865                   <td> <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.3" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;7.6</a>
     1905                  <td> <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.3" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;8.6</a>
    18661906                  </td>
    18671907               </tr>
     
    18701910                  <td>http</td>
    18711911                  <td>standard</td>
    1872                   <td> <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.5" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;7.7</a>
     1912                  <td> <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.5" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;8.7</a>
    18731913                  </td>
    18741914               </tr>
     
    18771917                  <td>http</td>
    18781918                  <td>standard</td>
    1879                   <td> <a href="#header.upgrade" id="rfc.xref.header.upgrade.2" title="Upgrade">Section&nbsp;7.8</a>
     1919                  <td> <a href="#header.upgrade" id="rfc.xref.header.upgrade.2" title="Upgrade">Section&nbsp;8.8</a>
    18801920                  </td>
    18811921               </tr>
     
    18841924                  <td>http</td>
    18851925                  <td>standard</td>
    1886                   <td> <a href="#header.via" id="rfc.xref.header.via.2" title="Via">Section&nbsp;7.9</a>
     1926                  <td> <a href="#header.via" id="rfc.xref.header.via.2" title="Via">Section&nbsp;8.9</a>
    18871927                  </td>
    18881928               </tr>
     
    18901930         </table>
    18911931      </div>
    1892       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
    1893       <h2 id="rfc.section.8.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri.scheme.registration" href="#uri.scheme.registration">URI Scheme Registration</a></h2>
    1894       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.1">The entry for the "http" URI Scheme in the registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes.html</a>&gt; should be updated to point to <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.2.1</a> of this document (see <a href="#RFC4395" id="rfc.xref.RFC4395.1"><cite title="Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes">[RFC4395]</cite></a>).
    1895       </p>
    1896       <h2 id="rfc.section.8.3"><a href="#rfc.section.8.3">8.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.http" href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registrations</a></h2>
    1897       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.1">This document serves as the specification for the Internet media types "message/http" and "application/http". The following
     1932      <p id="rfc.section.9.1.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
     1933      <h2 id="rfc.section.9.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri.scheme.registration" href="#uri.scheme.registration">URI Scheme Registration</a></h2>
     1934      <p id="rfc.section.9.2.p.1">The entry for the "http" URI Scheme in the registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes.html</a>&gt; should be updated to point to <a href="#http.uri" title="http URI scheme">Section&nbsp;2.1.1</a> of this document (see <a href="#RFC4395" id="rfc.xref.RFC4395.1"><cite title="Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes">[RFC4395]</cite></a>).
     1935      </p>
     1936      <h2 id="rfc.section.9.3"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3">9.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.http" href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registrations</a></h2>
     1937      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.p.1">This document serves as the specification for the Internet media types "message/http" and "application/http". The following
    18981938         is to be registered with IANA (see <a href="#RFC4288" id="rfc.xref.RFC4288.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[RFC4288]</cite></a>).
    18991939      </p>
    19001940      <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
    19011941      <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
    1902       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.3.1">8.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.message.http" href="#internet.media.type.message.http">Internet Media Type message/http</a></h3>
    1903       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.1.p.1">The message/http type can be used to enclose a single HTTP request or response message, provided that it obeys the MIME restrictions
     1942      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3.1">9.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.message.http" href="#internet.media.type.message.http">Internet Media Type message/http</a></h3>
     1943      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.1.p.1">The message/http type can be used to enclose a single HTTP request or response message, provided that it obeys the MIME restrictions
    19041944         for all "message" types regarding line length and encodings.
    19051945      </p>
    1906       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.1.p.2"> </p>
     1946      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.1.p.2"> </p>
    19071947      <dl>
    19081948         <dt>Type name:</dt>
     
    19301970         <dd>none</dd>
    19311971         <dt>Published specification:</dt>
    1932          <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.message.http" title="Internet Media Type message/http">Section&nbsp;8.3.1</a>).
     1972         <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.message.http" title="Internet Media Type message/http">Section&nbsp;9.3.1</a>).
    19331973         </dd>
    19341974         <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
     
    19551995      <div id="rfc.iref.m.3"></div>
    19561996      <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
    1957       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.3.2">8.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.application.http" href="#internet.media.type.application.http">Internet Media Type application/http</a></h3>
    1958       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.2.p.1">The application/http type can be used to enclose a pipeline of one or more HTTP request or response messages (not intermixed).</p>
    1959       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.2.p.2"> </p>
     1997      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3.2">9.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.application.http" href="#internet.media.type.application.http">Internet Media Type application/http</a></h3>
     1998      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.2.p.1">The application/http type can be used to enclose a pipeline of one or more HTTP request or response messages (not intermixed).</p>
     1999      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.2.p.2"> </p>
    19602000      <dl>
    19612001         <dt>Type name:</dt>
     
    19852025         <dd>none</dd>
    19862026         <dt>Published specification:</dt>
    1987          <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.application.http" title="Internet Media Type application/http">Section&nbsp;8.3.2</a>).
     2027         <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.application.http" title="Internet Media Type application/http">Section&nbsp;9.3.2</a>).
    19882028         </dd>
    19892029         <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
     
    20082048         <dd>IESG</dd>
    20092049      </dl>
    2010       <h1 id="rfc.section.9"><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;<a id="security.considerations" href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
    2011       <p id="rfc.section.9.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
     2050      <h1 id="rfc.section.10"><a href="#rfc.section.10">10.</a>&nbsp;<a id="security.considerations" href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
     2051      <p id="rfc.section.10.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
    20122052         as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
    20132053         make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
    20142054      </p>
    2015       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="personal.information" href="#personal.information">Personal Information</a></h2>
    2016       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.p.1">HTTP clients are often privy to large amounts of personal information (e.g. the user's name, location, mail address, passwords,
     2055      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.1"><a href="#rfc.section.10.1">10.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="personal.information" href="#personal.information">Personal Information</a></h2>
     2056      <p id="rfc.section.10.1.p.1">HTTP clients are often privy to large amounts of personal information (e.g. the user's name, location, mail address, passwords,
    20172057         encryption keys, etc.), and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be very careful to prevent unintentional leakage of this information. We very strongly recommend that a convenient interface
    20182058         be provided for the user to control dissemination of such information, and that designers and implementors be particularly
     
    20202060         highly adverse publicity for the implementor's company.
    20212061      </p>
    2022       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="abuse.of.server.log.information" href="#abuse.of.server.log.information">Abuse of Server Log Information</a></h2>
    2023       <p id="rfc.section.9.2.p.1">A server is in the position to save personal data about a user's requests which might identify their reading patterns or subjects
     2062      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.2"><a href="#rfc.section.10.2">10.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="abuse.of.server.log.information" href="#abuse.of.server.log.information">Abuse of Server Log Information</a></h2>
     2063      <p id="rfc.section.10.2.p.1">A server is in the position to save personal data about a user's requests which might identify their reading patterns or subjects
    20242064         of interest. This information is clearly confidential in nature and its handling can be constrained by law in certain countries.
    20252065         People using HTTP to provide data are responsible for ensuring that such material is not distributed without the permission
    20262066         of any individuals that are identifiable by the published results.
    20272067      </p>
    2028       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.3"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3">9.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.pathname" href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></h2>
    2029       <p id="rfc.section.9.3.p.1">Implementations of HTTP origin servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be careful to restrict the documents returned by HTTP requests to be only those that were intended by the server administrators.
     2068      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.3"><a href="#rfc.section.10.3">10.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.pathname" href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></h2>
     2069      <p id="rfc.section.10.3.p.1">Implementations of HTTP origin servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be careful to restrict the documents returned by HTTP requests to be only those that were intended by the server administrators.
    20302070         If an HTTP server translates HTTP URIs directly into file system calls, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> take special care not to serve files that were not intended to be delivered to HTTP clients. For example, UNIX, Microsoft
    20312071         Windows, and other operating systems use ".." as a path component to indicate a directory level above the current one. On
    2032          such a system, an HTTP server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> disallow any such construct in the Request-URI if it would otherwise allow access to a resource outside those intended to
    2033          be accessible via the HTTP server. Similarly, files intended for reference only internally to the server (such as access control
    2034          files, configuration files, and script code) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be protected from inappropriate retrieval, since they might contain sensitive information. Experience has shown that minor
     2072         such a system, an HTTP server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> disallow any such construct in the request-target if it would otherwise allow access to a resource outside those intended
     2073         to be accessible via the HTTP server. Similarly, files intended for reference only internally to the server (such as access
     2074         control files, configuration files, and script code) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be protected from inappropriate retrieval, since they might contain sensitive information. Experience has shown that minor
    20352075         bugs in such HTTP server implementations have turned into security risks.
    20362076      </p>
    2037       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.4"><a href="#rfc.section.9.4">9.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="dns.spoofing" href="#dns.spoofing">DNS Spoofing</a></h2>
    2038       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.p.1">Clients using HTTP rely heavily on the Domain Name Service, and are thus generally prone to security attacks based on the
     2077      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.4"><a href="#rfc.section.10.4">10.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="dns.spoofing" href="#dns.spoofing">DNS Spoofing</a></h2>
     2078      <p id="rfc.section.10.4.p.1">Clients using HTTP rely heavily on the Domain Name Service, and are thus generally prone to security attacks based on the
    20392079         deliberate mis-association of IP addresses and DNS names. Clients need to be cautious in assuming the continuing validity
    20402080         of an IP number/DNS name association.
    20412081      </p>
    2042       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.p.2">In particular, HTTP clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> rely on their name resolver for confirmation of an IP number/DNS name association, rather than caching the result of previous
     2082      <p id="rfc.section.10.4.p.2">In particular, HTTP clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> rely on their name resolver for confirmation of an IP number/DNS name association, rather than caching the result of previous
    20432083         host name lookups. Many platforms already can cache host name lookups locally when appropriate, and they <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be configured to do so. It is proper for these lookups to be cached, however, only when the TTL (Time To Live) information
    20442084         reported by the name server makes it likely that the cached information will remain useful.
    20452085      </p>
    2046       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.p.3">If HTTP clients cache the results of host name lookups in order to achieve a performance improvement, they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> observe the TTL information reported by DNS.
    2047       </p>
    2048       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.p.4">If HTTP clients do not observe this rule, they could be spoofed when a previously-accessed server's IP address changes. As
     2086      <p id="rfc.section.10.4.p.3">If HTTP clients cache the results of host name lookups in order to achieve a performance improvement, they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> observe the TTL information reported by DNS.
     2087      </p>
     2088      <p id="rfc.section.10.4.p.4">If HTTP clients do not observe this rule, they could be spoofed when a previously-accessed server's IP address changes. As
    20492089         network renumbering is expected to become increasingly common <a href="#RFC1900" id="rfc.xref.RFC1900.2"><cite title="Renumbering Needs Work">[RFC1900]</cite></a>, the possibility of this form of attack will grow. Observing this requirement thus reduces this potential security vulnerability.
    20502090      </p>
    2051       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.p.5">This requirement also improves the load-balancing behavior of clients for replicated servers using the same DNS name and reduces
     2091      <p id="rfc.section.10.4.p.5">This requirement also improves the load-balancing behavior of clients for replicated servers using the same DNS name and reduces
    20522092         the likelihood of a user's experiencing failure in accessing sites which use that strategy.
    20532093      </p>
    2054       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.5"><a href="#rfc.section.9.5">9.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.proxies" href="#attack.proxies">Proxies and Caching</a></h2>
    2055       <p id="rfc.section.9.5.p.1">By their very nature, HTTP proxies are men-in-the-middle, and represent an opportunity for man-in-the-middle attacks. Compromise
     2094      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.5"><a href="#rfc.section.10.5">10.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.proxies" href="#attack.proxies">Proxies and Caching</a></h2>
     2095      <p id="rfc.section.10.5.p.1">By their very nature, HTTP proxies are men-in-the-middle, and represent an opportunity for man-in-the-middle attacks. Compromise
    20562096         of the systems on which the proxies run can result in serious security and privacy problems. Proxies have access to security-related
    20572097         information, personal information about individual users and organizations, and proprietary information belonging to users
     
    20592099         might be used in the commission of a wide range of potential attacks.
    20602100      </p>
    2061       <p id="rfc.section.9.5.p.2">Proxy operators should protect the systems on which proxies run as they would protect any system that contains or transports
     2101      <p id="rfc.section.10.5.p.2">Proxy operators should protect the systems on which proxies run as they would protect any system that contains or transports
    20622102         sensitive information. In particular, log information gathered at proxies often contains highly sensitive personal information,
    20632103         and/or information about organizations. Log information should be carefully guarded, and appropriate guidelines for use developed
    2064          and followed. (<a href="#abuse.of.server.log.information" title="Abuse of Server Log Information">Section&nbsp;9.2</a>).
    2065       </p>
    2066       <p id="rfc.section.9.5.p.3">Proxy implementors should consider the privacy and security implications of their design and coding decisions, and of the
     2104         and followed. (<a href="#abuse.of.server.log.information" title="Abuse of Server Log Information">Section&nbsp;10.2</a>).
     2105      </p>
     2106      <p id="rfc.section.10.5.p.3">Proxy implementors should consider the privacy and security implications of their design and coding decisions, and of the
    20672107         configuration options they provide to proxy operators (especially the default configuration).
    20682108      </p>
    2069       <p id="rfc.section.9.5.p.4">Users of a proxy need to be aware that they are no trustworthier than the people who run the proxy; HTTP itself cannot solve
     2109      <p id="rfc.section.10.5.p.4">Users of a proxy need to be aware that they are no trustworthier than the people who run the proxy; HTTP itself cannot solve
    20702110         this problem.
    20712111      </p>
    2072       <p id="rfc.section.9.5.p.5">The judicious use of cryptography, when appropriate, may suffice to protect against a broad range of security and privacy
     2112      <p id="rfc.section.10.5.p.5">The judicious use of cryptography, when appropriate, may suffice to protect against a broad range of security and privacy
    20732113         attacks. Such cryptography is beyond the scope of the HTTP/1.1 specification.
    20742114      </p>
    2075       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.6"><a href="#rfc.section.9.6">9.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.DoS" href="#attack.DoS">Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies</a></h2>
    2076       <p id="rfc.section.9.6.p.1">They exist. They are hard to defend against. Research continues. Beware.</p>
    2077       <h1 id="rfc.section.10"><a href="#rfc.section.10">10.</a>&nbsp;<a id="ack" href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
    2078       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.1">HTTP has evolved considerably over the years. It has benefited from a large and active developer community--the many people
     2115      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.6"><a href="#rfc.section.10.6">10.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.DoS" href="#attack.DoS">Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies</a></h2>
     2116      <p id="rfc.section.10.6.p.1">They exist. They are hard to defend against. Research continues. Beware.</p>
     2117      <h1 id="rfc.section.11"><a href="#rfc.section.11">11.</a>&nbsp;<a id="ack" href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
     2118      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.1">HTTP has evolved considerably over the years. It has benefited from a large and active developer community--the many people
    20792119         who have participated on the www-talk mailing list--and it is that community which has been most responsible for the success
    20802120         of HTTP and of the World-Wide Web in general. Marc Andreessen, Robert Cailliau, Daniel W. Connolly, Bob Denny, John Franks,
     
