Changeset 2564


Ignore:
Timestamp:
20/01/14 07:43:53 (7 years ago)
Author:
julian.reschke@…
Message:

update rfc2617.xml (ABNF alignment was off from published version), regen all HTML

Location:
draft-ietf-httpbis/orig
Files:
11 edited

Legend:

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  • draft-ietf-httpbis/orig/rfc2145.html

    r1305 r2564  
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    292   } 
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    326317      <link rel="Help" title="RFC-Editor's Status Page" href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2145">
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    381372      </table>
    382373      <p class="title">Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers</p>
    383       <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
    384       <p>This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution
    385          of this memo is unlimited.
    386       </p>
    387       <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
    388       <p>Copyright © The Internet Society (1997). All Rights Reserved.</p>
    389       <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
     374      <div id="rfc.status">
     375         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
     376         <p>This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution
     377            of this memo is unlimited.
     378         </p>
     379      </div>
     380      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
     381         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
     382         <p>Copyright © The Internet Society (1997). All Rights Reserved.</p>
     383      </div>
     384      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
    390385      <p>HTTP request and response messages include an HTTP protocol version number. Some confusion exists concerning the proper use
    391386         and interpretation of HTTP version numbers, and concerning interoperability of HTTP implementations of different protocol
     
    393388         HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1 documents, but it does describe the intention of the authors of those documents, and can be considered
    394389         definitive when there is any ambiguity in those documents concerning HTTP version numbers, for all versions of HTTP.
    395       </p> 
    396       <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note</a></h1> 
     390      </p>
     391      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note</a></h1>
    397392      <p>Distribution of this document is unlimited. Please send comments to the HTTP working group at &lt;http-wg@cuckoo.hpl.hp.com&gt;.
    398393         Discussions of the working group are archived at &lt;URL:http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/&gt;. General discussions about HTTP
    399394         and the applications which use HTTP should take place on the &lt;www-talk@w3.org&gt; mailing list.
    400       </p> 
     395      </p>
    401396      <hr class="noprint">
    402397      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
    403398      <ul class="toc">
    404          <li>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.1">Introduction</a><ul>
    405                <li>1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.1.1">Robustness Principle</a></li>
     399         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.1">Introduction</a><ul>
     400               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.1.1">Robustness Principle</a></li>
    406401            </ul>
    407402         </li>
    408          <li>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2">HTTP version numbers</a><ul>
    409                <li>2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#proxy.behavior">Proxy behavior</a></li>
    410                <li>2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2.2">Compatibility between minor versions of the same major version</a></li>
    411                <li>2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2.3">Which version number to send in a message</a></li>
     403         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2">HTTP version numbers</a><ul>
     404               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#proxy.behavior">Proxy behavior</a></li>
     405               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2.2">Compatibility between minor versions of the same major version</a></li>
     406               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2.3">Which version number to send in a message</a></li>
    412407            </ul>
    413408         </li>
    414          <li>3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.3">Security Considerations</a></li>
    415          <li>4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a></li>
    416          <li>5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
     409         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.3">Security Considerations</a></li>
     410         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a></li>
     411         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
    417412         <li><a href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements</a></li>
    418413      </ul>
    419414      <hr class="noprint">
    420       <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;Introduction
    421       </h1>
    422       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">HTTP request and response messages include an HTTP protocol version number. According to section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-3.1">3.1</a> of the HTTP/1.1 specification <a href="#RFC2068"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[2]</cite></a>,
    423       </p>
    424       <blockquote id="rfc.section.1.p.2" cite="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-3.1">
    425          <p>HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended
    426             to allow the sender to indicate the format of a message and its capacity for understanding further HTTP communication, rather
    427             than the features obtained via that communication. No change is made to the version number for the addition of message components
    428             which do not affect communication behavior or which only add to extensible field values. The &lt;minor&gt; number is incremented
    429             when the changes made to the protocol add features which do not change the general message parsing algorithm, but which may
    430             add to the message semantics and imply additional capabilities of the sender. The &lt;major&gt; number is incremented when the format
    431             of a message within the protocol is changed.
    432          </p>
    433       </blockquote>
    434       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">The same language appears in the description of HTTP/1.0 <a href="#RFC1945"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[1]</cite></a>.
    435       </p>
    436       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.4">Many readers of these documents have expressed some confusion about the intended meaning of this policy. Also, some people
    437          who wrote HTTP implementations before RFC1945 <a href="#RFC1945"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[1]</cite></a> was issued were not aware of the intentions behind the introduction of version numbers in HTTP/1.0. This has led to debate
    438          and inconsistency regarding the use and interpretation of HTTP version numbers, and has led to interoperability problems in
    439          certain cases.
    440       </p>
    441       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.5">This document is an attempt to clarify the situation. It is not a modification of the intended meaning of the existing HTTP/1.0
    442          and HTTP/1.1 documents, but it does describe the intention of the authors of those documents. In any case where either of
    443          those two documents is ambiguous regarding the use and interpretation of HTTP version numbers, this document should be considered
    444          the definitive as to the intentions of the designers of HTTP.
    445       </p>
    446       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.6">The specification described in this document is not part of the specification of any individual version of HTTP, such as HTTP/1.0
    447          or HTTP/1.1. Rather, this document describes the use of HTTP version numbers in any version of HTTP (except for HTTP/0.9,
    448          which did not include version numbers).
    449       </p>
    450       <p id="rfc.section.1.p.7">No vendor or other provider of an HTTP implementation should claim any compliance with any IETF HTTP specification unless
    451          the implementation conditionally complies with the rules in this document.
    452       </p>
    453       <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;Robustness Principle
    454       </h2>
    455       <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">RFC791 <a href="#RFC0791"><cite title="Internet Protocol">[4]</cite></a> defines the "robustness principle" in section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791#section-3.2">3.2</a>:
    456       </p>
    457       <blockquote id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2" cite="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791#section-3.2">
    458          <p>an implementation must be conservative in its sending behavior, and liberal in its receiving behavior.</p>
    459       </blockquote>
    460       <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">This principle applies to HTTP, as well. It is the fundamental basis for interpreting any part of the HTTP specification that
    461          might still be ambiguous. In particular, implementations of HTTP <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> reject messages or generate errors unnecessarily.
    462       </p>
     415      <div>
     416         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;Introduction
     417         </h1>
     418         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">HTTP request and response messages include an HTTP protocol version number. According to section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-3.1">3.1</a> of the HTTP/1.1 specification <a href="#RFC2068"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[2]</cite></a>,
     419         </p>
     420         <blockquote id="rfc.section.1.p.2" cite="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-3.1">
     421            <p>HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended
     422               to allow the sender to indicate the format of a message and its capacity for understanding further HTTP communication, rather
     423               than the features obtained via that communication. No change is made to the version number for the addition of message components
     424               which do not affect communication behavior or which only add to extensible field values. The &lt;minor&gt; number is incremented
     425               when the changes made to the protocol add features which do not change the general message parsing algorithm, but which may
     426               add to the message semantics and imply additional capabilities of the sender. The &lt;major&gt; number is incremented when the format
     427               of a message within the protocol is changed.
     428            </p>
     429         </blockquote>
     430         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">The same language appears in the description of HTTP/1.0 <a href="#RFC1945"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[1]</cite></a>.
     431         </p>
     432         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.4">Many readers of these documents have expressed some confusion about the intended meaning of this policy. Also, some people
     433            who wrote HTTP implementations before RFC1945 <a href="#RFC1945"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[1]</cite></a> was issued were not aware of the intentions behind the introduction of version numbers in HTTP/1.0. This has led to debate
     434            and inconsistency regarding the use and interpretation of HTTP version numbers, and has led to interoperability problems in
     435            certain cases.
     436         </p>
     437         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.5">This document is an attempt to clarify the situation. It is not a modification of the intended meaning of the existing HTTP/1.0
     438            and HTTP/1.1 documents, but it does describe the intention of the authors of those documents. In any case where either of
     439            those two documents is ambiguous regarding the use and interpretation of HTTP version numbers, this document should be considered
     440            the definitive as to the intentions of the designers of HTTP.
     441         </p>
     442         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.6">The specification described in this document is not part of the specification of any individual version of HTTP, such as HTTP/1.0
     443            or HTTP/1.1. Rather, this document describes the use of HTTP version numbers in any version of HTTP (except for HTTP/0.9,
     444            which did not include version numbers).
     445         </p>
     446         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.7">No vendor or other provider of an HTTP implementation should claim any compliance with any IETF HTTP specification unless
     447            the implementation conditionally complies with the rules in this document.
     448         </p>
     449         <div>
     450            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;Robustness Principle
     451            </h2>
     452            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">RFC791 <a href="#RFC0791"><cite title="Internet Protocol">[4]</cite></a> defines the "robustness principle" in section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791#section-3.2">3.2</a>:
     453            </p>
     454            <blockquote id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2" cite="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791#section-3.2">
     455               <p>an implementation must be conservative in its sending behavior, and liberal in its receiving behavior.</p>
     456            </blockquote>
     457            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">This principle applies to HTTP, as well. It is the fundamental basis for interpreting any part of the HTTP specification that
     458               might still be ambiguous. In particular, implementations of HTTP <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> reject messages or generate errors unnecessarily.
     459            </p>
     460         </div>
     461      </div>
    463462      <hr class="noprint">
    464       <h1 id="rfc.section.2" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;HTTP version numbers
    465       </h1>
    466       <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">We start by restating the language quoted above from section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-3.1">3.1</a> of the HTTP/1.1 specification <a href="#RFC2068"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[2]</cite></a>:
    467       </p>
    468       <ul class="empty">
    469          <li>It is, and has always been, the explicit intent of the HTTP specification that the interpretation of an HTTP message header
    470             does not change between minor versions of the same major version.
    471          </li>
    472          <li>It is, and has always been, the explicit intent of the HTTP specification that an implementation receiving a message header
    473             that it does not understand <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore that header. (The word "ignore" has a special meaning for proxies; see section <a href="#proxy.behavior" title="Proxy behavior">2.1</a> below.)
    474          </li>
    475       </ul>
    476       <p id="rfc.section.2.p.2">To make this as clear as possible: The major version sent in a message <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> indicate the interpretation of other header fields. The minor version sent in a message <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> indicate the interpretation of other header fields. This reflects the principle that the minor version labels the capability
    477          of the sender, not the interpretation of the message.
    478       </p>
    479       <div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.p.3">
    480          <p>Note: In a future version of HTTP, we may introduce a mechanism that explicitly requires a receiving implementation to reject
    481             a message if it does not understand certain headers. For example, this might be implemented by means of a header that lists
    482             a set of other message headers that must be understood by the recipient. Any implementation claiming at least conditional
    483             compliance with this future version of HTTP would have to implement this mechanism. However, no implementation claiming compliance
    484             with a lower HTTP version (in particular, HTTP/1.1) will have to implement this mechanism.
    485          </p> 
    486          <p>This future change may be required to support the Protocol Extension Protocol (PEP) <a href="#Kha"><cite title="HTTP/1.2 Extension Protocol (PEP)">[3]</cite></a>.
    487          </p>
    488       </div>
    489       <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">One consequence of these rules is that an HTTP/1.1 message sent to an HTTP/1.0 recipient (or a recipient whose version is
    490          unknown) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be constructed so that it remains a valid HTTP/1.0 message when all headers not defined in the HTTP/1.0 specification <a href="#RFC1945"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[1]</cite></a> are removed.
    491       </p>
    492       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="proxy.behavior" href="#proxy.behavior">Proxy behavior</a></h2>
    493       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward an unknown header, unless it is protected by a Connection header. A proxy implementing an HTTP version &gt;= 1.1 <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> forward unknown headers that are protected by a Connection header, as described in section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-14.10">14.10</a> of the HTTP/1.1 specification <a href="#RFC2068"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[2]</cite></a>.
    494       </p>
    495       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">We remind the reader that that HTTP version numbers are hop-by-hop components of HTTP messages, and are not end-to-end. That
    496          is, an HTTP proxy never "forwards" an HTTP version number in either a request or response.
    497       </p>
    498       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;Compatibility between minor versions of the same major version
    499       </h2>
    500       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">An implementation of HTTP/x.b sending a message to a recipient whose version is known to be HTTP/x.a, a &lt; b, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a header that is not defined in the specification for HTTP/x.a. For example, an HTTP/1.1 server may send a "Cache-control"
    501          header to an HTTP/1.0 client; this may be useful if the immediate recipient is an HTTP/1.0 proxy, but the ultimate recipient
    502          is an HTTP/1.1 client.
    503       </p>
    504       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">An implementation of HTTP/x.b sending a message to a recipient whose version is known to be HTTP/x.a, a &lt; b, <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> depend on the recipient understanding a header not defined in the specification for HTTP/x.a. For example, HTTP/1.0 clients
    505          cannot be expected to understand chunked encodings, and so an HTTP/1.1 server must never send "Transfer-Encoding: chunked"
    506          in response to an HTTP/1.0 request.
    507       </p>
    508       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;Which version number to send in a message
    509       </h2>
    510       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">The most strenuous debate over the use of HTTP version numbers has centered on the problem of implementations that do not
    511          follow the robustness principle, and which fail to produce useful results when they receive a message with an HTTP minor version
    512          higher than the minor version they implement. We consider these implementations buggy, but we recognize that the robustness
    513          principle also implies that message senders should make concessions to buggy implementations when this is truly necessary
    514          for interoperation.
    515       </p>
    516       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.2">An HTTP client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a request version equal to the highest version for which the client is at least conditionally compliant, and whose major
    517          version is no higher than the highest version supported by the server, if this is known. An HTTP client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a version for which it is not at least conditionally compliant.
    518       </p>
    519       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">An HTTP client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a lower request version, if it is known that the server incorrectly implements the HTTP specification, but only after
    520          the client has determined that the server is actually buggy.
    521       </p>
    522       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.4">An HTTP server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a response version equal to the highest version for which the server is at least conditionally compliant, and whose major
    523          version is less than or equal to the one received in the request. An HTTP server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a version for which it is not at least conditionally compliant. A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a 505 (HTTP Version Not Supported) response if cannot send a response using the major version used in the client's request.
    524       </p>
    525       <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.5">An HTTP server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a lower response version, if it is known or suspected that the client incorrectly implements the HTTP specification,
    526          but this should not be the default, and this <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> NOT be done if the request version is HTTP/1.1 or greater.
    527       </p>
     463      <div>
     464         <h1 id="rfc.section.2" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;HTTP version numbers
     465         </h1>
     466         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">We start by restating the language quoted above from section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-3.1">3.1</a> of the HTTP/1.1 specification <a href="#RFC2068"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[2]</cite></a>:
     467         </p>
     468         <ul class="empty">
     469            <li>It is, and has always been, the explicit intent of the HTTP specification that the interpretation of an HTTP message header
     470               does not change between minor versions of the same major version.
     471            </li>
     472            <li>It is, and has always been, the explicit intent of the HTTP specification that an implementation receiving a message header
     473               that it does not understand <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore that header. (The word "ignore" has a special meaning for proxies; see section <a href="#proxy.behavior" title="Proxy behavior">2.1</a> below.)
     474            </li>
     475         </ul>
     476         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.2">To make this as clear as possible: The major version sent in a message <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> indicate the interpretation of other header fields. The minor version sent in a message <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> indicate the interpretation of other header fields. This reflects the principle that the minor version labels the capability
     477            of the sender, not the interpretation of the message.
     478         </p>
     479         <div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.p.3">
     480            <p>Note: In a future version of HTTP, we may introduce a mechanism that explicitly requires a receiving implementation to reject
     481               a message if it does not understand certain headers. For example, this might be implemented by means of a header that lists
     482               a set of other message headers that must be understood by the recipient. Any implementation claiming at least conditional
     483               compliance with this future version of HTTP would have to implement this mechanism. However, no implementation claiming compliance
     484               with a lower HTTP version (in particular, HTTP/1.1) will have to implement this mechanism.
     485            </p>
     486            <p>This future change may be required to support the Protocol Extension Protocol (PEP) <a href="#Kha"><cite title="HTTP/1.2 Extension Protocol (PEP)">[3]</cite></a>.
     487            </p>
     488         </div>
     489         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">One consequence of these rules is that an HTTP/1.1 message sent to an HTTP/1.0 recipient (or a recipient whose version is
     490            unknown) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be constructed so that it remains a valid HTTP/1.0 message when all headers not defined in the HTTP/1.0 specification <a href="#RFC1945"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[1]</cite></a> are removed.
     491         </p>
     492         <div id="proxy.behavior">
     493            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#proxy.behavior">Proxy behavior</a></h2>
     494            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward an unknown header, unless it is protected by a Connection header. A proxy implementing an HTTP version &gt;= 1.1 <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> forward unknown headers that are protected by a Connection header, as described in section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-14.10">14.10</a> of the HTTP/1.1 specification <a href="#RFC2068"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[2]</cite></a>.
     495            </p>
     496            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">We remind the reader that that HTTP version numbers are hop-by-hop components of HTTP messages, and are not end-to-end. That
     497               is, an HTTP proxy never "forwards" an HTTP version number in either a request or response.
     498            </p>
     499         </div>
     500         <div>
     501            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;Compatibility between minor versions of the same major version
     502            </h2>
     503            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">An implementation of HTTP/x.b sending a message to a recipient whose version is known to be HTTP/x.a, a &lt; b, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a header that is not defined in the specification for HTTP/x.a. For example, an HTTP/1.1 server may send a "Cache-control"
     504               header to an HTTP/1.0 client; this may be useful if the immediate recipient is an HTTP/1.0 proxy, but the ultimate recipient
     505               is an HTTP/1.1 client.
     506            </p>
     507            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">An implementation of HTTP/x.b sending a message to a recipient whose version is known to be HTTP/x.a, a &lt; b, <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> depend on the recipient understanding a header not defined in the specification for HTTP/x.a. For example, HTTP/1.0 clients
     508               cannot be expected to understand chunked encodings, and so an HTTP/1.1 server must never send "Transfer-Encoding: chunked"
     509               in response to an HTTP/1.0 request.
     510            </p>
     511         </div>
     512         <div>
     513            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;Which version number to send in a message
     514            </h2>
     515            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">The most strenuous debate over the use of HTTP version numbers has centered on the problem of implementations that do not
     516               follow the robustness principle, and which fail to produce useful results when they receive a message with an HTTP minor version
     517               higher than the minor version they implement. We consider these implementations buggy, but we recognize that the robustness
     518               principle also implies that message senders should make concessions to buggy implementations when this is truly necessary
     519               for interoperation.
     520            </p>
     521            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.2">An HTTP client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a request version equal to the highest version for which the client is at least conditionally compliant, and whose major
     522               version is no higher than the highest version supported by the server, if this is known. An HTTP client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a version for which it is not at least conditionally compliant.
     523            </p>
     524            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">An HTTP client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a lower request version, if it is known that the server incorrectly implements the HTTP specification, but only after
     525               the client has determined that the server is actually buggy.
     526            </p>
     527            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.4">An HTTP server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a response version equal to the highest version for which the server is at least conditionally compliant, and whose major
     528               version is less than or equal to the one received in the request. An HTTP server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a version for which it is not at least conditionally compliant. A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a 505 (HTTP Version Not Supported) response if cannot send a response using the major version used in the client's request.
     529            </p>
     530            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.5">An HTTP server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a lower response version, if it is known or suspected that the client incorrectly implements the HTTP specification,
     531               but this should not be the default, and this <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> NOT be done if the request version is HTTP/1.1 or greater.
     532            </p>
     533         </div>
     534      </div>
    528535      <hr class="noprint">
    529       <h1 id="rfc.section.3" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;Security Considerations
    530       </h1>
    531       <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">None, except to the extent that security mechanisms introduced in one version of HTTP might depend on the proper interpretation
    532          of HTTP version numbers in older implementations.
    533       </p>
     536      <div>
     537         <h1 id="rfc.section.3" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;Security Considerations
     538         </h1>
     539         <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">None, except to the extent that security mechanisms introduced in one version of HTTP might depend on the proper interpretation
     540            of HTTP version numbers in older implementations.
     541         </p>
     542      </div>
    534543      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.references"><a href="#rfc.section.4" id="rfc.section.4">4.</a> References
    535544      </h1>
    536       <table> 
     545      <table>
    537546         <tr>
    538547            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1945">[1]</b></td>
    539548            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="MIT, Laboratory for Computer Science">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science">Fielding, R.</a>, and <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="W3 Consortium, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">H. Nielsen</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1945">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1945, May&nbsp;1996.
    540549            </td>
    541          </tr> 
     550         </tr>
    542551         <tr>
    543552            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2068">[2]</b></td>
    544553            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Digital Equipment Corporation, Western Research Laboratory">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Nielsen, H.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2068, January&nbsp;1997.
    545554            </td>
    546          </tr> 
     555         </tr>
    547556         <tr>
    548557            <td class="reference"><b id="Kha">[3]</b></td>
    549558            <td class="top">Khare, R., “HTTP/1.2 Extension Protocol (PEP)”.<br>HTTP Working Group, Work in Progress.
    550559            </td>
    551          </tr> 
     560         </tr>
    552561         <tr>
    553562            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC0791">[4]</b></td>
    554563            <td class="top">Postel, J., “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791">Internet Protocol</a>”, RFC&nbsp;791, September&nbsp;1981.
    555564            </td>
    556          </tr> 
     565         </tr>
    557566      </table>
    558567      <hr class="noprint">
    559568      <div class="avoidbreak">
    560569         <h1 id="rfc.authors" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.5" id="rfc.section.5">5.</a> <a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
    561          <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Jeffrey C. Mogul</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Mogul</span><span class="given-name">Jeffrey C.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Western Research Laboratory</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">Digital Equipment Corporation</span><span class="street-address vcardline">250 University Avenue</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Palo Alto</span>, <span class="region">California</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">94305</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com"><span class="email">mogul@wrl.dec.com</span></a></span></address>
    562          <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Roy T. Fielding</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Fielding</span><span class="given-name">Roy T.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Department of Information and Computer Science</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">University of California</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Irvine</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">92717-3425</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+1(714)824-4056"><span class="value">+1 (714) 824-4056</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu"><span class="email">fielding@ics.uci.edu</span></a></span></address>
    563          <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Jim Gettys</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Gettys</span><span class="given-name">Jim</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">545 Technology Square</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Cambridge</span>, <span class="region">MA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">02139</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+1(617)2588682"><span class="value">+1 (617) 258 8682</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org"><span class="email">jg@w3.org</span></a></span></address>
    564          <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Frystyk</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">W3 Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</span><span class="street-address vcardline">545 Technology Square</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Cambridge</span>, <span class="region">MA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">02139</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+1(617)2588682"><span class="value">+1 (617) 258 8682</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org"><span class="email">frystyk@w3.org</span></a></span></address>
    565       </div>
    566       <h1><a id="rfc.copyright" href="#rfc.copyright">Full Copyright Statement</a></h1>
    567       <p>Copyright © The Internet Society (1997). All Rights Reserved.</p>
    568       <p>This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise
    569          explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without
    570          restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative
    571          works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references
    572          to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards
    573          in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to
    574          translate it into languages other than English.
