Ignore:
Timestamp:
17/12/14 14:46:09 (6 years ago)
Author:
julian.reschke@…
Message:

update XSLTs, switch to Saxon 9.6 HE in Makefile, regen specs

File:
1 edited

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  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p5-range.html

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    465        content: "Expires December 16, 2014";
     493       content: "Expires December 2014";
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    500528      <link href="p4-conditional.html" rel="prev">
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    503531      <meta name="keywords" content="Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTTP, HTTP Range Requests">
    504532      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
     
    507535      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
    508536      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">
    509       <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2014-06-14">
     537      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2014-06">
    510538      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
    511539      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
     
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    515       <table class="header">
     543      <table class="header" id="rfc.headerblock">
    516544         <tbody>
    517545            <tr>
     
    533561            </tr>
    534562            <tr>
    535                <td class="left">Expires: December 16, 2014</td>
     563               <td class="left">Expires: December 2014</td>
    536564               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
    537565            </tr>
     
    542570            <tr>
    543571               <td class="left"></td>
    544                <td class="right">June 14, 2014</td>
     572               <td class="right">June 2014</td>
    545573            </tr>
    546574         </tbody>
    547575      </table>
    548       <p class="title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest</span></p>
     576      <p class="title" id="rfc.title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest</span></p>
    549577      <p style="color: green; text-align: center; font-size: 14pt; background-color: yellow;"><b>Note:</b> a later version of this document has been published as <a href="http://svn.tools.ietf.org/svn/wg/httpbis/specs/rfc7233.html">RFC7233</a>.
    550578         
    551579      </p>
    552580      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
    553       <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext
    554          information systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those
    555          requests.
     581      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level protocol for
     582         distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document defines range
     583         requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.
    556584      </p>
    557585      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
    558       <p>Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
     586      <p>Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org),
     587         which is archived at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
    559588      </p>
    560589      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
    561590      </p>
    562       <p><em>This is a temporary document for the purpose of tracking the editorial changes made during the AUTH48 (RFC publication) phase.</em>
     591      <p><em>This is a temporary document for the purpose of tracking the editorial changes made
     592            during the AUTH48 (RFC publication) phase.</em>
    563593      </p>
    564594      <div id="rfc.status">
    565595         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
    566          <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
    567          <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
    568             working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
     596         <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78
     597            and BCP 79.
    569598         </p>
    570          <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
    571             documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
    572             in progress”.
     599         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
     600            Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The
     601            list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
    573602         </p>
    574          <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on December 16, 2014.</p>
     603         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated,
     604            replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use
     605            Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work in progress”.
     606         </p>
     607         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire in December 2014.</p>
    575608      </div>
    576609      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
    577610         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
    578          <p>Copyright © 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
    579          <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
    580             and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
    581             text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
    582             BSD License.
     611         <p>Copyright © 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All
     612            rights reserved.
    583613         </p>
    584          <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
    585             10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
    586             allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
    587             controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
    588             works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
    589             it into languages other than English.
     614         <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating
     615            to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents
     616            carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document.
     617            Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
     618            as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
     619            warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
     620         </p>
     621         <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published
     622            or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the
     623            copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
     624            allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining
     625            an adequate license from the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials,
     626            this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
     627            works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
     628            it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other than English.
    590629         </p>
    591630      </div>
    592631      <hr class="noprint">
    593       <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
    594       <ul class="toc">
    595          <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
    596                <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
    597                <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></li>
    598             </ul>
    599          </li>
    600          <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a><ul>
    601                <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
    602                <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units.other">Other Range Units</a></li>
    603                <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
    604             </ul>
    605          </li>
    606          <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.requests">Range Requests</a><ul>
    607                <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a></li>
    608                <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
    609             </ul>
    610          </li>
    611          <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.response">Responses to a Range Request</a><ul>
    612                <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
    613                <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
    614                <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></li>
    615                <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
    616             </ul>
    617          </li>
    618          <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
    619                <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registry">Range Unit Registry</a><ul>
    620                      <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registry.procedure">Procedure</a></li>
    621                      <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registration">Registrations</a></li>
    622                   </ul>
    623                </li>
    624                <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
    625                <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
    626                <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registration</a><ul>
    627                      <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges.reg">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
    628                   </ul>
    629                </li>
    630             </ul>
    631          </li>
    632          <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
    633                <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Denial-of-Service Attacks Using Range</a></li>
    634             </ul>
    635          </li>
    636          <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
    637          <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
    638                <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
    639                <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
    640             </ul>
    641          </li>
    642          <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
    643          <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
    644          <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></li>
    645          <li><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
    646          <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
    647          <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
    648       </ul>
     632      <div id="rfc.toc">
     633         <h1 class="np"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
     634         <ul class="toc">
     635            <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
     636                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
     637                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></li>
     638               </ul>
     639            </li>
     640            <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a><ul>
     641                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
     642                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units.other">Other Range Units</a></li>
     643                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
     644               </ul>
     645            </li>
     646            <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.requests">Range Requests</a><ul>
     647                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a></li>
     648                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
     649               </ul>
     650            </li>
     651            <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.response">Responses to a Range Request</a><ul>
     652                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
     653                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
     654                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></li>
     655                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
     656               </ul>
     657            </li>
     658            <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
     659                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registry">Range Unit Registry</a><ul>
     660                        <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registry.procedure">Procedure</a></li>
     661                        <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registration">Registrations</a></li>
     662                     </ul>
     663                  </li>
     664                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
     665                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
     666                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registration</a><ul>
     667                        <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges.reg">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
     668                     </ul>
     669                  </li>
     670               </ul>
     671            </li>
     672            <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
     673                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Denial-of-Service Attacks Using Range</a></li>
     674               </ul>
     675            </li>
     676            <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
     677            <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
     678                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
     679                  <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
     680               </ul>
     681            </li>
     682            <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
     683            <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
     684            <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></li>
     685            <li><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
     686            <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
     687            <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
     688         </ul>
     689      </div>
    649690      <div id="introduction">
    650691         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
    651          <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result of canceled requests or
    652             dropped connections. When a client has stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder of that representation
    653             in a subsequent request rather than transfer the entire representation. Likewise, devices with limited local storage might
    654             benefit from being able to request only a subset of a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large document,
    655             or the dimensions of an embedded image.
    656          </p>
    657          <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges media type. Range requests
    658             are an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, designed so that recipients not implementing this feature (or not supporting it for the target resource)
    659             can respond as if it is a normal GET request without impacting interoperability. Partial responses are indicated by a distinct
    660             status code to not be mistaken for full responses by caches that might not implement the feature.
    661          </p>
    662          <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">Although the range request mechanism is designed to allow for extensible range types, this specification only defines requests
    663             for byte ranges.
    664          </p>
     692         <div id="rfc.section.1.p.1">
     693            <p>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients often encounter interrupted data transfers
     694               as a result of canceled requests or dropped connections. When a client has stored
     695               a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder of that representation
     696               in a subsequent request rather than transfer the entire representation. Likewise,
     697               devices with limited local storage might benefit from being able to request only a
     698               subset of a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large document,
     699               or the dimensions of an embedded image.
     700            </p>
     701         </div>
     702         <div id="rfc.section.1.p.2">
     703            <p>This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges
     704               media type. Range requests are an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, designed so that recipients not implementing this feature (or not
     705               supporting it for the target resource) can respond as if it is a normal GET request
     706               without impacting interoperability. Partial responses are indicated by a distinct
     707               status code to not be mistaken for full responses by caches that might not implement
     708               the feature.
     709            </p>
     710         </div>
     711         <div id="rfc.section.1.p.3">
     712            <p>Although the range request mechanism is designed to allow for extensible range types,
     713               this specification only defines requests for byte ranges.
     714            </p>
     715         </div>
    665716         <div id="conformance">
    666717            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
    667             <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
    668                in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
    669             </p>
    670             <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#conformance" title="Conformance and Error Handling">Section 2.5</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>.
    671             </p>
     718            <div id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">
     719               <p>The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD
     720                  NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted
     721                  as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
     722               </p>
     723            </div>
     724            <div id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">
     725               <p>Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#conformance" title="Conformance and Error Handling">Section 2.5</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>.
     726               </p>
     727            </div>
    672728         </div>
    673729         <div id="notation">
    674730            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
    675             <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with a list extension, defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#abnf.extension" title="ABNF List Extension: #rule">Section 7</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>, that allows for compact definition of comma-separated lists using a '#' operator (similar to how the '*' operator indicates
    676                repetition). <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;D</a> shows the collected grammar with all list operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
    677             </p>
     731            <div id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">
     732               <p>This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with a list extension, defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#abnf.extension" title="ABNF List Extension: #rule">Section 7</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>, that allows for compact definition of comma-separated lists using a '#' operator