    20822122         and Marc VanHeyningen deserve special recognition for their efforts in defining early aspects of the protocol.
    20832123      </p>
    2084       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.2">This document has benefited greatly from the comments of all those participating in the HTTP-WG. In addition to those already
     2124      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.2">This document has benefited greatly from the comments of all those participating in the HTTP-WG. In addition to those already
    20852125         mentioned, the following individuals have contributed to this specification:
    20862126      </p>
    2087       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.3">Gary Adams, Harald Tveit Alvestrand, Keith Ball, Brian Behlendorf, Paul Burchard, Maurizio Codogno, Mike Cowlishaw, Roman
     2127      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.3">Gary Adams, Harald Tveit Alvestrand, Keith Ball, Brian Behlendorf, Paul Burchard, Maurizio Codogno, Mike Cowlishaw, Roman
    20882128         Czyborra, Michael A. Dolan, Daniel DuBois, David J. Fiander, Alan Freier, Marc Hedlund, Greg Herlihy, Koen Holtman, Alex Hopmann,
    20892129         Bob Jernigan, Shel Kaphan, Rohit Khare, John Klensin, Martijn Koster, Alexei Kosut, David M. Kristol, Daniel LaLiberte, Ben
     
    20932133         Weinman, Francois Yergeau, Mary Ellen Zurko, Josh Cohen.
    20942134      </p>
    2095       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.4">Thanks to the "cave men" of Palo Alto. You know who you are.</p>
    2096       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.5">Jim Gettys (the editor of <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>) wishes particularly to thank Roy Fielding, the editor of <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>, along with John Klensin, Jeff Mogul, Paul Leach, Dave Kristol, Koen Holtman, John Franks, Josh Cohen, Alex Hopmann, Scott
     2135      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.4">Thanks to the "cave men" of Palo Alto. You know who you are.</p>
     2136      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.5">Jim Gettys (the editor of <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>) wishes particularly to thank Roy Fielding, the editor of <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>, along with John Klensin, Jeff Mogul, Paul Leach, Dave Kristol, Koen Holtman, John Franks, Josh Cohen, Alex Hopmann, Scott
    20972137         Lawrence, and Larry Masinter for their help. And thanks go particularly to Jeff Mogul and Scott Lawrence for performing the
    20982138         "MUST/MAY/SHOULD" audit.
    20992139      </p>
    2100       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.6">The Apache Group, Anselm Baird-Smith, author of Jigsaw, and Henrik Frystyk implemented RFC 2068 early, and we wish to thank
     2140      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.6">The Apache Group, Anselm Baird-Smith, author of Jigsaw, and Henrik Frystyk implemented RFC 2068 early, and we wish to thank
    21012141         them for the discovery of many of the problems that this document attempts to rectify.
    21022142      </p>
    2103       <p id="rfc.section.10.p.7">This specification makes heavy use of the augmented BNF and generic constructs defined by David H. Crocker for <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.4"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>. Similarly, it reuses many of the definitions provided by Nathaniel Borenstein and Ned Freed for MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.3"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>. We hope that their inclusion in this specification will help reduce past confusion over the relationship between HTTP and
     2143      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.7">This specification makes heavy use of the augmented BNF and generic constructs defined by David H. Crocker for <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.4"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>. Similarly, it reuses many of the definitions provided by Nathaniel Borenstein and Ned Freed for MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.3"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>. We hope that their inclusion in this specification will help reduce past confusion over the relationship between HTTP and
    21042144         Internet mail message formats.
    21052145      </p>
    2106       <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.11" href="#rfc.section.11">11.</a> References
     2146      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.12" href="#rfc.section.12">12.</a> References
    21072147      </h1>
    2108       <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.11.1" id="rfc.section.11.1">11.1</a> Normative References
     2148      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.12.1" id="rfc.section.12.1">12.1</a> Normative References
    21092149      </h2>
    21102150      <table summary="Normative References">                     
     
    21662206         </tr>
    21672207      </table>
    2168       <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.11.2" id="rfc.section.11.2">11.2</a> Informative References
     2208      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.12.2" id="rfc.section.12.2">12.2</a> Informative References
    21692209      </h2>
    21702210      <table summary="Informative References">                                             
     
    23122352      </p>
    23132353      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.4">The character set of an entity-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be labeled as the lowest common denominator of the character codes used within that body, with the exception that not labeling
    2314          the entity is preferred over labeling the entity with the labels US-ASCII or ISO-8859-1. See <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>.
     2354         the entity is preferred over labeling the entity with the labels US-ASCII or ISO-8859-1. See <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>.
    23152355      </p>
    23162356      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.5">Additional rules for requirements on parsing and encoding of dates and other potential problems with date encodings include:</p>
     
    23612401      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.1">This section summarizes major differences between versions HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1.</p>
    23622402      <h3 id="rfc.section.B.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.B.1.1">B.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses">Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses</a></h3>
    2363       <p id="rfc.section.B.1.1.p.1">The requirements that clients and servers support the Host request-header, report an error if the Host request-header (<a href="#header.host" id="rfc.xref.header.host.2" title="Host">Section&nbsp;7.4</a>) is missing from an HTTP/1.1 request, and accept absolute URIs (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;4.1.2</a>) are among the most important changes defined by this specification.
     2403      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.1.p.1">The requirements that clients and servers support the Host request-header, report an error if the Host request-header (<a href="#header.host" id="rfc.xref.header.host.2" title="Host">Section&nbsp;8.4</a>) is missing from an HTTP/1.1 request, and accept absolute URIs (<a href="#request-target" title="request-target">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>) are among the most important changes defined by this specification.
    23642404      </p>
    23652405      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.1.p.2">Older HTTP/1.0 clients assumed a one-to-one relationship of IP addresses and servers; there was no other established mechanism
     
    23942434         Therefore, we need some other mechanism for indicating a persistent connection is desired, which is safe to use even when
    23952435         talking to an old proxy that ignores Connection. Persistent connections are the default for HTTP/1.1 messages; we introduce
    2396          a new keyword (Connection: close) for declaring non-persistence. See <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.7" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>.
     2436         a new keyword (Connection: close) for declaring non-persistence. See <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.7" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>.
    23972437      </p>
    23982438      <p id="rfc.section.B.2.p.3">The original HTTP/1.0 form of persistent connections (the Connection: Keep-Alive and Keep-Alive header) is documented in <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>.
     
    24042444      <p id="rfc.section.B.3.p.2">Transfer-coding and message lengths all interact in ways that required fixing exactly when chunked encoding is used (to allow
    24052445         for transfer encoding that may not be self delimiting); it was important to straighten out exactly how message lengths are
    2406          computed. (Sections <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">2.4</a>, <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">3.4</a>, <a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.3" title="Content-Length">7.2</a>, see also <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a> and <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>)
     2446         computed. (Sections <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">3.3</a>, <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">4.4</a>, <a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.3" title="Content-Length">8.2</a>, see also <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a> and <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>)
    24072447      </p>
    24082448      <p id="rfc.section.B.3.p.3">The use and interpretation of HTTP version numbers has been clarified by <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.3"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a>. Require proxies to upgrade requests to highest protocol version they support to deal with problems discovered in HTTP/1.0
    2409          implementations (<a href="#http.version" title="HTTP Version">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>)
     2449         implementations (<a href="#http.version" title="HTTP Version">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
    24102450      </p>
    24112451      <p id="rfc.section.B.3.p.4">Transfer-coding had significant problems, particularly with interactions with chunked encoding. The solution is that transfer-codings
     
    24132453         codings), a new header field (TE) and enabling trailer headers in the future. Transfer encoding is a major performance benefit,
    24142454         so it was worth fixing <a href="#Nie1997" id="rfc.xref.Nie1997.2"><cite title="Network Performance Effects of HTTP/1.1, CSS1, and PNG">[Nie1997]</cite></a>. TE also solves another, obscure, downward interoperability problem that could have occurred due to interactions between
    2415          authentication trailers, chunked encoding and HTTP/1.0 clients.(Section <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">2.4</a>, <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">2.4.1</a>, and <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.4" title="TE">7.5</a>)
     2455         authentication trailers, chunked encoding and HTTP/1.0 clients.(Section <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">3.3</a>, <a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">3.3.1</a>, and <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.4" title="TE">8.5</a>)
    24162456      </p>
    24172457      <h2 id="rfc.section.B.4"><a href="#rfc.section.B.4">B.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.from.rfc.2616" href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h2>
     
    24202460         quoted-string rules). Furthermore, the quoted-pair rule does not allow escaping NUL, CR or LF anymore. (<a href="#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section&nbsp;1.2.2</a>)
    24212461      </p>
    2422       <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.2">Clarify that HTTP-Version is case sensitive. (<a href="#http.version" title="HTTP Version">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>)
    2423       </p>
    2424       <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.3">Remove reference to non-existant identity transfer-coding value tokens. (Sections <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">2.4</a> and <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">3.4</a>)
    2425       </p>
    2426       <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.4">Clarification that the chunk length does not include the count of the octets in the chunk header and trailer. (<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;2.4.1</a>)
    2427       </p>
    2428       <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.5">Update use of abs_path production from RFC1808 to the path-absolute + query components of RFC3986. (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;4.1.2</a>)
    2429       </p>
    2430       <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.6">Clarify exactly when close connection options must be sent. (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.8" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>)
     2462      <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.2">Clarify that HTTP-Version is case sensitive. (<a href="#http.version" title="HTTP Version">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
     2463      </p>
     2464      <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.3">Remove reference to non-existant identity transfer-coding value tokens. (Sections <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">3.3</a> and <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">4.4</a>)
     2465      </p>
     2466      <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.4">Clarification that the chunk length does not include the count of the octets in the chunk header and trailer. (<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;3.3.1</a>)
     2467      </p>
     2468      <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.5">Update use of abs_path production from RFC1808 to the path-absolute + query components of RFC3986. (<a href="#request-target" title="request-target">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>)
     2469      </p>
     2470      <p id="rfc.section.B.4.p.6">Clarify exactly when close connection options must be sent. (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.8" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>)
    24312471      </p>
    24322472      <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a id="terminology" href="#terminology">Terminology</a></h1>
     
    24402480      </p>
    24412481      <dl class="empty">
    2442          <dd>The basic unit of HTTP communication, consisting of a structured sequence of octets matching the syntax defined in <a href="#http.message" title="HTTP Message">Section&nbsp;3</a> and transmitted via the connection.
     2482         <dd>The basic unit of HTTP communication, consisting of a structured sequence of octets matching the syntax defined in <a href="#http.message" title="HTTP Message">Section&nbsp;4</a> and transmitted via the connection.
    24432483         </dd>
    24442484      </dl>
     
    24462486      </p>
    24472487      <dl class="empty">
    2448          <dd>An HTTP request message, as defined in <a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;4</a>.
     2488         <dd>An HTTP request message, as defined in <a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;5</a>.
    24492489         </dd>
    24502490      </dl>
     
    24522492      </p>
    24532493      <dl class="empty">
    2454          <dd>An HTTP response message, as defined in <a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;5</a>.
     2494         <dd>An HTTP response message, as defined in <a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;6</a>.
    24552495         </dd>
    24562496      </dl>
     
    24582498      </p>
    24592499      <dl class="empty">
    2460          <dd>A network data object or service that can be identified by a URI, as defined in <a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>. Resources may be available in multiple representations (e.g. multiple languages, data formats, size, and resolutions) or
     2500         <dd>A network data object or service that can be identified by a URI, as defined in <a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>. Resources may be available in multiple representations (e.g. multiple languages, data formats, size, and resolutions) or
    24612501            vary in other ways.
    24622502         </dd>
     
    24662506      <dl class="empty">
    24672507         <dd>The information transferred as the payload of a request or response. An entity consists of metainformation in the form of
    2468             entity-header fields and content in the form of an entity-body, as described in <a href="p3-payload.html#entity" title="Entity">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>.
     2508            entity-header fields and content in the form of an entity-body, as described in <a href="p3-payload.html#entity" title="Entity">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>.
    24692509         </dd>
    24702510      </dl>
     
    24722512      </p>
    24732513      <dl class="empty">
    2474          <dd>An entity included with a response that is subject to content negotiation, as described in <a href="p3-payload.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 5</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>. There may exist multiple representations associated with a particular response status.
     2514         <dd>An entity included with a response that is subject to content negotiation, as described in <a href="p3-payload.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 5</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>. There may exist multiple representations associated with a particular response status.
    24752515         </dd>
    24762516      </dl>
     