    575       </p>
    576       <p>The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.</p>
    577       <p>This document and the information contained herein is provided on an “AS IS” basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
    578          ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE
    579          OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    580          PURPOSE.
    581       </p>
     570         <p><b>Jeffrey C. Mogul</b><br>Western Research Laboratory<br>Digital Equipment Corporation<br>250 University Avenue<br>Palo Alto, California&nbsp;94305<br>USA<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com">mogul@wrl.dec.com</a></p>
     571         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b><br>Department of Information and Computer Science<br>University of California<br>Irvine, CA&nbsp;92717-3425<br>USA<br>Fax: <a href="fax:+1(714)824-4056">+1 (714) 824-4056</a><br>EMail: <a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu">fielding@ics.uci.edu</a></p>
     572         <p><b>Jim Gettys</b><br>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science<br>545 Technology Square<br>Cambridge, MA&nbsp;02139<br>USA<br>Fax: <a href="fax:+1(617)2588682">+1 (617) 258 8682</a><br>EMail: <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org">jg@w3.org</a></p>
     573         <p><b>Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</b><br>W3 Consortium<br>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science<br>545 Technology Square<br>Cambridge, MA&nbsp;02139<br>USA<br>Fax: <a href="fax:+1(617)2588682">+1 (617) 258 8682</a><br>EMail: <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org">frystyk@w3.org</a></p>
     574      </div>
     575      <div id="rfc.copyright">
     576         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyright">Full Copyright Statement</a></h1>
     577         <p>Copyright © The Internet Society (1997). All Rights Reserved.</p>
     578         <p>This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise
     579            explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without
     580            restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative
     581            works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references
     582            to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards
     583            in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to
     584            translate it into languages other than English.
     585         </p>
     586         <p>The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.</p>
     587         <p>This document and the information contained herein is provided on an “AS IS” basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
     588            ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE
     589            OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
     590            PURPOSE.
     591         </p>
     592      </div>
    582593      <hr class="noprint">
    583       <h1 class="np"><a id="rfc.ipr" href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property</a></h1>
    584       <p>The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed
    585          to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under
    586          such rights might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effort to identify any such rights.
    587          Information on the IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and standards-related documentation can be
    588          found in BCP-11. Copies of claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of licenses to be made available,
    589          or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementors
    590          or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.
    591       </p>
    592       <p>The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
    593          rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice this standard. Please address the information to the IETF
    594          Executive Director.
    595       </p>
     594      <div id="rfc.ipr">
     595         <h1 class="np"><a href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property</a></h1>
     596         <p>The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed
     597            to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under
     598            such rights might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effort to identify any such rights.
     599            Information on the IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and standards-related documentation can be
     600            found in BCP-11. Copies of claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of licenses to be made available,
     601            or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementors
     602            or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.
     603         </p>
     604         <p>The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
     605            rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice this standard. Please address the information to the IETF
     606            Executive Director.
     607         </p>
     608      </div>
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    351339      <link rel="Appendix" title="19 Appendices" href="#rfc.section.19">
    352340      <link rel="Appendix" title="20 Index" href="#rfc.section.20">
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    433421      </table>
    434422      <p class="title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1<br><span class="filename">rfc2616-symrefs</span></p>
    435       <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
    436       <p>By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she
    437          is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section
    438          6 of BCP 79.
    439       </p>
    440       <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note
    441          that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
    442       </p>
    443       <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
    444          documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
    445          in progress”.
    446       </p>
    447       <p>The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt">http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt</a>.
    448       </p>
    449       <p>The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html">http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html</a>.
    450       </p>
    451       <p>This Internet-Draft will expire in December 1999.</p>
    452       <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
    453       <p>Copyright © The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.</p>
    454       <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
     423      <div id="rfc.status">
     424         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
     425         <p>By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she
     426            is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section
     427            6 of BCP 79.
     428         </p>
     429         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note
     430            that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
     431         </p>
     432         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     433            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
     434            in progress”.
     435         </p>
     436         <p>The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt">http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt</a>.
     437         </p>
     438         <p>The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html">http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html</a>.
     439         </p>
     440         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire in December 1999.</p>
     441      </div>
     442      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
     443         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
     444         <p>Copyright © The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.</p>
     445      </div>
     446      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
    455447      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
    456448         systems. It is a generic, stateless, protocol which can be used for many tasks beyond its use for hypertext, such as name
    457449         servers and distributed object management systems, through extension of its request methods, error codes and headers <a href="#RFC2324" id="rfc.xref.RFC2324.1"><cite title="Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP/1.0)">[RFC2324]</cite></a>. A feature of HTTP is the typing and negotiation of data representation, allowing systems to be built independently of the
    458450         data being transferred.
    459       </p> 
     451      </p>
    460452      <p>HTTP has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This specification defines the protocol
    461453         referred to as "HTTP/1.1", and is an update to RFC 2068 <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>.
    462       </p> 
    463       <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1> 
     454      </p>
     455      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
    464456      <p>This version of the HTTP specification contains only XML processing changes from [RFC2616] in internet-draft form for use
    465457         in creating diffs.
    466       </p> 
     458      </p>
    467459      <hr class="noprint">
    468460      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
    469461      <ul class="toc">
    470          <li>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
    471                <li>1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
    472                <li>1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></li>
    473                <li>1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.terminology">Terminology</a></li>
    474                <li>1.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></li>
     462         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
     463               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
     464               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></li>
     465               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.terminology">Terminology</a></li>
     466               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.4">1.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></li>
    475467            </ul>
    476468         </li>
    477          <li>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar</a><ul>
    478                <li>2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation.abnf">Augmented BNF</a></li>
    479                <li>2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#basic.rules">Basic Rules</a></li>
     469         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar</a><ul>
     470               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation.abnf">Augmented BNF</a></li>
     471               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#basic.rules">Basic Rules</a></li>
    480472            </ul>
    481473         </li>
    482          <li>3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a><ul>
    483                <li>3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></li>
    484                <li>3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a><ul>
    485                      <li>3.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#general.syntax">General Syntax</a></li>
    486                      <li>3.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.url">http URL</a></li>
    487                      <li>3.2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></li>
     474         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a><ul>
     475               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></li>
     476               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a><ul>
     477                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#general.syntax">General Syntax</a></li>
     478                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.url">http URL</a></li>
     479                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.3">3.2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></li>
    488480                  </ul>
    489481               </li>
    490                <li>3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a><ul>
    491                      <li>3.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#full.date">Full Date</a></li>
    492                      <li>3.3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#delta.seconds">Delta Seconds</a></li>
     482               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a><ul>
     483                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.1">3.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#full.date">Full Date</a></li>
     484                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.2">3.3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#delta.seconds">Delta Seconds</a></li>
    493485                  </ul>
    494486               </li>
    495                <li>3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#character.sets">Character Sets</a><ul>
    496                      <li>3.4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#missing.charset">Missing Charset</a></li>
     487               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#character.sets">Character Sets</a><ul>
     488                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.4.1">3.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#missing.charset">Missing Charset</a></li>
    497489                  </ul>
    498490               </li>
    499                <li>3.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.codings">Content Codings</a></li>
    500                <li>3.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a><ul>
    501                      <li>3.6.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></li>
     491               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.codings">Content Codings</a></li>
     492               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.6">3.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a><ul>
     493                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.6.1">3.6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></li>
    502494                  </ul>
    503495               </li>
    504                <li>3.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#media.types">Media Types</a><ul>
    505                      <li>3.7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults">Canonicalization and Text Defaults</a></li>
    506                      <li>3.7.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#multipart.types">Multipart Types</a></li>
     496               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.7">3.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#media.types">Media Types</a><ul>
     497                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.7.1">3.7.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults">Canonicalization and Text Defaults</a></li>
     498                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.7.2">3.7.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#multipart.types">Multipart Types</a></li>
    507499                  </ul>
    508500               </li>
    509                <li>3.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></li>
    510                <li>3.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#quality.values">Quality Values</a></li>
    511                <li>3.10&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#language.tags">Language Tags</a></li>
    512                <li>3.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tags">Entity Tags</a></li>
    513                <li>3.12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a></li>
     501               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.8">3.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></li>
     502               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.9">3.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#quality.values">Quality Values</a></li>
     503               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.10">3.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#language.tags">Language Tags</a></li>
     504               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.11">3.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tags">Entity Tags</a></li>
     505               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.12">3.12</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a></li>
    514506            </ul>
    515507         </li>
    516          <li>4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a><ul>
    517                <li>4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.types">Message Types</a></li>
    518                <li>4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></li>
    519                <li>4.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.body">Message Body</a></li>
    520                <li>4.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.length">Message Length</a></li>
    521                <li>4.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></li>
     508         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a><ul>
     509               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.types">Message Types</a></li>
     510               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></li>
     511               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.body">Message Body</a></li>
     512               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.length">Message Length</a></li>
     513               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.5">4.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></li>
    522514            </ul>
    523515         </li>
    524          <li>5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request">Request</a><ul>
    525                <li>5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-line">Request-Line</a><ul>
    526                      <li>5.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#method">Method</a></li>
    527                      <li>5.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-uri">Request-URI</a></li>
     516         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request">Request</a><ul>
     517               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-line">Request-Line</a><ul>
     518                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#method">Method</a></li>
     519                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request-uri">Request-URI</a></li>
    528520                  </ul>
    529521               </li>
    530                <li>5.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></li>
    531                <li>5.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request.header.fields">Request Header Fields</a></li>
     522               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></li>
     523               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#request.header.fields">Request Header Fields</a></li>
    532524            </ul>
    533525         </li>
    534          <li>6.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response">Response</a><ul>
    535                <li>6.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status-line">Status-Line</a><ul>
    536                      <li>6.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></li>
     526         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response">Response</a><ul>
     527               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status-line">Status-Line</a><ul>
     528                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.1">6.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></li>
    537529                  </ul>
    538530               </li>
    539                <li>6.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response.header.fields">Response Header Fields</a></li>
     531               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response.header.fields">Response Header Fields</a></li>
    540532            </ul>
    541533         </li>
    542          <li>7.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity">Entity</a><ul>
    543                <li>7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.header.fields">Entity Header Fields</a></li>
    544                <li>7.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.body">Entity Body</a><ul>
    545                      <li>7.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#type">Type</a></li>
    546                      <li>7.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.length">Entity Length</a></li>
     534         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity">Entity</a><ul>
     535               <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.header.fields">Entity Header Fields</a></li>
     536               <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.body">Entity Body</a><ul>
     537                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.1">7.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#type">Type</a></li>
     538                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.2">7.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.length">Entity Length</a></li>
    547539                  </ul>
    548540               </li>
    549541            </ul>
    550542         </li>
    551          <li>8.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connections">Connections</a><ul>
    552                <li>8.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a><ul>
    553                      <li>8.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
    554                      <li>8.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a><ul>
    555                            <li>8.1.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></li>
    556                            <li>8.1.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></li>
     543         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connections">Connections</a><ul>
     544               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a><ul>
     545                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.1">8.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
     546                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.2">8.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a><ul>
     547                           <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.2.1">8.1.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></li>
     548                           <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.2.2">8.1.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></li>
    557549                        </ul>
    558550                     </li>
    559                      <li>8.1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></li>
    560                      <li>8.1.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></li>
     551                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.3">8.1.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></li>
     552                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.4">8.1.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></li>
    561553                  </ul>
    562554               </li>
    563                <li>8.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a><ul>
    564                      <li>8.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></li>
    565                      <li>8.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></li>
    566                      <li>8.2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></li>
    567                      <li>8.2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></li>
     555               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a><ul>
     556                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.1">8.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></li>
     557                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.2">8.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></li>
     558                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.3">8.2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></li>
     559                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.4">8.2.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></li>
    568560                  </ul>
    569561               </li>
    570562            </ul>
    571563         </li>
    572          <li>9.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#method.definitions">Method Definitions</a><ul>
    573                <li>9.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#safe.and.idempotent">Safe and Idempotent Methods</a><ul>
    574                      <li>9.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#safe.methods">Safe Methods</a></li>
    575                      <li>9.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#idempotent.methods">Idempotent Methods</a></li>
     564         <li><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#method.definitions">Method Definitions</a><ul>
     565               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#safe.and.idempotent">Safe and Idempotent Methods</a><ul>
     566                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.1.1">9.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#safe.methods">Safe Methods</a></li>
     567                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.1.2">9.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#idempotent.methods">Idempotent Methods</a></li>
    576568                  </ul>
    577569               </li>
    578                <li>9.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#OPTIONS">OPTIONS</a></li>
    579                <li>9.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#GET">GET</a></li>
    580                <li>9.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#HEAD">HEAD</a></li>
    581                <li>9.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#POST">POST</a></li>
    582                <li>9.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#PUT">PUT</a></li>
    583                <li>9.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#DELETE">DELETE</a></li>
    584                <li>9.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#TRACE">TRACE</a></li>
    585                <li>9.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#CONNECT">CONNECT</a></li>
     570               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#OPTIONS">OPTIONS</a></li>
     571               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.3">9.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#GET">GET</a></li>
     572               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.4">9.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#HEAD">HEAD</a></li>
     573               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.5">9.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#POST">POST</a></li>
     574               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.6">9.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#PUT">PUT</a></li>
     575               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.7">9.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#DELETE">DELETE</a></li>
     576               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.8">9.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#TRACE">TRACE</a></li>
     577               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.9">9.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#CONNECT">CONNECT</a></li>
    586578            </ul>
    587579         </li>
    588          <li>10.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.codes">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
    589                <li>10.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.1xx">Informational 1xx</a><ul>
    590                      <li>10.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.100">100 Continue</a></li>
    591                      <li>10.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.101">101 Switching Protocols</a></li>
     580         <li><a href="#rfc.section.10">10.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.codes">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
     581               <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.1">10.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.1xx">Informational 1xx</a><ul>
     582                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.1.1">10.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.100">100 Continue</a></li>
     583                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.1.2">10.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.101">101 Switching Protocols</a></li>
    592584                  </ul>
    593585               </li>
    594                <li>10.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.2xx">Successful 2xx</a><ul>
    595                      <li>10.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.200">200 OK</a></li>
    596                      <li>10.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.201">201 Created</a></li>
    597                      <li>10.2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.202">202 Accepted</a></li>
    598                      <li>10.2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.203">203 Non-Authoritative Information</a></li>
    599                      <li>10.2.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.204">204 No Content</a></li>
    600                      <li>10.2.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.205">205 Reset Content</a></li>
    601                      <li>10.2.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
     586               <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2">10.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.2xx">Successful 2xx</a><ul>
     587                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.1">10.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.200">200 OK</a></li>
     588                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.2">10.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.201">201 Created</a></li>
     589                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.3">10.2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.202">202 Accepted</a></li>
     590                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.4">10.2.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.203">203 Non-Authoritative Information</a></li>
     591                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.5">10.2.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.204">204 No Content</a></li>
     592                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.6">10.2.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.205">205 Reset Content</a></li>
     593                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.2.7">10.2.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
    602594                  </ul>
    603595               </li>
    604                <li>10.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.3xx">Redirection 3xx</a><ul>
    605                      <li>10.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.300">300 Multiple Choices</a></li>
    606                      <li>10.3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.301">301 Moved Permanently</a></li>
    607                      <li>10.3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.302">302 Found</a></li>
    608                      <li>10.3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.303">303 See Other</a></li>
    609                      <li>10.3.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.304">304 Not Modified</a></li>
    610                      <li>10.3.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.305">305 Use Proxy</a></li>
    611                      <li>10.3.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.306">306 (Unused)</a></li>
    612                      <li>10.3.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.307">307 Temporary Redirect</a></li>
     596               <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3">10.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.3xx">Redirection 3xx</a><ul>
     597                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.1">10.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.300">300 Multiple Choices</a></li>
     598                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.2">10.3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.301">301 Moved Permanently</a></li>
     599                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.3">10.3.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.302">302 Found</a></li>
     600                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.4">10.3.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.303">303 See Other</a></li>
     601                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.5">10.3.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.304">304 Not Modified</a></li>
     602                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.6">10.3.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.305">305 Use Proxy</a></li>
     603                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.7">10.3.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.306">306 (Unused)</a></li>
     604                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.3.8">10.3.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.307">307 Temporary Redirect</a></li>
    613605                  </ul>
    614606               </li>
    615                <li>10.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.4xx">Client Error 4xx</a><ul>
    616                      <li>10.4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.400">400 Bad Request</a></li>
    617                      <li>10.4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></li>
    618                      <li>10.4.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.402">402 Payment Required</a></li>
    619                      <li>10.4.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.403">403 Forbidden</a></li>
    620                      <li>10.4.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.404">404 Not Found</a></li>
    621                      <li>10.4.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.405">405 Method Not Allowed</a></li>
    622                      <li>10.4.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.406">406 Not Acceptable</a></li>
    623                      <li>10.4.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></li>
    624                      <li>10.4.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.408">408 Request Timeout</a></li>
    625                      <li>10.4.10&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.409">409 Conflict</a></li>
    626                      <li>10.4.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.410">410 Gone</a></li>
    627                      <li>10.4.12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.411">411 Length Required</a></li>
    628                      <li>10.4.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.412">412 Precondition Failed</a></li>
    629                      <li>10.4.14&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.413">413 Request Entity Too Large</a></li>
    630                      <li>10.4.15&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.414">414 Request-URI Too Long</a></li>
    631                      <li>10.4.16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.415">415 Unsupported Media Type</a></li>
    632                      <li>10.4.17&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
    633                      <li>10.4.18&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.417">417 Expectation Failed</a></li>
     607               <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4">10.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.4xx">Client Error 4xx</a><ul>
     608                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.1">10.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.400">400 Bad Request</a></li>
     609                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.2">10.4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></li>
     610                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.3">10.4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.402">402 Payment Required</a></li>
     611                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.4">10.4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.403">403 Forbidden</a></li>
     612                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.5">10.4.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.404">404 Not Found</a></li>
     613                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.6">10.4.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.405">405 Method Not Allowed</a></li>
     614                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.7">10.4.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.406">406 Not Acceptable</a></li>
     615                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.8">10.4.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></li>
     616                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.9">10.4.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.408">408 Request Timeout</a></li>
     617                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.10">10.4.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.409">409 Conflict</a></li>
     618                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.11">10.4.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.410">410 Gone</a></li>
     619                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.12">10.4.12</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.411">411 Length Required</a></li>
     620                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.13">10.4.13</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.412">412 Precondition Failed</a></li>
     621                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.14">10.4.14</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.413">413 Request Entity Too Large</a></li>
     622                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.15">10.4.15</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.414">414 Request-URI Too Long</a></li>
     623                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.16">10.4.16</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.415">415 Unsupported Media Type</a></li>
     624                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.17">10.4.17</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
     625                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.4.18">10.4.18</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.417">417 Expectation Failed</a></li>
    634626                  </ul>
    635627               </li>
    636                <li>10.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.5xx">Server Error 5xx</a><ul>
    637                      <li>10.5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.500">500 Internal Server Error</a></li>
    638                      <li>10.5.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.501">501 Not Implemented</a></li>
    639                      <li>10.5.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.502">502 Bad Gateway</a></li>
    640                      <li>10.5.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.503">503 Service Unavailable</a></li>
    641                      <li>10.5.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.504">504 Gateway Timeout</a></li>
    642                      <li>10.5.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.505">505 HTTP Version Not Supported</a></li>
     628               <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5">10.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.5xx">Server Error 5xx</a><ul>
     629                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5.1">10.5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.500">500 Internal Server Error</a></li>
     630                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5.2">10.5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.501">501 Not Implemented</a></li>
     631                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5.3">10.5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.502">502 Bad Gateway</a></li>
     632                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5.4">10.5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.503">503 Service Unavailable</a></li>
     633                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5.5">10.5.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.504">504 Gateway Timeout</a></li>
     634                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.10.5.6">10.5.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.505">505 HTTP Version Not Supported</a></li>
    643635                  </ul>
    644636               </li>
    645637            </ul>
    646638         </li>
    647          <li>11.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#access.authentication">Access Authentication</a></li>
    648          <li>12.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.negotiation">Content Negotiation</a><ul>
    649                <li>12.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#server-driven.negotiation">Server-driven Negotiation</a></li>
    650                <li>12.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#agent-driven.negotiation">Agent-driven Negotiation</a></li>
    651                <li>12.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#transparent.negotiation">Transparent Negotiation</a></li>
     639         <li><a href="#rfc.section.11">11.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#access.authentication">Access Authentication</a></li>
     640         <li><a href="#rfc.section.12">12.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.negotiation">Content Negotiation</a><ul>
     641               <li><a href="#rfc.section.12.1">12.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#server-driven.negotiation">Server-driven Negotiation</a></li>
     642               <li><a href="#rfc.section.12.2">12.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#agent-driven.negotiation">Agent-driven Negotiation</a></li>
     643               <li><a href="#rfc.section.12.3">12.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#transparent.negotiation">Transparent Negotiation</a></li>
    652644            </ul>
    653645         </li>
    654          <li>13.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching">Caching in HTTP</a><ul>
    655                <li>13.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.13.1"></a><ul>
    656                      <li>13.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.correctness">Cache Correctness</a></li>
    657                      <li>13.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#warnings">Warnings</a></li>
    658                      <li>13.1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache-control.mechanisms">Cache-control Mechanisms</a></li>
    659                      <li>13.1.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#explicit.ua.warnings">Explicit User Agent Warnings</a></li>
    660                      <li>13.1.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#exceptions.to.the.rules.and.warnings">Exceptions to the Rules and Warnings</a></li>
    661                      <li>13.1.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#client-controlled.behavior">Client-controlled Behavior</a></li>
     646         <li><a href="#rfc.section.13">13.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching">Caching in HTTP</a><ul>
     647               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1">13.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.13.1"></a><ul>
     648                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1.1">13.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.correctness">Cache Correctness</a></li>
     649                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1.2">13.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#warnings">Warnings</a></li>
     650                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1.3">13.1.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache-control.mechanisms">Cache-control Mechanisms</a></li>
     651                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1.4">13.1.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#explicit.ua.warnings">Explicit User Agent Warnings</a></li>
     652                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1.5">13.1.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#exceptions.to.the.rules.and.warnings">Exceptions to the Rules and Warnings</a></li>
     653                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.1.6">13.1.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#client-controlled.behavior">Client-controlled Behavior</a></li>
    662654                  </ul>
    663655               </li>
    664                <li>13.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#expiration.model">Expiration Model</a><ul>
    665                      <li>13.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#server-specified.expiration">Server-Specified Expiration</a></li>
    666                      <li>13.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#heuristic.expiration">Heuristic Expiration</a></li>
    667                      <li>13.2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#age.calculations">Age Calculations</a></li>
    668                      <li>13.2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#expiration.calculations">Expiration Calculations</a></li>
    669                      <li>13.2.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#disambiguating.expiration.values">Disambiguating Expiration Values</a></li>
    670                      <li>13.2.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#disambiguating.multiple.responses">Disambiguating Multiple Responses</a></li>