     733                  (similar to how the '*' operator indicates repetition). <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;D</a> shows the collected grammar with all list operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
     734               </p>
     735            </div>
    678736         </div>
    679737      </div>
    680738      <div id="range.units">
    681739         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a></h1>
    682          <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">A representation can be partitioned into subranges according to various structural units, depending on the structure inherent
    683             in the representation's media type. This "<dfn>range unit</dfn>" is used in the <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> (<a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>) response header field to advertise support for range requests, the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>) request header field to delineate the parts of a representation that are requested, and the <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>) payload header field to describe which part of a representation is being transferred.
    684          </p>
    685          <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a>       = <a href="#byte.ranges" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> / <a href="#range.units.other" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a>
    686 </pre><div id="byte.ranges">
     740         <div id="rfc.section.2.p.1">
     741            <p>A representation can be partitioned into subranges according to various structural
     742               units, depending on the structure inherent in the representation's media type. This
     743               "<dfn>range unit</dfn>" is used in the <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> (<a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>) response header field to advertise support for range requests, the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>) request header field to delineate the parts of a representation that are requested,
     744               and the <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>) payload header field to describe which part of a representation is being transferred.
     745            </p>
     746         </div>
     747         <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a>       = <a href="#byte.ranges" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> / <a href="#range.units.other" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a>
     748</pre></div>
     749         <div id="byte.ranges">
    687750            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></h2>
    688             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">Since representation data is transferred in payloads as a sequence of octets, a byte range is a meaningful substructure for
    689                any representation transferable over HTTP (<a href="p2-semantics.html#representations" title="Representations">Section 3</a> of <a href="#RFC7231" id="rfc.xref.RFC7231.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[RFC7231]</cite></a>). The "bytes" range unit is defined for expressing subranges of the data's octet sequence.
    690             </p>
    691             <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>  <a href="#byte.ranges" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a>       = "bytes"
    692 </pre><div id="rule.ranges-specifier">
    693                <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">        A byte-range request can specify a single range of bytes or a set of ranges within a single representation.</p>
    694             </div>
    695             <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#byte.ranges" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> "=" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>
     751            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">
     752               <p>Since representation data is transferred in payloads as a sequence of octets, a byte
     753                  range is a meaningful substructure for any representation transferable over HTTP (<a href="p2-semantics.html#representations" title="Representations">Section 3</a> of <a href="#RFC7231" id="rfc.xref.RFC7231.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[RFC7231]</cite></a>). The "bytes" range unit is defined for expressing subranges of the data's octet
     754                  sequence.
     755               </p>
     756            </div>
     757            <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>  <a href="#byte.ranges" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a>       = "bytes"
     758</pre></div>
     759            <div id="rule.ranges-specifier">
     760               <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">
     761                  <p>        A byte-range request can specify a single range of bytes or a set of ranges within
     762                     a single representation.
     763                  </p>
     764               </div>
     765            </div>
     766            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#byte.ranges" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> "=" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>
    696767  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>  = 1#( <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> / <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> )
    697768  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" [ <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> ]
    698769  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>  = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
    699770  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>   = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
    700 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">The <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> value in a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> gives the byte-offset of the first byte in a range. The <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value gives the byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets
    701                start at zero.
    702             </p>
    703             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">Examples of <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> values:
    704             </p>
    705             <ul>
    706                <li>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.4"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=0-499
    707 </pre> </li>
    708                <li>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.5"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=500-999
    709 </pre> </li>
    710             </ul>
    711             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">A <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> is invalid if the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value is present and less than the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>.
    712             </p>
    713             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">A client can limit the number of bytes requested without knowing the size of the selected representation. If the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value is absent, or if the value is greater than or equal to the current length of the representation data, the byte range
    714                is interpreted as the remainder of the representation (i.e., the server replaces the value of <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> with a value that is one less than the current length of the selected representation).
    715             </p>
    716             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9">A client can request the last N bytes of the selected representation using a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a>.
    717             </p>
    718             <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>
     771</pre></div>
     772            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">
     773               <p>The <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> value in a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> gives the byte-offset of the first byte in a range. The <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value gives the byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte positions
     774                  specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start at zero.
     775               </p>
     776            </div>
     777            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">
     778               <p>Examples of <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> values:
     779               </p>
     780               <ul>
     781                  <li>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.4"><pre class="text">  bytes=0-499
     782</pre></span>
     783                  </li>
     784                  <li>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.5"><pre class="text">  bytes=500-999
     785</pre></span>
     786                  </li>
     787               </ul>
     788            </div>
     789            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">
     790               <p>A <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> is invalid if the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value is present and less than the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>.
     791               </p>
     792            </div>
     793            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">
     794               <p>A client can limit the number of bytes requested without knowing the size of the selected
     795                  representation. If the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value is absent, or if the value is greater than or equal to the current length of
     796                  the representation data, the byte range is interpreted as the remainder of the representation
     797                  (i.e., the server replaces the value of <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> with a value that is one less than the current length of the selected representation).
     798               </p>
     799            </div>
     800            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">
     801               <p>A client can request the last N bytes of the selected representation using a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a>.
     802               </p>
     803            </div>
     804            <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>
    719805  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
    720 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.11">If the selected representation is shorter than the specified <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>, the entire representation is used.
    721             </p>
    722             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.12">Additional examples, assuming a representation of length 10000: </p>
    723             <ul>
    724                <li>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.7"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=-500
    725 </pre> Or: <span id="rfc.figure.u.8"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=9500-
    726 </pre> </li>
    727                <li>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999): <span id="rfc.figure.u.9"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=0-0,-1
    728 </pre> </li>
    729                <li>Other valid (but not canonical) specifications of the second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.10"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=500-600,601-999
     806</pre></div>
     807            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">
     808               <p>If the selected representation is shorter than the specified <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>, the entire representation is used.
     809               </p>
     810            </div>
     811            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9">
     812               <p>Additional examples, assuming a representation of length 10000: </p>
     813               <ul>
     814                  <li>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.7"><pre class="text">  bytes=-500
     815</pre></span> Or: <span id="rfc.figure.u.8"><pre class="text">  bytes=9500-
     816</pre></span>
     817                  </li>
     818                  <li>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999): <span id="rfc.figure.u.9"><pre class="text">  bytes=0-0,-1
     819</pre></span>
     820                  </li>
     821                  <li>Other valid (but not canonical) specifications of the second 500 bytes (byte offsets
     822                     500-999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.10"><pre class="text">  bytes=500-600,601-999
    730823  bytes=500-700,601-999
    731 </pre> </li>
    732             </ul>
    733             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.13">If a valid <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> includes at least one <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> with a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> that is less than the current length of the representation, or at least one <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> with a non-zero <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>, then the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> is satisfiable. Otherwise, the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> is unsatisfiable.
    734             </p>
    735             <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.14">In the byte-range syntax, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>, and <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> are expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no predefined limit to the length of a payload, recipients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> anticipate potentially large decimal numerals and prevent parsing errors due to integer conversion overflows.
    736             </p>
     824</pre></span>
     825                  </li>
     826               </ul>
     827            </div>
     828            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.10">
     829               <p>If a valid <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> includes at least one <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> with a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> that is less than the current length of the representation, or at least one <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> with a non-zero <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>, then the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> is satisfiable. Otherwise, the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> is unsatisfiable.
     830               </p>
     831            </div>
     832            <div id="rfc.section.2.1.p.11">
     833               <p>In the byte-range syntax, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>, and <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> are expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no predefined limit to the
     834                  length of a payload, recipients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> anticipate potentially large decimal numerals and prevent parsing errors due to integer
     835                  conversion overflows.
     836               </p>
     837            </div>
    737838         </div>
    738839         <div id="range.units.other">
    739840            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.units.other">Other Range Units</a></h2>
    740             <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">Range units are intended to be extensible. New range units ought to be registered with IANA, as defined in <a href="#range.unit.registry" title="Range Unit Registry">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>.
    741             </p>
    742             <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span>  <a href="#range.units.other" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>
    743 </pre></div>
     841            <div id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">
     842               <p>Range units are intended to be extensible. New range units ought to be registered
     843                  with IANA, as defined in <a href="#range.unit.registry" title="Range Unit Registry">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>.
     844               </p>
     845            </div>
     846            <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span>  <a href="#range.units.other" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>
     847</pre></div>
     848         </div>
    744849         <div id="header.accept-ranges">
    745             <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
    746850            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></h2>
    747             <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a server to indicate that it supports range requests for the target resource.</p>
    748             <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a>     = <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>
     851            <div id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">
     852               <p>The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a server to indicate that it supports range
     853                  requests for the target resource.
     854               </p>
     855            </div>
     856            <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a>     = <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>
    749857  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = 1#<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> / "none"
    750 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">An origin server that supports byte-range requests for a given target resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
    751             </p>
    752             <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: bytes
    753 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.5">to indicate what range units are supported. A client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate range requests without having received this header field for the resource involved. Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
    754             </p>
    755             <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.6">A server that does not support any kind of range request for the target resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
    756             </p>
    757             <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: none
    758 </pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.8">to advise the client not to attempt a range request.</p>
     858</pre></div>
     859            <div id="rfc.section.2.3.p.2">
     860               <p>An origin server that supports byte-range requests for a given target resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
     861               </p>
     862            </div>
     863            <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: bytes
     864</pre></div>
     865            <div id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">
     866               <p>to indicate what range units are supported. A client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate range requests without having received this header field for the resource
     867                  involved. Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
     868               </p>
     869            </div>
     870            <div id="rfc.section.2.3.p.4">
     871               <p>A server that does not support any kind of range request for the target resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
     872               </p>
     873            </div>
     874            <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: none
     875</pre></div>
     876            <div id="rfc.section.2.3.p.5">
     877               <p>to advise the client not to attempt a range request.</p>
     878            </div>
    759879         </div>
    760880      </div>
     