    24782518      </p>
    24792519      <dl class="empty">
    2480          <dd>The mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request, as described in <a href="p3-payload.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 5</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses).
     2520         <dd>The mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request, as described in <a href="p3-payload.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 5</a> of <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses).
    24812521         </dd>
    24822522      </dl>
     
    25252565         </dd>
    25262566      </dl>
    2527       <p id="rfc.section.C.p.16"> <span id="rfc.iref.g.110"></span>  <dfn>gateway</dfn> 
     2567      <p id="rfc.section.C.p.16"> <span id="rfc.iref.g.108"></span>  <dfn>gateway</dfn> 
    25282568      </p>
    25292569      <dl class="empty">
     
    27452785         <ul class="ind">
    27462786            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2747                   <li class="indline1">application/http Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>8.3.2</b></a></li>
     2787                  <li class="indline1">application/http Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>9.3.2</b></a></li>
    27482788               </ul>
    27492789            </li>
     
    27532793                  <li class="indline1">client&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.5">C</a></li>
    27542794                  <li class="indline1">connection&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.3">C</a></li>
    2755                   <li class="indline1">Connection header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.2">6.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.3">6.1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>7.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.4">7.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.5">7.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.6">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.7">B.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.8">B.4</a></li>
     2795                  <li class="indline1">Connection header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.2">7.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.3">7.1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>8.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.4">8.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.5">8.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.6">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.7">B.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.8">B.4</a></li>
    27562796                  <li class="indline1">content negotiation&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.4">C</a></li>
    2757                   <li class="indline1">Content-Length header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.1">3.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.2"><b>7.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.2">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.3">B.3</a></li>
     2797                  <li class="indline1">Content-Length header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.1">4.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.c.2"><b>8.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.2">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.3">B.3</a></li>
    27582798               </ul>
    27592799            </li>
    27602800            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.D" href="#rfc.index.D"><b>D</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2761                   <li class="indline1">Date header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.d.1"><b>7.3</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.2">8.1</a></li>
     2801                  <li class="indline1">Date header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.d.1"><b>8.3</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.2">9.1</a></li>
    27622802                  <li class="indline1">downstream&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.d.2">C</a></li>
    27632803               </ul>
     
    27682808            </li>
    27692809            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2770                   <li class="indline1">gateway&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.110">C</a></li>
     2810                  <li class="indline1">gateway&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.108">C</a></li>
    27712811                  <li class="indline1"><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
    27722812                     <ul class="ind">
    2773                         <li class="indline1"><tt>absolute-URI</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.29"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
     2813                        <li class="indline1"><tt>absolute-URI</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.27"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
    27742814                        <li class="indline1">ALPHA&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2775                         <li class="indline1"><tt>asctime-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.42"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2776                         <li class="indline1"><tt>attribute</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.53"><b>2.4</b></a></li>
    2777                         <li class="indline1"><tt>authority</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.30"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
     2815                        <li class="indline1"><tt>asctime-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.40"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2816                        <li class="indline1"><tt>attribute</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.51"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
     2817                        <li class="indline1"><tt>authority</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.28"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
    27782818                        <li class="indline1"><tt>BWS</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.16"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    27792819                        <li class="indline1">CHAR&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2780                         <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.56"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2781                         <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-data</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.62"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2782                         <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-ext</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.59"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2783                         <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-ext-name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.60"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2784                         <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-ext-val</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.61"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2785                         <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-size</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.57"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2786                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Chunked-Body</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.55"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
     2820                        <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.54"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2821                        <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-data</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.60"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2822                        <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-ext</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.57"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2823                        <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-ext-name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.58"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2824                        <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-ext-val</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.59"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2825                        <li class="indline1"><tt>chunk-size</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.55"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2826                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Chunked-Body</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.53"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
    27872827                        <li class="indline1"><tt>comment</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.20"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2788                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Connection</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.85"><b>7.1</b></a></li>
    2789                         <li class="indline1"><tt>connection-token</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.87"><b>7.1</b></a></li>
    2790                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Connection-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.86"><b>7.1</b></a></li>
    2791                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Content-Length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.88"><b>7.2</b></a></li>
    2792                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Content-Length-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.89"><b>7.2</b></a></li>
     2828                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Connection</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.83"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
     2829                        <li class="indline1"><tt>connection-token</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.85"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
     2830                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Connection-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.84"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
     2831                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Content-Length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.86"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
     2832                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Content-Length-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.87"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
    27932833                        <li class="indline1">CR&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    27942834                        <li class="indline1">CRLF&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    27952835                        <li class="indline1"><tt>ctext</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.21"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    27962836                        <li class="indline1">CTL&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2797                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.90"><b>7.3</b></a></li>
    2798                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Date-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.91"><b>7.3</b></a></li>
    2799                         <li class="indline1"><tt>date1</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.43"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2800                         <li class="indline1"><tt>date2</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.44"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2801                         <li class="indline1"><tt>date3</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.45"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
     2837                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.88"><b>8.3</b></a></li>
     2838                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Date-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.89"><b>8.3</b></a></li>
     2839                        <li class="indline1"><tt>date1</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.41"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2840                        <li class="indline1"><tt>date2</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.42"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2841                        <li class="indline1"><tt>date3</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.43"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
    28022842                        <li class="indline1">DIGIT&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    28032843                        <li class="indline1">DQUOTE&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2804                         <li class="indline1"><tt>extension-code</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.83"><b>5.1.1</b></a></li>
    2805                         <li class="indline1"><tt>extension-method</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.78"><b>4.1.1</b></a></li>
    2806                         <li class="indline1"><tt>field-content</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.72"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
    2807                         <li class="indline1"><tt>field-name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.70"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
    2808                         <li class="indline1"><tt>field-value</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.71"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
    2809                         <li class="indline1"><tt>general-header</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.74"><b>3.5</b></a></li>
    2810                         <li class="indline1"><tt>generic-message</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.67"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
     2844                        <li class="indline1"><tt>extension-code</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.81"><b>6.1.1</b></a></li>
     2845                        <li class="indline1"><tt>extension-method</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.76"><b>5.1.1</b></a></li>
     2846                        <li class="indline1"><tt>field-content</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.70"><b>4.2</b></a></li>
     2847                        <li class="indline1"><tt>field-name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.68"><b>4.2</b></a></li>
     2848                        <li class="indline1"><tt>field-value</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.69"><b>4.2</b></a></li>
     2849                        <li class="indline1"><tt>general-header</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.72"><b>4.5</b></a></li>
     2850                        <li class="indline1"><tt>generic-message</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.65"><b>4.1</b></a></li>
    28112851                        <li class="indline1">HEXDIG&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2812                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Host</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.92"><b>7.4</b></a></li>
    2813                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Host-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.93"><b>7.4</b></a></li>
     2852                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Host</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.90"><b>8.4</b></a></li>
     2853                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Host-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.91"><b>8.4</b></a></li>
    28142854                        <li class="indline1">HTAB&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2815                         <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.38"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2816                         <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-message</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.66"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
    2817                         <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-Prot-Name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.27"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
    2818                         <li class="indline1"><tt>http-URI</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.37"><b>2.2.1</b></a></li>
    2819                         <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-Version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.26"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
    2820                         <li class="indline1"><tt>last-chunk</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.58"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
     2855                        <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.36"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2856                        <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-message</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.64"><b>4.1</b></a></li>
     2857                        <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-Prot-Name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.35"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
     2858                        <li class="indline1"><tt>http-URI</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.33"><b>2.1.1</b></a></li>
     2859                        <li class="indline1"><tt>HTTP-Version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.34"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
     2860                        <li class="indline1"><tt>last-chunk</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.56"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
    28212861                        <li class="indline1">LF&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2822                         <li class="indline1"><tt>message-body</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.73"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
    2823                         <li class="indline1"><tt>message-header</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.69"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
    2824                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Method</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.77"><b>4.1.1</b></a></li>
    2825                         <li class="indline1"><tt>month</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.49"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2826                         <li class="indline1"><tt>obsolete-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.40"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
     2862                        <li class="indline1"><tt>message-body</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.71"><b>4.3</b></a></li>
     2863                        <li class="indline1"><tt>message-header</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.67"><b>4.2</b></a></li>
     2864                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Method</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.75"><b>5.1.1</b></a></li>
     2865                        <li class="indline1"><tt>month</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.47"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2866                        <li class="indline1"><tt>obsolete-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.38"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
    28272867                        <li class="indline1">OCTET&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.11"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    28282868                        <li class="indline1"><tt>OWS</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.14"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2829                         <li class="indline1"><tt>parameter</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.52"><b>2.4</b></a></li>
    2830                         <li class="indline1"><tt>path-absolute</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.31"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
    2831                         <li class="indline1"><tt>port</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.32"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
    2832                         <li class="indline1"><tt>product</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.64"><b>2.5</b></a></li>
    2833                         <li class="indline1"><tt>product-version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.65"><b>2.5</b></a></li>
    2834                         <li class="indline1"><tt>protocol-name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.106"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
    2835                         <li class="indline1"><tt>protocol-version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.107"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
    2836                         <li class="indline1"><tt>pseudonym</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.109"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
     2869                        <li class="indline1"><tt>parameter</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.50"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
     2870                        <li class="indline1"><tt>path-absolute</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.29"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
     2871                        <li class="indline1"><tt>port</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.30"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
     2872                        <li class="indline1"><tt>product</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.62"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
     2873                        <li class="indline1"><tt>product-version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.63"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
     2874                        <li class="indline1"><tt>protocol-name</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.104"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
     2875                        <li class="indline1"><tt>protocol-version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.105"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
     2876                        <li class="indline1"><tt>pseudonym</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.107"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
    28372877                        <li class="indline1"><tt>qdtext</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.23"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2838                         <li class="indline1"><tt>query</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.33"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
     2878                        <li class="indline1"><tt>query</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.31"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
    28392879                        <li class="indline1"><tt>quoted-pair</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.25"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    28402880                        <li class="indline1"><tt>quoted-string</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.22"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    28412881                        <li class="indline1"><tt>quoted-text</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.24"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2842                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Reason-Phrase</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.84"><b>5.1.1</b></a></li>
    2843                         <li class="indline1"><tt>received-by</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.108"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
    2844                         <li class="indline1"><tt>received-protocol</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.105"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
    2845                         <li class="indline1"><tt>relative-part</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.36"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
    2846                         <li class="indline1"><tt>relativeURI</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.35"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
    2847                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Request</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.75"><b>4</b></a></li>
    2848                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Request-Line</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.76"><b>4.1</b></a></li>
    2849                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Request-URI</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.79"><b>4.1.2</b></a></li>
    2850                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Response</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.80"><b>5</b></a></li>
    2851                         <li class="indline1"><tt>rfc1123-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.39"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2852                         <li class="indline1"><tt>rfc850-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.41"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
     2882                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Reason-Phrase</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.82"><b>6.1.1</b></a></li>
     2883                        <li class="indline1"><tt>received-by</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.106"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
     2884                        <li class="indline1"><tt>received-protocol</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.103"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
     2885                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Request</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.73"><b>5</b></a></li>
     2886                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Request-Line</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.74"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
     2887                        <li class="indline1"><tt>request-target</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.77"><b>5.1.2</b></a></li>
     2888                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Response</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.78"><b>6</b></a></li>
     2889                        <li class="indline1"><tt>rfc1123-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.37"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2890                        <li class="indline1"><tt>rfc850-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.39"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
    28532891                        <li class="indline1"><tt>RWS</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.15"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    28542892                        <li class="indline1">SP&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.12"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    2855                         <li class="indline1"><tt>start-line</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.68"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
    2856                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Status-Code</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.82"><b>5.1.1</b></a></li>
    2857                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Status-Line</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.81"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
    2858                         <li class="indline1"><tt>t-codings</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.96"><b>7.5</b></a></li>
     2893                        <li class="indline1"><tt>start-line</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.66"><b>4.1</b></a></li>
     2894                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Status-Code</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.80"><b>6.1.1</b></a></li>
     2895                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Status-Line</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.79"><b>6.1</b></a></li>
     2896                        <li class="indline1"><tt>t-codings</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.94"><b>8.5</b></a></li>
    28592897                        <li class="indline1"><tt>tchar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.19"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2860                         <li class="indline1"><tt>TE</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.94"><b>7.5</b></a></li>
    2861                         <li class="indline1"><tt>TE-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.95"><b>7.5</b></a></li>
     2898                        <li class="indline1"><tt>TE</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.92"><b>8.5</b></a></li>
     2899                        <li class="indline1"><tt>TE-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.93"><b>8.5</b></a></li>
    28622900                        <li class="indline1"><tt>TEXT</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.17"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2863                         <li class="indline1"><tt>time</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.46"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
     2901                        <li class="indline1"><tt>time</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.44"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
    28642902                        <li class="indline1"><tt>token</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.18"><b>1.2.2</b></a></li>
    2865                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Trailer</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.97"><b>7.6</b></a></li>
    2866                         <li class="indline1"><tt>trailer-part</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.63"><b>2.4.1</b></a></li>
    2867                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Trailer-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.98"><b>7.6</b></a></li>
    2868                         <li class="indline1"><tt>transfer-coding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.50"><b>2.4</b></a></li>
    2869                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Transfer-Encoding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.99"><b>7.7</b></a></li>
    2870                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Transfer-Encoding-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.100"><b>7.7</b></a></li>
    2871                         <li class="indline1"><tt>transfer-extension</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.51"><b>2.4</b></a></li>
    2872                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Upgrade</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.101"><b>7.8</b></a></li>
    2873                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Upgrade-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.102"><b>7.8</b></a></li>
    2874                         <li class="indline1"><tt>uri-host</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.34"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
    2875                         <li class="indline1"><tt>URI-reference</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.28"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
    2876                         <li class="indline1"><tt>value</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.54"><b>2.4</b></a></li>
    2877                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Via</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.103"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
    2878                         <li class="indline1"><tt>Via-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.104"><b>7.9</b></a></li>
    2879                         <li class="indline1"><tt>weekday</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.48"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
    2880                         <li class="indline1"><tt>wkday</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.47"><b>2.3.1</b></a></li>
     2903                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Trailer</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.95"><b>8.6</b></a></li>
     2904                        <li class="indline1"><tt>trailer-part</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.61"><b>3.3.1</b></a></li>
     2905                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Trailer-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.96"><b>8.6</b></a></li>
     2906                        <li class="indline1"><tt>transfer-coding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.48"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
     2907                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Transfer-Encoding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.97"><b>8.7</b></a></li>
     2908                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Transfer-Encoding-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.98"><b>8.7</b></a></li>
     2909                        <li class="indline1"><tt>transfer-extension</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.49"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
     2910                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Upgrade</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.99"><b>8.8</b></a></li>
     2911                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Upgrade-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.100"><b>8.8</b></a></li>
     2912                        <li class="indline1"><tt>uri-host</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.32"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
     2913                        <li class="indline1"><tt>URI-reference</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.26"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
     2914                        <li class="indline1"><tt>value</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.52"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
     2915                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Via</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.101"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
     2916                        <li class="indline1"><tt>Via-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.102"><b>8.9</b></a></li>
     2917                        <li class="indline1"><tt>weekday</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.46"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
     2918                        <li class="indline1"><tt>wkday</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.45"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
    28812919                        <li class="indline1">WSP&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.g.13"><b>1.2</b></a></li>
    28822920                     </ul>
     