     656               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2">13.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#expiration.model">Expiration Model</a><ul>
     657                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2.1">13.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#server-specified.expiration">Server-Specified Expiration</a></li>
     658                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2.2">13.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#heuristic.expiration">Heuristic Expiration</a></li>
     659                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2.3">13.2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#age.calculations">Age Calculations</a></li>
     660                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2.4">13.2.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#expiration.calculations">Expiration Calculations</a></li>
     661                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2.5">13.2.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#disambiguating.expiration.values">Disambiguating Expiration Values</a></li>
     662                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.2.6">13.2.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#disambiguating.multiple.responses">Disambiguating Multiple Responses</a></li>
    671663                  </ul>
    672664               </li>
    673                <li>13.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#validation.model">Validation Model</a><ul>
    674                      <li>13.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#last-modified.dates">Last-Modified Dates</a></li>
    675                      <li>13.3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tag.cache.validators">Entity Tag Cache Validators</a></li>
    676                      <li>13.3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#weak.and.strong.validators">Weak and Strong Validators</a></li>
    677                      <li>13.3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates">Rules for When to Use Entity Tags and Last-Modified Dates</a></li>
    678                      <li>13.3.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#non-validating.conditionals">Non-validating Conditionals</a></li>
     665               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.3">13.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#validation.model">Validation Model</a><ul>
     666                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.3.1">13.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#last-modified.dates">Last-Modified Dates</a></li>
     667                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.3.2">13.3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tag.cache.validators">Entity Tag Cache Validators</a></li>
     668                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.3.3">13.3.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#weak.and.strong.validators">Weak and Strong Validators</a></li>
     669                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.3.4">13.3.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates">Rules for When to Use Entity Tags and Last-Modified Dates</a></li>
     670                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.3.5">13.3.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#non-validating.conditionals">Non-validating Conditionals</a></li>
    679671                  </ul>
    680672               </li>
    681                <li>13.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response.cacheability">Response Cacheability</a></li>
    682                <li>13.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#constructing.responses.from.caches">Constructing Responses From Caches</a><ul>
    683                      <li>13.5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.headers">End-to-end and Hop-by-hop Headers</a></li>
    684                      <li>13.5.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#non-modifiable.headers">Non-modifiable Headers</a></li>
    685                      <li>13.5.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.headers">Combining Headers</a></li>
    686                      <li>13.5.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Byte Ranges</a></li>
     673               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.4">13.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response.cacheability">Response Cacheability</a></li>
     674               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.5">13.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#constructing.responses.from.caches">Constructing Responses From Caches</a><ul>
     675                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.5.1">13.5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.headers">End-to-end and Hop-by-hop Headers</a></li>
     676                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.5.2">13.5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#non-modifiable.headers">Non-modifiable Headers</a></li>
     677                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.5.3">13.5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.headers">Combining Headers</a></li>
     678                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.5.4">13.5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Byte Ranges</a></li>
    687679                  </ul>
    688680               </li>
    689                <li>13.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching.negotiated.responses">Caching Negotiated Responses</a></li>
    690                <li>13.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#shared.and.non-shared.caches">Shared and Non-Shared Caches</a></li>
    691                <li>13.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#errors.or.incomplete.response.cache.behavior">Errors or Incomplete Response Cache Behavior</a></li>
    692                <li>13.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#side.effects.of.get.and.head">Side Effects of GET and HEAD</a></li>
    693                <li>13.10&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions">Invalidation After Updates or Deletions</a></li>
    694                <li>13.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#write-through.mandatory">Write-Through Mandatory</a></li>
    695                <li>13.12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.replacement">Cache Replacement</a></li>
    696                <li>13.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#history.lists">History Lists</a></li>
     681               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.6">13.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching.negotiated.responses">Caching Negotiated Responses</a></li>
     682               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.7">13.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#shared.and.non-shared.caches">Shared and Non-Shared Caches</a></li>
     683               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.8">13.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#errors.or.incomplete.response.cache.behavior">Errors or Incomplete Response Cache Behavior</a></li>
     684               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.9">13.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#side.effects.of.get.and.head">Side Effects of GET and HEAD</a></li>
     685               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.10">13.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions">Invalidation After Updates or Deletions</a></li>
     686               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.11">13.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#write-through.mandatory">Write-Through Mandatory</a></li>
     687               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.12">13.12</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.replacement">Cache Replacement</a></li>
     688               <li><a href="#rfc.section.13.13">13.13</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#history.lists">History Lists</a></li>
    697689            </ul>
    698690         </li>
    699          <li>14.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
    700                <li>14.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept">Accept</a></li>
    701                <li>14.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-charset">Accept-Charset</a></li>
    702                <li>14.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-encoding">Accept-Encoding</a></li>
    703                <li>14.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-language">Accept-Language</a></li>
    704                <li>14.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
    705                <li>14.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.age">Age</a></li>
    706                <li>14.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.allow">Allow</a></li>
    707                <li>14.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></li>
    708                <li>14.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.cache-control">Cache-Control</a><ul>
    709                      <li>14.9.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#what.is.cacheable">What is Cacheable</a></li>
    710                      <li>14.9.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#what.may.be.stored.by.caches">What May be Stored by Caches</a></li>
    711                      <li>14.9.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#modifications.of.the.basic.expiration.mechanism">Modifications of the Basic Expiration Mechanism</a></li>
    712                      <li>14.9.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.revalidation.and.reload.controls">Cache Revalidation and Reload Controls</a></li>
    713                      <li>14.9.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#no-transform.directive">No-Transform Directive</a></li>
    714                      <li>14.9.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.control.extensions">Cache Control Extensions</a></li>
     691         <li><a href="#rfc.section.14">14.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
     692               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.1">14.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept">Accept</a></li>
     693               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.2">14.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-charset">Accept-Charset</a></li>
     694               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.3">14.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-encoding">Accept-Encoding</a></li>
     695               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.4">14.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-language">Accept-Language</a></li>
     696               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.5">14.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
     697               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.6">14.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.age">Age</a></li>
     698               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.7">14.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.allow">Allow</a></li>
     699               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.8">14.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></li>
     700               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9">14.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.cache-control">Cache-Control</a><ul>
     701                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9.1">14.9.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#what.is.cacheable">What is Cacheable</a></li>
     702                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9.2">14.9.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#what.may.be.stored.by.caches">What May be Stored by Caches</a></li>
     703                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9.3">14.9.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#modifications.of.the.basic.expiration.mechanism">Modifications of the Basic Expiration Mechanism</a></li>
     704                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9.4">14.9.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.revalidation.and.reload.controls">Cache Revalidation and Reload Controls</a></li>
     705                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9.5">14.9.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#no-transform.directive">No-Transform Directive</a></li>
     706                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.9.6">14.9.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.control.extensions">Cache Control Extensions</a></li>
    715707                  </ul>
    716708               </li>
    717                <li>14.10&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.connection">Connection</a></li>
    718                <li>14.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-encoding">Content-Encoding</a></li>
    719                <li>14.12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-language">Content-Language</a></li>
    720                <li>14.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-length">Content-Length</a></li>
    721                <li>14.14&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-location">Content-Location</a></li>
    722                <li>14.15&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-md5">Content-MD5</a></li>
    723                <li>14.16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
    724                <li>14.17&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-type">Content-Type</a></li>
    725                <li>14.18&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.date">Date</a><ul>
    726                      <li>14.18.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#clockless.origin.server.operation">Clockless Origin Server Operation</a></li>
     709               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.10">14.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.connection">Connection</a></li>
     710               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.11">14.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-encoding">Content-Encoding</a></li>
     711               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.12">14.12</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-language">Content-Language</a></li>
     712               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.13">14.13</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-length">Content-Length</a></li>
     713               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.14">14.14</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-location">Content-Location</a></li>
     714               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.15">14.15</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-md5">Content-MD5</a></li>
     715               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.16">14.16</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
     716               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.17">14.17</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-type">Content-Type</a></li>
     717               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.18">14.18</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.date">Date</a><ul>
     718                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.18.1">14.18.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#clockless.origin.server.operation">Clockless Origin Server Operation</a></li>
    727719                  </ul>
    728720               </li>
    729                <li>14.19&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.etag">ETag</a></li>
    730                <li>14.20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.expect">Expect</a></li>
    731                <li>14.21&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.expires">Expires</a></li>
    732                <li>14.22&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.from">From</a></li>
    733                <li>14.23&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.host">Host</a></li>
    734                <li>14.24&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-match">If-Match</a></li>
    735                <li>14.25&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-modified-since">If-Modified-Since</a></li>
    736                <li>14.26&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-none-match">If-None-Match</a></li>
    737                <li>14.27&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
    738                <li>14.28&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-unmodified-since">If-Unmodified-Since</a></li>
    739                <li>14.29&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.last-modified">Last-Modified</a></li>
    740                <li>14.30&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.location">Location</a></li>
    741                <li>14.31&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.max-forwards">Max-Forwards</a></li>
    742                <li>14.32&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.pragma">Pragma</a></li>
    743                <li>14.33&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></li>
    744                <li>14.34&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></li>
    745                <li>14.35&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a><ul>
    746                      <li>14.35.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
    747                      <li>14.35.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></li>
     721               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.19">14.19</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.etag">ETag</a></li>
     722               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.20">14.20</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.expect">Expect</a></li>
     723               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.21">14.21</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.expires">Expires</a></li>
     724               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.22">14.22</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.from">From</a></li>
     725               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.23">14.23</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.host">Host</a></li>
     726               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.24">14.24</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-match">If-Match</a></li>
     727               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.25">14.25</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-modified-since">If-Modified-Since</a></li>
     728               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.26">14.26</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-none-match">If-None-Match</a></li>
     729               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.27">14.27</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
     730               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.28">14.28</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-unmodified-since">If-Unmodified-Since</a></li>
     731               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.29">14.29</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.last-modified">Last-Modified</a></li>
     732               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.30">14.30</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.location">Location</a></li>
     733               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.31">14.31</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.max-forwards">Max-Forwards</a></li>
     734               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.32">14.32</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.pragma">Pragma</a></li>
     735               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.33">14.33</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></li>
     736               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.34">14.34</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></li>
     737               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.35">14.35</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a><ul>
     738                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.35.1">14.35.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
     739                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.35.2">14.35.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></li>
    748740                  </ul>
    749741               </li>
    750                <li>14.36&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.referer">Referer</a></li>
    751                <li>14.37&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.retry-after">Retry-After</a></li>
    752                <li>14.38&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.server">Server</a></li>
    753                <li>14.39&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.te">TE</a></li>
    754                <li>14.40&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.trailer">Trailer</a></li>
    755                <li>14.41&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.transfer-encoding">Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
    756                <li>14.42&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.upgrade">Upgrade</a></li>
    757                <li>14.43&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.user-agent">User-Agent</a></li>
    758                <li>14.44&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.vary">Vary</a></li>
    759                <li>14.45&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.via">Via</a></li>
    760                <li>14.46&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.warning">Warning</a></li>
    761                <li>14.47&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></li>
     742               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.36">14.36</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.referer">Referer</a></li>
     743               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.37">14.37</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.retry-after">Retry-After</a></li>
     744               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.38">14.38</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.server">Server</a></li>
     745               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.39">14.39</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.te">TE</a></li>
     746               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.40">14.40</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.trailer">Trailer</a></li>
     747               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.41">14.41</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.transfer-encoding">Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
     748               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.42">14.42</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.upgrade">Upgrade</a></li>
     749               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.43">14.43</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.user-agent">User-Agent</a></li>
     750               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.44">14.44</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.vary">Vary</a></li>
     751               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.45">14.45</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.via">Via</a></li>
     752               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.46">14.46</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.warning">Warning</a></li>
     753               <li><a href="#rfc.section.14.47">14.47</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></li>
    762754            </ul>
    763755         </li>
    764          <li>15.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
    765                <li>15.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#personal.information">Personal Information</a><ul>
    766                      <li>15.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abuse.of.server.log.information">Abuse of Server Log Information</a></li>
    767                      <li>15.1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.sensitive">Transfer of Sensitive Information</a></li>
    768                      <li>15.1.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#encoding.sensitive.information.in.uris">Encoding Sensitive Information in URI's</a></li>
    769                      <li>15.1.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#privacy.issues.connected.to.accept.headers">Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers</a></li>
     756         <li><a href="#rfc.section.15">15.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
     757               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.1">15.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#personal.information">Personal Information</a><ul>
     758                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.1.1">15.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abuse.of.server.log.information">Abuse of Server Log Information</a></li>
     759                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.1.2">15.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.sensitive">Transfer of Sensitive Information</a></li>
     760                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.1.3">15.1.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#encoding.sensitive.information.in.uris">Encoding Sensitive Information in URI's</a></li>
     761                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.1.4">15.1.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#privacy.issues.connected.to.accept.headers">Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers</a></li>
    770762                  </ul>
    771763               </li>
    772                <li>15.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></li>
    773                <li>15.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#dns.spoofing">DNS Spoofing</a></li>
    774                <li>15.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#location.spoofing">Location Headers and Spoofing</a></li>
    775                <li>15.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition.issues">Content-Disposition Issues</a></li>
    776                <li>15.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></li>
    777                <li>15.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.proxies">Proxies and Caching</a><ul>
    778                      <li>15.7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.DoS">Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies</a></li>
     764               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.2">15.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></li>
     765               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.3">15.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#dns.spoofing">DNS Spoofing</a></li>
     766               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.4">15.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#location.spoofing">Location Headers and Spoofing</a></li>
     767               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.5">15.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition.issues">Content-Disposition Issues</a></li>
     768               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.6">15.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></li>
     769               <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.7">15.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.proxies">Proxies and Caching</a><ul>
     770                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.15.7.1">15.7.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#attack.DoS">Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies</a></li>
    779771                  </ul>
    780772               </li>
    781773            </ul>
    782774         </li>
    783          <li>16.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
    784          <li>17.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a></li>
    785          <li>18.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
    786          <li>19.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.19">Appendices</a><ul>
    787                <li>19.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type message/http and application/http</a></li>
    788                <li>19.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
    789                <li>19.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#tolerant.applications">Tolerant Applications</a></li>
    790                <li>19.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities">Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities</a><ul>
    791                      <li>19.4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#mime-version">MIME-Version</a></li>
    792                      <li>19.4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.to.canonical.form">Conversion to Canonical Form</a></li>
    793                      <li>19.4.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.of.date.formats">Conversion of Date Formats</a></li>
    794                      <li>19.4.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.content-encoding">Introduction of Content-Encoding</a></li>
    795                      <li>19.4.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#no.content-transfer-encoding">No Content-Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
    796                      <li>19.4.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.transfer-encoding">Introduction of Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
    797                      <li>19.4.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#mhtml.line.length">MHTML and Line Length Limitations</a></li>
     775         <li><a href="#rfc.section.16">16.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
     776         <li><a href="#rfc.section.17">17.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a></li>
     777         <li><a href="#rfc.section.18">18.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
     778         <li><a href="#rfc.section.19">19.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.19">Appendices</a><ul>
     779               <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.1">19.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.http">Internet Media Type message/http and application/http</a></li>
     780               <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.2">19.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
     781               <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.3">19.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#tolerant.applications">Tolerant Applications</a></li>
     782               <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4">19.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities">Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities</a><ul>
     783                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.1">19.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#mime-version">MIME-Version</a></li>
     784                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.2">19.4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.to.canonical.form">Conversion to Canonical Form</a></li>
     785                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.3">19.4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.of.date.formats">Conversion of Date Formats</a></li>
     786                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.4">19.4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.content-encoding">Introduction of Content-Encoding</a></li>
     787                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.5">19.4.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#no.content-transfer-encoding">No Content-Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
     788                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.6">19.4.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.transfer-encoding">Introduction of Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
     789                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.4.7">19.4.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#mhtml.line.length">MHTML and Line Length Limitations</a></li>
    798790                  </ul>
    799791               </li>
    800                <li>19.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#additional.features">Additional Features</a><ul>
    801                      <li>19.5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition">Content-Disposition</a></li>
     792               <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.5">19.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#additional.features">Additional Features</a><ul>
     793                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.5.1">19.5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition">Content-Disposition</a></li>
    802794                  </ul>
    803795               </li>
    804                <li>19.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a><ul>
    805                      <li>19.6.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.1.0">Changes from HTTP/1.0</a><ul>
    806                            <li>19.6.1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses">Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses</a></li>
     796               <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.6">19.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a><ul>
     797                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.6.1">19.6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.1.0">Changes from HTTP/1.0</a><ul>
     798                           <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.6.1.1">19.6.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses">Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses</a></li>
    807799                        </ul>
    808800                     </li>
    809                      <li>19.6.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections">Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections</a></li>
    810                      <li>19.6.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2068">Changes from RFC 2068</a></li>
     801                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.6.2">19.6.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections">Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections</a></li>
     802                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.19.6.3">19.6.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2068">Changes from RFC 2068</a></li>
    811803                  </ul>
    812804               </li>
    813805            </ul>
    814806         </li>
    815          <li>20.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.20">Index</a></li>
     807         <li><a href="#rfc.section.20">20.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.20">Index</a></li>
    816808         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
    817809         <li><a href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements</a></li>
    818810      </ul>
    819       <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a id="introduction" href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
    820       <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.purpose" href="#intro.purpose">Purpose</a></h2>
    821       <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
    822          systems. HTTP has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. The first version of HTTP, referred
    823          to as HTTP/0.9, was a simple protocol for raw data transfer across the Internet. HTTP/1.0, as defined by RFC 1945 <a href="#RFC1945" id="rfc.xref.RFC1945.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[RFC1945]</cite></a>, improved the protocol by allowing messages to be in the format of MIME-like messages, containing metainformation about the
    824          data transferred and modifiers on the request/response semantics. However, HTTP/1.0 does not sufficiently take into consideration
    825          the effects of hierarchical proxies, caching, the need for persistent connections, or virtual hosts. In addition, the proliferation
    826          of incompletely-implemented applications calling themselves "HTTP/1.0" has necessitated a protocol version change in order
    827          for two communicating applications to determine each other's true capabilities.
    828       </p>
    829       <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">This specification defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1". This protocol includes more stringent requirements than
    830          HTTP/1.0 in order to ensure reliable implementation of its features.
    831       </p>
    832       <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">Practical information systems require more functionality than simple retrieval, including search, front-end update, and annotation.
    833          HTTP allows an open-ended set of methods and headers that indicate the purpose of a request <a href="#RFC2324" id="rfc.xref.RFC2324.2"><cite title="Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP/1.0)">[RFC2324]</cite></a>. It builds on the discipline of reference provided by the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) <a href="#RFC1630" id="rfc.xref.RFC1630.1"><cite title="Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW: A Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses of Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web">[RFC1630]</cite></a>, as a location (URL) <a href="#RFC1738" id="rfc.xref.RFC1738.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Locators (URL)">[RFC1738]</cite></a> or name (URN) <a href="#RFC1737" id="rfc.xref.RFC1737.1"><cite title="Functional Requirements for Uniform Resource Names">[RFC1737]</cite></a>, for indicating the resource to which a method is to be applied. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by
    834          Internet mail <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.1"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a> as defined by the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>.
    835       </p>
    836       <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.4">HTTP is also used as a generic protocol for communication between user agents and proxies/gateways to other Internet systems,
    837          including those supported by the SMTP <a href="#RFC821" id="rfc.xref.RFC821.1"><cite title="Simple Mail Transfer Protocol">[RFC821]</cite></a>, NNTP <a href="#RFC977" id="rfc.xref.RFC977.1"><cite title="Network News Transfer Protocol">[RFC977]</cite></a>, FTP <a href="#RFC959" id="rfc.xref.RFC959.1"><cite title="File Transfer Protocol">[RFC959]</cite></a>, Gopher <a href="#RFC1436" id="rfc.xref.RFC1436.1"><cite title="The Internet Gopher Protocol (a distributed document search and retrieval protocol)">[RFC1436]</cite></a>, and WAIS <a href="#WAIS" id="rfc.xref.WAIS.1"><cite title="WAIS Interface Protocol Prototype Functional Specification (v1.5)">[WAIS]</cite></a> protocols. In this way, HTTP allows basic hypermedia access to resources available from diverse applications.
    838       </p>
    839       <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.requirements" href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></h2>
    840       <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
    841          in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
    842       </p>
    843       <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2">An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> or <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> level requirements for the protocols it implements. An implementation that satisfies all the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> or <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> level and all the <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> level requirements for its protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> level requirements but not all the <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant."
    844       </p>
    845       <h2 id="rfc.section.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.terminology" href="#intro.terminology">Terminology</a></h2>
    846       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.1">This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles played by participants in, and objects of, the HTTP communication.</p>
    847       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.2"> <span id="rfc.iref.c.1"></span>  <dfn>connection</dfn> 
    848       </p>
    849       <ul class="empty">
    850          <li>A transport layer virtual circuit established between two programs for the purpose of communication.</li>
    851       </ul>
    852       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.3"> <span id="rfc.iref.m.1"></span>  <dfn>message</dfn> 
    853       </p>
    854       <ul class="empty">
    855          <li>The basic unit of HTTP communication, consisting of a structured sequence of octets matching the syntax defined in <a href="#http.message" title="HTTP Message">Section&nbsp;4</a> and transmitted via the connection.
    856          </li>
    857       </ul>
    858       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.4"> <span id="rfc.iref.r.1"></span>  <dfn>request</dfn> 
    859       </p>
    860       <ul class="empty">
    861          <li>An HTTP request message, as defined in <a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;5</a>.
    862          </li>
    863       </ul>
    864       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.5"> <span id="rfc.iref.r.2"></span>  <dfn>response</dfn> 
    865       </p>
    866       <ul class="empty">
    867          <li>An HTTP response message, as defined in <a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;6</a>.
    868          </li>
    869       </ul>
    870       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.6"> <span id="rfc.iref.r.3"></span>  <dfn>resource</dfn> 
    871       </p>
    872       <ul class="empty">
    873          <li>A network data object or service that can be identified by a URI, as defined in <a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>. Resources may be available in multiple representations (e.g. multiple languages, data formats, size, and resolutions) or
    874             vary in other ways.
    875          </li>
    876       </ul>
    877       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.7"> <span id="rfc.iref.e.1"></span>  <dfn>entity</dfn> 
    878       </p>
    879       <ul class="empty">
    880          <li>The information transferred as the payload of a request or response. An entity consists of metainformation in the form of
    881             entity-header fields and content in the form of an entity-body, as described in <a href="#entity" title="Entity">Section&nbsp;7</a>.
    882          </li>
    883       </ul>
    884       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.8"> <span id="rfc.iref.r.4"></span>  <dfn>representation</dfn> 
    885       </p>
    886       <ul class="empty">
    887          <li>An entity included with a response that is subject to content negotiation, as described in <a href="#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section&nbsp;12</a>. There may exist multiple representations associated with a particular response status.
    888          </li>
    889       </ul>
    890       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.9"> <span id="rfc.iref.c.2"></span>  <dfn>content negotiation</dfn> 
    891       </p>
    892       <ul class="empty">
    893          <li>The mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request, as described in <a href="#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section&nbsp;12</a>. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses).
    894          </li>
    895       </ul>
    896       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.10"> <span id="rfc.iref.v.1"></span>  <dfn>variant</dfn> 
    897       </p>
    898       <ul class="empty">
    899          <li>A resource may have one, or more than one, representation(s) associated with it at any given instant. Each of these representations
    900             is termed a `varriant'. Use of the term `variant' does not necessarily imply that the resource is subject to content negotiation.
    901          </li>
    902       </ul>
    903       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.11"> <span id="rfc.iref.c.3"></span>  <dfn>client</dfn> 
    904       </p>
    905       <ul class="empty">
    906          <li>A program that establishes connections for the purpose of sending requests.</li>
    907       </ul>
    908       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.12"> <span id="rfc.iref.u.1"></span>  <dfn>user agent</dfn> 
    909       </p>
    910       <ul class="empty">
    911          <li>The client which initiates a request. These are often browsers, editors, spiders (web-traversing robots), or other end user
    912             tools.
    913          </li>
    914       </ul>
    915       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.13"> <span id="rfc.iref.s.1"></span>  <dfn>server</dfn> 
    916       </p>
    917       <ul class="empty">
    918          <li>An application program that accepts connections in order to service requests by sending back responses. Any given program
    919             may be capable of being both a client and a server; our use of these terms refers only to the role being performed by the
    920             program for a particular connection, rather than to the program's capabilities in general. Likewise, any server may act as
    921             an origin server, proxy, gateway, or tunnel, switching behavior based on the nature of each request.
    922          </li>
    923       </ul>
    924       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.14"> <span id="rfc.iref.o.1"></span>  <dfn>origin server</dfn> 
    925       </p>
    926       <ul class="empty">
    927          <li>The server on which a given resource resides or is to be created.</li>
    928       </ul>
    929       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.15"> <span id="rfc.iref.p.1"></span>  <dfn>proxy</dfn> 
    930       </p>
    931       <ul class="empty">
    932          <li>An intermediary program which acts as both a server and a client for the purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients.