    762882         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.requests">Range Requests</a></h1>
    763883         <div id="header.range">
    764             <div id="rfc.iref.r.1"></div>
    765884            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a></h2>
    766             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The "Range" header field on a GET request modifies the method semantics to request transfer of only one or more subranges
    767                of the selected representation data, rather than the entire selected representation data.
    768             </p>
    769             <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>  <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> / <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a>
     885            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">
     886               <p>The "Range" header field on a GET request modifies the method semantics to request
     887                  transfer of only one or more subranges of the selected representation data, rather
     888                  than the entire selected representation data.
     889               </p>
     890            </div>
     891            <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>  <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> / <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a>
    770892  <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units.other" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> "=" <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">other-range-set</a>
    771893  <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">VCHAR</a>
    772 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible,
    773                since Range supports efficient recovery from partially failed transfers and partial retrieval of large representations. A
    774                server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore a Range header field received with a request method other than GET.
    775             </p>
    776             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">An origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore a Range header field that contains a range unit it does not understand. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> discard a Range header field that contains a range unit it does not understand.
    777             </p>
    778             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">A server that supports range requests <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore or reject a <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field that consists of more than two overlapping ranges, or a set of many small ranges that are not listed in ascending
    779                order, since both are indications of either a broken client or a deliberate denial-of-service attack (<a href="#overlapping.ranges" title="Denial-of-Service Attacks Using Range">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>). A client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> request multiple ranges that are inherently less efficient to process and transfer than a single range that encompasses the
    780                same data.
    781             </p>
    782             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">A client that is requesting multiple ranges <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> list those ranges in ascending order (the order in which they would typically be received in a complete representation) unless
    783                there is a specific need to request a later part earlier. For example, a user agent processing a large representation with
    784                an internal catalog of parts might need to request later parts first, particularly if the representation consists of pages
    785                stored in reverse order and the user agent wishes to transfer one page at a time.
    786             </p>
    787             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.7">The Range header field is evaluated after evaluating the precondition header fields defined in <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>, and only if the result in absence of the Range header field would be a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response. In other words, Range is ignored when a conditional GET would result in a <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> response.
    788             </p>
    789             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.8">The If-Range header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) can be used as a precondition to applying the Range header field.
    790             </p>
    791             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.9">If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range header field for the target resource, and the specified
    792                range(s) are valid and satisfiable (as defined in <a href="#byte.ranges" title="Byte Ranges">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>), the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response with a payload containing one or more partial representations that correspond to the satisfiable ranges requested,
    793                as defined in <a href="#range.response" title="Responses to a Range Request">Section&nbsp;4</a>.
    794             </p>
    795             <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.10">If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range header field for the target resource, and the specified
    796                range(s) are invalid or unsatisfiable, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response.
    797             </p>
     894</pre></div>
     895            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">
     896               <p>A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers and intermediate caches ought
     897                  to support byte ranges when possible, since Range supports efficient recovery from
     898                  partially failed transfers and partial retrieval of large representations. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore a Range header field received with a request method other than GET.
     899               </p>
     900            </div>
     901            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">
     902               <p>An origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore a Range header field that contains a range unit it does not understand. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> discard a Range header field that contains a range unit it does not understand.
     903               </p>
     904            </div>
     905            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">
     906               <p>A server that supports range requests <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore or reject a <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field that consists of more than two overlapping ranges, or a set of many small
     907                  ranges that are not listed in ascending order, since both are indications of either
     908                  a broken client or a deliberate denial-of-service attack (<a href="#overlapping.ranges" title="Denial-of-Service Attacks Using Range">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>). A client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> request multiple ranges that are inherently less efficient to process and transfer
     909                  than a single range that encompasses the same data.
     910               </p>
     911            </div>
     912            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">
     913               <p>A client that is requesting multiple ranges <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> list those ranges in ascending order (the order in which they would typically be received
     914                  in a complete representation) unless there is a specific need to request a later part
     915                  earlier. For example, a user agent processing a large representation with an internal
     916                  catalog of parts might need to request later parts first, particularly if the representation
     917                  consists of pages stored in reverse order and the user agent wishes to transfer one
     918                  page at a time.
     919               </p>
     920            </div>
     921            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">
     922               <p>The Range header field is evaluated after evaluating the precondition header fields
     923                  defined in <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>, and only if the result in absence of the Range header field would be a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response. In other words, Range is ignored when a conditional GET would result in
     924                  a <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> response.
     925               </p>
     926            </div>
     927            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.7">
     928               <p>The If-Range header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) can be used as a precondition to applying the Range header field.
     929               </p>
     930            </div>
     931            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.8">
     932               <p>If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range header field for
     933                  the target resource, and the specified range(s) are valid and satisfiable (as defined
     934                  in <a href="#byte.ranges" title="Byte Ranges">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>), the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response with a payload containing one or more partial representations that correspond
     935                  to the satisfiable ranges requested, as defined in <a href="#range.response" title="Responses to a Range Request">Section&nbsp;4</a>.
     936               </p>
     937            </div>
     938            <div id="rfc.section.3.1.p.9">
     939               <p>If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range header field for
     940                  the target resource, and the specified range(s) are invalid or unsatisfiable, the
     941                  server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response.
     942               </p>
     943            </div>
    798944         </div>
    799945         <div id="header.if-range">
    800             <div id="rfc.iref.i.1"></div>
    801946            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></h2>
    802             <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it
    803                could use the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a>.) However, if the precondition fails because the representation has been modified, the client would then have to make a second
    804                request to obtain the entire current representation.
    805             </p>
    806             <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second request. Informally, its meaning is as follows:
    807                if the representation is unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am requesting in Range; otherwise, send me the entire representation.
    808             </p>
    809             <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span>  <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> / <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
    810 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate an If-Range header field in a request that does not contain a <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore an If-Range header field received in a request that does not contain a <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. An origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore an If-Range header field received in a request for a target resource that does not support Range requests.
    811             </p>
    812             <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.5">A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate an If-Range header field containing an entity-tag that is marked as weak. A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate an If-Range header field containing an <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> unless the client has no entity-tag for the corresponding representation and the date is a strong validator in the sense defined
    813                by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>.
    814             </p>
    815             <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.6">A server that evaluates an If-Range precondition <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the strong comparison function when comparing entity-tags (<a href="p4-conditional.html#entity.tag.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.3.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>) and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> evaluate the condition as false if an <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> validator is provided that is not a strong validator in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>. A valid <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> can be distinguished from a valid <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> by examining the first two characters for a DQUOTE.
    816             </p>
    817             <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.7">If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current validator for the selected representation of the target
    818                resource, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> process the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field as requested. If the validator does not match, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. Note that this comparison by exact match, including when the validator is an <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>, differs from the "earlier than or equal to" comparison used when evaluating an <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> conditional.
    819             </p>
     947            <div id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">
     948               <p>If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have an up-to-date
     949                  copy of the entire representation, it could use the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a>.) However, if the precondition fails because the representation has been modified,
     950                  the client would then have to make a second request to obtain the entire current representation.
     951               </p>
     952            </div>
     953            <div id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">
     954               <p>The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second request.
     955                  Informally, its meaning is as follows: if the representation is unchanged, send me
     956                  the part(s) that I am requesting in Range; otherwise, send me the entire representation.
     957               </p>
     958            </div>
     959            <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span>  <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> / <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
     960</pre></div>
     961            <div id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">
     962               <p>A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate an If-Range header field in a request that does not contain a <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore an If-Range header field received in a request that does not contain a <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. An origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore an If-Range header field received in a request for a target resource that does
     963                  not support Range requests.
     964               </p>
     965            </div>
     966            <div id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">
     967               <p>A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate an If-Range header field containing an entity-tag that is marked as weak.
     968                  A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate an If-Range header field containing an <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> unless the client has no entity-tag for the corresponding representation and the date
     969                  is a strong validator in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>.
     970               </p>
     971            </div>
     972            <div id="rfc.section.3.2.p.5">
     973               <p>A server that evaluates an If-Range precondition <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the strong comparison function when comparing entity-tags (<a href="p4-conditional.html#entity.tag.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.3.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>) and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> evaluate the condition as false if an <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> validator is provided that is not a strong validator in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>. A valid <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> can be distinguished from a valid <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> by examining the first two characters for a DQUOTE.
     974               </p>
     975            </div>
     976            <div id="rfc.section.3.2.p.6">
     977               <p>If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current validator
     978                  for the selected representation of the target resource, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> process the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field as requested. If the validator does not match, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. Note that this comparison by exact match, including when the validator
     979                  is an <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>, differs from the "earlier than or equal to" comparison used when evaluating an <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> conditional.
     980               </p>
     981            </div>
    820982         </div>
    821983      </div>
     