    28872925                  <li class="indline1">Headers&nbsp;&nbsp;
    28882926                     <ul class="ind">
    2889                         <li class="indline1">Connection&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.2">6.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.3">6.1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>7.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.4">7.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.5">7.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.6">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.7">B.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.8">B.4</a></li>
    2890                         <li class="indline1">Content-Length&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.1">3.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>7.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.2">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.3">B.3</a></li>
    2891                         <li class="indline1">Date&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.5"><b>7.3</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.2">8.1</a></li>
    2892                         <li class="indline1">Host&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.7"><b>7.4</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.1">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.2">B.1.1</a></li>
    2893                         <li class="indline1">TE&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.1">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.2">2.4.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.8"><b>7.5</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.3">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.4">B.3</a></li>
    2894                         <li class="indline1">Trailer&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.1">2.4.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.2">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.9"><b>7.6</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.3">8.1</a></li>
    2895                         <li class="indline1">Transfer-Encoding&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3">3.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.4">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.10"><b>7.7</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.5">8.1</a></li>
    2896                         <li class="indline1">Upgrade&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.11"><b>7.8</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.2">8.1</a></li>
    2897                         <li class="indline1">Via&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.12"><b>7.9</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.2">8.1</a></li>
     2927                        <li class="indline1">Connection&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.2">7.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.3">7.1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>8.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.4">8.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.5">8.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.6">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.7">B.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.connection.8">B.4</a></li>
     2928                        <li class="indline1">Content-Length&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.1">4.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>8.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.2">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.content-length.3">B.3</a></li>
     2929                        <li class="indline1">Date&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.5"><b>8.3</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.date.2">9.1</a></li>
     2930                        <li class="indline1">Host&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.7"><b>8.4</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.1">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.2">B.1.1</a></li>
     2931                        <li class="indline1">TE&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.1">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.2">3.3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.8"><b>8.5</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.3">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.4">B.3</a></li>
     2932                        <li class="indline1">Trailer&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.1">3.3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.2">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.9"><b>8.6</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.3">9.1</a></li>
     2933                        <li class="indline1">Transfer-Encoding&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2">4.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3">4.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.4">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.10"><b>8.7</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.5">9.1</a></li>
     2934                        <li class="indline1">Upgrade&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.11"><b>8.8</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.2">9.1</a></li>
     2935                        <li class="indline1">Via&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.12"><b>8.9</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.2">9.1</a></li>
    28982936                     </ul>
    28992937                  </li>
    2900                   <li class="indline1">Host header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.6"><b>7.4</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.1">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.2">B.1.1</a></li>
    2901                   <li class="indline1">http URI scheme&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>2.2.1</b></a></li>
    2902                   <li class="indline1">https URI scheme&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.2">2.2.1</a></li>
     2938                  <li class="indline1">Host header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.6"><b>8.4</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.1">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.host.2">B.1.1</a></li>
     2939                  <li class="indline1">http URI scheme&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>2.1.1</b></a></li>
     2940                  <li class="indline1">https URI scheme&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.h.2">2.1.1</a></li>
    29032941               </ul>
    29042942            </li>
    29052943            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul class="ind">
    29062944                  <li class="indline1">inbound&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.i.1">C</a></li>
    2907                   <li class="indline1"><em>ISO-8859-1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.ISO-8859-1.1">1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#ISO-8859-1"><b>11.1</b></a></li>
     2945                  <li class="indline1"><em>ISO-8859-1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.ISO-8859-1.1">1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#ISO-8859-1"><b>12.1</b></a></li>
    29082946               </ul>
    29092947            </li>
    29102948            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.K" href="#rfc.index.K"><b>K</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2911                   <li class="indline1"><em>Kri2001</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Kri2001.1">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Kri2001"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
     2949                  <li class="indline1"><em>Kri2001</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Kri2001.1">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Kri2001"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
    29122950               </ul>
    29132951            </li>
     
    29152953                  <li class="indline1">Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;
    29162954                     <ul class="ind">
    2917                         <li class="indline1">application/http&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.3"><b>8.3.2</b></a></li>
    2918                         <li class="indline1">message/http&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>8.3.1</b></a></li>
     2955                        <li class="indline1">application/http&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.3"><b>9.3.2</b></a></li>
     2956                        <li class="indline1">message/http&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>9.3.1</b></a></li>
    29192957                     </ul>
    29202958                  </li>
    29212959                  <li class="indline1">message&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.4">C</a></li>
    2922                   <li class="indline1">message/http Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>8.3.1</b></a></li>
     2960                  <li class="indline1">message/http Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>9.3.1</b></a></li>
    29232961               </ul>
    29242962            </li>
    29252963            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.N" href="#rfc.index.N"><b>N</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2926                   <li class="indline1"><em>Nie1997</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Nie1997.1">6.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Nie1997"><b>11.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Nie1997.2">B.3</a></li>
     2964                  <li class="indline1"><em>Nie1997</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Nie1997.1">7.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Nie1997"><b>12.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Nie1997.2">B.3</a></li>
    29272965               </ul>
    29282966            </li>
     
    29332971            </li>
    29342972            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2935                   <li class="indline1"><em>Pad1995</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Pad1995.1">6.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Pad1995"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2936                   <li class="indline1"><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.6">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.7">4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.8">4.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.9">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.10">5.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.11">6.1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.12">6.1.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.13">6.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.14">6.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.15">6.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.16">6.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part2"><b>11.1</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2937                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.6">3.3</a></li>
    2938                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.7">4</a></li>
    2939                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.9">5</a></li>
    2940                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 8.1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.11">6.1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.12">6.1.4</a></li>
    2941                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 8.9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.8">4.1.2</a></li>
    2942                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.10">5.1.1</a></li>
    2943                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9.1.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.13">6.2.3</a></li>
    2944                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.16">6.2.3</a></li>
    2945                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9.4.15</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">2.2</a></li>
    2946                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 10.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.14">6.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.15">6.2.3</a></li>
     2973                  <li class="indline1"><em>Pad1995</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Pad1995.1">7.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Pad1995"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     2974                  <li class="indline1"><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">4.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.6">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.7">5.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.8">5.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.9">6</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.10">6.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.11">7.1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.12">7.1.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.13">7.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.14">7.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.15">7.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.16">7.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part2"><b>12.1</b></a><ul class="ind">
     2975                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">4.3</a></li>
     2976                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.6">5</a></li>
     2977                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.9">6</a></li>
     2978                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 8.1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.11">7.1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.12">7.1.4</a></li>
     2979                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 8.9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.7">5.1.2</a></li>
     2980                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.10">6.1.1</a></li>
     2981                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9.1.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.13">7.2.3</a></li>
     2982                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.16">7.2.3</a></li>
     2983                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 9.4.15</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.8">5.1.2</a></li>
     2984                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 10.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.14">7.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part2.15">7.2.3</a></li>
    29472985                     </ul>
    29482986                  </li>
    2949                   <li class="indline1"><em>Part3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.2">1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.3">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.4">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.5">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.6">1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.7">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.8">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.9">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.10">4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.11">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.12">7.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part3"><b>11.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.13">A</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.14">B.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.15">C</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.16">C</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.17">C</a><ul class="ind">
    2950                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.7">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.8">2.4</a></li>
     2987                  <li class="indline1"><em>Part3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.2">1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.3">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.4">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.5">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.6">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.7">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.8">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.9">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.10">6</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.11">8.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part3"><b>12.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.12">A</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.13">B.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.14">C</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.15">C</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.16">C</a><ul class="ind">
     2988                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.6">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.7">3.3</a></li>
    29512989                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.2">1.2.2</a></li>
    2952                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.12">7.5</a></li>
    2953                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.5">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.9">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.10">4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.11">5</a></li>
    2954                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.15">C</a></li>
     2990                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.11">8.5</a></li>
     2991                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.5">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.8">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.9">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.10">6</a></li>
     2992                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.14">C</a></li>
    29552993                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.4">1.2.3</a></li>
    2956                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.16">C</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.17">C</a></li>
     2994                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.15">C</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.16">C</a></li>
    29572995                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 6.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.3">1.2.3</a></li>
    2958                         <li class="indline1"><em>Appendix A</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.6">1.3</a></li>
     2996                        <li class="indline1"><em>Appendix A</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part3.1">1</a></li>
    29592997                     </ul>
    29602998                  </li>
    2961                   <li class="indline1"><em>Part5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#Part5"><b>11.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">B.3</a></li>
    2962                   <li class="indline1"><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.4">1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.5">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.6">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.7">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part6"><b>11.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.8">B.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.9">C</a><ul class="ind">
    2963                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.4">1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.9">C</a></li>
    2964                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 16.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.5">3.5</a></li>
    2965                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 16.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.6">3.5</a></li>
    2966                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 16.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.7">3.5</a></li>
     2999                  <li class="indline1"><em>Part5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#Part5"><b>12.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">B.3</a></li>
     3000                  <li class="indline1"><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.4">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.5">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.6">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.7">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part6"><b>12.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.8">B.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.9">C</a><ul class="ind">
     3001                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.4">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.9">C</a></li>
     3002                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 16.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.5">4.5</a></li>
     3003                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 16.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.6">4.5</a></li>
     3004                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 16.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">1.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part6.7">4.5</a></li>
    29673005                     </ul>
    29683006                  </li>
     