    933             Requests are serviced internally or by passing them on, with possible translation, to other servers. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> implement both the client and server requirements of this specification. A "transparent proxy" is a proxy that does not modify
    934             the request or response beyond what is required for proxy authentication and identification. A "non-transparent proxy" is
    935             a proxy that modifies the request or response in order to provide some added service to the user agent, such as group annotation
    936             services, media type transformation, protocol reduction, or anonymity filtering. Except where either transparent or non-transparent
    937             behavior is explicitly stated, the HTTP proxy requirements apply to both types of proxies.
    938          </li>
    939       </ul>
    940       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.16"> <span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span>  <dfn>gateway</dfn> 
    941       </p>
    942       <ul class="empty">
    943          <li>A server which acts as an intermediary for some other server. Unlike a proxy, a gateway receives requests as if it were the
    944             origin server for the requested resource; the requesting client may not be aware that it is communicating with a gateway.
    945          </li>
    946       </ul>
    947       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.17"> <span id="rfc.iref.t.1"></span>  <dfn>tunnel</dfn> 
    948       </p>
    949       <ul class="empty">
    950          <li>An intermediary program which is acting as a blind relay between two connections. Once active, a tunnel is not considered
    951             a party to the HTTP communication, though the tunnel may have been initiated by an HTTP request. The tunnel ceases to exist
    952             when both ends of the relayed connections are closed.
    953          </li>
    954       </ul>
    955       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.18"> <span id="rfc.iref.c.4"></span>  <dfn>cache</dfn> 
    956       </p>
    957       <ul class="empty">
    958          <li>A program's local store of response messages and the subsystem that controls its message storage, retrieval, and deletion.
    959             A cache stores cacheable responses in order to reduce the response time and network bandwidth consumption on future, equivalent
    960             requests. Any client or server may include a cache, though a cache cannot be used by a server that is acting as a tunnel.
    961          </li>
    962       </ul>
    963       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.19"> <span id="rfc.iref.c.5"></span>  <dfn>cacheable</dfn> 
    964       </p>
    965       <ul class="empty">
    966          <li>A response is cacheable if a cache is allowed to store a copy of the response message for use in answering subsequent requests.
    967             The rules for determining the cacheability of HTTP responses are defined in <a href="#caching" title="Caching in HTTP">Section&nbsp;13</a>. Even if a resource is cacheable, there may be additional constraints on whether a cache can use the cached copy for a particular
    968             request.
    969          </li>
    970       </ul>
    971       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.20"> <span id="rfc.iref.f.1"></span>  <dfn>first-hand</dfn> 
    972       </p>
    973       <ul class="empty">
    974          <li>A response is first-hand if it comes directly and without unnecessary delay from the origin server, perhaps via one or more
    975             proxies. A response is also first-hand if its validity has just been checked directly with the origin server.
    976          </li>
    977       </ul>
    978       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.21"> <span id="rfc.iref.e.2"></span>  <dfn>explicit expiration time</dfn> 
    979       </p>
    980       <ul class="empty">
    981          <li>The time at which the origin server intends that an entity should no longer be returned by a cache without further validation.</li>
    982       </ul>
    983       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.22"> <span id="rfc.iref.h.1"></span>  <dfn>heuristic expiration time</dfn> 
    984       </p>
    985       <ul class="empty">
    986          <li>An expiration time assigned by a cache when no explicit expiration time is available.</li>
    987       </ul>
    988       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.23"> <span id="rfc.iref.a.1"></span>  <dfn>age</dfn> 
    989       </p>
    990       <ul class="empty">
    991          <li>The age of a response is the time since it was sent by, or successfully validated with, the origin server.</li>
    992       </ul>
    993       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.24"> <span id="rfc.iref.f.2"></span>  <dfn>freshness lifetime</dfn> 
    994       </p>
    995       <ul class="empty">
    996          <li>The length of time between the generation of a response and its expiration time.</li>
    997       </ul>
    998       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.25"> <span id="rfc.iref.f.3"></span>  <dfn>fresh</dfn> 
    999       </p>
    1000       <ul class="empty">
    1001          <li>A response is fresh if its age has not yet exceeded its freshness lifetime.</li>
    1002       </ul>
    1003       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.26"> <span id="rfc.iref.s.2"></span>  <dfn>stale</dfn> 
    1004       </p>
    1005       <ul class="empty">
    1006          <li>A response is stale if its age has passed its freshness lifetime.</li>
    1007       </ul>
    1008       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.27"> <span id="rfc.iref.s.3"></span>  <dfn>semantically transparent</dfn> 
    1009       </p>
    1010       <ul class="empty">
    1011          <li>A cache behaves in a "semantically transparent" manner, with respect to a particular response, when its use affects neither
    1012             the requesting client nor the origin server, except to improve performance. When a cache is semantically transparent, the
    1013             client receives exactly the same response (except for hop-by-hop headers) that it would have received had its request been
    1014             handled directly by the origin server.
    1015          </li>
    1016       </ul>
    1017       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.28"> <span id="rfc.iref.v.2"></span>  <dfn>validator</dfn> 
    1018       </p>
    1019       <ul class="empty">
    1020          <li>A protocol element (e.g., an entity tag or a Last-Modified time) that is used to find out whether a cache entry is an equivalent
    1021             copy of an entity.
    1022          </li>
    1023       </ul>
    1024       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.29"> <span id="rfc.iref.u.2"></span>  <span id="rfc.iref.d.1"></span>  <dfn>upstream</dfn>/<dfn>downstream</dfn> 
    1025       </p>
    1026       <ul class="empty">
    1027          <li>Upstream and downstream describe the flow of a message: all messages flow from upstream to downstream.</li>
    1028       </ul>
    1029       <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.30"> <span id="rfc.iref.i.1"></span>  <span id="rfc.iref.o.2"></span>  <dfn>inbound</dfn>/<dfn>outbound</dfn> 
    1030       </p>
    1031       <ul class="empty">
    1032          <li>Inbound and outbound refer to the request and response paths for messages: "inbound" means "traveling toward the origin server",
    1033             and "outbound" means "traveling toward the user agent"
    1034          </li>
    1035       </ul>
    1036       <h2 id="rfc.section.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4">1.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.overall.operation" href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></h2>
    1037       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.1">The HTTP protocol is a request/response protocol. A client sends a request to the server in the form of a request method,
    1038          URI, and protocol version, followed by a MIME-like message containing request modifiers, client information, and possible
    1039          body content over a connection with a server. The server responds with a status line, including the message's protocol version
    1040          and a success or error code, followed by a MIME-like message containing server information, entity metainformation, and possible
    1041          entity-body content. The relationship between HTTP and MIME is described in <a href="#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities" title="Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities">Appendix&nbsp;19.4</a>.
    1042       </p>
    1043       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.2">Most HTTP communication is initiated by a user agent and consists of a request to be applied to a resource on some origin
    1044          server. In the simplest case, this may be accomplished via a single connection (v) between the user agent (UA) and the origin
    1045          server (O).
    1046       </p>
    1047       <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain ------------------------&gt;
     811      <div id="introduction">
     812         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
     813         <div id="intro.purpose">
     814            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.purpose">Purpose</a></h2>
     815            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
     816               systems. HTTP has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. The first version of HTTP, referred
     817               to as HTTP/0.9, was a simple protocol for raw data transfer across the Internet. HTTP/1.0, as defined by RFC 1945 <a href="#RFC1945" id="rfc.xref.RFC1945.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[RFC1945]</cite></a>, improved the protocol by allowing messages to be in the format of MIME-like messages, containing metainformation about the
     818               data transferred and modifiers on the request/response semantics. However, HTTP/1.0 does not sufficiently take into consideration
     819               the effects of hierarchical proxies, caching, the need for persistent connections, or virtual hosts. In addition, the proliferation
     820               of incompletely-implemented applications calling themselves "HTTP/1.0" has necessitated a protocol version change in order
     821               for two communicating applications to determine each other's true capabilities.
     822            </p>
     823            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">This specification defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1". This protocol includes more stringent requirements than
     824               HTTP/1.0 in order to ensure reliable implementation of its features.
     825            </p>
     826            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">Practical information systems require more functionality than simple retrieval, including search, front-end update, and annotation.
     827               HTTP allows an open-ended set of methods and headers that indicate the purpose of a request <a href="#RFC2324" id="rfc.xref.RFC2324.2"><cite title="Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP/1.0)">[RFC2324]</cite></a>. It builds on the discipline of reference provided by the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) <a href="#RFC1630" id="rfc.xref.RFC1630.1"><cite title="Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW: A Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses of Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web">[RFC1630]</cite></a>, as a location (URL) <a href="#RFC1738" id="rfc.xref.RFC1738.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Locators (URL)">[RFC1738]</cite></a> or name (URN) <a href="#RFC1737" id="rfc.xref.RFC1737.1"><cite title="Functional Requirements for Uniform Resource Names">[RFC1737]</cite></a>, for indicating the resource to which a method is to be applied. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by
     828               Internet mail <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.1"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a> as defined by the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>.
     829            </p>
     830            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.4">HTTP is also used as a generic protocol for communication between user agents and proxies/gateways to other Internet systems,
     831               including those supported by the SMTP <a href="#RFC821" id="rfc.xref.RFC821.1"><cite title="Simple Mail Transfer Protocol">[RFC821]</cite></a>, NNTP <a href="#RFC977" id="rfc.xref.RFC977.1"><cite title="Network News Transfer Protocol">[RFC977]</cite></a>, FTP <a href="#RFC959" id="rfc.xref.RFC959.1"><cite title="File Transfer Protocol">[RFC959]</cite></a>, Gopher <a href="#RFC1436" id="rfc.xref.RFC1436.1"><cite title="The Internet Gopher Protocol (a distributed document search and retrieval protocol)">[RFC1436]</cite></a>, and WAIS <a href="#WAIS" id="rfc.xref.WAIS.1"><cite title="WAIS Interface Protocol Prototype Functional Specification (v1.5)">[WAIS]</cite></a> protocols. In this way, HTTP allows basic hypermedia access to resources available from diverse applications.
     832            </p>
     833         </div>
     834         <div id="intro.requirements">
     835            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></h2>
     836            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
     837               in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
     838            </p>
     839            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2">An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> or <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> level requirements for the protocols it implements. An implementation that satisfies all the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> or <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> level and all the <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> level requirements for its protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> level requirements but not all the <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant."
     840            </p>
     841         </div>
     842         <div id="intro.terminology">
     843            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.terminology">Terminology</a></h2>
     844            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.1">This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles played by participants in, and objects of, the HTTP communication.</p>
     845            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.2"><span id="rfc.iref.c.1"></span> <dfn>connection</dfn>
     846            </p>
     847            <ul class="empty">
     848               <li>A transport layer virtual circuit established between two programs for the purpose of communication.</li>
     849            </ul>
     850            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.3"><span id="rfc.iref.m.1"></span> <dfn>message</dfn>
     851            </p>
     852            <ul class="empty">
     853               <li>The basic unit of HTTP communication, consisting of a structured sequence of octets matching the syntax defined in <a href="#http.message" title="HTTP Message">Section&nbsp;4</a> and transmitted via the connection.
     854               </li>
     855            </ul>
     856            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.4"><span id="rfc.iref.r.1"></span> <dfn>request</dfn>
     857            </p>
     858            <ul class="empty">
     859               <li>An HTTP request message, as defined in <a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;5</a>.
     860               </li>
     861            </ul>
     862            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.5"><span id="rfc.iref.r.2"></span> <dfn>response</dfn>
     863            </p>
     864            <ul class="empty">
     865               <li>An HTTP response message, as defined in <a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;6</a>.
     866               </li>
     867            </ul>
     868            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.6"><span id="rfc.iref.r.3"></span> <dfn>resource</dfn>
     869            </p>
     870            <ul class="empty">
     871               <li>A network data object or service that can be identified by a URI, as defined in <a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>. Resources may be available in multiple representations (e.g. multiple languages, data formats, size, and resolutions) or
     872                  vary in other ways.
     873               </li>
     874            </ul>
     875            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.7"><span id="rfc.iref.e.1"></span> <dfn>entity</dfn>
     876            </p>
     877            <ul class="empty">
     878               <li>The information transferred as the payload of a request or response. An entity consists of metainformation in the form of
     879                  entity-header fields and content in the form of an entity-body, as described in <a href="#entity" title="Entity">Section&nbsp;7</a>.
     880               </li>
     881            </ul>
     882            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.8"><span id="rfc.iref.r.4"></span> <dfn>representation</dfn>
     883            </p>
     884            <ul class="empty">
     885               <li>An entity included with a response that is subject to content negotiation, as described in <a href="#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section&nbsp;12</a>. There may exist multiple representations associated with a particular response status.
     886               </li>
     887            </ul>
     888            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.9"><span id="rfc.iref.c.2"></span> <dfn>content negotiation</dfn>
     889            </p>
     890            <ul class="empty">
     891               <li>The mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request, as described in <a href="#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section&nbsp;12</a>. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses).
     892               </li>
     893            </ul>
     894            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.10"><span id="rfc.iref.v.1"></span> <dfn>variant</dfn>
     895            </p>
     896            <ul class="empty">
     897               <li>A resource may have one, or more than one, representation(s) associated with it at any given instant. Each of these representations
     898                  is termed a `varriant'. Use of the term `variant' does not necessarily imply that the resource is subject to content negotiation.
     899               </li>
     900            </ul>
     901            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.11"><span id="rfc.iref.c.3"></span> <dfn>client</dfn>
     902            </p>
     903            <ul class="empty">
     904               <li>A program that establishes connections for the purpose of sending requests.</li>
     905            </ul>
     906            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.12"><span id="rfc.iref.u.1"></span> <dfn>user agent</dfn>
     907            </p>
     908            <ul class="empty">
     909               <li>The client which initiates a request. These are often browsers, editors, spiders (web-traversing robots), or other end user
     910                  tools.
     911               </li>
     912            </ul>
     913            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.13"><span id="rfc.iref.s.1"></span> <dfn>server</dfn>
     914            </p>
     915            <ul class="empty">
     916               <li>An application program that accepts connections in order to service requests by sending back responses. Any given program
     917                  may be capable of being both a client and a server; our use of these terms refers only to the role being performed by the
     918                  program for a particular connection, rather than to the program's capabilities in general. Likewise, any server may act as
     919                  an origin server, proxy, gateway, or tunnel, switching behavior based on the nature of each request.
     920               </li>
     921            </ul>
     922            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.14"><span id="rfc.iref.o.1"></span> <dfn>origin server</dfn>
     923            </p>
     924            <ul class="empty">
     925               <li>The server on which a given resource resides or is to be created.</li>
     926            </ul>
     927            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.15"><span id="rfc.iref.p.1"></span> <dfn>proxy</dfn>
     928            </p>
     929            <ul class="empty">
     930               <li>An intermediary program which acts as both a server and a client for the purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients.
     931                  Requests are serviced internally or by passing them on, with possible translation, to other servers. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> implement both the client and server requirements of this specification. A "transparent proxy" is a proxy that does not modify
     932                  the request or response beyond what is required for proxy authentication and identification. A "non-transparent proxy" is
     933                  a proxy that modifies the request or response in order to provide some added service to the user agent, such as group annotation
     934                  services, media type transformation, protocol reduction, or anonymity filtering. Except where either transparent or non-transparent
     935                  behavior is explicitly stated, the HTTP proxy requirements apply to both types of proxies.
     936               </li>
     937            </ul>
     938            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.16"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span> <dfn>gateway</dfn>
     939            </p>
     940            <ul class="empty">
     941               <li>A server which acts as an intermediary for some other server. Unlike a proxy, a gateway receives requests as if it were the
     942                  origin server for the requested resource; the requesting client may not be aware that it is communicating with a gateway.
     943               </li>
     944            </ul>
     945            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.17"><span id="rfc.iref.t.1"></span> <dfn>tunnel</dfn>
     946            </p>
     947            <ul class="empty">
     948               <li>An intermediary program which is acting as a blind relay between two connections. Once active, a tunnel is not considered
     949                  a party to the HTTP communication, though the tunnel may have been initiated by an HTTP request. The tunnel ceases to exist
     950                  when both ends of the relayed connections are closed.
     951               </li>
     952            </ul>
     953            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.18"><span id="rfc.iref.c.4"></span> <dfn>cache</dfn>
     954            </p>
     955            <ul class="empty">
     956               <li>A program's local store of response messages and the subsystem that controls its message storage, retrieval, and deletion.
     957                  A cache stores cacheable responses in order to reduce the response time and network bandwidth consumption on future, equivalent
     958                  requests. Any client or server may include a cache, though a cache cannot be used by a server that is acting as a tunnel.
     959               </li>
     960            </ul>
     961            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.19"><span id="rfc.iref.c.5"></span> <dfn>cacheable</dfn>
     962            </p>
     963            <ul class="empty">
     964               <li>A response is cacheable if a cache is allowed to store a copy of the response message for use in answering subsequent requests.
     965                  The rules for determining the cacheability of HTTP responses are defined in <a href="#caching" title="Caching in HTTP">Section&nbsp;13</a>. Even if a resource is cacheable, there may be additional constraints on whether a cache can use the cached copy for a particular
     966                  request.
     967               </li>
     968            </ul>
     969            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.20"><span id="rfc.iref.f.1"></span> <dfn>first-hand</dfn>
     970            </p>
     971            <ul class="empty">
     972               <li>A response is first-hand if it comes directly and without unnecessary delay from the origin server, perhaps via one or more
     973                  proxies. A response is also first-hand if its validity has just been checked directly with the origin server.
     974               </li>
     975            </ul>
     976            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.21"><span id="rfc.iref.e.2"></span> <dfn>explicit expiration time</dfn>
     977            </p>
     978            <ul class="empty">
     979               <li>The time at which the origin server intends that an entity should no longer be returned by a cache without further validation.</li>
     980            </ul>
     981            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.22"><span id="rfc.iref.h.1"></span> <dfn>heuristic expiration time</dfn>
     982            </p>
     983            <ul class="empty">
     984               <li>An expiration time assigned by a cache when no explicit expiration time is available.</li>
     985            </ul>
     986            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.23"><span id="rfc.iref.a.1"></span> <dfn>age</dfn>
     987            </p>
     988            <ul class="empty">
     989               <li>The age of a response is the time since it was sent by, or successfully validated with, the origin server.</li>
     990            </ul>
     991            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.24"><span id="rfc.iref.f.2"></span> <dfn>freshness lifetime</dfn>
     992            </p>
     993            <ul class="empty">
     994               <li>The length of time between the generation of a response and its expiration time.</li>
     995            </ul>
     996            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.25"><span id="rfc.iref.f.3"></span> <dfn>fresh</dfn>
     997            </p>
     998            <ul class="empty">
     999               <li>A response is fresh if its age has not yet exceeded its freshness lifetime.</li>
     1000            </ul>
     1001            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.26"><span id="rfc.iref.s.2"></span> <dfn>stale</dfn>
     1002            </p>
     1003            <ul class="empty">
     1004               <li>A response is stale if its age has passed its freshness lifetime.</li>
     1005            </ul>
     1006            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.27"><span id="rfc.iref.s.3"></span> <dfn>semantically transparent</dfn>
     1007            </p>
     1008            <ul class="empty">
     1009               <li>A cache behaves in a "semantically transparent" manner, with respect to a particular response, when its use affects neither
     1010                  the requesting client nor the origin server, except to improve performance. When a cache is semantically transparent, the
     1011                  client receives exactly the same response (except for hop-by-hop headers) that it would have received had its request been
     1012                  handled directly by the origin server.
     1013               </li>
     1014            </ul>
     1015            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.28"><span id="rfc.iref.v.2"></span> <dfn>validator</dfn>
     1016            </p>
     1017            <ul class="empty">
     1018               <li>A protocol element (e.g., an entity tag or a Last-Modified time) that is used to find out whether a cache entry is an equivalent
     1019                  copy of an entity.
     1020               </li>
     1021            </ul>
     1022            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.29"><span id="rfc.iref.u.2"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.d.1"></span> <dfn>upstream</dfn>/<dfn>downstream</dfn>
     1023            </p>
     1024            <ul class="empty">
     1025               <li>Upstream and downstream describe the flow of a message: all messages flow from upstream to downstream.</li>
     1026            </ul>
     1027            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.30"><span id="rfc.iref.i.1"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.o.2"></span> <dfn>inbound</dfn>/<dfn>outbound</dfn>
     1028            </p>
     1029            <ul class="empty">
     1030               <li>Inbound and outbound refer to the request and response paths for messages: "inbound" means "traveling toward the origin server",
     1031                  and "outbound" means "traveling toward the user agent"
     1032               </li>
     1033            </ul>
     1034         </div>
     1035         <div id="intro.overall.operation">
     1036            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4">1.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.overall.operation">Overall Operation</a></h2>
     1037            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.1">The HTTP protocol is a request/response protocol. A client sends a request to the server in the form of a request method,
     1038               URI, and protocol version, followed by a MIME-like message containing request modifiers, client information, and possible
     1039               body content over a connection with a server. The server responds with a status line, including the message's protocol version
     1040               and a success or error code, followed by a MIME-like message containing server information, entity metainformation, and possible
     1041               entity-body content. The relationship between HTTP and MIME is described in <a href="#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities" title="Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities">Appendix&nbsp;19.4</a>.
     1042            </p>
     1043            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.2">Most HTTP communication is initiated by a user agent and consists of a request to be applied to a resource on some origin
     1044               server. In the simplest case, this may be accomplished via a single connection (v) between the user agent (UA) and the origin
     1045               server (O).
     1046            </p>
     1047            <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain ------------------------&gt;
    10481048    UA -------------------v------------------- O
    10491049       &lt;----------------------- response chain
    10501050</pre><p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.4">A more complicated situation occurs when one or more intermediaries are present in the request/response chain. There are three
    1051          common forms of intermediary: proxy, gateway, and tunnel. A proxy is a forwarding agent, receiving requests for a URI in its
    1052          absolute form, rewriting all or part of the message, and forwarding the reformatted request toward the server identified by
    1053          the URI. A gateway is a receiving agent, acting as a layer above some other server(s) and, if necessary, translating the requests
    1054          to the underlying server's protocol. A tunnel acts as a relay point between two connections without changing the messages;
    1055          tunnels are used when the communication needs to pass through an intermediary (such as a firewall) even when the intermediary
    1056          cannot understand the contents of the messages.
    1057       </p>
    1058       <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain --------------------------------------&gt;
     1051               common forms of intermediary: proxy, gateway, and tunnel. A proxy is a forwarding agent, receiving requests for a URI in its
     1052               absolute form, rewriting all or part of the message, and forwarding the reformatted request toward the server identified by
     1053               the URI. A gateway is a receiving agent, acting as a layer above some other server(s) and, if necessary, translating the requests
     1054               to the underlying server's protocol. A tunnel acts as a relay point between two connections without changing the messages;
     1055               tunnels are used when the communication needs to pass through an intermediary (such as a firewall) even when the intermediary
     1056               cannot understand the contents of the messages.
     1057            </p>
     1058            <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="drawing">       request chain --------------------------------------&gt;
    10591059    UA -----v----- A -----v----- B -----v----- C -----v----- O
    10601060       &lt;------------------------------------- response chain
    10611061</pre><p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.6">The figure above shows three intermediaries (A, B, and C) between the user agent and origin server. A request or response
    1062          message that travels the whole chain will pass through four separate connections. This distinction is important because some
    1063          HTTP communication options may apply only to the connection with the nearest, non-tunnel neighbor, only to the end-points
    1064          of the chain, or to all connections along the chain. Although the diagram is linear, each participant may be engaged in multiple,
    1065          simultaneous communications. For example, B may be receiving requests from many clients other than A, and/or forwarding requests
    1066          to servers other than C, at the same time that it is handling A's request.