    823985         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.response">Responses to a Range Request</a></h1>
    824986         <div id="status.206">
    825             <div id="rfc.iref.2.1"></div>
    826987            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></h2>
    827             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">The <dfn>206 (Partial Content)</dfn> status code indicates that the server is successfully fulfilling a range request for the target resource by transferring one
    828                or more parts of the selected representation that correspond to the satisfiable ranges found in the request's <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.2" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>).
    829             </p>
    830             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.2">If a single part is being transferred, the server generating the 206 response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field, describing what range of the selected representation is enclosed, and a payload consisting of the range. For
    831                example:
    832             </p>
    833             <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
     988            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">
     989               <p>The <dfn>206 (Partial Content)</dfn> status code indicates that the server is successfully fulfilling a range request for
     990                  the target resource by transferring one or more parts of the selected representation
     991                  that correspond to the satisfiable ranges found in the request's <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.2" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>).
     992               </p>
     993            </div>
     994            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.2">
     995               <p>If a single part is being transferred, the server generating the 206 response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field, describing what range of the selected representation is enclosed, and
     996                  a payload consisting of the range. For example:
     997               </p>
     998            </div>
     999            <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
    8341000Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
    8351001Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
     
    8391005
    8401006... 26012 bytes of partial image data ...
    841 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">If multiple parts are being transferred, the server generating the 206 response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a "multipart/byteranges" payload, as defined in <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>, and a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> header field containing the multipart/byteranges media type and its required boundary parameter. To avoid confusion with single-part
    842                responses, a server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field in the HTTP header section of a multiple part response (this field will be sent in each part instead).
    843             </p>
    844             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">Within the header area of each body part in the multipart payload, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field corresponding to the range being enclosed in that body part. If the selected representation would have had a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> header field in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> generate that same <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> field in the header area of each body part. For example:
    845             </p>
    846             <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
     1007</pre></div>
     1008            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">
     1009               <p>If multiple parts are being transferred, the server generating the 206 response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a "multipart/byteranges" payload, as defined in <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>, and a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> header field containing the multipart/byteranges media type and its required boundary
     1010                  parameter. To avoid confusion with single-part responses, a server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field in the HTTP header section of a multiple part response (this field will
     1011                  be sent in each part instead).
     1012               </p>
     1013            </div>
     1014            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">
     1015               <p>Within the header area of each body part in the multipart payload, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field corresponding to the range being enclosed in that body part. If the selected
     1016                  representation would have had a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> header field in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> generate that same <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> field in the header area of each body part. For example:
     1017               </p>
     1018            </div>
     1019            <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
    8471020Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
    8481021Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
     
    8611034...the second range
    8621035--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
    863 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.7">When multiple ranges are requested, a server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> coalesce any of the ranges that overlap, or that are separated by a gap that is smaller than the overhead of sending multiple
    864                parts, regardless of the order in which the corresponding byte-range-spec appeared in the received <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. Since the typical overhead between parts of a multipart/byteranges payload is around 80 bytes, depending on
    865                the selected representation's media type and the chosen boundary parameter length, it can be less efficient to transfer many
    866                small disjoint parts than it is to transfer the entire selected representation.
    867             </p>
    868             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.8">A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate a multipart response to a request for a single range, since a client that does not request multiple parts might not
    869                support multipart responses. However, a server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate a multipart/byteranges payload with only a single body part if multiple ranges were requested and only one range
    870                was found to be satisfiable or only one range remained after coalescing. A client that cannot process a multipart/byteranges
    871                response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate a request that asks for multiple ranges.
    872             </p>
    873             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.9">When a multipart response payload is generated, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the parts in the same order that the corresponding byte-range-spec appeared in the received <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field, excluding those ranges that were deemed unsatisfiable or that were coalesced into other ranges. A client that
    874                receives a multipart response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> inspect the <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field present in each body part in order to determine which range is contained in that body part; a client cannot rely
    875                on receiving the same ranges that it requested, nor the same order that it requested.
    876             </p>
    877             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.10">When a 206 response is generated, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate the following header fields, in addition to those required above, if the field would have been sent in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request: <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" class="smpl">ETag</a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a>, and <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a>.
    878             </p>
    879             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.11">If a 206 is generated in response to a request with an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field, the sender <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> generate other representation header fields beyond those required above, because the client is understood to already have
    880                a prior response containing those header fields. Otherwise, the sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate all of the representation header fields that would have been sent in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request.
    881             </p>
    882             <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.12">A 206 response is cacheable by default; i.e., unless otherwise indicated by explicit cache controls (see <a href="p6-cache.html#heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">Section 4.2.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7234" id="rfc.xref.RFC7234.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[RFC7234]</cite></a>).
    883             </p>
     1036</pre></div>
     1037            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">
     1038               <p>When multiple ranges are requested, a server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> coalesce any of the ranges that overlap, or that are separated by a gap that is smaller
     1039                  than the overhead of sending multiple parts, regardless of the order in which the
     1040                  corresponding byte-range-spec appeared in the received <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field. Since the typical overhead between parts of a multipart/byteranges payload
     1041                  is around 80 bytes, depending on the selected representation's media type and the
     1042                  chosen boundary parameter length, it can be less efficient to transfer many small
     1043                  disjoint parts than it is to transfer the entire selected representation.
     1044               </p>
     1045            </div>
     1046            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">
     1047               <p>A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate a multipart response to a request for a single range, since a client that
     1048                  does not request multiple parts might not support multipart responses. However, a
     1049                  server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate a multipart/byteranges payload with only a single body part if multiple ranges
     1050                  were requested and only one range was found to be satisfiable or only one range remained
     1051                  after coalescing. A client that cannot process a multipart/byteranges response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate a request that asks for multiple ranges.
     1052               </p>
     1053            </div>
     1054            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.7">
     1055               <p>When a multipart response payload is generated, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the parts in the same order that the corresponding byte-range-spec appeared in
     1056                  the received <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field, excluding those ranges that were deemed unsatisfiable or that were coalesced
     1057                  into other ranges. A client that receives a multipart response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> inspect the <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field present in each body part in order to determine which range is contained
     1058                  in that body part; a client cannot rely on receiving the same ranges that it requested,
     1059                  nor the same order that it requested.
     1060               </p>
     1061            </div>
     1062            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.8">
     1063               <p>When a 206 response is generated, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate the following header fields, in addition to those required above, if the
     1064                  field would have been sent in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request: <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" class="smpl">ETag</a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a>, and <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a>.
     1065               </p>
     1066            </div>
     1067            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.9">
     1068               <p>If a 206 is generated in response to a request with an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field, the sender <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> generate other representation header fields beyond those required above, because the
     1069                  client is understood to already have a prior response containing those header fields.
     1070                  Otherwise, the sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate all of the representation header fields that would have been sent in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request.
     1071               </p>
     1072            </div>
     1073            <div id="rfc.section.4.1.p.10">
     1074               <p>A 206 response is cacheable by default; i.e., unless otherwise indicated by explicit
     1075                  cache controls (see <a href="p6-cache.html#heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">Section 4.2.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7234" id="rfc.xref.RFC7234.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[RFC7234]</cite></a>).
     1076               </p>
     1077            </div>
    8841078         </div>
    8851079         <div id="header.content-range">
    886             <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
    8871080            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></h2>
    888             <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">The "Content-Range" header field is sent in a single part <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response to indicate the partial range of the selected representation enclosed as the message payload, sent in each part of
    889                a multipart 206 response to indicate the range enclosed within each body part, and sent in <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> responses to provide information about the selected representation.
    890             </p>
    891             <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.20"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.21"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.22"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.23"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.24"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.25"></span>  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>       = <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range</a>
     1081            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">
     1082               <p>The "Content-Range" header field is sent in a single part <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response to indicate the partial range of the selected representation enclosed as
     1083                  the message payload, sent in each part of a multipart 206 response to indicate the
     1084                  range enclosed within each body part, and sent in <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> responses to provide information about the selected representation.
     1085               </p>
     1086            </div>
     1087            <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.20"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.21"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.22"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.23"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.24"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.25"></span>  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>       = <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range</a>
    8921088                      / <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range</a>
    8931089                         
     