    29753013                  <li class="indline1">resource&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.r.3">C</a></li>
    29763014                  <li class="indline1">response&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.r.2">C</a></li>
    2977                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1123</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1123.1">2.3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1123"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2978                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1305</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1305.1">7.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1305"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2979                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1436</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1436.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1436"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2980                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1900</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1900.1">2.2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1900.2">9.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1900"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2981                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1945</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#RFC1945"><b>11.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1945.1">B</a></li>
    2982                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2045</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.2">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.3">10</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2045"><b>11.1</b></a></li>
    2983                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2047</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2047.1">1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2047"><b>11.1</b></a></li>
    2984                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2068</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.1">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.2">6.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.3">6.1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.4">6.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.5">10</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2068"><b>11.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.6">B</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.7">B.2</a><ul class="ind">
     3015                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1123</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1123.1">3.2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1123"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3016                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1305</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1305.1">8.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1305"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3017                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1436</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1436.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1436"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3018                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1900</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1900.1">2.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1900.2">10.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC1900"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3019                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC1945</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#RFC1945"><b>12.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC1945.1">B</a></li>
     3020                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2045</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.2">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.3">11</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2045"><b>12.1</b></a></li>
     3021                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2047</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2047.1">1.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2047"><b>12.1</b></a></li>
     3022                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2068</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.1">3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.2">7.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.3">7.1.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.4">7.2.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.5">11</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2068"><b>12.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.6">B</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.7">B.2</a><ul class="ind">
    29853023                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 19.7.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.6">B</a></li>
    29863024                     </ul>
    29873025                  </li>
    2988                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2109</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2109.1">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2109"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2989                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2119"><b>11.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.2">B.3</a></li>
    2990                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2145</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2145.1">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2145.2">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2145"><b>11.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2145.3">B.3</a></li>
    2991                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">10</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2616"><b>11.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.3">D.1</a></li>
    2992                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2818</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2818.1">2.2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2818"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2993                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2965</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2965.1">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2965"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2994                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC3864"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2995                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC3977</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3977.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC3977"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    2996                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC3986</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.2">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.3">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.4">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.5">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.6">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.7">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.8">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.9">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.10">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.11">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.12">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.13">2.2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.14">4.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC3986"><b>11.1</b></a><ul class="ind">
    2997                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.13">2.2.2</a></li>
    2998                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.14">4.1.2</a></li>
    2999                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.9">2.2</a></li>
    3000                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.11">2.2</a></li>
    3001                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.5">2.2</a></li>
    3002                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.7">2.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.8">2.2</a></li>
    3003                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.10">2.2</a></li>
    3004                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.6">2.2</a></li>
    3005                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.12">2.2</a></li>
    3006                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.4">2.2</a></li>
     3026                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2109</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2109.1">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2109"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3027                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2119"><b>12.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.2">B.3</a></li>
     3028                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2145</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2145.1">3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2145.2">3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2145"><b>12.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2145.3">B.3</a></li>
     3029                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">11</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2616"><b>12.2</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.3">D.1</a></li>
     3030                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2818</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2818.1">2.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2818"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3031                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC2965</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC2965.1">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC2965"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3032                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC3864"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3033                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC3977</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3977.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC3977"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3034                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC3986</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.2">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.3">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.4">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.5">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.6">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.7">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.8">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.9">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.10">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.11">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.12">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.13">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.14">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.15">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.16">2.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.17">5.1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC3986"><b>12.1</b></a><ul class="ind">
     3035                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.16">2.1.2</a></li>
     3036                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.17">5.1.2</a></li>
     3037                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.13">2.1</a></li>
     3038                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.15">2.1</a></li>
     3039                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.9">2.1</a></li>
     3040                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.11">2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.12">2.1</a></li>
     3041                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.14">2.1</a></li>
     3042                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.10">2.1</a></li>
     3043                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.5">2.1</a></li>
     3044                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.6">2.1</a></li>
     3045                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.8">2.1</a></li>
     3046                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.7">2.1</a></li>
    30073047                     </ul>
    30083048                  </li>
    3009                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC4288</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC4288.1">8.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC4288"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    3010                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC4395</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC4395.1">8.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC4395"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    3011                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.3">1.2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.4">10</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC5234"><b>11.1</b></a><ul class="ind">
     3049                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC4288</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC4288.1">9.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC4288"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3050                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC4395</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC4395.1">9.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC4395"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3051                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.3">1.2.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.4">11</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC5234"><b>12.1</b></a><ul class="ind">
    30123052                        <li class="indline1"><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a></li>
    30133053                     </ul>
    30143054                  </li>
    3015                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC5322</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.2">3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.3">3.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.4">7.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.5">7.9</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC5322"><b>11.2</b></a><ul class="ind">
    3016                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.3">3.2</a></li>
    3017                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.6.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.4">7.3</a></li>
    3018                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.6.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.5">7.9</a></li>
     3055                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC5322</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.2">4.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.3">4.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.4">8.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.5">8.9</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC5322"><b>12.2</b></a><ul class="ind">
     3056                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.3">4.2</a></li>
     3057                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.6.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.4">8.3</a></li>
     3058                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.6.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.5">8.9</a></li>
    30193059                     </ul>
    30203060                  </li>
    3021                   <li class="indline1"><em>RFC959</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC959.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC959"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
     3061                  <li class="indline1"><em>RFC959</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.RFC959.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#RFC959"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
    30223062               </ul>
    30233063            </li>
    30243064            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul class="ind">
    30253065                  <li class="indline1">server&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.s.1">C</a></li>
    3026                   <li class="indline1"><em>Spe</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Spe.1">6.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Spe"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
     3066                  <li class="indline1"><em>Spe</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Spe.1">7.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Spe"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
    30273067               </ul>
    30283068            </li>
    30293069            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.T" href="#rfc.index.T"><b>T</b></a><ul class="ind">
    3030                   <li class="indline1">TE header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.1">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.2">2.4.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.1"><b>7.5</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.3">8.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.4">B.3</a></li>
    3031                   <li class="indline1"><em>Tou1998</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Tou1998.1">6.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Tou1998"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
    3032                   <li class="indline1">Trailer header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.1">2.4.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.2">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.2"><b>7.6</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.3">8.1</a></li>
    3033                   <li class="indline1">Transfer-Encoding header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1">2.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3">3.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.4">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.3"><b>7.7</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.5">8.1</a></li>
     3070                  <li class="indline1">TE header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.1">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.2">3.3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.1"><b>8.5</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.3">9.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.te.4">B.3</a></li>
     3071                  <li class="indline1"><em>Tou1998</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Tou1998.1">7.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Tou1998"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
     3072                  <li class="indline1">Trailer header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.1">3.3.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.2">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.2"><b>8.6</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.trailer.3">9.1</a></li>
     3073                  <li class="indline1">Transfer-Encoding header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1">3.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2">4.3</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3">4.4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.4">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.3"><b>8.7</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.5">9.1</a></li>
    30343074                  <li class="indline1">tunnel&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.t.4">C</a></li>
    30353075               </ul>
    30363076            </li>
    30373077            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.U" href="#rfc.index.U"><b>U</b></a><ul class="ind">
    3038                   <li class="indline1">Upgrade header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.3"><b>7.8</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.2">8.1</a></li>
     3078                  <li class="indline1">Upgrade header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.3"><b>8.8</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.upgrade.2">9.1</a></li>
    30393079                  <li class="indline1">upstream&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.5">C</a></li>
    30403080                  <li class="indline1">URI scheme&nbsp;&nbsp;
    30413081                     <ul class="ind">
    3042                         <li class="indline1">http&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.1"><b>2.2.1</b></a></li>
    3043                         <li class="indline1">https&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.2">2.2.1</a></li>
     3082                        <li class="indline1">http&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.1"><b>2.1.1</b></a></li>
     3083                        <li class="indline1">https&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.2">2.1.1</a></li>
    30443084                     </ul>
    30453085                  </li>
    3046                   <li class="indline1"><em>USASCII</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.USASCII.1">1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#USASCII"><b>11.1</b></a></li>
     3086                  <li class="indline1"><em>USASCII</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.USASCII.1">1.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#USASCII"><b>12.1</b></a></li>
    30473087                  <li class="indline1">user agent&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.u.4">C</a></li>
    30483088               </ul>
     
    30503090            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.V" href="#rfc.index.V"><b>V</b></a><ul class="ind">
    30513091                  <li class="indline1">variant&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.v.2">C</a></li>
    3052                   <li class="indline1">Via header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.1">3.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.v.1"><b>7.9</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.2">8.1</a></li>
     3092                  <li class="indline1">Via header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.1">4.5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.v.1"><b>8.9</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.header.via.2">9.1</a></li>
    30533093               </ul>
    30543094            </li>
    30553095            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.W" href="#rfc.index.W"><b>W</b></a><ul class="ind">
    3056                   <li class="indline1"><em>WAIS</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.WAIS.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#WAIS"><b>11.2</b></a></li>
     3096                  <li class="indline1"><em>WAIS</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.WAIS.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#WAIS"><b>12.2</b></a></li>
    30573097               </ul>
    30583098            </li>
  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p1-messaging.xml

    r390 r391  
    230230   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
    231231   request/response protocol that uses extensible semantics and MIME-like
    232    message payloads for flexible interaction with network-based hypermedia
     232   message payloads for flexible interaction with network-based hypertext
    233233   information systems. HTTP relies upon the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
    234    standard <xref target="RFC3986"/> to indicate resource targets for
    235    interaction and to identify other resources.
     234   standard <xref target="RFC3986"/> to indicate resource targets and
     235   relationships between resources.
    236236   Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by Internet mail
    237237   <xref target="RFC5322"/> and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
    238238   (MIME) <xref target="RFC2045"/> (see &diff2045entity; for the differences
    239239   between HTTP and MIME messages).
     240</t>
     241<t>
     242   HTTP is a generic interface protocol for informations systems. It is
     243   designed to hide the details of how a service is implemented by presenting
     244   a uniform interface to clients that is independent of the types of
     245   resources provided. Likewise, servers do not need to be aware of each
     246   client's purpose: an HTTP request can be considered in isolation rather
     247   than being associated with a specific type of client or a predetermined
     248   sequence of application steps. The result is a protocol that can be used
     249   effectively in many different contexts and for which implementations can
     250   evolve independently over time.
    240251</t>
    241252<t>
     
    251262</t>
    252263<t>
     264   One consequence of HTTP flexibility is that we cannot define the protocol
     265   in terms of how to implement it behind the interface. Instead, we are
     266   limited to restricting the syntax of communication, defining the intent
     267   of received communication, and the expected behavior of recipients. If
     268   the communication is considered in isolation, then successful actions
     269   should be reflected in the observable interface provided by servers.
     270   However, since many clients are potentially acting in parallel and
     271   perhaps at cross-purposes, it would be meaningless to require that such
     272   behavior be observable.
     273</t>
     274<t>
    253275   This document is Part 1 of the seven-part specification of HTTP,
    254276   defining the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and obsoleting
    255277   <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
    256    Part 1 defines how clients determine when to use HTTP, the URI schemes
    257    specific to HTTP-based resources, overall network operation with
    258    transport protocol connection management, and HTTP message framing.
     278   Part 1 defines the URI schemes specific to HTTP-based resources, overall
     279   network operation, transport protocol connection management, and HTTP
     280   message framing and forwarding requirements.
    259281   Our goal is to define all of the mechanisms necessary for HTTP message
    260282   handling that are independent of message semantics, thereby defining the
    261    complete set of requirements for an HTTP message relay or generic
    262    message parser.
     283   complete set of requirements for a message parser and transparent
     284   message-forwarding intermediaries.
    263285</t>
    264286
     
    503525
    504526</section>
     527</section>
     528
     529<section title="HTTP architecture" anchor="architecture">
     530<t>
     531   HTTP was created with a specific architecture in mind, the World Wide Web,
     532   and has evolved over time to support the scalability needs of a worldwide
     533   hypertext system. Much of that architecture is reflected in the terminology
     534   and syntax productions used to define HTTP.
     535</t>
     536
     537<section title="Uniform Resource Identifiers" anchor="uri">
     538<t>
     539   Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) <xref target="RFC3986"/> are used
     540   throughout HTTP as the means for identifying resources. URI references
     541   are used to target requests, redirect responses, and define relationships.
     542   HTTP does not limit what a resource may be; it merely defines an interface
     543   that can be used to interact with a resource via HTTP. More information on
     544   the scope of URIs and resources can be found in <xref target="RFC3986"/>.
     545</t>
     546  <x:anchor-alias value="URI"/>
     547  <x:anchor-alias value="URI-reference"/>
     548  <x:anchor-alias value="absolute-URI"/>
     549  <x:anchor-alias value="relative-part"/>
     550  <x:anchor-alias value="authority"/>
     551  <x:anchor-alias value="fragment"/>
     552  <x:anchor-alias value="path-abempty"/>
     553  <x:anchor-alias value="path-absolute"/>
     554  <x:anchor-alias value="port"/>
     555  <x:anchor-alias value="query"/>
     556  <x:anchor-alias value="uri-host"/>
     557  <x:anchor-alias value="partial-URI"/>
     558<t>
     559   This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference",
     560   "absolute-URI", "relative-part", "fragment", "port", "host",
     561   "path-abempty", "path-absolute", "query", and "authority" from
     562   <xref target="RFC3986"/>. In addition, we define a partial-URI rule for
     563   protocol elements that allow a relative URI without a fragment.
     564</t>
     565<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="URI-reference"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="absolute-URI"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="authority"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="path-absolute"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="port"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="query"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="uri-host"/>
     566  <x:ref>URI</x:ref>           = &lt;URI, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3"/>>
     567  <x:ref>URI-reference</x:ref> = &lt;URI-reference, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>>
     568  <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref>  = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.3"/>>
     569  <x:ref>relative-part</x:ref> = &lt;relative-part, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.2"/>>
     570  <x:ref>authority</x:ref>     = &lt;authority, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2"/>>
     571  <x:ref>fragment</x:ref>      = &lt;fragment, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.5"/>>
     572  <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref>  = &lt;path-abempty, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>>
     573  <x:ref>path-absolute</x:ref> = &lt;path-absolute, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>>
     574  <x:ref>port</x:ref>          = &lt;port, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.3"/>>
     575  <x:ref>query</x:ref>         = &lt;query, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.4"/>>
     576  <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref>      = &lt;host, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.2"/>>
     577 
     578  <x:ref>partial-URI</x:ref>   = relative-part [ "?" query ]
     579</artwork></figure>
     580<t>
     581   Each protocol element in HTTP that allows a URI reference will indicate in
     582   its ABNF production whether the element allows only a URI in absolute form
     583   (absolute-URI), any relative reference (relative-ref), or some other subset
     584   of the URI-reference grammar. Unless otherwise indicated, URI references
     585   are parsed relative to the request target (the default base URI for both
     586   the request and its corresponding response).
     587</t>
     588
     589<section title="http URI scheme" anchor="http.uri">
     590  <x:anchor-alias value="http-URI"/>
     591  <iref item="http URI scheme" primary="true"/>
     592  <iref item="URI scheme" subitem="http" primary="true"/>
     593<t>
     594   The "http" scheme is used to locate network resources via the HTTP
     595   protocol. This section defines the syntax and semantics for identifiers
     596   using the http or https URI schemes.
     597</t>
     598<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="http-URI"/>
     599  <x:ref>http-URI</x:ref> = "http:" "//" <x:ref>authority</x:ref> <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ]
     600</artwork></figure>
     601<t>
     602   If the port is empty or not given, port 80 is assumed. The semantics
     603   are that the identified resource is located at the server listening
     604   for TCP connections on that port of that host, and the request-target
     605   for the resource is path-absolute (<xref target="request-target"/>). The use of IP addresses
     606   in URLs &SHOULD; be avoided whenever possible (see <xref target="RFC1900"/>). If
     607   the path-absolute is not present in the URL, it &MUST; be given as "/" when
     608   used as a request-target for a resource (<xref target="request-target"/>). If a proxy
     609   receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it
     610   &MAY; add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives
     611   a fully qualified domain name, the proxy &MUST-NOT; change the host
     612   name.
     613</t>
     614<t><list><t>
     615  <iref item="https URI scheme"/>
     616  <iref item="URI scheme" subitem="https"/>
     617  <x:h>Note:</x:h> the "https" scheme is defined in <xref target="RFC2818"/>.
     618</t></list></t>
     619</section>
     620
     621<section title="URI Comparison" anchor="uri.comparison">
     622<t>
     623   When comparing two URIs to decide if they match or not, a client
     624   &SHOULD; use a case-sensitive octet-by-octet comparison of the entire
     625   URIs, with these exceptions:
     626  <list style="symbols">
     627    <t>A port that is empty or not given is equivalent to the default
     628        port for that URI-reference;</t>
     629    <t>Comparisons of host names &MUST; be case-insensitive;</t>
     630    <t>Comparisons of scheme names &MUST; be case-insensitive;</t>
     631    <t>An empty path-absolute is equivalent to an path-absolute of "/".</t>
     632  </list>
     633</t>
     634<t>
     635   Characters other than those in the "reserved" set (see
     636   <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="2.2"/>) are equivalent to their
     637   ""%" <x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref> <x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref>" encoding.
     638</t>
     639<t>
     640   For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:
     641</t>
     642<figure><artwork type="example">
     643   http://example.com:80/~smith/home.html
     644   http://EXAMPLE.com/%7Esmith/home.html
     645   http://EXAMPLE.com:/%7esmith/home.html
     646</artwork></figure>
     647</section>
     648
     649<section title="Scheme aliases considered harmful" anchor="scheme.aliases">
     650<t>
     651</t>
     652</section>
     653</section>
    505654
    506655<section title="Overall Operation" anchor="intro.overall.operation">
     