    1067       </p>
    1068       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.7">Any party to the communication which is not acting as a tunnel may employ an internal cache for handling requests. The effect
    1069          of a cache is that the request/response chain is shortened if one of the participants along the chain has a cached response
    1070          applicable to that request. The following illustrates the resulting chain if B has a cached copy of an earlier response from
    1071          O (via C) for a request which has not been cached by UA or A.
    1072       </p>
    1073       <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="drawing">          request chain ----------&gt;
     1062               message that travels the whole chain will pass through four separate connections. This distinction is important because some
     1063               HTTP communication options may apply only to the connection with the nearest, non-tunnel neighbor, only to the end-points
     1064               of the chain, or to all connections along the chain. Although the diagram is linear, each participant may be engaged in multiple,
     1065               simultaneous communications. For example, B may be receiving requests from many clients other than A, and/or forwarding requests
     1066               to servers other than C, at the same time that it is handling A's request.
     1067            </p>
     1068            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.7">Any party to the communication which is not acting as a tunnel may employ an internal cache for handling requests. The effect
     1069               of a cache is that the request/response chain is shortened if one of the participants along the chain has a cached response
     1070               applicable to that request. The following illustrates the resulting chain if B has a cached copy of an earlier response from
     1071               O (via C) for a request which has not been cached by UA or A.
     1072            </p>
     1073            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="drawing">          request chain ----------&gt;
    10741074       UA -----v----- A -----v----- B - - - - - - C - - - - - - O
    10751075          &lt;--------- response chain
    10761076</pre><p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.9">Not all responses are usefully cacheable, and some requests may contain modifiers which place special requirements on cache
    1077          behavior. HTTP requirements for cache behavior and cacheable responses are defined in <a href="#caching" title="Caching in HTTP">Section&nbsp;13</a>.
    1078       </p>
    1079       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.10">In fact, there are a wide variety of architectures and configurations of caches and proxies currently being experimented with
    1080          or deployed across the World Wide Web. These systems include national hierarchies of proxy caches to save transoceanic bandwidth,
    1081          systems that broadcast or multicast cache entries, organizations that distribute subsets of cached data via CD-ROM, and so
    1082          on. HTTP systems are used in corporate intranets over high-bandwidth links, and for access via PDAs with low-power radio links
    1083          and intermittent connectivity. The goal of HTTP/1.1 is to support the wide diversity of configurations already deployed while
    1084          introducing protocol constructs that meet the needs of those who build web applications that require high reliability and,
    1085          failing that, at least reliable indications of failure.
    1086       </p>
    1087       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.11">HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP/IP connections. The default port is TCP 80 <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.1"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>, but other ports can be used. This does not preclude HTTP from being implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet,
    1088          or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used; the
    1089          mapping of the HTTP/1.1 request and response structures onto the transport data units of the protocol in question is outside
    1090          the scope of this specification.
    1091       </p>
    1092       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.12">In HTTP/1.0, most implementations used a new connection for each request/response exchange. In HTTP/1.1, a connection may
    1093          be used for one or more request/response exchanges, although connections may be closed for a variety of reasons (see <a href="#persistent.connections" title="Persistent Connections">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>).
    1094       </p>
    1095       <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation" href="#notation">Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar</a></h1>
    1096       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation.abnf" href="#notation.abnf">Augmented BNF</a></h2>
    1097       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">All of the mechanisms specified in this document are described in both prose and an augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF) similar
    1098          to that used by RFC 822 <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.2"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a>. Implementors will need to be familiar with the notation in order to understand this specification. The augmented BNF includes
    1099          the following constructs:
    1100       </p>
    1101       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">name = definition </p>
    1102       <ul class="empty">
    1103          <li>The name of a rule is simply the name itself (without any enclosing "&lt;" and "&gt;") and is separated from its definition by the
    1104             equal "=" character. White space is only significant in that indentation of continuation lines is used to indicate a rule
    1105             definition that spans more than one line. Certain basic rules are in uppercase, such as SP, LWS, HT, CRLF, DIGIT, ALPHA, etc.
    1106             Angle brackets are used within definitions whenever their presence will facilitate discerning the use of rule names.
    1107          </li>
    1108       </ul>
    1109       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">"literal" </p>
    1110       <ul class="empty">
    1111          <li>Quotation marks surround literal text. Unless stated otherwise, the text is case-insensitive.</li>
    1112       </ul>
    1113       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">rule1 | rule2 </p>
    1114       <ul class="empty">
    1115          <li>Elements separated by a bar ("|") are alternatives, e.g., "yes | no" will accept yes or no.</li>
    1116       </ul>
    1117       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">(rule1 rule2) </p>
    1118       <ul class="empty">
    1119          <li>Elements enclosed in parentheses are treated as a single element. Thus, "(elem (foo | bar) elem)" allows the token sequences
    1120             "elem foo elem" and "elem bar elem".
    1121          </li>
    1122       </ul>
    1123       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">*rule </p>
    1124       <ul class="empty">
    1125          <li>The character "*" preceding an element indicates repetition. The full form is "&lt;n&gt;*&lt;m&gt;element" indicating at least &lt;n&gt; and
    1126             at most &lt;m&gt; occurrences of element. Default values are 0 and infinity so that "*(element)" allows any number, including zero;
    1127             "1*element" requires at least one; and "1*2element" allows one or two.
    1128          </li>
    1129       </ul>
    1130       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">[rule] </p>
    1131       <ul class="empty">
    1132          <li>Square brackets enclose optional elements; "[foo bar]" is equivalent to "*1(foo bar)".</li>
    1133       </ul>
    1134       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">N rule </p>
    1135       <ul class="empty">
    1136          <li>Specific repetition: "&lt;n&gt;(element)" is equivalent to "&lt;n&gt;*&lt;n&gt;(element)"; that is, exactly &lt;n&gt; occurrences of (element). Thus
    1137             2DIGIT is a 2-digit number, and 3ALPHA is a string of three alphabetic characters.
    1138          </li>
    1139       </ul>
    1140       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9">#rule </p>
    1141       <ul class="empty">
    1142          <li>A construct "#" is defined, similar to "*", for defining lists of elements. The full form is "&lt;n&gt;#&lt;m&gt;element" indicating at
    1143             least &lt;n&gt; and at most &lt;m&gt; elements, each separated by one or more commas (",") and <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> linear white space (LWS). This makes the usual form of lists very easy; a rule such as
    1144          </li>
    1145          <li>( *LWS element *( *LWS "," *LWS element ))</li>
    1146          <li>can be shown as</li>
    1147          <li>1#element</li>
    1148          <li>Wherever this construct is used, null elements are allowed, but do not contribute to the count of elements present. That is,
    1149             "(element), , (element) " is permitted, but counts as only two elements. Therefore, where at least one element is required,
    1150             at least one non-null element <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be present. Default values are 0 and infinity so that "#element" allows any number, including zero; "1#element" requires at
    1151             least one; and "1#2element" allows one or two.
    1152          </li>
    1153       </ul>
    1154       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.10">; comment </p>
    1155       <ul class="empty">
    1156          <li>A semi-colon, set off some distance to the right of rule text, starts a comment that continues to the end of line. This is
    1157             a simple way of including useful notes in parallel with the specifications.
    1158          </li>
    1159       </ul>
    1160       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.11">implied *LWS </p>
    1161       <ul class="empty">
    1162          <li>The grammar described by this specification is word-based. Except where noted otherwise, linear white space (LWS) can be included
    1163             between any two adjacent words (token or quoted-string), and between adjacent words and separators, without changing the interpretation
    1164             of a field. At least one delimiter (LWS and/or separators) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> exist between any two tokens (for the definition of "token" below), since they would otherwise be interpreted as a single
    1165             token.
    1166          </li>
    1167       </ul>
    1168       <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="basic.rules" href="#basic.rules">Basic Rules</a></h2>
    1169       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">The following rules are used throughout this specification to describe basic parsing constructs. The US-ASCII coded character
    1170          set is defined by ANSI X3.4-1986 <a href="#USASCII" id="rfc.xref.USASCII.1"><cite title="Coded Character Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Interchange">[USASCII]</cite></a>.
    1171       </p>
    1172       <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span>    OCTET          = &lt;any 8-bit sequence of data&gt;
     1077               behavior. HTTP requirements for cache behavior and cacheable responses are defined in <a href="#caching" title="Caching in HTTP">Section&nbsp;13</a>.
     1078            </p>
     1079            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.10">In fact, there are a wide variety of architectures and configurations of caches and proxies currently being experimented with
     1080               or deployed across the World Wide Web. These systems include national hierarchies of proxy caches to save transoceanic bandwidth,
     1081               systems that broadcast or multicast cache entries, organizations that distribute subsets of cached data via CD-ROM, and so
     1082               on. HTTP systems are used in corporate intranets over high-bandwidth links, and for access via PDAs with low-power radio links
     1083               and intermittent connectivity. The goal of HTTP/1.1 is to support the wide diversity of configurations already deployed while
     1084               introducing protocol constructs that meet the needs of those who build web applications that require high reliability and,
     1085               failing that, at least reliable indications of failure.
     1086            </p>
     1087            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.11">HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP/IP connections. The default port is TCP 80 <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.1"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>, but other ports can be used. This does not preclude HTTP from being implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet,
     1088               or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used; the
     1089               mapping of the HTTP/1.1 request and response structures onto the transport data units of the protocol in question is outside
     1090               the scope of this specification.
     1091            </p>
     1092            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.12">In HTTP/1.0, most implementations used a new connection for each request/response exchange. In HTTP/1.1, a connection may
     1093               be used for one or more request/response exchanges, although connections may be closed for a variety of reasons (see <a href="#persistent.connections" title="Persistent Connections">Section&nbsp;8.1</a>).
     1094            </p>
     1095         </div>
     1096      </div>
     1097      <div id="notation">
     1098         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar</a></h1>
     1099         <div id="notation.abnf">
     1100            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation.abnf">Augmented BNF</a></h2>
     1101            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">All of the mechanisms specified in this document are described in both prose and an augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF) similar
     1102               to that used by RFC 822 <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.2"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a>. Implementors will need to be familiar with the notation in order to understand this specification. The augmented BNF includes
     1103               the following constructs:
     1104            </p>
     1105            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">name = definition </p>
     1106            <ul class="empty">
     1107               <li>The name of a rule is simply the name itself (without any enclosing "&lt;" and "&gt;") and is separated from its definition by the
     1108                  equal "=" character. White space is only significant in that indentation of continuation lines is used to indicate a rule
     1109                  definition that spans more than one line. Certain basic rules are in uppercase, such as SP, LWS, HT, CRLF, DIGIT, ALPHA, etc.
     1110                  Angle brackets are used within definitions whenever their presence will facilitate discerning the use of rule names.
     1111               </li>
     1112            </ul>
     1113            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">"literal" </p>
     1114            <ul class="empty">
     1115               <li>Quotation marks surround literal text. Unless stated otherwise, the text is case-insensitive.</li>
     1116            </ul>
     1117            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">rule1 | rule2 </p>
     1118            <ul class="empty">
     1119               <li>Elements separated by a bar ("|") are alternatives, e.g., "yes | no" will accept yes or no.</li>
     1120            </ul>
     1121            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">(rule1 rule2) </p>
     1122            <ul class="empty">
     1123               <li>Elements enclosed in parentheses are treated as a single element. Thus, "(elem (foo | bar) elem)" allows the token sequences
     1124                  "elem foo elem" and "elem bar elem".
     1125               </li>
     1126            </ul>
     1127            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">*rule </p>
     1128            <ul class="empty">
     1129               <li>The character "*" preceding an element indicates repetition. The full form is "&lt;n&gt;*&lt;m&gt;element" indicating at least &lt;n&gt; and
     1130                  at most &lt;m&gt; occurrences of element. Default values are 0 and infinity so that "*(element)" allows any number, including zero;
     1131                  "1*element" requires at least one; and "1*2element" allows one or two.
     1132               </li>
     1133            </ul>
     1134            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">[rule] </p>
     1135            <ul class="empty">
     1136               <li>Square brackets enclose optional elements; "[foo bar]" is equivalent to "*1(foo bar)".</li>
     1137            </ul>
     1138            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">N rule </p>
     1139            <ul class="empty">
     1140               <li>Specific repetition: "&lt;n&gt;(element)" is equivalent to "&lt;n&gt;*&lt;n&gt;(element)"; that is, exactly &lt;n&gt; occurrences of (element). Thus
     1141                  2DIGIT is a 2-digit number, and 3ALPHA is a string of three alphabetic characters.
     1142               </li>
     1143            </ul>
     1144            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9">#rule </p>
     1145            <ul class="empty">
     1146               <li>A construct "#" is defined, similar to "*", for defining lists of elements. The full form is "&lt;n&gt;#&lt;m&gt;element" indicating at
     1147                  least &lt;n&gt; and at most &lt;m&gt; elements, each separated by one or more commas (",") and <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> linear white space (LWS). This makes the usual form of lists very easy; a rule such as
     1148               </li>
     1149               <li>( *LWS element *( *LWS "," *LWS element ))</li>
     1150               <li>can be shown as</li>
     1151               <li>1#element</li>
     1152               <li>Wherever this construct is used, null elements are allowed, but do not contribute to the count of elements present. That is,
     1153                  "(element), , (element) " is permitted, but counts as only two elements. Therefore, where at least one element is required,
     1154                  at least one non-null element <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be present. Default values are 0 and infinity so that "#element" allows any number, including zero; "1#element" requires at
     1155                  least one; and "1#2element" allows one or two.
     1156               </li>
     1157            </ul>
     1158            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.10">; comment </p>
     1159            <ul class="empty">
     1160               <li>A semi-colon, set off some distance to the right of rule text, starts a comment that continues to the end of line. This is
     1161                  a simple way of including useful notes in parallel with the specifications.
     1162               </li>
     1163            </ul>
     1164            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.11">implied *LWS </p>
     1165            <ul class="empty">
     1166               <li>The grammar described by this specification is word-based. Except where noted otherwise, linear white space (LWS) can be included
     1167                  between any two adjacent words (token or quoted-string), and between adjacent words and separators, without changing the interpretation
     1168                  of a field. At least one delimiter (LWS and/or separators) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> exist between any two tokens (for the definition of "token" below), since they would otherwise be interpreted as a single
     1169                  token.
     1170               </li>
     1171            </ul>
     1172         </div>
     1173         <div id="basic.rules">
     1174            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#basic.rules">Basic Rules</a></h2>
     1175            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">The following rules are used throughout this specification to describe basic parsing constructs. The US-ASCII coded character
     1176               set is defined by ANSI X3.4-1986 <a href="#USASCII" id="rfc.xref.USASCII.1"><cite title="Coded Character Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Interchange">[USASCII]</cite></a>.
     1177            </p>
     1178            <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span>    OCTET          = &lt;any 8-bit sequence of data&gt;
    11731179    CHAR           = &lt;any US-ASCII character (octets 0 - 127)&gt;
    11741180    UPALPHA        = &lt;any US-ASCII uppercase letter "A".."Z"&gt;
     
    11841190    &lt;"&gt;            = &lt;US-ASCII double-quote mark (34)&gt;
    11851191</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.3">HTTP/1.1 defines the sequence CR LF as the end-of-line marker for all protocol elements except the entity-body (see <a href="#tolerant.applications" title="Tolerant Applications">Appendix&nbsp;19.3</a> for tolerant applications). The end-of-line marker within an entity-body is defined by its associated media type, as described
    1186          in <a href="#media.types" title="Media Types">Section&nbsp;3.7</a>.
    1187       </p>
    1188       <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span>    CRLF           = CR LF
     1192               in <a href="#media.types" title="Media Types">Section&nbsp;3.7</a>.
     1193            </p>
     1194            <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span>    CRLF           = CR LF
    11891195</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.5">HTTP/1.1 header field values can be folded onto multiple lines if the continuation line begins with a space or horizontal
    1190          tab. All linear white space, including folding, has the same semantics as SP. A recipient <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> replace any linear white space with a single SP before interpreting the field value or forwarding the message downstream.
    1191       </p>
    1192       <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span>    LWS            = [CRLF] 1*( SP | HT )
     1196               tab. All linear white space, including folding, has the same semantics as SP. A recipient <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> replace any linear white space with a single SP before interpreting the field value or forwarding the message downstream.
     1197            </p>
     1198            <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span>    LWS            = [CRLF] 1*( SP | HT )
    11931199</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.7">The TEXT rule is only used for descriptive field contents and values that are not intended to be interpreted by the message
    1194          parser. Words of *TEXT <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> contain characters from character sets other than ISO-8859-1 <a href="#ISO-8859" id="rfc.xref.ISO-8859.1"><cite title="Information technology - 8-bit single byte coded graphic - character sets">[ISO-8859]</cite></a> only when encoded according to the rules of RFC 2047 <a href="#RFC2047" id="rfc.xref.RFC2047.1"><cite title="MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text">[RFC2047]</cite></a>.
    1195       </p>
    1196       <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span>    TEXT           = &lt;any OCTET except CTLs,
     1200               parser. Words of *TEXT <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> contain characters from character sets other than ISO-8859-1 <a href="#ISO-8859" id="rfc.xref.ISO-8859.1"><cite title="Information technology - 8-bit single byte coded graphic - character sets">[ISO-8859]</cite></a> only when encoded according to the rules of RFC 2047 <a href="#RFC2047" id="rfc.xref.RFC2047.1"><cite title="MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text">[RFC2047]</cite></a>.
     1201            </p>
     1202            <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span>    TEXT           = &lt;any OCTET except CTLs,
    11971203                     but including LWS&gt;
    11981204</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.9">A CRLF is allowed in the definition of TEXT only as part of a header field continuation. It is expected that the folding LWS
    1199          will be replaced with a single SP before interpretation of the TEXT value.
    1200       </p>
    1201       <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.10">Hexadecimal numeric characters are used in several protocol elements.</p>
    1202       <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>    HEX            = "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F"
     1205               will be replaced with a single SP before interpretation of the TEXT value.
     1206            </p>
     1207            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.10">Hexadecimal numeric characters are used in several protocol elements.</p>
     1208            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>    HEX            = "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F"
    12031209                   | "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f" | DIGIT
    12041210</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.12">Many HTTP/1.1 header field values consist of words separated by LWS or special characters. These special characters <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in a quoted string to be used within a parameter value (as defined in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>).
    1205       </p>
    1206       <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span>    token          = 1*&lt;any CHAR except CTLs or separators&gt;
     1211            </p>
     1212            <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span>    token          = 1*&lt;any CHAR except CTLs or separators&gt;
    12071213    separators     = "(" | ")" | "&lt;" | "&gt;" | "@"
    12081214                   | "," | ";" | ":" | "\" | &lt;"&gt;
     
    12101216                   | "{" | "}" | SP | HT
    12111217</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.14">Comments can be included in some HTTP header fields by surrounding the comment text with parentheses. Comments are only allowed
    1212          in fields containing "comment" as part of their field value definition. In all other fields, parentheses are considered part
    1213          of the field value.
    1214       </p>
    1215       <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.20"></span>    comment        = "(" *( ctext | quoted-pair | comment ) ")"
     1218               in fields containing "comment" as part of their field value definition. In all other fields, parentheses are considered part
     1219               of the field value.
     1220            </p>
     1221            <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.20"></span>    comment        = "(" *( ctext | quoted-pair | comment ) ")"
    12161222    ctext          = &lt;any TEXT excluding "(" and ")"&gt;
    12171223</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.16">A string of text is parsed as a single word if it is quoted using double-quote marks.</p>
    1218       <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.21"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.22"></span>    quoted-string  = ( &lt;"&gt; *(qdtext | quoted-pair ) &lt;"&gt; )
     1224            <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.21"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.22"></span>    quoted-string  = ( &lt;"&gt; *(qdtext | quoted-pair ) &lt;"&gt; )
    12191225    qdtext         = &lt;any TEXT except &lt;"&gt;&gt;
    12201226</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.18">The backslash character ("\") <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used as a single-character quoting mechanism only within quoted-string and comment constructs.
    1221       </p>
    1222       <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.23"></span>    quoted-pair    = "\" CHAR
    1223 </pre><h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="protocol.parameters" href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a></h1>
    1224       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.version" href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></h2>
    1225       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended
    1226          to allow the sender to indicate the format of a message and its capacity for understanding further HTTP communication, rather
    1227          than the features obtained via that communication. No change is made to the version number for the addition of message components
    1228          which do not affect communication behavior or which only add to extensible field values. The &lt;minor&gt; number is incremented
    1229          when the changes made to the protocol add features which do not change the general message parsing algorithm, but which may
    1230          add to the message semantics and imply additional capabilities of the sender. The &lt;major&gt; number is incremented when the format
    1231          of a message within the protocol is changed. See RFC 2145 <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.1"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a> for a fuller explanation.
    1232       </p>
    1233       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">The version of an HTTP message is indicated by an HTTP-Version field in the first line of the message.</p>
    1234       <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.24"></span>       HTTP-Version   = "HTTP" "/" 1*DIGIT "." 1*DIGIT
     1227            </p>
     1228            <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.23"></span>    quoted-pair    = "\" CHAR
     1229</pre></div>
     1230      </div>
     1231      <div id="protocol.parameters">
     1232         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a></h1>
     1233         <div id="http.version">
     1234            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#http.version">HTTP Version</a></h2>
     1235            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended
     1236               to allow the sender to indicate the format of a message and its capacity for understanding further HTTP communication, rather
     1237               than the features obtained via that communication. No change is made to the version number for the addition of message components
     1238               which do not affect communication behavior or which only add to extensible field values. The &lt;minor&gt; number is incremented
     1239               when the changes made to the protocol add features which do not change the general message parsing algorithm, but which may
     1240               add to the message semantics and imply additional capabilities of the sender. The &lt;major&gt; number is incremented when the format
     1241               of a message within the protocol is changed. See RFC 2145 <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.1"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a> for a fuller explanation.
     1242            </p>
     1243            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">The version of an HTTP message is indicated by an HTTP-Version field in the first line of the message.</p>
     1244            <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.24"></span>       HTTP-Version   = "HTTP" "/" 1*DIGIT "." 1*DIGIT
    12351245</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">Note that the major and minor numbers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be treated as separate integers and that each <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be incremented higher than a single digit. Thus, HTTP/2.4 is a lower version than HTTP/2.13, which in turn is lower than HTTP/12.3.
    1236          Leading zeros <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored by recipients and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent.
    1237       </p>
    1238       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">An application that sends a request or response message that includes HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be at least conditionally compliant with this specification. Applications that are at least conditionally compliant with this
    1239          specification <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use an HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" in their messages, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> do so for any message that is not compatible with HTTP/1.0. For more details on when to send specific HTTP-Version values,
    1240          see RFC 2145 <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.2"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a>.
    1241       </p>
    1242       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">The HTTP version of an application is the highest HTTP version for which the application is at least conditionally compliant.</p>
    1243       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.7">Proxy and gateway applications need to be careful when forwarding messages in protocol versions different from that of the
    1244          application. Since the protocol version indicates the protocol capability of the sender, a proxy/gateway <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a message with a version indicator which is greater than its actual version. If a higher version request is received,
    1245          the proxy/gateway <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> either downgrade the request version, or respond with an error, or switch to tunnel behavior.