    9031099  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range</a> = <a href="#range.units.other" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp</a>
    9041100  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp</a>    = *<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
    905 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">If a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response contains a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field with a <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range unit</a> (<a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>) that the recipient does not understand, the recipient <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> attempt to recombine it with a stored representation. A proxy that receives such a message <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> forward it downstream.
    906             </p>
    907             <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">For byte ranges, a sender <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the complete length of the representation from which the range has been extracted, unless the complete length is
    908                unknown or difficult to determine. An asterisk character ("*") in place of the complete-length indicates that the representation
    909                length was unknown when the header field was generated.
    910             </p>
    911             <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">The following example illustrates when the complete length of the selected representation is known by the sender to be 1234
    912                bytes:
    913             </p>
    914             <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/1234
    915 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.7">and this second example illustrates when the complete length is unknown:</p>
    916             <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/*
    917 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.9">A Content-Range field value is invalid if it contains a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp</a> that has a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value less than its <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> value, or a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">complete-length</a> value less than or equal to its <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value. The recipient of an invalid <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> attempt to recombine the received content with a stored representation.
    918             </p>
    919             <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.10">A server generating a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response to a byte-range request <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Content-Range header field with an <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">unsatisfied-range</a> value, as in the following example:
    920             </p>
    921             <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes */1234
    922 </pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.12">The complete-length in a 416 response indicates the current length of the selected representation.</p>
    923             <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.13">The Content-Range header field has no meaning for status codes that do not explicitly describe its semantic. For this specification,
    924                only the <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> and <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> status codes describe a meaning for Content-Range.
    925             </p>
    926             <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.14">The following are examples of Content-Range values in which the selected representation contains a total of 1234 bytes: </p>
    927             <ul>
    928                <li>The first 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.23"></span><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 0-499/1234
    929 </pre> </li>
    930                <li>The second 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.24"></span><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 500-999/1234
    931 </pre> </li>
    932                <li>All except for the first 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.25"></span><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 500-1233/1234
    933 </pre> </li>
    934                <li>The last 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.26"></span><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 734-1233/1234
    935 </pre> </li>
    936             </ul>
     1101</pre></div>
     1102            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.2">
     1103               <p>If a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response contains a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field with a <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range unit</a> (<a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>) that the recipient does not understand, the recipient <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> attempt to recombine it with a stored representation. A proxy that receives such a
     1104                  message <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> forward it downstream.
     1105               </p>
     1106            </div>
     1107            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">
     1108               <p>For byte ranges, a sender <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the complete length of the representation from which the range has been extracted,
     1109                  unless the complete length is unknown or difficult to determine. An asterisk character
     1110                  ("*") in place of the complete-length indicates that the representation length was
     1111                  unknown when the header field was generated.
     1112               </p>
     1113            </div>
     1114            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">
     1115               <p>The following example illustrates when the complete length of the selected representation
     1116                  is known by the sender to be 1234 bytes:
     1117               </p>
     1118            </div>
     1119            <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/1234
     1120</pre></div>
     1121            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">
     1122               <p>and this second example illustrates when the complete length is unknown:</p>
     1123            </div>
     1124            <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/*
     1125</pre></div>
     1126            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.6">
     1127               <p>A Content-Range field value is invalid if it contains a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp</a> that has a <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value less than its <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> value, or a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">complete-length</a> value less than or equal to its <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> value. The recipient of an invalid <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> attempt to recombine the received content with a stored representation.
     1128               </p>
     1129            </div>
     1130            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.7">
     1131               <p>A server generating a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response to a byte-range request <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Content-Range header field with an <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">unsatisfied-range</a> value, as in the following example:
     1132               </p>
     1133            </div>
     1134            <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes */1234
     1135</pre></div>
     1136            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.8">
     1137               <p>The complete-length in a 416 response indicates the current length of the selected
     1138                  representation.
     1139               </p>
     1140            </div>
     1141            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.9">
     1142               <p>The Content-Range header field has no meaning for status codes that do not explicitly
     1143                  describe its semantic. For this specification, only the <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> and <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> status codes describe a meaning for Content-Range.
     1144               </p>
     1145            </div>
     1146            <div id="rfc.section.4.2.p.10">
     1147               <p>The following are examples of Content-Range values in which the selected representation
     1148                  contains a total of 1234 bytes:
     1149               </p>
     1150               <ul>
     1151                  <li>The first 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.23"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 0-499/1234
     1152</pre></span>
     1153                  </li>
     1154                  <li>The second 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.24"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 500-999/1234
     1155</pre></span>
     1156                  </li>
     1157                  <li>All except for the first 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.25"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 500-1233/1234
     1158</pre></span>
     1159                  </li>
     1160                  <li>The last 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.26"><pre class="text">  Content-Range: bytes 734-1233/1234
     1161</pre></span>
     1162                  </li>
     1163               </ul>
     1164            </div>
    9371165         </div>
    9381166         <div id="combining.byte.ranges">
    9391167            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></h2>
    940             <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the connection closed prematurely or if the request used
    941                one or more Range specifications. After several such transfers, a client might have received several ranges of the same representation.
    942                These ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator (<a href="p4-conditional.html#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>).
    943             </p>
    944             <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.2">A client that has received multiple partial responses to GET requests on a target resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine those responses into a larger continuous range if they share the same strong validator.
    945             </p>
    946             <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.3">If the most recent response is an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, then the header fields of that response are used for any combined response and replace those of the matching stored
    947                responses.
    948             </p>
    949             <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.4">If the most recent response is a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response and at least one of the matching stored responses is a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>, then the combined response header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's header fields. If all of the matching
    950                stored responses are 206 responses, then the stored response with the most recent header fields is used as the source of header
    951                fields for the combined response, except that the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>, to replace all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored response.
    952             </p>
    953             <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.5">The combined response message body consists of the union of partial content ranges in the new response and each of the selected
    954                responses. If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> process the combined response as if it were a complete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, including a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field that reflects the complete length. Otherwise, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> process the set of continuous ranges as one of the following: an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response if the combined response is a prefix of the representation, a single <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response containing a multipart/byteranges body, or multiple <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> responses, each with one continuous range that is indicated by a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field.
    955             </p>
     1168            <div id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">
     1169               <p>A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the connection closed
     1170                  prematurely or if the request used one or more Range specifications. After several
     1171                  such transfers, a client might have received several ranges of the same representation.
     1172                  These ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong
     1173                  validator (<a href="p4-conditional.html#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>).
     1174               </p>
     1175            </div>
     1176            <div id="rfc.section.4.3.p.2">
     1177               <p>A client that has received multiple partial responses to GET requests on a target
     1178                  resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine those responses into a larger continuous range if they share the same strong
     1179                  validator.
     1180               </p>
     1181            </div>
     1182            <div id="rfc.section.4.3.p.3">
     1183               <p>If the most recent response is an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, then the header fields of that response are used for any combined response
     1184                  and replace those of the matching stored responses.
     1185               </p>
     1186            </div>
     1187            <div id="rfc.section.4.3.p.4">
     1188               <p>If the most recent response is a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response and at least one of the matching stored responses is a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>, then the combined response header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's
     1189                  header fields. If all of the matching stored responses are 206 responses, then the
     1190                  stored response with the most recent header fields is used as the source of header
     1191                  fields for the combined response, except that the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>, to replace all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored response.
     1192               </p>
     1193            </div>
     1194            <div id="rfc.section.4.3.p.5">
     1195               <p>The combined response message body consists of the union of partial content ranges
     1196                  in the new response and each of the selected responses. If the union consists of the
     1197                  entire range of the representation, then the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> process the combined response as if it were a complete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, including a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field that reflects the complete length. Otherwise, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> process the set of continuous ranges as one of the following: an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response if the combined response is a prefix of the representation, a single <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response containing a multipart/byteranges body, or multiple <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> responses, each with one continuous range that is indicated by a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field.
     1198               </p>
     1199            </div>
    9561200         </div>
    9571201         <div id="status.416">
    958             <div id="rfc.iref.4.1"></div>
    9591202            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Range Not Satisfiable</a></h2>
    960             <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">The <dfn>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</dfn> status code indicates that none of the ranges in the request's <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.3" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>) overlap the current extent of the selected resource or that the set of ranges requested has been rejected due to invalid
    961                ranges or an excessive request of small or overlapping ranges.
    962             </p>
    963             <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2">For byte ranges, failing to overlap the current extent means that the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> of all of the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> values were greater than the current length of the selected representation. When this status code is generated in response
    964                to a byte-range request, the sender <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field specifying the current length of the selected representation (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>).
    965             </p>
    966             <div id="rfc.figure.u.27"></div>
    967             <p>For example:</p><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 416 Range Not Satisfiable
     1203            <div id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">
     1204               <p>The <dfn>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</dfn> status code indicates that none of the ranges in the request's <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.3" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>) overlap the current extent of the selected resource or that the set of ranges requested
     1205                  has been rejected due to invalid ranges or an excessive request of small or overlapping
     1206                  ranges.
     1207               </p>
     1208            </div>
     1209            <div id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2">
     1210               <p>For byte ranges, failing to overlap the current extent means that the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> of all of the <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> values were greater than the current length of the selected representation. When this
     1211                  status code is generated in response to a byte-range request, the sender <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> generate a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field specifying the current length of the selected representation (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>).
     1212               </p>
     1213            </div>
     1214            <div id="rfc.figure.u.27">
     1215               <p>For example:</p><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 416 Range Not Satisfiable
    9681216Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
    9691217Content-Range: bytes */47022
    970 </pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.4.4.p.4">
    971                <p><b>Note:</b> Because servers are free to ignore <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a>, many implementations will simply respond with the entire selected representation in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response. That is partly because most clients are prepared to receive a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> to complete the task (albeit less efficiently) and partly because clients might not stop making an invalid partial request
    972                   until they have received a complete representation. Thus, clients cannot depend on receiving a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response even when it is most appropriate.
    973                </p>
     1218</pre></div>
     1219            <div class="note">
     1220               <div id="rfc.section.4.4.p.3">
     1221                  <p><b>Note:</b> Because servers are free to ignore <a href="#header.range" class="smpl">Range</a>, many implementations will simply respond with the entire selected representation
     1222                     in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response. That is partly because most clients are prepared to receive a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> to complete the task (albeit less efficiently) and partly because clients might not
     1223                     stop making an invalid partial request until they have received a complete representation.
     1224                     Thus, clients cannot depend on receiving a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response even when it is most appropriate.
     1225                  </p>
     1226               </div>
    9741227            </div>
    9751228         </div>
     