    513662   including the message's protocol version and a success or error code,
    514663   followed by a MIME-like message containing server information, entity
    515    metainformation, and possible entity-body content. The relationship
    516    between HTTP and MIME is described in &diff2045entity;.
     664   metainformation, and possible entity-body content.
    517665</t>
    518666<t>
     
    612760</t>
    613761</section>
    614 </section>
    615 
     762
     763<section title="Use of HTTP for proxy communication" anchor="http.proxy">
     764<t>
     765   Configured to use HTTP to proxy HTTP or other protocols.
     766</t>
     767</section>
     768<section title="Interception of HTTP for access control" anchor="http.intercept">
     769<t>
     770   Interception of HTTP traffic for initiating access control.
     771</t>
     772</section>
     773<section title="Use of HTTP by other protocols" anchor="http.others">
     774<t>
     775   Profiles of HTTP defined by other protocol.
     776   Extensions of HTTP like WebDAV.
     777</t>
     778</section>
     779<section title="Use of HTTP by media type specification" anchor="http.media">
     780<t>
     781   Instructions on composing HTTP requests via hypertext formats.
     782</t>
     783</section>
     784</section>
    616785
    617786<section title="Protocol Parameters" anchor="protocol.parameters">
     
    688857  </list>
    689858</t>
    690 </section>
    691 
    692 <section title="Uniform Resource Identifiers" anchor="uri">
    693 <t>
    694    Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) <xref target="RFC3986"/> are used in HTTP
    695    to indicate the target of a request and to identify additional resources related
    696    to that resource, the request, or the response. Each protocol element in HTTP
    697    that allows a URI reference will indicate in its ABNF whether the element allows
    698    only a URI in absolute form, any relative reference, or some limited subset of
    699    the URI-reference grammar. Unless otherwise indicated, relative URI references
    700    are to be parsed relative to the URI corresponding to the request target
    701    (the base URI).
    702 </t>
    703   <x:anchor-alias value="URI-reference"/>
    704   <x:anchor-alias value="absolute-URI"/>
    705   <x:anchor-alias value="authority"/>
    706   <x:anchor-alias value="fragment"/>
    707   <x:anchor-alias value="path-abempty"/>
    708   <x:anchor-alias value="path-absolute"/>
    709   <x:anchor-alias value="port"/>
    710   <x:anchor-alias value="query"/>
    711   <x:anchor-alias value="relativeURI"/>
    712   <x:anchor-alias value="relative-part"/>
    713   <x:anchor-alias value="uri-host"/>
    714 <t>
    715    This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference", "absolute-URI", "fragment", "port",
    716    "host", "path-abempty", "path-absolute", "query", and "authority" from <xref target="RFC3986"/>:
    717 </t>
    718 <figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="URI-reference"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="absolute-URI"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="authority"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="path-absolute"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="port"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="query"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="uri-host"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="relativeURI"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="relative-part"/>
    719   <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref>   = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.3"/>>
    720   <x:ref>authority</x:ref>     = &lt;authority, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2"/>>
    721   <x:ref>fragment</x:ref>      = &lt;fragment, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.5"/>>
    722   <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref>  = &lt;path-abempty, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>>
    723   <x:ref>path-absolute</x:ref> = &lt;path-absolute, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>>
    724   <x:ref>port</x:ref>          = &lt;port, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.3"/>>
    725   <x:ref>query</x:ref>         = &lt;query, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.4"/>>
    726   <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref>      = &lt;host, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.2"/>>
    727 
    728   <x:ref>relative-part</x:ref> = &lt;relative-part, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.2"/>>
    729   <x:ref>relativeURI</x:ref>   = <x:ref>relative-part</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ]
    730 </artwork></figure>
    731 <t>
    732    HTTP does not place an a priori limit on the length of
    733    a URI. Servers &MUST; be able to handle the URI of any resource they
    734    serve, and &SHOULD; be able to handle URIs of unbounded length if they
    735    provide GET-based forms that could generate such URIs. A server
    736    &SHOULD; return 414 (Request-URI Too Long) status if a URI is longer
    737    than the server can handle (see &status-414;).
    738 </t>
    739 <t>
    740   <list>
    741     <t>
    742       <x:h>Note:</x:h> Servers ought to be cautious about depending on URI lengths
    743       above 255 bytes, because some older client or proxy
    744       implementations might not properly support these lengths.
    745     </t>
    746   </list>
    747 </t>
    748 
    749 <section title="http URI scheme" anchor="http.uri">
    750   <x:anchor-alias value="http-URI"/>
    751   <iref item="http URI scheme" primary="true"/>
    752   <iref item="URI scheme" subitem="http" primary="true"/>
    753 <t>
    754    The "http" scheme is used to locate network resources via the HTTP
    755    protocol. This section defines the syntax and semantics for identifiers
    756    using the http or https URI schemes.
    757 </t>
    758 <figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="http-URI"/>
    759   <x:ref>http-URI</x:ref> = "http:" "//" <x:ref>authority</x:ref> <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ]
    760 </artwork></figure>
    761 <t>
    762    If the port is empty or not given, port 80 is assumed. The semantics
    763    are that the identified resource is located at the server listening
    764    for TCP connections on that port of that host, and the Request-URI
    765    for the resource is path-absolute (<xref target="request-uri"/>). The use of IP addresses
    766    in URLs &SHOULD; be avoided whenever possible (see <xref target="RFC1900"/>). If
    767    the path-absolute is not present in the URL, it &MUST; be given as "/" when
    768    used as a Request-URI for a resource (<xref target="request-uri"/>). If a proxy
    769    receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it
    770    &MAY; add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives
    771    a fully qualified domain name, the proxy &MUST-NOT; change the host
    772    name.
    773 </t>
    774 <t><list><t>
    775   <iref item="https URI scheme"/>
    776   <iref item="URI scheme" subitem="https"/>
    777   <x:h>Note:</x:h> the "https" scheme is defined in <xref target="RFC2818"/>.
    778 </t></list></t>
    779 </section>
    780 
    781 <section title="URI Comparison" anchor="uri.comparison">
    782 <t>
    783    When comparing two URIs to decide if they match or not, a client
    784    &SHOULD; use a case-sensitive octet-by-octet comparison of the entire
    785    URIs, with these exceptions:
    786   <list style="symbols">
    787     <t>A port that is empty or not given is equivalent to the default
    788         port for that URI-reference;</t>
    789     <t>Comparisons of host names &MUST; be case-insensitive;</t>
    790     <t>Comparisons of scheme names &MUST; be case-insensitive;</t>
    791     <t>An empty path-absolute is equivalent to an path-absolute of "/".</t>
    792   </list>
    793 </t>
    794 <t>
    795    Characters other than those in the "reserved" set (see
    796    <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="2.2"/>) are equivalent to their
    797    ""%" <x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref> <x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref>" encoding.
    798 </t>
    799 <t>
    800    For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:
    801 </t>
    802 <figure><artwork type="example">
    803    http://example.com:80/~smith/home.html
    804    http://EXAMPLE.com/%7Esmith/home.html
    805    http://EXAMPLE.com:/%7esmith/home.html
    806 </artwork></figure>
    807 </section>
    808859</section>
    809860
     
    14151466<t>
    14161467   The Request-Line begins with a method token, followed by the
    1417    Request-URI and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF. The
     1468   request-target and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF. The
    14181469   elements are separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed
    14191470   except in the final CRLF sequence.
    14201471</t>
    14211472<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Request-Line"/>
    1422   <x:ref>Request-Line</x:ref>   = <x:ref>Method</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>Request-URI</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>HTTP-Version</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
     1473  <x:ref>Request-Line</x:ref>   = <x:ref>Method</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>request-target</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>HTTP-Version</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
    14231474</artwork></figure>
    14241475
     
    14271478<t>
    14281479   The Method  token indicates the method to be performed on the
    1429    resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-sensitive.
     1480   resource identified by the request-target. The method is case-sensitive.
    14301481</t>
    14311482<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Method"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="extension-method"/>
     
    14341485</section>
    14351486
    1436 <section title="Request-URI" anchor="request-uri">
    1437   <x:anchor-alias value="Request-URI"/>
    1438 <t>
    1439    The Request-URI is a Uniform Resource Identifier (<xref target="uri"/>) and
     1487<section title="request-target" anchor="request-target">
     1488  <x:anchor-alias value="request-target"/>
     1489<t>
     1490   The request-target is a Uniform Resource Identifier (<xref target="uri"/>) and
    14401491   identifies the resource upon which to apply the request.
    14411492</t>
    1442 <figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Request-URI"/>
    1443   <x:ref>Request-URI</x:ref>    = "*"
     1493<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="request-target"/>
     1494  <x:ref>request-target</x:ref>    = "*"
    14441495                 / <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref>
    14451496                 / ( <x:ref>path-absolute</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ] )
     
    14471498</artwork></figure>
    14481499<t>
    1449    The four options for Request-URI are dependent on the nature of the
     1500   The four options for request-target are dependent on the nature of the
    14501501   request. The asterisk "*" means that the request does not apply to a
    14511502   particular resource, but to the server itself, and is only allowed
     
    14791530</t>
    14801531<t>
    1481    The most common form of Request-URI is that used to identify a
     1532   The most common form of request-target is that used to identify a
    14821533   resource on an origin server or gateway. In this case the absolute
    14831534   path of the URI &MUST; be transmitted (see <xref target="http.uri"/>, path-absolute) as
    1484    the Request-URI, and the network location of the URI (authority) &MUST;
     1535   the request-target, and the network location of the URI (authority) &MUST;
    14851536   be transmitted in a Host header field. For example, a client wishing
    14861537   to retrieve the resource above directly from the origin server would
     
    14981549</t>
    14991550<t>
    1500    The Request-URI is transmitted in the format specified in
    1501    <xref target="http.uri"/>. If the Request-URI is encoded using the
     1551   The request-target is transmitted in the format specified in
     1552   <xref target="http.uri"/>. If the request-target is encoded using the
    15021553   "% <x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref> <x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref>" encoding
    15031554   (<xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="2.4"/>), the origin server
    1504    &MUST; decode the Request-URI in order to
     1555   &MUST; decode the request-target in order to
    15051556   properly interpret the request. Servers &SHOULD; respond to invalid
    1506    Request-URIs with an appropriate status code.
     1557   request-targets with an appropriate status code.
    15071558</t>
    15081559<t>
    15091560   A transparent proxy &MUST-NOT; rewrite the "path-absolute" part of the
    1510    received Request-URI when forwarding it to the next inbound server,
     1561   received request-target when forwarding it to the next inbound server,
    15111562   except as noted above to replace a null path-absolute with "/".
    15121563</t>
     
    15171568      a non-reserved URI character for a reserved purpose.  Implementors
    15181569      should be aware that some pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies have been known to
    1519       rewrite the Request-URI.
     1570      rewrite the request-target.
    15201571  </t></list>
    15211572</t>
     1573<t>
     1574   HTTP does not place a pre-defined limit on the length of a request-target.
     1575   A server &MUST; be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and
     1576   respond with the 414 (URI too long) status if the received
     1577   request-target would be longer than the server wishes to handle
     1578   (see &status-414;).
     1579</t>
     1580<t>
     1581   Various ad-hoc limitations on request-target length are found in practice.
     1582   It is &RECOMMENDED; that all HTTP senders and recipients support
     1583   request-target lengths of 8000 or more OCTETs.
     1584</t>
    15221585</section>
    15231586</section>
     
    15261589<t>
    15271590   The exact resource identified by an Internet request is determined by
    1528    examining both the Request-URI and the Host header field.
     1591   examining both the request-target and the Host header field.
    15291592</t>
    15301593<t>
     
    15411604   resource on an HTTP/1.1 request:
    15421605  <list style="numbers">
    1543     <t>If Request-URI is an absolute-URI, the host is part of the
    1544      Request-URI. Any Host header field value in the request &MUST; be
     1606    <t>If request-target is an absolute-URI, the host is part of the
     1607     request-target. Any Host header field value in the request &MUST; be
    15451608     ignored.</t>
    1546     <t>If the Request-URI is not an absolute-URI, and the request includes
     1609    <t>If the request-target is not an absolute-URI, and the request includes
    15471610     a Host header field, the host is determined by the Host header
    15481611     field value.</t>
     
    22382301   The request-header field "Host" specifies the Internet host and port
    22392302   number of the resource being requested, as obtained from the original
    2240    URI given by the user or referring resource (generally an HTTP URL,
     2303   URI given by the user or referring resource (generally an http URI,
    22412304   as described in <xref target="http.uri"/>). The Host field value &MUST; represent
    22422305   the naming authority of the origin server or gateway given by the
     
    28752938   other operating systems use ".." as a path component to indicate a
    28762939   directory level above the current one. On such a system, an HTTP
    2877    server &MUST; disallow any such construct in the Request-URI if it
     2940   server &MUST; disallow any such construct in the request-target if it
    28782941   would otherwise allow access to a resource outside those intended to
    28792942   be accessible via the HTTP server. Similarly, files intended for
     
    39093972   The requirements that clients and servers support the Host request-header,
    39103973   report an error if the Host request-header (<xref target="header.host"/>) is
    3911    missing from an HTTP/1.1 request, and accept absolute URIs (<xref target="request-uri"/>)
     3974   missing from an HTTP/1.1 request, and accept absolute URIs (<xref target="request-target"/>)
    39123975   are among the most important changes defined by this
    39133976   specification.
     