    1246       </p>
    1247       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.8">Due to interoperability problems with HTTP/1.0 proxies discovered since the publication of RFC 2068 <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>, caching proxies MUST, gateways <em class="bcp14">MAY</em>, and tunnels <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> upgrade the request to the highest version they support. The proxy/gateway's response to that request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in the same major version as the request.
    1248       </p>
    1249       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.9"> </p>
    1250       <ul class="empty">
    1251          <li> <b>Note:</b> Converting between versions of HTTP may involve modification of header fields required or forbidden by the versions involved.
    1252          </li>
    1253       </ul>
    1254       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri" href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a></h2>
    1255       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">URIs have been known by many names: WWW addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers <a href="#RFC1630" id="rfc.xref.RFC1630.2"><cite title="Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW: A Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses of Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web">[RFC1630]</cite></a>, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Locators (URL) <a href="#RFC1738" id="rfc.xref.RFC1738.2"><cite title="Uniform Resource Locators (URL)">[RFC1738]</cite></a> and Names (URN) <a href="#RFC1737" id="rfc.xref.RFC1737.2"><cite title="Functional Requirements for Uniform Resource Names">[RFC1737]</cite></a>. As far as HTTP is concerned, Uniform Resource Identifiers are simply formatted strings which identify--via name, location,
    1256          or any other characteristic--a resource.
    1257       </p>
    1258       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="general.syntax" href="#general.syntax">General Syntax</a></h3>
    1259       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.1">URIs in HTTP can be represented in absolute form or relative to some known base URI <a href="#RFC1808" id="rfc.xref.RFC1808.1"><cite title="Relative Uniform Resource Locators">[RFC1808]</cite></a>, depending upon the context of their use. The two forms are differentiated by the fact that absolute URIs always begin with
    1260          a scheme name followed by a colon. For definitive information on URL syntax and semantics, see "Uniform Resource Identifiers
    1261          (URI): Generic Syntax and Semantics," RFC 2396 <a href="#RFC2396" id="rfc.xref.RFC2396.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC2396]</cite></a> (which replaces RFCs 1738 <a href="#RFC1738" id="rfc.xref.RFC1738.3"><cite title="Uniform Resource Locators (URL)">[RFC1738]</cite></a> and RFC 1808 <a href="#RFC1808" id="rfc.xref.RFC1808.2"><cite title="Relative Uniform Resource Locators">[RFC1808]</cite></a>). This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference", "absoluteURI", "relativeURI", "port", "host","abs_path",
    1262          "rel_path", and "authority" from that specification.
    1263       </p>
    1264       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.2">The HTTP protocol does not place any a priori limit on the length of a URI. Servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to handle the URI of any resource they serve, and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be able to handle URIs of unbounded length if they provide GET-based forms that could generate such URIs. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 414 (Request-URI Too Long) status if a URI is longer than the server can handle (see <a href="#status.414" id="rfc.xref.status.414.1" title="414 Request-URI Too Long">Section&nbsp;10.4.15</a>).
    1265       </p>
    1266       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.3"> </p>
    1267       <ul class="empty">
    1268          <li> <b>Note:</b> Servers ought to be cautious about depending on URI lengths above 255 bytes, because some older client or proxy implementations
    1269             might not properly support these lengths.
    1270          </li>
    1271       </ul>
    1272       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.url" href="#http.url">http URL</a></h3>
    1273       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.1">The "http" scheme is used to locate network resources via the HTTP protocol. This section defines the scheme-specific syntax
    1274          and semantics for http URLs.
    1275       </p>
    1276       <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.25"></span>http_URL = "http:" "//" host [ ":" port ] [ abs_path [ "?" query ]]
     1246               Leading zeros <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored by recipients and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent.
     1247            </p>
     1248            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">An application that sends a request or response message that includes HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be at least conditionally compliant with this specification. Applications that are at least conditionally compliant with this
     1249               specification <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use an HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" in their messages, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> do so for any message that is not compatible with HTTP/1.0. For more details on when to send specific HTTP-Version values,
     1250               see RFC 2145 <a href="#RFC2145" id="rfc.xref.RFC2145.2"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a>.
     1251            </p>
     1252            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">The HTTP version of an application is the highest HTTP version for which the application is at least conditionally compliant.</p>
     1253            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.7">Proxy and gateway applications need to be careful when forwarding messages in protocol versions different from that of the
     1254               application. Since the protocol version indicates the protocol capability of the sender, a proxy/gateway <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a message with a version indicator which is greater than its actual version. If a higher version request is received,
     1255               the proxy/gateway <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> either downgrade the request version, or respond with an error, or switch to tunnel behavior.
     1256            </p>
     1257            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.8">Due to interoperability problems with HTTP/1.0 proxies discovered since the publication of RFC 2068 <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>, caching proxies MUST, gateways <em class="bcp14">MAY</em>, and tunnels <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> upgrade the request to the highest version they support. The proxy/gateway's response to that request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in the same major version as the request.
     1258            </p>
     1259            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.9"></p>
     1260            <ul class="empty">
     1261               <li><b>Note:</b> Converting between versions of HTTP may involve modification of header fields required or forbidden by the versions involved.
     1262               </li>
     1263            </ul>
     1264         </div>
     1265         <div id="uri">
     1266            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#uri">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a></h2>
     1267            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">URIs have been known by many names: WWW addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers <a href="#RFC1630" id="rfc.xref.RFC1630.2"><cite title="Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW: A Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses of Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web">[RFC1630]</cite></a>, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Locators (URL) <a href="#RFC1738" id="rfc.xref.RFC1738.2"><cite title="Uniform Resource Locators (URL)">[RFC1738]</cite></a> and Names (URN) <a href="#RFC1737" id="rfc.xref.RFC1737.2"><cite title="Functional Requirements for Uniform Resource Names">[RFC1737]</cite></a>. As far as HTTP is concerned, Uniform Resource Identifiers are simply formatted strings which identify--via name, location,
     1268               or any other characteristic--a resource.
     1269            </p>
     1270            <div id="general.syntax">
     1271               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#general.syntax">General Syntax</a></h3>
     1272               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.1">URIs in HTTP can be represented in absolute form or relative to some known base URI <a href="#RFC1808" id="rfc.xref.RFC1808.1"><cite title="Relative Uniform Resource Locators">[RFC1808]</cite></a>, depending upon the context of their use. The two forms are differentiated by the fact that absolute URIs always begin with
     1273                  a scheme name followed by a colon. For definitive information on URL syntax and semantics, see "Uniform Resource Identifiers
     1274                  (URI): Generic Syntax and Semantics," RFC 2396 <a href="#RFC2396" id="rfc.xref.RFC2396.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC2396]</cite></a> (which replaces RFCs 1738 <a href="#RFC1738" id="rfc.xref.RFC1738.3"><cite title="Uniform Resource Locators (URL)">[RFC1738]</cite></a> and RFC 1808 <a href="#RFC1808" id="rfc.xref.RFC1808.2"><cite title="Relative Uniform Resource Locators">[RFC1808]</cite></a>). This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference", "absoluteURI", "relativeURI", "port", "host","abs_path",
     1275                  "rel_path", and "authority" from that specification.
     1276               </p>
     1277               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.2">The HTTP protocol does not place any a priori limit on the length of a URI. Servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to handle the URI of any resource they serve, and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be able to handle URIs of unbounded length if they provide GET-based forms that could generate such URIs. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 414 (Request-URI Too Long) status if a URI is longer than the server can handle (see <a href="#status.414" id="rfc.xref.status.414.1" title="414 Request-URI Too Long">Section&nbsp;10.4.15</a>).
     1278               </p>
     1279               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.3"></p>
     1280               <ul class="empty">
     1281                  <li><b>Note:</b> Servers ought to be cautious about depending on URI lengths above 255 bytes, because some older client or proxy implementations
     1282                     might not properly support these lengths.
     1283                  </li>
     1284               </ul>
     1285            </div>
     1286            <div id="http.url">
     1287               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#http.url">http URL</a></h3>
     1288               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.1">The "http" scheme is used to locate network resources via the HTTP protocol. This section defines the scheme-specific syntax
     1289                  and semantics for http URLs.
     1290               </p>
     1291               <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.25"></span>http_URL = "http:" "//" host [ ":" port ] [ abs_path [ "?" query ]]
    12771292</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.3">If the port is empty or not given, port 80 is assumed. The semantics are that the identified resource is located at the server
    1278          listening for TCP connections on that port of that host, and the Request-URI for the resource is abs_path (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>). The use of IP addresses in URLs <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be avoided whenever possible (see RFC 1900 <a href="#RFC1900" id="rfc.xref.RFC1900.1"><cite title="Renumbering Needs Work">[RFC1900]</cite></a>). If the abs_path is not present in the URL, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" when used as a Request-URI for a resource (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>). If a proxy receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives a fully qualified domain name, the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the host name.
    1279       </p>
    1280       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.3">3.2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="uri.comparison" href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></h3>
    1281       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.1">When comparing two URIs to decide if they match or not, a client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use a case-sensitive octet-by-octet comparison of the entire URIs, with these exceptions:
    1282       </p>
    1283       <ul>
    1284          <li>A port that is empty or not given is equivalent to the default port for that URI-reference;</li>
    1285          <li>Comparisons of host names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
    1286          </li>
    1287          <li>Comparisons of scheme names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
    1288          </li>
    1289          <li>An empty abs_path is equivalent to an abs_path of "/".</li>
    1290       </ul>
    1291       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.2">Characters other than those in the "reserved" and "unsafe" sets (see RFC 2396 <a href="#RFC2396" id="rfc.xref.RFC2396.2"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC2396]</cite></a>) are equivalent to their ""%" HEX HEX" encoding.
    1292       </p>
    1293       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.3">For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:</p>
    1294       <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="text">   http://abc.com:80/~smith/home.html
     1293                  listening for TCP connections on that port of that host, and the Request-URI for the resource is abs_path (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>). The use of IP addresses in URLs <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be avoided whenever possible (see RFC 1900 <a href="#RFC1900" id="rfc.xref.RFC1900.1"><cite title="Renumbering Needs Work">[RFC1900]</cite></a>). If the abs_path is not present in the URL, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" when used as a Request-URI for a resource (<a href="#request-uri" title="Request-URI">Section&nbsp;5.1.2</a>). If a proxy receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives a fully qualified domain name, the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the host name.
     1294               </p>
     1295            </div>
     1296            <div id="uri.comparison">
     1297               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.3">3.2.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#uri.comparison">URI Comparison</a></h3>
     1298               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.1">When comparing two URIs to decide if they match or not, a client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use a case-sensitive octet-by-octet comparison of the entire URIs, with these exceptions:
     1299               </p>
     1300               <ul>
     1301                  <li>A port that is empty or not given is equivalent to the default port for that URI-reference;</li>
     1302                  <li>Comparisons of host names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
     1303                  </li>
     1304                  <li>Comparisons of scheme names <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be case-insensitive;
     1305                  </li>
     1306                  <li>An empty abs_path is equivalent to an abs_path of "/".</li>
     1307               </ul>
     1308               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.2">Characters other than those in the "reserved" and "unsafe" sets (see RFC 2396 <a href="#RFC2396" id="rfc.xref.RFC2396.2"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC2396]</cite></a>) are equivalent to their ""%" HEX HEX" encoding.
     1309               </p>
     1310               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.3">For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:</p>
     1311               <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="text">   http://abc.com:80/~smith/home.html
    12951312   http://ABC.com/%7Esmith/home.html
    12961313   http://ABC.com:/%7esmith/home.html
    1297 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="date.time.formats" href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a></h2>
    1298       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.1">3.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="full.date" href="#full.date">Full Date</a></h3>
    1299       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.1">HTTP applications have historically allowed three different formats for the representation of date/time stamps:</p>
    1300       <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">   Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT  ; RFC 822, updated by RFC 1123
     1314</pre></div>
     1315         </div>
     1316         <div id="date.time.formats">
     1317            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#date.time.formats">Date/Time Formats</a></h2>
     1318            <div id="full.date">
     1319               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.1">3.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#full.date">Full Date</a></h3>
     1320               <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.1">HTTP applications have historically allowed three different formats for the representation of date/time stamps:</p>
     1321               <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">   Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT  ; RFC 822, updated by RFC 1123
    13011322   Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT ; RFC 850, obsoleted by RFC 1036
    13021323   Sun Nov  6 08:49:37 1994       ; ANSI C's asctime() format
    13031324</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.3">The first format is preferred as an Internet standard and represents a fixed-length subset of that defined by RFC 1123 <a href="#RFC1123" id="rfc.xref.RFC1123.1"><cite title="Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support">[RFC1123]</cite></a> (an update to RFC 822 <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.3"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a>). The second format is in common use, but is based on the obsolete RFC 850 <a href="#RFC1036" id="rfc.xref.RFC1036.1"><cite title="Standard for interchange of USENET messages">[RFC1036]</cite></a> date format and lacks a four-digit year. HTTP/1.1 clients and servers that parse the date value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept all three formats (for compatibility with HTTP/1.0), though they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only generate the RFC 1123 format for representing HTTP-date values in header fields. See <a href="#tolerant.applications" title="Tolerant Applications">Appendix&nbsp;19.3</a> for further information.
    1304       </p>
    1305       <ul class="empty">
    1306          <li> <b>Note:</b> Recipients of date values are encouraged to be robust in accepting date values that may have been sent by non-HTTP applications,
    1307             as is sometimes the case when retrieving or posting messages via proxies/gateways to SMTP or NNTP.
    1308          </li>
    1309       </ul>
    1310       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.5">All HTTP date/time stamps <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), without exception. For the purposes of HTTP, GMT is exactly equal to UTC (Coordinated
    1311          Universal Time). This is indicated in the first two formats by the inclusion of "GMT" as the three-letter abbreviation for
    1312          time zone, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be assumed when reading the asctime format. HTTP-date is case sensitive and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include additional LWS beyond that specifically included as SP in the grammar.
    1313       </p>
    1314       <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.26"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.27"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.28"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.30"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.31"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.32"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.33"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.34"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.35"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.36"></span>    HTTP-date    = rfc1123-date | rfc850-date | asctime-date
     1325               </p>
     1326               <ul class="empty">
     1327                  <li><b>Note:</b> Recipients of date values are encouraged to be robust in accepting date values that may have been sent by non-HTTP applications,
     1328                     as is sometimes the case when retrieving or posting messages via proxies/gateways to SMTP or NNTP.
     1329                  </li>
     1330               </ul>
     1331               <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.5">All HTTP date/time stamps <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), without exception. For the purposes of HTTP, GMT is exactly equal to UTC (Coordinated
     1332                  Universal Time). This is indicated in the first two formats by the inclusion of "GMT" as the three-letter abbreviation for
     1333                  time zone, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be assumed when reading the asctime format. HTTP-date is case sensitive and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include additional LWS beyond that specifically included as SP in the grammar.
     1334               </p>
     1335               <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.26"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.27"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.28"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.30"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.31"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.32"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.33"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.34"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.35"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.36"></span>    HTTP-date    = rfc1123-date | rfc850-date | asctime-date
    13151336    rfc1123-date = wkday "," SP date1 SP time SP "GMT"
    13161337    rfc850-date  = weekday "," SP date2 SP time SP "GMT"
     
    13311352                 | "May" | "Jun" | "Jul" | "Aug"
    13321353                 | "Sep" | "Oct" | "Nov" | "Dec"
    1333 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.7"> <b>Note:</b> HTTP requirements for the date/time stamp format apply only to their usage within the protocol stream. Clients and servers
    1334          are not required to use these formats for user presentation, request logging, etc.
    1335       </p>
    1336       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.2">3.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="delta.seconds" href="#delta.seconds">Delta Seconds</a></h3>
    1337       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.1">Some HTTP header fields allow a time value to be specified as an integer number of seconds, represented in decimal, after
    1338          the time that the message was received.
    1339       </p>
    1340       <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.37"></span>    delta-seconds  = 1*DIGIT
    1341 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="character.sets" href="#character.sets">Character Sets</a></h2>
    1342       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">HTTP uses the same definition of the term "character set" as that described for MIME:</p>
    1343       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.2">The term "character set" is used in this document to refer to a method used with one or more tables to convert a sequence
    1344          of octets into a sequence of characters. Note that unconditional conversion in the other direction is not required, in that
    1345          not all characters may be available in a given character set and a character set may provide more than one sequence of octets
    1346          to represent a particular character. This definition is intended to allow various kinds of character encoding, from simple
    1347          single-table mappings such as US-ASCII to complex table switching methods such as those that use ISO-2022's techniques. However,
    1348          the definition associated with a MIME character set name <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> fully specify the mapping to be performed from octets to characters. In particular, use of external profiling information
    1349          to determine the exact mapping is not permitted.
    1350       </p>
    1351       <ul class="empty">
    1352          <li> <b>Note:</b> This use of the term "character set" is more commonly referred to as a "character encoding." However, since HTTP and MIME
    1353             share the same registry, it is important that the terminology also be shared.
    1354          </li>
    1355       </ul>
    1356       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.4">HTTP character sets are identified by case-insensitive tokens. The complete set of tokens is defined by the IANA Character
    1357          Set registry <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.2"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>.
    1358       </p>
    1359       <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.38"></span>    charset = token
     1354</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.7"><b>Note:</b> HTTP requirements for the date/time stamp format apply only to their usage within the protocol stream. Clients and servers
     1355                  are not required to use these formats for user presentation, request logging, etc.
     1356               </p>
     1357            </div>
     1358            <div id="delta.seconds">
     1359               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3.2">3.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#delta.seconds">Delta Seconds</a></h3>
     1360               <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.1">Some HTTP header fields allow a time value to be specified as an integer number of seconds, represented in decimal, after
     1361                  the time that the message was received.
     1362               </p>
     1363               <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.37"></span>    delta-seconds  = 1*DIGIT
     1364</pre></div>
     1365         </div>
     1366         <div id="character.sets">
     1367            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#character.sets">Character Sets</a></h2>
     1368            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">HTTP uses the same definition of the term "character set" as that described for MIME:</p>
     1369            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.2">The term "character set" is used in this document to refer to a method used with one or more tables to convert a sequence
     1370               of octets into a sequence of characters. Note that unconditional conversion in the other direction is not required, in that
     1371               not all characters may be available in a given character set and a character set may provide more than one sequence of octets
     1372               to represent a particular character. This definition is intended to allow various kinds of character encoding, from simple
     1373               single-table mappings such as US-ASCII to complex table switching methods such as those that use ISO-2022's techniques. However,
     1374               the definition associated with a MIME character set name <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> fully specify the mapping to be performed from octets to characters. In particular, use of external profiling information
     1375               to determine the exact mapping is not permitted.
     1376            </p>
     1377            <ul class="empty">
     1378               <li><b>Note:</b> This use of the term "character set" is more commonly referred to as a "character encoding." However, since HTTP and MIME
     1379                  share the same registry, it is important that the terminology also be shared.
     1380               </li>
     1381            </ul>
     1382            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.4">HTTP character sets are identified by case-insensitive tokens. The complete set of tokens is defined by the IANA Character
     1383               Set registry <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.2"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>.
     1384            </p>
     1385            <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.38"></span>    charset = token
    13601386</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.6">Although HTTP allows an arbitrary token to be used as a charset value, any token that has a predefined value within the IANA
    1361          Character Set registry <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.3"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>  <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> represent the character set defined by that registry. Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> limit their use of character sets to those defined by the IANA registry.
    1362       </p>
    1363       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.7">Implementors should be aware of IETF character set requirements <a href="#RFC2279" id="rfc.xref.RFC2279.1"><cite title="UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646">[RFC2279]</cite></a>  <a href="#RFC2277" id="rfc.xref.RFC2277.1"><cite title="IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages">[RFC2277]</cite></a>.
    1364       </p>
    1365       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4.1">3.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="missing.charset" href="#missing.charset">Missing Charset</a></h3>
    1366       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.1.p.1">Some HTTP/1.0 software has interpreted a Content-Type header without charset parameter incorrectly to mean "recipient should
    1367          guess." Senders wishing to defeat this behavior <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include a charset parameter even when the charset is ISO-8859-1 and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> do so when it is known that it will not confuse the recipient.
    1368       </p>
    1369       <p id="rfc.section.3.4.1.p.2">Unfortunately, some older HTTP/1.0 clients did not deal properly with an explicit charset parameter. HTTP/1.1 recipients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respect the charset label provided by the sender; and those user agents that have a provision to "guess" a charset <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the charset from the content-type field if they support that charset, rather than the recipient's preference, when initially
    1370          displaying a document. See <a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults" title="Canonicalization and Text Defaults">Section&nbsp;3.7.1</a>.
    1371       </p>
    1372       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.5"><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="content.codings" href="#content.codings">Content Codings</a></h2>
    1373       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.1">Content coding values indicate an encoding transformation that has been or can be applied to an entity. Content codings are
    1374          primarily used to allow a document to be compressed or otherwise usefully transformed without losing the identity of its underlying
    1375          media type and without loss of information. Frequently, the entity is stored in coded form, transmitted directly, and only
    1376          decoded by the recipient.
    1377       </p>
    1378       <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.39"></span>    content-coding   = token
     1387               Character Set registry <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.3"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a> <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> represent the character set defined by that registry. Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> limit their use of character sets to those defined by the IANA registry.
     1388            </p>
     1389            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.7">Implementors should be aware of IETF character set requirements <a href="#RFC2279" id="rfc.xref.RFC2279.1"><cite title="UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646">[RFC2279]</cite></a> <a href="#RFC2277" id="rfc.xref.RFC2277.1"><cite title="IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages">[RFC2277]</cite></a>.
     1390            </p>
     1391            <div id="missing.charset">
     1392               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4.1">3.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#missing.charset">Missing Charset</a></h3>
     1393               <p id="rfc.section.3.4.1.p.1">Some HTTP/1.0 software has interpreted a Content-Type header without charset parameter incorrectly to mean "recipient should
     1394                  guess." Senders wishing to defeat this behavior <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include a charset parameter even when the charset is ISO-8859-1 and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> do so when it is known that it will not confuse the recipient.
     1395               </p>
     1396               <p id="rfc.section.3.4.1.p.2">Unfortunately, some older HTTP/1.0 clients did not deal properly with an explicit charset parameter. HTTP/1.1 recipients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respect the charset label provided by the sender; and those user agents that have a provision to "guess" a charset <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the charset from the content-type field if they support that charset, rather than the recipient's preference, when initially
     1397                  displaying a document. See <a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults" title="Canonicalization and Text Defaults">Section&nbsp;3.7.1</a>.
     1398               </p>
     1399            </div>
     1400         </div>
     1401         <div id="content.codings">
     1402            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.5"><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content.codings">Content Codings</a></h2>
     1403            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.1">Content coding values indicate an encoding transformation that has been or can be applied to an entity. Content codings are
     1404               primarily used to allow a document to be compressed or otherwise usefully transformed without losing the identity of its underlying
     1405               media type and without loss of information. Frequently, the entity is stored in coded form, transmitted directly, and only
     1406               decoded by the recipient.
     1407            </p>
     1408            <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.39"></span>    content-coding   = token
    13791409</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.3">All content-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses content-coding values in the Accept-Encoding (<a href="#header.accept-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.1" title="Accept-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.3</a>) and Content-Encoding (<a href="#header.content-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.1" title="Content-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.11</a>) header fields. Although the value describes the content-coding, what is more important is that it indicates what decoding
    1380          mechanism will be required to remove the encoding.
    1381       </p>
    1382       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.4">The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for content-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry
    1383          contains the following tokens:
    1384       </p>
    1385       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.5">gzip<span id="rfc.iref.g.40"></span> 
    1386       </p>
    1387       <ul class="empty">
    1388          <li>An encoding format produced by the file compression program "gzip" (GNU zip) as described in RFC 1952 <a href="#RFC1952" id="rfc.xref.RFC1952.1"><cite title="GZIP file format specification version 4.3">[RFC1952]</cite></a>. This format is a Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77) with a 32 bit CRC.