    9791232         <div id="range.unit.registry">
    9801233            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registry">Range Unit Registry</a></h2>
    981             <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The "HTTP Range Unit Registry" defines the namespace for the range unit names and refers to their corresponding specifications.
    982                The registry has been created and is now maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters</a>&gt;.
    983             </p>
     1234            <div id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">
     1235               <p>The "HTTP Range Unit Registry" defines the namespace for the range unit names and
     1236                  refers to their corresponding specifications. The registry has been created and is
     1237                  now maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters</a>&gt;.
     1238               </p>
     1239            </div>
    9841240            <div id="range.unit.registry.procedure">
    9851241               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registry.procedure">Procedure</a></h3>
    986                <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">Registration of an HTTP Range Unit <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
    987                </p>
    988                <ul>
    989                   <li>Name</li>
    990                   <li>Description</li>
    991                   <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
    992                </ul>
    993                <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.2">Values to be added to this namespace require IETF Review (see <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
    994                </p>
     1242               <div id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">
     1243                  <p>Registration of an HTTP Range Unit <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
     1244                  </p>
     1245                  <ul>
     1246                     <li>Name</li>
     1247                     <li>Description</li>
     1248                     <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
     1249                  </ul>
     1250               </div>
     1251               <div id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.2">
     1252                  <p>Values to be added to this namespace require IETF Review (see <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
     1253                  </p>
     1254               </div>
    9951255            </div>
    9961256            <div id="range.unit.registration">
    9971257               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.unit.registration">Registrations</a></h3>
    998                <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.1">The initial range unit registry contains the registrations below:</p>
     1258               <div id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.1">
     1259                  <p>The initial range unit registry contains the registrations below:</p>
     1260               </div>
    9991261               <div id="rfc.table.1">
    10001262                  <div id="iana.range.units.table"></div>
     
    10211283                  </table>
    10221284               </div>
    1023                <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
     1285               <div id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.2">
     1286                  <p>The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
     1287               </div>
    10241288            </div>
    10251289         </div>
    10261290         <div id="status.code.registration">
    10271291            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
    1028             <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry" located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; has been updated to include the registrations below:
    1029             </p>
     1292            <div id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">
     1293               <p>The "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry" located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; has been updated to include the registrations below:
     1294               </p>
     1295            </div>
    10301296            <div id="rfc.table.2">
    10311297               <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
     
    10571323         <div id="header.field.registration">
    10581324            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
    1059             <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">HTTP header fields are registered within the "Message Headers" registry maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/</a>&gt;.
    1060             </p>
    1061             <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their associated registry entries have been updated according to
    1062                the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#BCP90" id="rfc.xref.BCP90.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[BCP90]</cite></a>):
    1063             </p>
     1325            <div id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">
     1326               <p>HTTP header fields are registered within the "Message Headers" registry maintained
     1327                  at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/</a>&gt;.
     1328               </p>
     1329            </div>
     1330            <div id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">
     1331               <p>This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their associated registry
     1332                  entries have been updated according to the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#BCP90" id="rfc.xref.BCP90.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[BCP90]</cite></a>):
     1333               </p>
     1334            </div>
    10641335            <div id="rfc.table.3">
    10651336               <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
     
    11051376               </table>
    11061377            </div>
    1107             <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.3">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
     1378            <div id="rfc.section.5.3.p.3">
     1379               <p>The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
     1380            </div>
    11081381         </div>
    11091382         <div id="internet.media.type.http">
    11101383            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.4"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type Registration</a></h2>
    1111             <p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.1">IANA maintains the registry of Internet media types <a href="#BCP13" id="rfc.xref.BCP13.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[BCP13]</cite></a> at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types">http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types</a>&gt;.
    1112             </p>
    1113             <p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.2">This document serves as the specification for the Internet media type "multipart/byteranges". The following has been registered
    1114                with IANA.
    1115             </p>
     1384            <div id="rfc.section.5.4.p.1">
     1385               <p>IANA maintains the registry of Internet media types <a href="#BCP13" id="rfc.xref.BCP13.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[BCP13]</cite></a> at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types">http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types</a>&gt;.
     1386               </p>
     1387            </div>
     1388            <div id="rfc.section.5.4.p.2">
     1389               <p>This document serves as the specification for the Internet media type "multipart/byteranges".
     1390                  The following has been registered with IANA.
     1391               </p>
     1392            </div>
    11161393            <div id="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges.reg">
    1117                <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
    1118                <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
    11191394               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges.reg">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></h3>
    1120                <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.1"></p>
    1121                <dl>
    1122                   <dt>Type name:</dt>
    1123                   <dd>multipart</dd>
    1124                   <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
    1125                   <dd>byteranges</dd>
    1126                   <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
    1127                   <dd>boundary</dd>
    1128                   <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
    1129                   <dd>N/A</dd>
    1130                   <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
    1131                   <dd>only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted</dd>
    1132                   <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
    1133                   <dd>see <a href="#security.considerations" title="Security Considerations">Section&nbsp;6</a>
    1134                   </dd>
    1135                   <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
    1136                   <dd>N/A</dd>
    1137                   <dt>Published specification:</dt>
    1138                   <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>).
    1139                   </dd>
    1140                   <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
    1141                   <dd>HTTP components supporting multiple ranges in a single request.</dd>
    1142                   <dt>Fragment identifier considerations:</dt>
    1143                   <dd>N/A</dd>
    1144                   <dt>Additional information:</dt>
    1145                   <dd>
    1146                      <dl>
    1147                         <dt>Deprecated alias names for this type:</dt>
    1148                         <dd>N/A</dd>
    1149                         <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
    1150                         <dd>N/A</dd>
    1151                         <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
    1152                         <dd>N/A</dd>
    1153                         <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
    1154                         <dd>N/A</dd>
    1155                      </dl>
    1156                   </dd>
    1157                   <dt>Person and email address to contact for further information:</dt>
    1158                   <dd>See Authors' Addresses section.</dd>
    1159                   <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
    1160                   <dd>COMMON</dd>
    1161                   <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
    1162                   <dd>N/A</dd>
    1163                   <dt>Author:</dt>
    1164                   <dd>See Authors' Addresses section.</dd>
    1165                   <dt>Change controller:</dt>
    1166                   <dd>IESG</dd>
    1167                </dl>
     1395               <div id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.1">
     1396                  <dl>
     1397                     <dt>Type name:</dt>
     1398                     <dd>multipart</dd>
     1399                     <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
     1400                     <dd>byteranges</dd>
     1401                     <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
     1402                     <dd>boundary</dd>
     1403                     <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
     1404                     <dd>N/A</dd>
     1405                     <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
     1406                     <dd>only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted</dd>
     1407                     <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
     1408                     <dd>see <a href="#security.considerations" title="Security Considerations">Section&nbsp;6</a>
     1409                     </dd>
     1410                     <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
     1411                     <dd>N/A</dd>
     1412                     <dt>Published specification:</dt>
     1413                     <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>).
     1414                     </dd>
     1415                     <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
     1416                     <dd>HTTP components supporting multiple ranges in a single request.</dd>
     1417                     <dt>Fragment identifier considerations:</dt>
     1418                     <dd>N/A</dd>
     1419                     <dt>Additional information:</dt>
     1420                     <dd>&nbsp;
     1421                        <dl>
     1422                           <dt>Deprecated alias names for this type:</dt>
     1423                           <dd>N/A</dd>
     1424                           <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
     1425                           <dd>N/A</dd>
     1426                           <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
     1427                           <dd>N/A</dd>
     1428                           <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
     1429                           <dd>N/A</dd>
     1430                        </dl>
     1431                     </dd>
     1432                     <dt>Person and email address to contact for further information:</dt>
     1433                     <dd>See Authors' Addresses section.</dd>
     1434                     <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
     1435                     <dd>COMMON</dd>
     1436                     <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
     1437                     <dd>N/A</dd>
     1438                     <dt>Author:</dt>
     1439                     <dd>See Authors' Addresses section.</dd>
     1440                     <dt>Change controller:</dt>
     1441                     <dd>IESG</dd>
     1442                  </dl>
     1443               </div>
    11681444            </div>
    11691445         </div>
     