    40374100  Update use of abs_path production from RFC1808 to the path-absolute + query
    40384101  components of RFC3986.
    4039   (<xref target="request-uri"/>)
     4102  (<xref target="request-target"/>)
    40404103</t>
    40414104<t>
     
    45984661  </list>
    45994662</t>
     4663<t>
     4664  Other changes:
     4665  <list style="symbols">
     4666    <t>
     4667      Rewrite introduction; add mostly new Architecture Section.
     4668    </t>
     4669  </list>
     4670</t>
    46004671</section>
    46014672
  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p2-semantics.html

    r386 r391  
    477477         <tr>
    478478            <td class="header left"></td>
    479             <td class="header right">November 14, 2008</td>
     479            <td class="header right">November 15, 2008</td>
    480480         </tr>
    481481      </table>
     
    588588                     <li class="tocline1">9.4.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.412">412 Precondition Failed</a></li>
    589589                     <li class="tocline1">9.4.14&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.413">413 Request Entity Too Large</a></li>
    590                      <li class="tocline1">9.4.15&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.414">414 Request-URI Too Long</a></li>
     590                     <li class="tocline1">9.4.15&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.414">414 Request-target Too Long</a></li>
    591591                     <li class="tocline1">9.4.16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.415">415 Unsupported Media Type</a></li>
    592592                     <li class="tocline1">9.4.17&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
     
    673673      </p>
    674674      <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation" href="#notation">Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar</a></h1>
    675       <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation.abnf" title="ABNF Extension: #rule">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> and the core rules defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
    676       </p>
    677       <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">CR</a>            = &lt;CR, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    678   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>         = &lt;DIGIT, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    679   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">LF</a>            = &lt;LF, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    680 </pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">comment</a>       = &lt;comment, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    681   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    682   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    683   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    684   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">RWS</a>           = &lt;RWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
    685   <a href="#notation" class="smpl">TEXT</a>          = &lt;TEXT, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 2.2</a>&gt;
     675      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation.abnf" title="ABNF Extension: #rule">Section 1.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> and the core rules defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
     676      </p>
     677      <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">CR</a>            = &lt;CR, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     678  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>         = &lt;DIGIT, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     679  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">LF</a>            = &lt;LF, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     680</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">comment</a>       = &lt;comment, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     681  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     682  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     683  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     684  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">RWS</a>           = &lt;RWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
     685  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">TEXT</a>          = &lt;TEXT, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
    686686</pre><div id="abnf.dependencies">
    687687         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">                                                  The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
    688688      </div>
    689       <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a>  = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
    690   <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">fragment</a>      = &lt;fragment, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
    691   <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Host</a>          = &lt;Host, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
    692   <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#full.date" title="Full Date">Section 3.3.1</a>&gt;
    693   <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">product</a>       = &lt;product, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#product.tokens" title="Product Tokens">Section 3.5</a>&gt;
    694   <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">relativeURI</a>   = &lt;relativeURI, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.18"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
     689      <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a>  = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.1</a>&gt;
     690  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">fragment</a>      = &lt;fragment, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.1</a>&gt;
     691  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Host</a>          = &lt;Host, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.1</a>&gt;
     692  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#full.date" title="Full Date">Section 3.2.1</a>&gt;
     693  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">partial-URI</a>   = &lt;partial-URI, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.1</a>&gt;
     694  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">product</a>       = &lt;product, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.18"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#product.tokens" title="Product Tokens">Section 3.4</a>&gt;
    695695  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">TE</a>            = &lt;TE, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.19"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.upgrade" title="Upgrade">Section 8.8</a>&gt;
    696696</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Accept</a>        = &lt;Accept, defined in <a href="#Part3" id="rfc.xref.Part3.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part3]</cite></a>, <a href="p3-payload.html#header.accept" title="Accept">Section 6.1</a>&gt;
     
    721721             &lt;WWW-Authenticate, defined in <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>, <a href="p7-auth.html#header.www-authenticate" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section 4.4</a>&gt;
    722722</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="method" href="#method">Method</a></h1>
    723       <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-sensitive.</p>
     723      <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the request-target. The method is case-sensitive.</p>
    724724      <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span>  <a href="#method" class="smpl">Method</a>         = %x4F.50.54.49.4F.4E.53   ; "OPTIONS", <a href="#OPTIONS" id="rfc.xref.OPTIONS.1" title="OPTIONS">Section&nbsp;8.2</a>
    725725                 / %x47.45.54               ; "GET", <a href="#GET" id="rfc.xref.GET.1" title="GET">Section&nbsp;8.3</a>
     
    820820       / "412"  ; <a href="#status.412" id="rfc.xref.status.412.1" title="412 Precondition Failed">Section&nbsp;9.4.13</a>: Precondition Failed
    821821       / "413"  ; <a href="#status.413" id="rfc.xref.status.413.1" title="413 Request Entity Too Large">Section&nbsp;9.4.14</a>: Request Entity Too Large
    822        / "414"  ; <a href="#status.414" id="rfc.xref.status.414.1" title="414 Request-URI Too Long">Section&nbsp;9.4.15</a>: Request-URI Too Large
     822       / "414"  ; <a href="#status.414" id="rfc.xref.status.414.1" title="414 Request-target Too Long">Section&nbsp;9.4.15</a>: Request-target Too Large
    823823       / "415"  ; <a href="#status.415" id="rfc.xref.status.415.1" title="415 Unsupported Media Type">Section&nbsp;9.4.16</a>: Unsupported Media Type
    824824       / "416"  ; <a href="#status.416" id="rfc.xref.status.416.1" title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable">Section&nbsp;9.4.17</a>: Requested range not satisfiable
     
    850850      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">The response-header fields allow the server to pass additional information about the response which cannot be placed in the
    851851         Status-Line. These header fields give information about the server and about further access to the resource identified by
    852          the Request-URI.
     852         the request-target.
    853853      </p>
    854854      <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span>  <a href="#response.header.fields" class="smpl">response-header</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a>           ; <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>, <a href="p5-range.html#header.accept-ranges" title="Accept-Ranges">Section 6.1</a>
     
    910910      <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
    911911      <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.1">The OPTIONS method represents a request for information about the communication options available on the request/response
    912          chain identified by the Request-URI. This method allows the client to determine the options and/or requirements associated
     912         chain identified by the request-target. This method allows the client to determine the options and/or requirements associated
    913913         with a resource, or the capabilities of a server, without implying a resource action or initiating a resource retrieval.
    914914      </p>
     
    918918         to HTTP might use the OPTIONS body to make more detailed queries on the server.
    919919      </p>
    920       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.4">If the Request-URI is an asterisk ("*"), the OPTIONS request is intended to apply to the server in general rather than to
    921          a specific resource. Since a server's communication options typically depend on the resource, the "*" request is only useful
     920      <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.4">If the request-target is an asterisk ("*"), the OPTIONS request is intended to apply to the server in general rather than
     921         to a specific resource. Since a server's communication options typically depend on the resource, the "*" request is only useful
    922922         as a "ping" or "no-op" type of method; it does nothing beyond allowing the client to test the capabilities of the server.
    923923         For example, this can be used to test a proxy for HTTP/1.1 compliance (or lack thereof).
    924924      </p>
    925       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.5">If the Request-URI is not an asterisk, the OPTIONS request applies only to the options that are available when communicating
     925      <p id="rfc.section.8.2.p.5">If the request-target is not an asterisk, the OPTIONS request applies only to the options that are available when communicating
    926926         with that resource.
    927927      </p>
     
    937937      <div id="rfc.iref.g.8"></div>
    938938      <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
    939       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.1">The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. If the Request-URI
    940          refers to a data-producing process, it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not
    941          the source text of the process, unless that text happens to be the output of the process.
     939      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.1">The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the request-target. If the
     940         request-target refers to a data-producing process, it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response
     941         and not the source text of the process, unless that text happens to be the output of the process.
    942942      </p>
    943943      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.2">The semantics of the GET method change to a "conditional GET" if the request message includes an If-Modified-Since, If-Unmodified-Since,
     
    970970      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.5"><a href="#rfc.section.8.5">8.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="POST" href="#POST">POST</a></h2>
    971971      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.1">The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as data to be processed
    972          by the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the
    973          following functions:
     972         by the resource identified by the request-target in the Request-Line. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover
     973         the following functions:
    974974      </p>
    975975      <ul>
     
    979979         <li>Extending a database through an append operation.</li>
    980980      </ul>
    981       <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.2">The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.</p>
     981      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.2">The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the request-target.</p>
    982982      <p id="rfc.section.8.5.p.3">The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. In this case, either
    983983         200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status, depending on whether or not the response includes an entity
     
    993993      <div id="rfc.iref.m.5"></div>
    994994      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.6"><a href="#rfc.section.8.6">8.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="PUT" href="#PUT">PUT</a></h2>
    995       <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.1">The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored at the supplied Request-URI. If the Request-URI refers to an already
    996          existing resource, the enclosed entity <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be considered as a modified version of the one residing on the origin server. If the Request-URI does not point to an existing
     995      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.1">The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored at the supplied request-target. If the request-target refers to
     996         an already existing resource, the enclosed entity <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be considered as a modified version of the one residing on the origin server. If the request-target does not point to an existing
    997997         resource, and that URI is capable of being defined as a new resource by the requesting user agent, the origin server can create
    998          the resource with that URI. If a new resource is created at the Request-URI, the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> inform the user agent via the 201 (Created) response. If an existing resource is modified, either the 200 (OK) or 204 (No
    999          Content) response codes <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be sent to indicate successful completion of the request. If the resource could not be created or modified with the Request-URI,
     998         the resource with that URI. If a new resource is created at the request-target, the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> inform the user agent via the 201 (Created) response. If an existing resource is modified, either the 200 (OK) or 204 (No
     999         Content) response codes <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be sent to indicate successful completion of the request. If the resource could not be created or modified with the request-target,
    10001000         an appropriate error response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be given that reflects the nature of the problem. The recipient of the entity <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> ignore any Content-* headers (headers starting with the prefix 'Content-') that it does not understand or implement and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> return a 501 (Not Implemented) response in such cases.
    10011001      </p>
    1002       <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.2">If the request passes through a cache and the Request-URI identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.
    1003       </p>
    1004       <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">The fundamental difference between the POST and PUT requests is reflected in the different meaning of the Request-URI. The
    1005          URI in a POST request identifies the resource that will handle the enclosed entity. That resource might be a data-accepting
     1002      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.2">If the request passes through a cache and the request-target identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.
     1003      </p>
     1004      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">The fundamental difference between the POST and PUT requests is reflected in the different meaning of the request-target.
     1005         The URI in a POST request identifies the resource that will handle the enclosed entity. That resource might be a data-accepting
    10061006         process, a gateway to some other protocol, or a separate entity that accepts annotations. In contrast, the URI in a PUT request
    10071007         identifies the entity enclosed with the request -- the user agent knows what URI is intended and the server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> attempt to apply the request to some other resource. If the server desires that the request be applied to a different URI,
     
    10181018      <div id="rfc.iref.m.6"></div>
    10191019      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.7"><a href="#rfc.section.8.7">8.7</a>&nbsp;<a id="DELETE" href="#DELETE">DELETE</a></h2>
    1020       <p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.1">The DELETE method requests that the origin server delete the resource identified by the Request-URI. This method <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be overridden by human intervention (or other means) on the origin server. The client cannot be guaranteed that the operation
     1020      <p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.1">The DELETE method requests that the origin server delete the resource identified by the request-target. This method <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be overridden by human intervention (or other means) on the origin server. The client cannot be guaranteed that the operation
    10211021         has been carried out, even if the status code returned from the origin server indicates that the action has been completed
    10221022         successfully. However, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> indicate success unless, at the time the response is given, it intends to delete the resource or move it to an inaccessible
     
    10261026         or 204 (No Content) if the action has been enacted but the response does not include an entity.
    10271027      </p>
    1028       <p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.3">If the request passes through a cache and the Request-URI identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.
     1028      <p id="rfc.section.8.7.p.3">If the request passes through a cache and the request-target identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.
    10291029      </p>
    10301030      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8.8">8.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="TRACE" href="#TRACE">TRACE</a></h2>
     
    11811181      <div id="rfc.iref.s.12"></div>
    11821182      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3.2">9.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.301" href="#status.301">301 Moved Permanently</a></h3>
    1183       <p id="rfc.section.9.3.2.p.1">The requested resource has been assigned a new permanent URI and any future references to this resource <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use one of the returned URIs. Clients with link editing capabilities ought to automatically re-link references to the Request-URI
     1183      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.2.p.1">The requested resource has been assigned a new permanent URI and any future references to this resource <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use one of the returned URIs. Clients with link editing capabilities ought to automatically re-link references to the request-target
    11841184         to one or more of the new references returned by the server, where possible. This response is cacheable unless indicated otherwise.
    11851185      </p>
     
    11981198      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3.3">9.3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.302" href="#status.302">302 Found</a></h3>
    11991199      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.3.p.1">The requested resource resides temporarily under a different URI. Since the redirection might be altered on occasion, the
    1200          client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> continue to use the Request-URI for future requests. This response is only cacheable if indicated by a Cache-Control or Expires
    1201          header field.
     1200         client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> continue to use the request-target for future requests. This response is only cacheable if indicated by a Cache-Control or
     1201         Expires header field.
    12021202      </p>
    12031203      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.3.p.2">The temporary URI <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be given by the Location field in the response. Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the new URI(s).
     