    1389          </li>
    1390       </ul>
    1391       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.6">compress<span id="rfc.iref.c.6"></span> 
    1392       </p>
    1393       <ul class="empty">
    1394          <li>The encoding format produced by the common UNIX file compression program "compress". This format is an adaptive Lempel-Ziv-Welch
    1395             coding (LZW).
    1396          </li>
    1397          <li>Use of program names for the identification of encoding formats is not desirable and is discouraged for future encodings.
    1398             Their use here is representative of historical practice, not good design. For compatibility with previous implementations
    1399             of HTTP, applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> consider "x-gzip" and "x-compress" to be equivalent to "gzip" and "compress" respectively.
    1400          </li>
    1401       </ul>
    1402       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.7">deflate<span id="rfc.iref.d.2"></span> 
    1403       </p>
    1404       <ul class="empty">
    1405          <li>The "zlib" format defined in RFC 1950 <a href="#RFC1950" id="rfc.xref.RFC1950.1"><cite title="ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3">[RFC1950]</cite></a> in combination with the "deflate" compression mechanism described in RFC 1951 <a href="#RFC1951" id="rfc.xref.RFC1951.1"><cite title="DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3">[RFC1951]</cite></a>.
    1406          </li>
    1407       </ul>
    1408       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.8">identity<span id="rfc.iref.i.2"></span> 
    1409       </p>
    1410       <ul class="empty">
    1411          <li>The default (identity) encoding; the use of no transformation whatsoever. This content-coding is used only in the Accept-Encoding
    1412             header, and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be used in the Content-Encoding header.
    1413          </li>
    1414       </ul>
    1415       <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.9">New content-coding value tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered; to allow interoperability between clients and servers, specifications of the content coding algorithms needed
    1416          to implement a new value <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be publicly available and adequate for independent implementation, and conform to the purpose of content coding defined in
    1417          this section.
    1418       </p>
    1419       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.6"><a href="#rfc.section.3.6">3.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="transfer.codings" href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a></h2>
    1420       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.1">Transfer-coding values are used to indicate an encoding transformation that has been, can be, or may need to be applied to
    1421          an entity-body in order to ensure "safe transport" through the network. This differs from a content coding in that the transfer-coding
    1422          is a property of the message, not of the original entity.
    1423       </p>
    1424       <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.41"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.42"></span>    transfer-coding         = "chunked" | transfer-extension
     1410               mechanism will be required to remove the encoding.
     1411            </p>
     1412            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.4">The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for content-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry
     1413               contains the following tokens:
     1414            </p>
     1415            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.5">gzip<span id="rfc.iref.g.40"></span>
     1416            </p>
     1417            <ul class="empty">
     1418               <li>An encoding format produced by the file compression program "gzip" (GNU zip) as described in RFC 1952 <a href="#RFC1952" id="rfc.xref.RFC1952.1"><cite title="GZIP file format specification version 4.3">[RFC1952]</cite></a>. This format is a Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77) with a 32 bit CRC.
     1419               </li>
     1420            </ul>
     1421            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.6">compress<span id="rfc.iref.c.6"></span>
     1422            </p>
     1423            <ul class="empty">
     1424               <li>The encoding format produced by the common UNIX file compression program "compress". This format is an adaptive Lempel-Ziv-Welch
     1425                  coding (LZW).
     1426               </li>
     1427               <li>Use of program names for the identification of encoding formats is not desirable and is discouraged for future encodings.
     1428                  Their use here is representative of historical practice, not good design. For compatibility with previous implementations
     1429                  of HTTP, applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> consider "x-gzip" and "x-compress" to be equivalent to "gzip" and "compress" respectively.
     1430               </li>
     1431            </ul>
     1432            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.7">deflate<span id="rfc.iref.d.2"></span>
     1433            </p>
     1434            <ul class="empty">
     1435               <li>The "zlib" format defined in RFC 1950 <a href="#RFC1950" id="rfc.xref.RFC1950.1"><cite title="ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3">[RFC1950]</cite></a> in combination with the "deflate" compression mechanism described in RFC 1951 <a href="#RFC1951" id="rfc.xref.RFC1951.1"><cite title="DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3">[RFC1951]</cite></a>.
     1436               </li>
     1437            </ul>
     1438            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.8">identity<span id="rfc.iref.i.2"></span>
     1439            </p>
     1440            <ul class="empty">
     1441               <li>The default (identity) encoding; the use of no transformation whatsoever. This content-coding is used only in the Accept-Encoding
     1442                  header, and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be used in the Content-Encoding header.
     1443               </li>
     1444            </ul>
     1445            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.9">New content-coding value tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered; to allow interoperability between clients and servers, specifications of the content coding algorithms needed
     1446               to implement a new value <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be publicly available and adequate for independent implementation, and conform to the purpose of content coding defined in
     1447               this section.
     1448            </p>
     1449         </div>
     1450         <div id="transfer.codings">
     1451            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.6"><a href="#rfc.section.3.6">3.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#transfer.codings">Transfer Codings</a></h2>
     1452            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.1">Transfer-coding values are used to indicate an encoding transformation that has been, can be, or may need to be applied to
     1453               an entity-body in order to ensure "safe transport" through the network. This differs from a content coding in that the transfer-coding
     1454               is a property of the message, not of the original entity.
     1455            </p>
     1456            <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.41"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.42"></span>    transfer-coding         = "chunked" | transfer-extension
    14251457    transfer-extension      = token *( ";" parameter )
    14261458</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.3">Parameters are in the form of attribute/value pairs.</p>
    1427       <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.43"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.44"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.45"></span>    parameter               = attribute "=" value
     1459            <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.43"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.44"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.45"></span>    parameter               = attribute "=" value
    14281460    attribute               = token
    14291461    value                   = token | quoted-string
    14301462</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.5">All transfer-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses transfer-coding values in the TE header field (<a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.1" title="TE">Section&nbsp;14.39</a>) and in the Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.1" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.41</a>).
    1431       </p>
    1432       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.6">Whenever a transfer-coding is applied to a message-body, the set of transfer-codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include "chunked", unless the message is terminated by closing the connection. When the "chunked" transfer-coding is used,
    1433          it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be the last transfer-coding applied to the message-body. The "chunked" transfer-coding <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be applied more than once to a message-body. These rules allow the recipient to determine the transfer-length of the message
    1434          (<a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>).
    1435       </p>
    1436       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.7">Transfer-codings are analogous to the Content-Transfer-Encoding values of MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>, which were designed to enable safe transport of binary data over a 7-bit transport service. However, safe transport has
    1437          a different focus for an 8bit-clean transfer protocol. In HTTP, the only unsafe characteristic of message-bodies is the difficulty
    1438          in determining the exact body length (<a href="#entity.length" title="Entity Length">Section&nbsp;7.2.2</a>), or the desire to encrypt data over a shared transport.
    1439       </p>
    1440       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.8">The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for transfer-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry
    1441          contains the following tokens: "chunked" (<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;3.6.1</a>), "identity" (section 3.6.2), "gzip" (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>), "compress" (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>), and "deflate" (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>).
    1442       </p>
    1443       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.9">New transfer-coding value tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered in the same way as new content-coding value tokens (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>).
    1444       </p>
    1445       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.10">A server which receives an entity-body with a transfer-coding it does not understand <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 501 (Unimplemented), and close the connection. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send transfer-codings to an HTTP/1.0 client.
    1446       </p>
    1447       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.6.1">3.6.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="chunked.transfer.encoding" href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></h3>
    1448       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.1">The chunked encoding modifies the body of a message in order to transfer it as a series of chunks, each with its own size
    1449          indicator, followed by an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> trailer containing entity-header fields. This allows dynamically produced content to be transferred along with the information
    1450          necessary for the recipient to verify that it has received the full message.
    1451       </p>
    1452       <div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.46"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.47"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.48"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.49"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.50"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.51"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.52"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.53"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.54"></span>    Chunked-Body   = *chunk
     1463            </p>
     1464            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.6">Whenever a transfer-coding is applied to a message-body, the set of transfer-codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include "chunked", unless the message is terminated by closing the connection. When the "chunked" transfer-coding is used,
     1465               it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be the last transfer-coding applied to the message-body. The "chunked" transfer-coding <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be applied more than once to a message-body. These rules allow the recipient to determine the transfer-length of the message
     1466               (<a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>).
     1467            </p>
     1468            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.7">Transfer-codings are analogous to the Content-Transfer-Encoding values of MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>, which were designed to enable safe transport of binary data over a 7-bit transport service. However, safe transport has
     1469               a different focus for an 8bit-clean transfer protocol. In HTTP, the only unsafe characteristic of message-bodies is the difficulty
     1470               in determining the exact body length (<a href="#entity.length" title="Entity Length">Section&nbsp;7.2.2</a>), or the desire to encrypt data over a shared transport.
     1471            </p>
     1472            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.8">The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for transfer-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry
     1473               contains the following tokens: "chunked" (<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding" title="Chunked Transfer Coding">Section&nbsp;3.6.1</a>), "identity" (section 3.6.2), "gzip" (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>), "compress" (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>), and "deflate" (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>).
     1474            </p>
     1475            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.9">New transfer-coding value tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered in the same way as new content-coding value tokens (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>).
     1476            </p>
     1477            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.10">A server which receives an entity-body with a transfer-coding it does not understand <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return 501 (Unimplemented), and close the connection. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send transfer-codings to an HTTP/1.0 client.
     1478            </p>
     1479            <div id="chunked.transfer.encoding">
     1480               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.6.1">3.6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#chunked.transfer.encoding">Chunked Transfer Coding</a></h3>
     1481               <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.1">The chunked encoding modifies the body of a message in order to transfer it as a series of chunks, each with its own size
     1482                  indicator, followed by an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> trailer containing entity-header fields. This allows dynamically produced content to be transferred along with the information
     1483                  necessary for the recipient to verify that it has received the full message.
     1484               </p>
     1485               <div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.46"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.47"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.48"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.49"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.50"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.51"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.52"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.53"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.54"></span>    Chunked-Body   = *chunk
    14531486                     last-chunk
    14541487                     trailer
     
    14661499    trailer        = *(entity-header CRLF)
    14671500</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.3">The chunk-size field is a string of hex digits indicating the size of the chunk. The chunked encoding is ended by any chunk
    1468          whose size is zero, followed by the trailer, which is terminated by an empty line.
    1469       </p>
    1470       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.4">The trailer allows the sender to include additional HTTP header fields at the end of the message. The Trailer header field
    1471          can be used to indicate which header fields are included in a trailer (see <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.1" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;14.40</a>).
    1472       </p>
    1473       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.5">A server using chunked transfer-coding in a response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the trailer for any header fields unless at least one of the following is true:
    1474       </p>
    1475       <ol>
    1476          <li>the request included a TE header field that indicates "trailers" is acceptable in the transfer-coding of the response, as
    1477             described in <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.2" title="TE">Section&nbsp;14.39</a>; or,
    1478          </li>
    1479          <li>the server is the origin server for the response, the trailer fields consist entirely of optional metadata, and the recipient
    1480             could use the message (in a manner acceptable to the origin server) without receiving this metadata. In other words, the origin
    1481             server is willing to accept the possibility that the trailer fields might be silently discarded along the path to the client.
    1482          </li>
    1483       </ol>
    1484       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.6">This requirement prevents an interoperability failure when the message is being received by an HTTP/1.1 (or later) proxy and
    1485          forwarded to an HTTP/1.0 recipient. It avoids a situation where compliance with the protocol would have necessitated a possibly
    1486          infinite buffer on the proxy.
    1487       </p>
    1488       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.7">An example process for decoding a Chunked-Body is presented in <a href="#introduction.of.transfer-encoding" title="Introduction of Transfer-Encoding">Appendix&nbsp;19.4.6</a>.
    1489       </p>
    1490       <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.8">All HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to receive and decode the "chunked" transfer-coding, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore chunk-extension extensions they do not understand.
    1491       </p>
    1492       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.7"><a href="#rfc.section.3.7">3.7</a>&nbsp;<a id="media.types" href="#media.types">Media Types</a></h2>
    1493       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.1">HTTP uses Internet Media Types <a href="#RFC1590" id="rfc.xref.RFC1590.1"><cite title="Media Type Registration Procedure">[RFC1590]</cite></a> in the Content-Type (<a href="#header.content-type" id="rfc.xref.header.content-type.1" title="Content-Type">Section&nbsp;14.17</a>) and Accept (<a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.1" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;14.1</a>) header fields in order to provide open and extensible data typing and type negotiation.
    1494       </p>
    1495       <div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.55"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.56"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.57"></span>    media-type     = type "/" subtype *( ";" parameter )
     1501                  whose size is zero, followed by the trailer, which is terminated by an empty line.
     1502               </p>
     1503               <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.4">The trailer allows the sender to include additional HTTP header fields at the end of the message. The Trailer header field
     1504                  can be used to indicate which header fields are included in a trailer (see <a href="#header.trailer" id="rfc.xref.header.trailer.1" title="Trailer">Section&nbsp;14.40</a>).
     1505               </p>
     1506               <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.5">A server using chunked transfer-coding in a response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the trailer for any header fields unless at least one of the following is true:
     1507               </p>
     1508               <ol>
     1509                  <li>the request included a TE header field that indicates "trailers" is acceptable in the transfer-coding of the response, as
     1510                     described in <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.2" title="TE">Section&nbsp;14.39</a>; or,
     1511                  </li>
     1512                  <li>the server is the origin server for the response, the trailer fields consist entirely of optional metadata, and the recipient
     1513                     could use the message (in a manner acceptable to the origin server) without receiving this metadata. In other words, the origin
     1514                     server is willing to accept the possibility that the trailer fields might be silently discarded along the path to the client.
     1515                  </li>
     1516               </ol>
     1517               <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.6">This requirement prevents an interoperability failure when the message is being received by an HTTP/1.1 (or later) proxy and
     1518                  forwarded to an HTTP/1.0 recipient. It avoids a situation where compliance with the protocol would have necessitated a possibly
     1519                  infinite buffer on the proxy.
     1520               </p>
     1521               <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.7">An example process for decoding a Chunked-Body is presented in <a href="#introduction.of.transfer-encoding" title="Introduction of Transfer-Encoding">Appendix&nbsp;19.4.6</a>.
     1522               </p>
     1523               <p id="rfc.section.3.6.1.p.8">All HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to receive and decode the "chunked" transfer-coding, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore chunk-extension extensions they do not understand.
     1524               </p>
     1525            </div>
     1526         </div>
     1527         <div id="media.types">
     1528            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.7"><a href="#rfc.section.3.7">3.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#media.types">Media Types</a></h2>
     1529            <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.1">HTTP uses Internet Media Types <a href="#RFC1590" id="rfc.xref.RFC1590.1"><cite title="Media Type Registration Procedure">[RFC1590]</cite></a> in the Content-Type (<a href="#header.content-type" id="rfc.xref.header.content-type.1" title="Content-Type">Section&nbsp;14.17</a>) and Accept (<a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.1" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;14.1</a>) header fields in order to provide open and extensible data typing and type negotiation.
     1530            </p>
     1531            <div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.55"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.56"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.57"></span>    media-type     = type "/" subtype *( ";" parameter )
    14961532    type           = token
    14971533    subtype        = token
    14981534</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.3">Parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> follow the type/subtype in the form of attribute/value pairs (as defined in <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>).
    1499       </p>
    1500       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.4">The type, subtype, and parameter attribute names are case-insensitive. Parameter values might or might not be case-sensitive,
    1501          depending on the semantics of the parameter name. Linear white space (LWS) <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be used between the type and subtype, nor between an attribute and its value. The presence or absence of a parameter might
    1502          be significant to the processing of a media-type, depending on its definition within the media type registry.
    1503       </p>
    1504       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.5">Note that some older HTTP applications do not recognize media type parameters. When sending data to older HTTP applications,
    1505          implementations <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only use media type parameters when they are required by that type/subtype definition.
    1506       </p>
    1507       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.6">Media-type values are registered with the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.4"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>). The media type registration process is outlined in RFC 1590 <a href="#RFC1590" id="rfc.xref.RFC1590.2"><cite title="Media Type Registration Procedure">[RFC1590]</cite></a>. Use of non-registered media types is discouraged.
    1508       </p>
    1509       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.7.1">3.7.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="canonicalization.and.text.defaults" href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults">Canonicalization and Text Defaults</a></h3>
    1510       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.1">Internet media types are registered with a canonical form. An entity-body transferred via HTTP messages <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in the appropriate canonical form prior to its transmission except for "text" types, as defined in the next
    1511          paragraph.
    1512       </p>
    1513       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.2">When in canonical form, media subtypes of the "text" type use CRLF as the text line break. HTTP relaxes this requirement and
    1514          allows the transport of text media with plain CR or LF alone representing a line break when it is done consistently for an
    1515          entire entity-body. HTTP applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept CRLF, bare CR, and bare LF as being representative of a line break in text media received via HTTP. In addition, if
    1516          the text is represented in a character set that does not use octets 13 and 10 for CR and LF respectively, as is the case for
    1517          some multi-byte character sets, HTTP allows the use of whatever octet sequences are defined by that character set to represent
    1518          the equivalent of CR and LF for line breaks. This flexibility regarding line breaks applies only to text media in the entity-body;
    1519          a bare CR or LF <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be substituted for CRLF within any of the HTTP control structures (such as header fields and multipart boundaries).
    1520       </p>
    1521       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.3">If an entity-body is encoded with a content-coding, the underlying data <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in a form defined above prior to being encoded.
    1522       </p>
    1523       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.4">The "charset" parameter is used with some media types to define the character set (<a href="#character.sets" title="Character Sets">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>) of the data. When no explicit charset parameter is provided by the sender, media subtypes of the "text" type are defined
    1524          to have a default charset value of "ISO-8859-1" when received via HTTP. Data in character sets other than "ISO-8859-1" or
    1525          its subsets <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be labeled with an appropriate charset value. See <a href="#missing.charset" title="Missing Charset">Section&nbsp;3.4.1</a> for compatibility problems.
    1526       </p>
    1527       <h3 id="rfc.section.3.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.7.2">3.7.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="multipart.types" href="#multipart.types">Multipart Types</a></h3>
    1528       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.2.p.1">MIME provides for a number of "multipart" types -- encapsulations of one or more entities within a single message-body. All
    1529          multipart types share a common syntax, as defined in section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">5.1.1</a> of RFC 2046 <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a boundary parameter as part of the media type value. The message body is itself a protocol element and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> therefore use only CRLF to represent line breaks between body-parts. Unlike in RFC 2046, the epilogue of any multipart message <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be empty; HTTP applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> transmit the epilogue (even if the original multipart contains an epilogue). These restrictions exist in order to preserve
    1530          the self-delimiting nature of a multipart message-body, wherein the "end" of the message-body is indicated by the ending multipart
    1531          boundary.
    1532       </p>
    1533       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.2.p.2">In general, HTTP treats a multipart message-body no differently than any other media type: strictly as payload. The one exception
    1534          is the "multipart/byteranges" type (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;19.2</a>) when it appears in a 206 (Partial Content) response, which will be interpreted by some HTTP caching mechanisms as described
    1535          in sections <a href="#combining.byte.ranges" title="Combining Byte Ranges">13.5.4</a> and <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">14.16</a>. In all other cases, an HTTP user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> follow the same or similar behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type. The MIME header fields within
    1536          each body-part of a multipart message-body do not have any significance to HTTP beyond that defined by their MIME semantics.
    1537       </p>
    1538       <p id="rfc.section.3.7.2.p.3">In general, an HTTP user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> follow the same or similar behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type. If an application receives
    1539          an unrecognized multipart subtype, the application <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> treat it as being equivalent to "multipart/mixed".
    1540       </p>
    1541       <ul class="empty">
    1542          <li> <b>Note:</b> The "multipart/form-data" type has been specifically defined for carrying form data suitable for processing via the POST request
    1543             method, as described in RFC 1867 <a href="#RFC1867" id="rfc.xref.RFC1867.1"><cite title="Form-based File Upload in HTML">[RFC1867]</cite></a>.
    1544          </li>
    1545       </ul>
    1546       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.8"><a href="#rfc.section.3.8">3.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="product.tokens" href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></h2>
    1547       <p id="rfc.section.3.8.p.1">Product tokens are used to allow communicating applications to identify themselves by software name and version. Most fields
    1548          using product tokens also allow sub-products which form a significant part of the application to be listed, separated by white
    1549          space. By convention, the products are listed in order of their significance for identifying the application.
    1550       </p>
    1551       <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.58"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.59"></span>    product         = token ["/" product-version]
     1535            </p>
     1536            <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.4">The type, subtype, and parameter attribute names are case-insensitive. Parameter values might or might not be case-sensitive,
     1537               depending on the semantics of the parameter name. Linear white space (LWS) <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be used between the type and subtype, nor between an attribute and its value. The presence or absence of a parameter might
     1538               be significant to the processing of a media-type, depending on its definition within the media type registry.
     1539            </p>
     1540            <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.5">Note that some older HTTP applications do not recognize media type parameters. When sending data to older HTTP applications,
     1541               implementations <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only use media type parameters when they are required by that type/subtype definition.
     1542            </p>
     1543            <p id="rfc.section.3.7.p.6">Media-type values are registered with the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA <a href="#RFC1700" id="rfc.xref.RFC1700.4"><cite title="Assigned Numbers">[RFC1700]</cite></a>). The media type registration process is outlined in RFC 1590 <a href="#RFC1590" id="rfc.xref.RFC1590.2"><cite title="Media Type Registration Procedure">[RFC1590]</cite></a>. Use of non-registered media types is discouraged.
     1544            </p>
     1545            <div id="canonicalization.and.text.defaults">
     1546               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.7.1">3.7.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults">Canonicalization and Text Defaults</a></h3>
     1547               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.1">Internet media types are registered with a canonical form. An entity-body transferred via HTTP messages <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in the appropriate canonical form prior to its transmission except for "text" types, as defined in the next
     1548                  paragraph.
     1549               </p>
     1550               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.2">When in canonical form, media subtypes of the "text" type use CRLF as the text line break. HTTP relaxes this requirement and
     1551                  allows the transport of text media with plain CR or LF alone representing a line break when it is done consistently for an
     1552                  entire entity-body. HTTP applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept CRLF, bare CR, and bare LF as being representative of a line break in text media received via HTTP. In addition, if
     1553                  the text is represented in a character set that does not use octets 13 and 10 for CR and LF respectively, as is the case for
     1554                  some multi-byte character sets, HTTP allows the use of whatever octet sequences are defined by that character set to represent
     1555                  the equivalent of CR and LF for line breaks. This flexibility regarding line breaks applies only to text media in the entity-body;
     1556                  a bare CR or LF <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be substituted for CRLF within any of the HTTP control structures (such as header fields and multipart boundaries).
     1557               </p>
     1558               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.3">If an entity-body is encoded with a content-coding, the underlying data <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in a form defined above prior to being encoded.
     1559               </p>
     1560               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.1.p.4">The "charset" parameter is used with some media types to define the character set (<a href="#character.sets" title="Character Sets">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>) of the data. When no explicit charset parameter is provided by the sender, media subtypes of the "text" type are defined
     1561                  to have a default charset value of "ISO-8859-1" when received via HTTP. Data in character sets other than "ISO-8859-1" or
     1562                  its subsets <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be labeled with an appropriate charset value. See <a href="#missing.charset" title="Missing Charset">Section&nbsp;3.4.1</a> for compatibility problems.