    11711447      <div id="security.considerations">
    11721448         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
    1173          <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and users of known security concerns specific to the HTTP
    1174             range request mechanisms. More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a> and semantics <a href="#RFC7231" id="rfc.xref.RFC7231.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[RFC7231]</cite></a>.
    1175          </p>
     1449         <div id="rfc.section.6.p.1">
     1450            <p>This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and users of known
     1451               security concerns specific to the HTTP range request mechanisms. More general security
     1452               considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a> and semantics <a href="#RFC7231" id="rfc.xref.RFC7231.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[RFC7231]</cite></a>.
     1453            </p>
     1454         </div>
    11761455         <div id="overlapping.ranges">
    11771456            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Denial-of-Service Attacks Using Range</a></h2>
    1178             <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">Unconstrained multiple range requests are susceptible to denial-of-service attacks because the effort required to request
    1179                many overlapping ranges of the same data is tiny compared to the time, memory, and bandwidth consumed by attempting to serve
    1180                the requested data in many parts. Servers ought to ignore, coalesce, or reject egregious range requests, such as requests
    1181                for more than two overlapping ranges or for many small ranges in a single set, particularly when the ranges are requested
    1182                out of order for no apparent reason. Multipart range requests are not designed to support random access.
    1183             </p>
     1457            <div id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">
     1458               <p>Unconstrained multiple range requests are susceptible to denial-of-service attacks
     1459                  because the effort required to request many overlapping ranges of the same data is
     1460                  tiny compared to the time, memory, and bandwidth consumed by attempting to serve the
     1461                  requested data in many parts. Servers ought to ignore, coalesce, or reject egregious
     1462                  range requests, such as requests for more than two overlapping ranges or for many
     1463                  small ranges in a single set, particularly when the ranges are requested out of order
     1464                  for no apparent reason. Multipart range requests are not designed to support random
     1465                  access.
     1466               </p>
     1467            </div>
    11841468         </div>
    11851469      </div>
    11861470      <div id="acks">
    11871471         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
    1188          <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 10</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>.
    1189          </p>
     1472         <div id="rfc.section.7.p.1">
     1473            <p>See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 10</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>.
     1474            </p>
     1475         </div>
    11901476      </div>
    11911477      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.8" href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a> References
     
    11961482         <tr>
    11971483            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2046">[RFC2046]</b></td>
    1198             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2046, November&nbsp;1996.
     1484            <td class="top">Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2046, November&nbsp;1996.
    11991485            </td>
    12001486         </tr>
    12011487         <tr>
    12021488            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
    1203             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
     1489            <td class="top">Bradner, S., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
    12041490            </td>
    12051491         </tr>
    12061492         <tr>
    12071493            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
    1208             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
     1494            <td class="top">Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
    12091495            </td>
    12101496         </tr>
    12111497         <tr>
    12121498            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC7230">[RFC7230]</b></td>
    1213             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
     1499            <td class="top">Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
    12141500            </td>
    12151501         </tr>
    12161502         <tr>
    12171503            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC7231">[RFC7231]</b></td>
    1218             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
     1504            <td class="top">Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
    12191505            </td>
    12201506         </tr>
    12211507         <tr>
    12221508            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC7232">[RFC7232]</b></td>
    1223             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
     1509            <td class="top">Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
    12241510            </td>
    12251511         </tr>
    12261512         <tr>
    12271513            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC7234">[RFC7234]</b></td>
    1228             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net" title="Akamai">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
     1514            <td class="top">Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest (work in progress), June&nbsp;2014.
    12291515            </td>
    12301516         </tr>
     
    12351521         <tr>
    12361522            <td class="reference"><b id="BCP13">[BCP13]</b></td>
    1237             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned+ietf@mrochek.com" title="Oracle">Freed, N.</a>, <a href="mailto:john+ietf@jck.com">Klensin, J.</a>, and <a href="mailto:tony+mtsuffix@maillennium.att.com" title="AT&amp;T Laboratories">T. Hansen</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6838">Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</a>”, BCP&nbsp;13, RFC&nbsp;6838, January&nbsp;2013.
     1523            <td class="top">Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6838">Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</a>”, BCP&nbsp;13, RFC&nbsp;6838, January&nbsp;2013.
    12381524            </td>
    12391525         </tr>
    12401526         <tr>
    12411527            <td class="reference"><b id="BCP90">[BCP90]</b></td>
    1242             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
     1528            <td class="top">Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
    12431529            </td>
    12441530         </tr>
    12451531         <tr>
    12461532            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
    1247             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
     1533            <td class="top">Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
    12481534            </td>
    12491535         </tr>
    12501536         <tr>
    12511537            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
    1252             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
     1538            <td class="top">Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
    12531539            </td>
    12541540         </tr>
    12551541      </table>
    12561542      <div id="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">
    1257          <div id="rfc.iref.m.3"></div>
    1258          <div id="rfc.iref.m.4"></div>
    12591543         <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></h1>
    1260          <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">When a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response message includes the content of multiple ranges, they are transmitted as body parts in a multipart message body (<a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1">Section 5.1</a>) with the media type of "multipart/byteranges".
    1261          </p>
    1262          <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more body parts, each with its own <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> and <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> fields. The required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate each body part.
    1263          </p>
    1264          <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3">Implementation Notes: </p>
    1265          <ol>
    1266             <li>Additional CRLFs might precede the first boundary string in the body.</li>
    1267             <li>Although <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> permits the boundary string to be quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string incorrectly.
    1268             </li>
    1269             <li>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft of the byteranges specification that used a media type of multipart/x-byteranges<span id="rfc.iref.m.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.m.6"></span>, which is almost (but not quite) compatible with this type.
    1270             </li>
    1271          </ol>
    1272          <p id="rfc.section.A.p.4">Despite the name, the "multipart/byteranges" media type is not limited to byte ranges. The following example uses an "exampleunit"
    1273             range unit:
    1274          </p>
    1275          <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
     1544         <div id="rfc.section.A.p.1">
     1545            <p>When a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response message includes the content of multiple ranges, they are transmitted as
     1546               body parts in a multipart message body (<a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1">Section 5.1</a>) with the media type of "multipart/byteranges".
     1547            </p>
     1548         </div>
     1549         <div id="rfc.section.A.p.2">
     1550            <p>The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more body parts, each with its
     1551               own <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> and <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> fields. The required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate
     1552               each body part.
     1553            </p>
     1554         </div>
     1555         <div id="rfc.section.A.p.3">
     1556            <p>Implementation Notes: </p>
     1557            <ol>
     1558               <li>Additional CRLFs might precede the first boundary string in the body.</li>
     1559               <li>Although <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> permits the boundary string to be quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted
     1560                  boundary string incorrectly.
     1561               </li>
     1562               <li>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft of the byteranges specification
     1563                  that used a media type of multipart/x-byteranges<span id="rfc.iref.m.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.m.2"></span>, which is almost (but not quite) compatible with this type.
     1564               </li>
     1565            </ol>
     1566         </div>
     1567         <div id="rfc.section.A.p.4">
     1568            <p>Despite the name, the "multipart/byteranges" media type is not limited to byte ranges.
     1569               The following example uses an "exampleunit" range unit:
     1570            </p>
     1571         </div>
     1572         <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
    12761573Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
    12771574Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
     