    12521252      <div id="rfc.iref.s.18"></div>
    12531253      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.3.8"><a href="#rfc.section.9.3.8">9.3.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.307" href="#status.307">307 Temporary Redirect</a></h3>
    1254       <p id="rfc.section.9.3.8.p.1">The requested resource resides temporarily under a different URI. Since the redirection <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be altered on occasion, the client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> continue to use the Request-URI for future requests. This response is only cacheable if indicated by a Cache-Control or Expires
    1255          header field.
     1254      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.8.p.1">The requested resource resides temporarily under a different URI. Since the redirection <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be altered on occasion, the client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> continue to use the request-target for future requests. This response is only cacheable if indicated by a Cache-Control or
     1255         Expires header field.
    12561256      </p>
    12571257      <p id="rfc.section.9.3.8.p.2">The temporary URI <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be given by the Location field in the response. Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the new URI(s) , since many pre-HTTP/1.1 user agents do not understand
     
    12951295      <div id="rfc.iref.s.23"></div>
    12961296      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.4.5"><a href="#rfc.section.9.4.5">9.4.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.404" href="#status.404">404 Not Found</a></h3>
    1297       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.5.p.1">The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or
    1298          permanent. The 410 (Gone) status code <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable
     1297      <p id="rfc.section.9.4.5.p.1">The server has not found anything matching the request-target. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary
     1298         or permanent. The 410 (Gone) status code <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable
    12991299         and has no forwarding address. This status code is commonly used when the server does not wish to reveal exactly why the request
    13001300         has been refused, or when no other response is applicable.
     
    13031303      <div id="rfc.iref.s.24"></div>
    13041304      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.4.6"><a href="#rfc.section.9.4.6">9.4.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.405" href="#status.405">405 Method Not Allowed</a></h3>
    1305       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.6.p.1">The method specified in the Request-Line is not allowed for the resource identified by the Request-URI. The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include an Allow header containing a list of valid methods for the requested resource.
     1305      <p id="rfc.section.9.4.6.p.1">The method specified in the Request-Line is not allowed for the resource identified by the request-target. The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include an Allow header containing a list of valid methods for the requested resource.
    13061306      </p>
    13071307      <div id="rfc.iref.48"></div>
     
    13501350      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.4.11"><a href="#rfc.section.9.4.11">9.4.11</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.410" href="#status.410">410 Gone</a></h3>
    13511351      <p id="rfc.section.9.4.11.p.1">The requested resource is no longer available at the server and no forwarding address is known. This condition is expected
    1352          to be considered permanent. Clients with link editing capabilities <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> delete references to the Request-URI after user approval. If the server does not know, or has no facility to determine, whether
    1353          or not the condition is permanent, the status code 404 (Not Found) <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be used instead. This response is cacheable unless indicated otherwise.
     1352         to be considered permanent. Clients with link editing capabilities <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> delete references to the request-target after user approval. If the server does not know, or has no facility to determine,
     1353         whether or not the condition is permanent, the status code 404 (Not Found) <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be used instead. This response is cacheable unless indicated otherwise.
    13541354      </p>
    13551355      <p id="rfc.section.9.4.11.p.2">The 410 response is primarily intended to assist the task of web maintenance by notifying the recipient that the resource
     
    13811381      <div id="rfc.iref.56"></div>
    13821382      <div id="rfc.iref.s.33"></div>
    1383       <h3 id="rfc.section.9.4.15"><a href="#rfc.section.9.4.15">9.4.15</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.414" href="#status.414">414 Request-URI Too Long</a></h3>
    1384       <p id="rfc.section.9.4.15.p.1">The server is refusing to service the request because the Request-URI is longer than the server is willing to interpret. This
    1385          rare condition is only likely to occur when a client has improperly converted a POST request to a GET request with long query
    1386          information, when the client has descended into a URI "black hole" of redirection (e.g., a redirected URI prefix that points
    1387          to a suffix of itself), or when the server is under attack by a client attempting to exploit security holes present in some
    1388          servers using fixed-length buffers for reading or manipulating the Request-URI.
     1383      <h3 id="rfc.section.9.4.15"><a href="#rfc.section.9.4.15">9.4.15</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.414" href="#status.414">414 Request-target Too Long</a></h3>
     1384      <p id="rfc.section.9.4.15.p.1">The server is refusing to service the request because the request-target is longer than the server is willing to interpret.
     1385         This rare condition is only likely to occur when a client has improperly converted a POST request to a GET request with long
     1386         query information, when the client has descended into a URI "black hole" of redirection (e.g., a redirected URI prefix that
     1387         points to a suffix of itself), or when the server is under attack by a client attempting to exploit security holes present
     1388         in some servers using fixed-length buffers for reading or manipulating the request-target.
    13891389      </p>
    13901390      <div id="rfc.iref.57"></div>
     
    14621462      <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
    14631463      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.1"><a href="#rfc.section.10.1">10.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.allow" href="#header.allow">Allow</a></h2>
    1464       <p id="rfc.section.10.1.p.1">The response-header field "Allow" lists the set of methods advertised as supported by the resource identified by the Request-URI.
     1464      <p id="rfc.section.10.1.p.1">The response-header field "Allow" lists the set of methods advertised as supported by the resource identified by the request-target.
    14651465         The purpose of this field is strictly to inform the recipient of valid methods associated with the resource. An Allow header
    14661466         field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be present in a 405 (Method Not Allowed) response.
     
    15261526      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.4"><a href="#rfc.section.10.4">10.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.location" href="#header.location">Location</a></h2>
    15271527      <p id="rfc.section.10.4.p.1">The response-header field "Location" is used for the identification of a new resource or to redirect the recipient to a location
    1528          other than the Request-URI for completion of the request. For 201 (Created) responses, the Location is that of the new resource
    1529          which was created by the request. For 3xx responses, the location <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the server's preferred URI for automatic redirection to the resource. The field value consists of a single absolute
     1528         other than the request-target for completion of the request. For 201 (Created) responses, the Location is that of the new
     1529         resource which was created by the request. For 3xx responses, the location <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the server's preferred URI for automatic redirection to the resource. The field value consists of a single absolute
    15301530         URI.
    15311531      </p>
     
    15661566      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.6"><a href="#rfc.section.10.6">10.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.referer" href="#header.referer">Referer</a></h2>
    15671567      <p id="rfc.section.10.6.p.1">The request-header field "Referer" [sic] allows the client to specify, for the server's benefit, the address (URI) of the
    1568          resource from which the Request-URI was obtained (the "referrer", although the header field is misspelled.) The Referer request-header
    1569          allows a server to generate lists of back-links to resources for interest, logging, optimized caching, etc. It also allows
    1570          obsolete or mistyped links to be traced for maintenance. The Referer field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent if the Request-URI was obtained from a source that does not have its own URI, such as input from the user keyboard.
     1568         resource from which the request-target was obtained (the "referrer", although the header field is misspelled.) The Referer
     1569         request-header allows a server to generate lists of back-links to resources for interest, logging, optimized caching, etc.
     1570         It also allows obsolete or mistyped links to be traced for maintenance. The Referer field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent if the request-target was obtained from a source that does not have its own URI, such as input from the user keyboard.
    15711571      </p>
    15721572      <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.22"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.23"></span>  <a href="#header.referer" class="smpl">Referer</a>        = "Referer" ":" <a href="#notation" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.referer" class="smpl">Referer-v</a>
    1573   <a href="#header.referer" class="smpl">Referer-v</a>      = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a> / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">relativeURI</a>
     1573  <a href="#header.referer" class="smpl">Referer-v</a>      = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a> / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">partial-URI</a>
    15741574</pre><p id="rfc.section.10.6.p.3">Example:</p>
    15751575      <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="text">  Referer: http://www.example.org/hypertext/Overview.html
    1576 </pre><p id="rfc.section.10.6.p.5">If the field value is a relative URI, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be interpreted relative to the Request-URI. The URI <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a fragment. See <a href="#encoding.sensitive.information.in.uris" title="Encoding Sensitive Information in URIs">Section&nbsp;12.2</a> for security considerations.
     1576</pre><p id="rfc.section.10.6.p.5">If the field value is a relative URI, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be interpreted relative to the request-target. The URI <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a fragment. See <a href="#encoding.sensitive.information.in.uris" title="Encoding Sensitive Information in URIs">Section&nbsp;12.2</a> for security considerations.
    15771577      </p>
    15781578      <div id="rfc.iref.r.2"></div>
     
    15981598      <h2 id="rfc.section.10.8"><a href="#rfc.section.10.8">10.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.server" href="#header.server">Server</a></h2>
    15991599      <p id="rfc.section.10.8.p.1">The response-header field "Server" contains information about the software used by the origin server to handle the request.
    1600          The field can contain multiple product tokens (<a href="p1-messaging.html#product.tokens" title="Product Tokens">Section 3.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.28"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) and comments identifying the server and any significant subproducts. The product tokens are listed in order of their significance
     1600         The field can contain multiple product tokens (<a href="p1-messaging.html#product.tokens" title="Product Tokens">Section 3.4</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.28"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) and comments identifying the server and any significant subproducts. The product tokens are listed in order of their significance
    16011601         for identifying the application.
    16021602      </p>
     
    16191619      <p id="rfc.section.10.9.p.1">The request-header field "User-Agent" contains information about the user agent originating the request. This is for statistical
    16201620         purposes, the tracing of protocol violations, and automated recognition of user agents for the sake of tailoring responses
    1621          to avoid particular user agent limitations. User agents <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include this field with requests. The field can contain multiple product tokens (<a href="p1-messaging.html#product.tokens" title="Product Tokens">Section 3.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.30"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) and comments identifying the agent and any subproducts which form a significant part of the user agent. By convention, the
     1621         to avoid particular user agent limitations. User agents <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include this field with requests. The field can contain multiple product tokens (<a href="p1-messaging.html#product.tokens" title="Product Tokens">Section 3.4</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.30"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) and comments identifying the agent and any subproducts which form a significant part of the user agent. By convention, the
    16221622         product tokens are listed in order of their significance for identifying the application.
    16231623      </p>
     
    18991899               <tr>
    19001900                  <td>414</td>
    1901                   <td>Request-URI Too Long</td>
    1902                   <td> <a href="#status.414" id="rfc.xref.status.414.2" title="414 Request-URI Too Long">Section&nbsp;9.4.15</a>
     1901                  <td>Request-target Too Long</td>
     1902                  <td> <a href="#status.414" id="rfc.xref.status.414.2" title="414 Request-target Too Long">Section&nbsp;9.4.15</a>
    19031903                  </td>
    19041904               </tr>
     
    20822082      </p>
    20832083      <p id="rfc.section.12.2.p.3">Authors of services should not use GET-based forms for the submission of sensitive data because that data will be encoded
    2084          in the Request-URI. Many existing servers, proxies, and user agents log or display the Request-URI in places where it might
    2085          be visible to third parties. Such services can use POST-based form submission instead.
     2084         in the Request-target. Many existing servers, proxies, and user agents log or display the Request-target in places where it
     2085         might be visible to third parties. Such services can use POST-based form submission instead.
    20862086      </p>
    20872087      <h2 id="rfc.section.12.3"><a href="#rfc.section.12.3">12.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="location.spoofing" href="#location.spoofing">Location Headers and Spoofing</a></h2>
     
    24112411                  <li class="indline1">412 Precondition Failed (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.412.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.54"><b>9.4.13</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.412.2">11.2</a></li>
    24122412                  <li class="indline1">413 Request Entity Too Large (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.413.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.55"><b>9.4.14</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.413.2">11.2</a></li>
    2413                   <li class="indline1">414 Request-URI Too Long (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.56"><b>9.4.15</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.2">11.2</a></li>
     2413                  <li class="indline1">414 Request-target Too Long (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.56"><b>9.4.15</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.2">11.2</a></li>
    24142414                  <li class="indline1">415 Unsupported Media Type (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.415.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.57"><b>9.4.16</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.415.2">11.2</a></li>
    24152415                  <li class="indline1">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.58"><b>9.4.17</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.416.2">11.2</a></li>
     
    25342534            <li class="indline0"><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul class="ind">
    25352535                  <li class="indline1"><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.19">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.20">4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.21">4</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.22">7</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.23">8.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.24">8.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.25">9.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.26">9.5.6</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.27">10.2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.28">10.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.29">10.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.30">10.9</a>, <a class="iref" href="#Part1"><b>14.1</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.31">A.2</a><ul class="ind">
    2536                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">2</a></li>
    2537                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2</a></li>
     2536                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 1.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">2</a></li>
     2537                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 1.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2</a></li>
     2538                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">2</a></li>
    25382539                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.26">9.5.6</a></li>
    2539                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">2</a></li>
    2540                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.3.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2</a></li>
    2541                         <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.28">10.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.30">10.9</a></li>
     2540                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2</a></li>
     2541                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">2</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.28">10.8</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.30">10.9</a></li>
    25422542                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 4.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.22">7</a></li>
    25432543                        <li class="indline1"><em>Section 7.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.25">9.1.1</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.Part1.27">10.2</a></li>
     
    26492649                        <li class="indline1">412 Precondition Failed&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.412.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.s.31"><b>9.4.13</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.412.2">11.2</a></li>
    26502650                        <li class="indline1">413 Request Entity Too Large&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.413.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.s.32"><b>9.4.14</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.413.2">11.2</a></li>
    2651                         <li class="indline1">414 Request-URI Too Long&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.s.33"><b>9.4.15</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.2">11.2</a></li>
     2651                        <li class="indline1">414 Request-target Too Long&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.s.33"><b>9.4.15</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.414.2">11.2</a></li>
    26522652                        <li class="indline1">415 Unsupported Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.415.1">5</a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.iref.s.34"><b>9.4.16</b></a>, <a class="iref" href="#rfc.xref.status.415.2">11.2</a></li>
    26532653                        <li class="indline1">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable&nbsp;&nbsp;<a class="