    12911588--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
    12921589</pre></div>
     1590      </div>
    12931591      <div id="changes.from.rfc.2616">
    12941592         <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h1>
    1295          <p id="rfc.section.B.p.1">Servers are given more leeway in how they respond to a range request, in order to mitigate abuse by malicious (or just greedy)
    1296             clients. (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.5" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
    1297          </p>
    1298          <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">A weak validator cannot be used in a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206</a> response. (<a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.2" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>)
    1299          </p>
    1300          <p id="rfc.section.B.p.3">The Content-Range header field only has meaning when the status code explicitly defines its use. (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.4" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>)
    1301          </p>
    1302          <p id="rfc.section.B.p.4">This specification introduces a Range Unit Registry. (<a href="#range.unit.registry" title="Range Unit Registry">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>)
    1303          </p>
    1304          <p id="rfc.section.B.p.5">multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>)
    1305          </p>
     1593         <div id="rfc.section.B.p.1">
     1594            <p>Servers are given more leeway in how they respond to a range request, in order to
     1595               mitigate abuse by malicious (or just greedy) clients. (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.5" title="Range">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
     1596            </p>
     1597         </div>
     1598         <div id="rfc.section.B.p.2">
     1599            <p>A weak validator cannot be used in a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206</a> response. (<a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.2" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>)
     1600            </p>
     1601         </div>
     1602         <div id="rfc.section.B.p.3">
     1603            <p>The Content-Range header field only has meaning when the status code explicitly defines
     1604               its use. (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.4" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>)
     1605            </p>
     1606         </div>
     1607         <div id="rfc.section.B.p.4">
     1608            <p>This specification introduces a Range Unit Registry. (<a href="#range.unit.registry" title="Range Unit Registry">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>)
     1609            </p>
     1610         </div>
     1611         <div id="rfc.section.B.p.5">
     1612            <p>multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>)
     1613            </p>
     1614         </div>
    13061615      </div>
    13071616      <div id="imported.abnf">
    13081617         <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></h1>
    1309          <p id="rfc.section.C.p.1">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
    1310             (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
    1311             character).
    1312          </p>
    1313          <p id="rfc.section.C.p.2">Note that all rules derived from <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> are to be compared case-insensitively, like <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> and <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>.
    1314          </p>
    1315          <p id="rfc.section.C.p.3">The rules below are defined in <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>:
    1316          </p>
    1317          <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>        = &lt;OWS, see <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
     1618         <div id="rfc.section.C.p.1">
     1619            <p>The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal
     1620               0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET
     1621               (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
     1622            </p>
     1623         </div>
     1624         <div id="rfc.section.C.p.2">
     1625            <p>Note that all rules derived from <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> are to be compared case-insensitively, like <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> and <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>.
     1626            </p>
     1627         </div>
     1628         <div id="rfc.section.C.p.3">
     1629            <p>The rules below are defined in <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>:
     1630            </p>
     1631         </div>
     1632         <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>        = &lt;OWS, see <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
    13181633  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>      = &lt;token, see <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field Value Components">Section 3.2.6</a>&gt;
    1319 </pre><p id="rfc.section.C.p.5">The rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
    1320          <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>  = &lt;HTTP-date, see <a href="#RFC7231" id="rfc.xref.RFC7231.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[RFC7231]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 7.1.1.1</a>&gt;
     1634</pre></div>
     1635         <div id="rfc.section.C.p.4">
     1636            <p>The rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
     1637         </div>
     1638         <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>  = &lt;HTTP-date, see <a href="#RFC7231" id="rfc.xref.RFC7231.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[RFC7231]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 7.1.1.1</a>&gt;
    13211639  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, see <a href="#RFC7232" id="rfc.xref.RFC7232.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[RFC7232]</cite></a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a>&gt;
    13221640</pre></div>
     1641      </div>
    13231642      <div id="collected.abnf">
    13241643         <h1 id="rfc.section.D"><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
    1325          <p id="rfc.section.D.p.1">In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>.
    1326          </p>
    1327          <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"></div><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> = acceptable-ranges
     1644         <div id="rfc.section.D.p.1">
     1645            <p>In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#RFC7230" id="rfc.xref.RFC7230.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[RFC7230]</cite></a>.
     1646            </p>
     1647         </div>
     1648         <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> = acceptable-ranges
    13281649
    13291650<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> = byte-content-range / other-content-range
     
    13741695<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">unsatisfied-range</a> = "*/" complete-length
    13751696</pre></div>
     1697      </div>
    13761698      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
    13771699      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.2">2</a> <a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.B">B</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.I">I</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a>
     
    13801702         <ul class="ind">
    13811703            <li><a id="rfc.index.2" href="#rfc.index.2"><b>2</b></a><ul>
    1382                   <li>206 Partial Content (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.2.1"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.2">B</a></li>
     1704                  <li>206 Partial Content (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.4.1"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.2">B</a></li>
    13831705               </ul>
    13841706            </li>
    13851707            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
    1386                   <li>416 Range Not Satisfiable (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4.1"><b>4.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">5.2</a></li>
     1708                  <li>416 Range Not Satisfiable (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.4.4"><b>4.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">5.2</a></li>
    13871709               </ul>
    13881710            </li>
    13891711            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
    1390                   <li>Accept-Ranges header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>2.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.2">5.1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.3">5.3</a></li>
     1712                  <li>Accept-Ranges header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.section.2.3"><b>2.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.2">5.1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.3">5.3</a></li>
    13911713               </ul>
    13921714            </li>
     
    13971719            </li>
    13981720            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
    1399                   <li>Content-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.2">4.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.3">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.4">B</a></li>
     1721                  <li>Content-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.section.4.2"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.2">4.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.3">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.4">B</a></li>
    14001722               </ul>
    14011723            </li>
     
    14311753            </li>
    14321754            <li><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul>
    1433                   <li>If-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.i.1"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.2">5.3</a></li>
     1755                  <li>If-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.section.3.2"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.2">5.3</a></li>
    14341756               </ul>
    14351757            </li>
     
    14371759                  <li>Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;
    14381760                     <ul>
    1439                         <li>multipart/byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>5.4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.m.3"><b>A</b></a></li>
    1440                         <li>multipart/x-byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.6">A</a></li>
     1761                        <li>multipart/byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1"><b>5.4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.section.A"><b>A</b></a></li>
     1762                        <li>multipart/x-byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.2">A</a></li>
    14411763                     </ul>
    14421764                  </li>
    1443                   <li>multipart/byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>5.4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.m.4"><b>A</b></a></li>
    1444                   <li>multipart/x-byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.5">A</a></li>
     1765                  <li>multipart/byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1"><b>5.4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.section.A"><b>A</b></a></li>
     1766                  <li>multipart/x-byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1">A</a></li>
    14451767               </ul>
    14461768            </li>
    14471769            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
    1448                   <li>Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.r.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.2">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.3">4.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.4">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.5">B</a></li>
     1770                  <li>Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.section.3.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.2">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.3">4.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.4">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.5">B</a></li>
    14491771                  <li><em>RFC2046</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2046"><b>8.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.2">A</a><ul>
    14501772                        <li><em>Section 5.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a></li>
     
    14901812         </ul>
    14911813      </div>
    1492       <div class="avoidbreak">
     1814      <div class="avoidbreakinside">
    14931815         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
    14941816         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
    14951817            (editor)
    1496             <br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com">fielding@gbiv.com</a><br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
     1818            <br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: fielding@gbiv.com<br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
    14971819         <p><b>Yves Lafon</b>
    14981820            (editor)
    1499             <br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>W3C / ERCIM<br>2004, rte des Lucioles<br>Sophia-Antipolis, AM&nbsp;06902<br>France<br>Email: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org">ylafon@w3.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></p>
     1821            <br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>W3C / ERCIM<br>2004, rte des Lucioles<br>Sophia-Antipolis, AM&nbsp;06902<br>France<br>Email: ylafon@w3.org<br>URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></p>
    15001822         <p><b>Julian F. Reschke</b>
    15011823            (editor)
    1502             <br>greenbytes GmbH<br>Hafenweg 16<br>Muenster, NW&nbsp;48155<br>Germany<br>Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</a><br>URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></p>
     1824            <br>greenbytes GmbH<br>Hafenweg 16<br>Muenster, NW&nbsp;48155<br>Germany<br>Email: julian.reschke@greenbytes.de<br>URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></p>
    15031825      </div>
    15041826   </body>
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