     1563               </p>
     1564            </div>
     1565            <div id="multipart.types">
     1566               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.7.2">3.7.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#multipart.types">Multipart Types</a></h3>
     1567               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.2.p.1">MIME provides for a number of "multipart" types -- encapsulations of one or more entities within a single message-body. All
     1568                  multipart types share a common syntax, as defined in section <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">5.1.1</a> of RFC 2046 <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a boundary parameter as part of the media type value. The message body is itself a protocol element and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> therefore use only CRLF to represent line breaks between body-parts. Unlike in RFC 2046, the epilogue of any multipart message <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be empty; HTTP applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> transmit the epilogue (even if the original multipart contains an epilogue). These restrictions exist in order to preserve
     1569                  the self-delimiting nature of a multipart message-body, wherein the "end" of the message-body is indicated by the ending multipart
     1570                  boundary.
     1571               </p>
     1572               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.2.p.2">In general, HTTP treats a multipart message-body no differently than any other media type: strictly as payload. The one exception
     1573                  is the "multipart/byteranges" type (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;19.2</a>) when it appears in a 206 (Partial Content) response, which will be interpreted by some HTTP caching mechanisms as described
     1574                  in sections <a href="#combining.byte.ranges" title="Combining Byte Ranges">13.5.4</a> and <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">14.16</a>. In all other cases, an HTTP user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> follow the same or similar behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type. The MIME header fields within
     1575                  each body-part of a multipart message-body do not have any significance to HTTP beyond that defined by their MIME semantics.
     1576               </p>
     1577               <p id="rfc.section.3.7.2.p.3">In general, an HTTP user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> follow the same or similar behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type. If an application receives
     1578                  an unrecognized multipart subtype, the application <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> treat it as being equivalent to "multipart/mixed".
     1579               </p>
     1580               <ul class="empty">
     1581                  <li><b>Note:</b> The "multipart/form-data" type has been specifically defined for carrying form data suitable for processing via the POST request
     1582                     method, as described in RFC 1867 <a href="#RFC1867" id="rfc.xref.RFC1867.1"><cite title="Form-based File Upload in HTML">[RFC1867]</cite></a>.
     1583                  </li>
     1584               </ul>
     1585            </div>
     1586         </div>
     1587         <div id="product.tokens">
     1588            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.8"><a href="#rfc.section.3.8">3.8</a>&nbsp;<a href="#product.tokens">Product Tokens</a></h2>
     1589            <p id="rfc.section.3.8.p.1">Product tokens are used to allow communicating applications to identify themselves by software name and version. Most fields
     1590               using product tokens also allow sub-products which form a significant part of the application to be listed, separated by white
     1591               space. By convention, the products are listed in order of their significance for identifying the application.
     1592            </p>
     1593            <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.58"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.59"></span>    product         = token ["/" product-version]
    15521594    product-version = token
    15531595</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.8.p.3">Examples:</p>
    1554       <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div><pre class="text">    User-Agent: CERN-LineMode/2.15 libwww/2.17b3
     1596            <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div><pre class="text">    User-Agent: CERN-LineMode/2.15 libwww/2.17b3
    15551597    Server: Apache/0.8.4
    15561598</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.8.p.5">Product tokens <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be short and to the point. They <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be used for advertising or other non-essential information. Although any token character <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> appear in a product-version, this token <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be used for a version identifier (i.e., successive versions of the same product <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only differ in the product-version portion of the product value).
    1557       </p>
    1558       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.9"><a href="#rfc.section.3.9">3.9</a>&nbsp;<a id="quality.values" href="#quality.values">Quality Values</a></h2>
    1559       <p id="rfc.section.3.9.p.1">HTTP content negotiation (<a href="#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section&nbsp;12</a>) uses short "floating point" numbers to indicate the relative importance ("weight") of various negotiable parameters. A weight
    1560          is normalized to a real number in the range 0 through 1, where 0 is the minimum and 1 the maximum value. If a parameter has
    1561          a quality value of 0, then content with this parameter is `not acceptable' for the client. HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate more than three digits after the decimal point. User configuration of these values <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> also be limited in this fashion.
    1562       </p>
    1563       <div id="rfc.figure.u.27"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.60"></span>    qvalue         = ( "0" [ "." 0*3DIGIT ] )
     1599            </p>
     1600         </div>
     1601         <div id="quality.values">
     1602            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.9"><a href="#rfc.section.3.9">3.9</a>&nbsp;<a href="#quality.values">Quality Values</a></h2>
     1603            <p id="rfc.section.3.9.p.1">HTTP content negotiation (<a href="#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section&nbsp;12</a>) uses short "floating point" numbers to indicate the relative importance ("weight") of various negotiable parameters. A weight
     1604               is normalized to a real number in the range 0 through 1, where 0 is the minimum and 1 the maximum value. If a parameter has
     1605               a quality value of 0, then content with this parameter is `not acceptable' for the client. HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate more than three digits after the decimal point. User configuration of these values <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> also be limited in this fashion.
     1606            </p>
     1607            <div id="rfc.figure.u.27"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.60"></span>    qvalue         = ( "0" [ "." 0*3DIGIT ] )
    15641608                   | ( "1" [ "." 0*3("0") ] )
    15651609</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.9.p.3">"Quality values" is a misnomer, since these values merely represent relative degradation in desired quality.</p>
    1566       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.10"><a href="#rfc.section.3.10">3.10</a>&nbsp;<a id="language.tags" href="#language.tags">Language Tags</a></h2>
    1567       <p id="rfc.section.3.10.p.1">A language tag identifies a natural language spoken, written, or otherwise conveyed by human beings for communication of information
    1568          to other human beings. Computer languages are explicitly excluded. HTTP uses language tags within the Accept-Language and
    1569          Content-Language fields.
    1570       </p>
    1571       <p id="rfc.section.3.10.p.2">The syntax and registry of HTTP language tags is the same as that defined by RFC 1766 <a href="#RFC1766" id="rfc.xref.RFC1766.1"><cite title="Tags for the Identification of Languages">[RFC1766]</cite></a>. In summary, a language tag is composed of 1 or more parts: A primary language tag and a possibly empty series of subtags:
    1572       </p>
    1573       <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.61"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.62"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.63"></span>     language-tag  = primary-tag *( "-" subtag )
     1610         </div>
     1611         <div id="language.tags">
     1612            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.10"><a href="#rfc.section.3.10">3.10</a>&nbsp;<a href="#language.tags">Language Tags</a></h2>
     1613            <p id="rfc.section.3.10.p.1">A language tag identifies a natural language spoken, written, or otherwise conveyed by human beings for communication of information
     1614               to other human beings. Computer languages are explicitly excluded. HTTP uses language tags within the Accept-Language and
     1615               Content-Language fields.
     1616            </p>
     1617            <p id="rfc.section.3.10.p.2">The syntax and registry of HTTP language tags is the same as that defined by RFC 1766 <a href="#RFC1766" id="rfc.xref.RFC1766.1"><cite title="Tags for the Identification of Languages">[RFC1766]</cite></a>. In summary, a language tag is composed of 1 or more parts: A primary language tag and a possibly empty series of subtags:
     1618            </p>
     1619            <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.61"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.62"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.63"></span>     language-tag  = primary-tag *( "-" subtag )
    15741620     primary-tag   = 1*8ALPHA
    15751621     subtag        = 1*8ALPHA
    15761622</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.10.p.4">White space is not allowed within the tag and all tags are case-insensitive. The name space of language tags is administered
    1577          by the IANA. Example tags include:
    1578       </p>
    1579       <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"></div><pre class="text">    en, en-US, en-cockney, i-cherokee, x-pig-latin
     1623               by the IANA. Example tags include:
     1624            </p>
     1625            <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"></div><pre class="text">    en, en-US, en-cockney, i-cherokee, x-pig-latin
    15801626</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.10.p.6">where any two-letter primary-tag is an ISO-639 language abbreviation and any two-letter initial subtag is an ISO-3166 country
    1581          code. (The last three tags above are not registered tags; all but the last are examples of tags which could be registered
    1582          in future.)
    1583       </p>
    1584       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.11"><a href="#rfc.section.3.11">3.11</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity.tags" href="#entity.tags">Entity Tags</a></h2>
    1585       <p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.1">Entity tags are used for comparing two or more entities from the same requested resource. HTTP/1.1 uses entity tags in the
    1586          ETag (<a href="#header.etag" id="rfc.xref.header.etag.1" title="ETag">Section&nbsp;14.19</a>), If-Match (<a href="#header.if-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-match.1" title="If-Match">Section&nbsp;14.24</a>), If-None-Match (<a href="#header.if-none-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.1" title="If-None-Match">Section&nbsp;14.26</a>), and If-Range (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;14.27</a>) header fields. The definition of how they are used and compared as cache validators is in <a href="#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak and Strong Validators">Section&nbsp;13.3.3</a>. An entity tag consists of an opaque quoted string, possibly prefixed by a weakness indicator.
    1587       </p>
    1588       <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.64"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.65"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.66"></span>   entity-tag = [ weak ] opaque-tag
     1627               code. (The last three tags above are not registered tags; all but the last are examples of tags which could be registered
     1628               in future.)
     1629            </p>
     1630         </div>
     1631         <div id="entity.tags">
     1632            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.11"><a href="#rfc.section.3.11">3.11</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tags">Entity Tags</a></h2>
     1633            <p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.1">Entity tags are used for comparing two or more entities from the same requested resource. HTTP/1.1 uses entity tags in the
     1634               ETag (<a href="#header.etag" id="rfc.xref.header.etag.1" title="ETag">Section&nbsp;14.19</a>), If-Match (<a href="#header.if-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-match.1" title="If-Match">Section&nbsp;14.24</a>), If-None-Match (<a href="#header.if-none-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.1" title="If-None-Match">Section&nbsp;14.26</a>), and If-Range (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;14.27</a>) header fields. The definition of how they are used and compared as cache validators is in <a href="#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak and Strong Validators">Section&nbsp;13.3.3</a>. An entity tag consists of an opaque quoted string, possibly prefixed by a weakness indicator.
     1635            </p>
     1636            <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.64"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.65"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.66"></span>   entity-tag = [ weak ] opaque-tag
    15891637   weak       = "W/"
    15901638   opaque-tag = quoted-string
    15911639</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.3">A "strong entity tag" <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be shared by two entities of a resource only if they are equivalent by octet equality.
    1592       </p>
    1593       <p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.4">A "weak entity tag," indicated by the "W/" prefix, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be shared by two entities of a resource only if the entities are equivalent and could be substituted for each other with no
    1594          significant change in semantics. A weak entity tag can only be used for weak comparison.
    1595       </p>
    1596       <p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.5">An entity tag <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be unique across all versions of all entities associated with a particular resource. A given entity tag value <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used for entities obtained by requests on different URIs. The use of the same entity tag value in conjunction with entities
    1597          obtained by requests on different URIs does not imply the equivalence of those entities.
    1598       </p>
    1599       <h2 id="rfc.section.3.12"><a href="#rfc.section.3.12">3.12</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.units" href="#range.units">Range Units</a></h2>
    1600       <p id="rfc.section.3.12.p.1">HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range of) the response entity be included within the response. HTTP/1.1
    1601          uses range units in the Range (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;14.35</a>) and Content-Range (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;14.16</a>) header fields. An entity can be broken down into subranges according to various structural units.
    1602       </p>
    1603       <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.67"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.68"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.69"></span>   range-unit       = bytes-unit | other-range-unit
     1640            </p>
     1641            <p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.4">A "weak entity tag," indicated by the "W/" prefix, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be shared by two entities of a resource only if the entities are equivalent and could be substituted for each other with no
     1642               significant change in semantics. A weak entity tag can only be used for weak comparison.
     1643            </p>
     1644            <p id="rfc.section.3.11.p.5">An entity tag <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be unique across all versions of all entities associated with a particular resource. A given entity tag value <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used for entities obtained by requests on different URIs. The use of the same entity tag value in conjunction with entities
     1645               obtained by requests on different URIs does not imply the equivalence of those entities.
     1646            </p>
     1647         </div>
     1648         <div id="range.units">
     1649            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.12"><a href="#rfc.section.3.12">3.12</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a></h2>
     1650            <p id="rfc.section.3.12.p.1">HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range of) the response entity be included within the response. HTTP/1.1
     1651               uses range units in the Range (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;14.35</a>) and Content-Range (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;14.16</a>) header fields. An entity can be broken down into subranges according to various structural units.
     1652            </p>
     1653            <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.67"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.68"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.69"></span>   range-unit       = bytes-unit | other-range-unit
    16041654   bytes-unit       = "bytes"
    16051655   other-range-unit = token
    16061656</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.12.p.3">The only range unit defined by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". HTTP/1.1 implementations <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore ranges specified using other units.
    1607       </p>
    1608       <p id="rfc.section.3.12.p.4">HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications that do not depend on knowledge of ranges.</p>
    1609       <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a id="http.message" href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a></h1>
    1610       <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.types" href="#message.types">Message Types</a></h2>
    1611       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">HTTP messages consist of requests from client to server and responses from server to client.</p>
    1612       <div id="rfc.figure.u.32"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.70"></span>    HTTP-message   = Request | Response     ; HTTP/1.1 messages
     1657            </p>
     1658            <p id="rfc.section.3.12.p.4">HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications that do not depend on knowledge of ranges.</p>
     1659         </div>
     1660      </div>
     1661      <div id="http.message">
     1662         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#http.message">HTTP Message</a></h1>
     1663         <div id="message.types">
     1664            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#message.types">Message Types</a></h2>
     1665            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">HTTP messages consist of requests from client to server and responses from server to client.</p>
     1666            <div id="rfc.figure.u.32"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.70"></span>    HTTP-message   = Request | Response     ; HTTP/1.1 messages
    16131667</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">Request (<a href="#request" title="Request">Section&nbsp;5</a>) and Response (<a href="#response" title="Response">Section&nbsp;6</a>) messages use the generic message format of RFC 822 <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.4"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a> for transferring entities (the payload of the message). Both types of message consist of a start-line, zero or more header
    1614          fields (also known as "headers"), an empty line (i.e., a line with nothing preceding the CRLF) indicating the end of the header
    1615          fields, and possibly a message-body.
    1616       </p>
    1617       <div id="rfc.figure.u.33"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.71"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.72"></span>     generic-message = start-line
     1668               fields (also known as "headers"), an empty line (i.e., a line with nothing preceding the CRLF) indicating the end of the header
     1669               fields, and possibly a message-body.
     1670            </p>
     1671            <div id="rfc.figure.u.33"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.71"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.72"></span>     generic-message = start-line
    16181672                       *(message-header CRLF)
    16191673                       CRLF
     
    16211675     start-line      = Request-Line | Status-Line
    16221676</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">In the interest of robustness, servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ignore any empty line(s) received where a Request-Line is expected. In other words, if the server is reading the protocol
    1623          stream at the beginning of a message and receives a CRLF first, it should ignore the CRLF.
    1624       </p>
    1625       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">Certain buggy HTTP/1.0 client implementations generate extra CRLF's after a POST request. To restate what is explicitly forbidden
    1626          by the BNF, an HTTP/1.1 client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> preface or follow a request with an extra CRLF.
    1627       </p>
    1628       <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.headers" href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></h2>
    1629       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">HTTP header fields, which include general-header (<a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>), request-header (<a href="#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>), response-header (<a href="#response.header.fields" title="Response Header Fields">Section&nbsp;6.2</a>), and entity-header (<a href="#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>) fields, follow the same generic format as that given in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc822#section-3.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.5">Section 3.1</a> of RFC 822 <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.6"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a>. Each header field consists of a name followed by a colon (":") and the field value. Field names are case-insensitive. The
    1630          field value <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be preceded by any amount of LWS, though a single SP is preferred. Header fields can be extended over multiple lines by preceding
    1631          each extra line with at least one SP or HT. Applications ought to follow "common form", where one is known or indicated, when
    1632          generating HTTP constructs, since there might exist some implementations that fail to accept anything beyond the common forms.
    1633       </p>
    1634       <div id="rfc.figure.u.34"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.73"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.74"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.75"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.76"></span>    message-header = field-name ":" [ field-value ]
     1677               stream at the beginning of a message and receives a CRLF first, it should ignore the CRLF.
     1678            </p>
     1679            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">Certain buggy HTTP/1.0 client implementations generate extra CRLF's after a POST request. To restate what is explicitly forbidden
     1680               by the BNF, an HTTP/1.1 client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> preface or follow a request with an extra CRLF.
     1681            </p>
     1682         </div>
     1683         <div id="message.headers">
     1684            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#message.headers">Message Headers</a></h2>
     1685            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">HTTP header fields, which include general-header (<a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>), request-header (<a href="#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>), response-header (<a href="#response.header.fields" title="Response Header Fields">Section&nbsp;6.2</a>), and entity-header (<a href="#entity.header.fields" title="Entity Header Fields">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>) fields, follow the same generic format as that given in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc822#section-3.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.5">Section 3.1</a> of RFC 822 <a href="#RFC822" id="rfc.xref.RFC822.6"><cite title="Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages">[RFC822]</cite></a>. Each header field consists of a name followed by a colon (":") and the field value. Field names are case-insensitive. The
     1686               field value <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be preceded by any amount of LWS, though a single SP is preferred. Header fields can be extended over multiple lines by preceding
     1687               each extra line with at least one SP or HT. Applications ought to follow "common form", where one is known or indicated, when
     1688               generating HTTP constructs, since there might exist some implementations that fail to accept anything beyond the common forms.
     1689            </p>
     1690            <div id="rfc.figure.u.34"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.73"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.74"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.75"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.76"></span>    message-header = field-name ":" [ field-value ]
    16351691    field-name     = token
    16361692    field-value    = *( field-content | LWS )
     
    16391695                     of token, separators, and quoted-string&gt;
    16401696</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">The field-content does not include any leading or trailing LWS: linear white space occurring before the first non-whitespace
    1641          character of the field-value or after the last non-whitespace character of the field-value. Such leading or trailing LWS <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be removed without changing the semantics of the field value. Any LWS that occurs between field-content <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be replaced with a single SP before interpreting the field value or forwarding the message downstream.
    1642       </p>
    1643       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">The order in which header fields with differing field names are received is not significant. However, it is "good practice"
    1644          to send general-header fields first, followed by request-header or response-header fields, and ending with the entity-header
    1645          fields.
    1646       </p>
    1647       <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">Multiple message-header fields with the same field-name <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be present in a message if and only if the entire field-value for that header field is defined as a comma-separated list [i.e.,
    1648          #(values)]. It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be possible to combine the multiple header fields into one "field-name: field-value" pair, without changing the semantics
    1649          of the message, by appending each subsequent field-value to the first, each separated by a comma. The order in which header
    1650          fields with the same field-name are received is therefore significant to the interpretation of the combined field value, and
    1651          thus a proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the order of these field values when a message is forwarded.
    1652       </p>
    1653       <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.body" href="#message.body">Message Body</a></h2>
    1654       <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">The message-body (if any) of an HTTP message is used to carry the entity-body associated with the request or response. The
    1655          message-body differs from the entity-body only when a transfer-coding has been applied, as indicated by the Transfer-Encoding
    1656          header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.41</a>).
    1657       </p>
    1658       <div id="rfc.figure.u.35"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.77"></span>    message-body = entity-body
     1697               character of the field-value or after the last non-whitespace character of the field-value. Such leading or trailing LWS <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be removed without changing the semantics of the field value. Any LWS that occurs between field-content <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be replaced with a single SP before interpreting the field value or forwarding the message downstream.
     1698            </p>
     1699            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">The order in which header fields with differing field names are received is not significant. However, it is "good practice"
     1700               to send general-header fields first, followed by request-header or response-header fields, and ending with the entity-header
     1701               fields.
     1702            </p>
     1703            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">Multiple message-header fields with the same field-name <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be present in a message if and only if the entire field-value for that header field is defined as a comma-separated list [i.e.,
     1704               #(values)]. It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be possible to combine the multiple header fields into one "field-name: field-value" pair, without changing the semantics
     1705               of the message, by appending each subsequent field-value to the first, each separated by a comma. The order in which header
     1706               fields with the same field-name are received is therefore significant to the interpretation of the combined field value, and
     1707               thus a proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the order of these field values when a message is forwarded.
     1708            </p>
     1709         </div>
     1710         <div id="message.body">
     1711            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#message.body">Message Body</a></h2>
     1712            <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">The message-body (if any) of an HTTP message is used to carry the entity-body associated with the request or response. The
     1713               message-body differs from the entity-body only when a transfer-coding has been applied, as indicated by the Transfer-Encoding
     1714               header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.2" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.41</a>).
     1715            </p>
     1716            <div id="rfc.figure.u.35"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.77"></span>    message-body = entity-body
    16591717                 | &lt;entity-body encoded as per Transfer-Encoding&gt;
    16601718</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.3">Transfer-Encoding <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be used to indicate any transfer-codings applied by an application to ensure safe and proper transfer of the message. Transfer-Encoding
    1661          is a property of the message, not of the entity, and thus <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be added or removed by any application along the request/response chain. (However, <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a> places restrictions on when certain transfer-codings may be used.)
    1662       </p>
    1663       <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.4">The rules for when a message-body is allowed in a message differ for requests and responses.</p>
    1664       <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.5">The presence of a message-body in a request is signaled by the inclusion of a Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding header field
    1665          in the request's message-headers. A message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be included in a request if the specification of the request method (<a href="#method" title="Method">Section&nbsp;5.1.1</a>) does not allow sending an entity-body in requests. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> read and forward a message-body on any request; if the request method does not include defined semantics for an entity-body,
    1666          then the message-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored when handling the request.
    1667       </p>
    1668       <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.6">For response messages, whether or not a message-body is included with a message is dependent on both the request method and
    1669          the response status code (<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" title="Status Code and Reason Phrase">Section&nbsp;6.1.1</a>). All responses to the HEAD request method <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body, even though the presence of entity-header fields might lead one to believe they do. All 1xx (informational),
    1670          204 (no content), and 304 (not modified) responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body. All other responses do include a message-body, although it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be of zero length.
    1671       </p>
    1672       <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.length" href="#message.length">Message Length</a></h2>
    1673       <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">The transfer-length of a message is the length of the message-body as it appears in the message; that is, after any transfer-codings
    1674          have been applied. When a message-body is included with a message, the transfer-length of that body is determined by one of
    1675          the following (in order of precedence):
    1676       </p>
    1677       <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2"> </p>
    1678       <ol>
    1679          <li>
    1680             <p>Any response message which "<em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em>" include a message-body (such as the 1xx, 204, and 304 responses and any response to a HEAD request) is always terminated
    1681                by the first empty line after the header fields, regardless of the entity-header fields present in the message.
    1682             </p>
    1683          </li>
    1684          <li>
    1685             <p>If a Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.41</a>) is present and has any value other than "identity", then the transfer-length is defined by use of the "chunked" transfer-coding
    1686                (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>), unless the message is terminated by closing the connection.
    1687             </p>
    1688          </li>
    1689          <li>
    1690             <p>If a Content-Length header field (<a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.1" title="Content-Length">Section&nbsp;14.13</a>) is present, its decimal value in OCTETs represents both the entity-length and the transfer-length. The Content-Length header
    1691                field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent if these two lengths are different (i.e., if a Transfer-Encoding header field is present). If a message is received
    1692                with both a Transfer-Encoding header field and a Content-Length header field, the latter <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
    1693             </p>
    1694          </li>
    1695          <li>
    1696             <p>If the message uses the media type "multipart/byteranges", and the ransfer-length is not otherwise specified, then this self-elimiting
    1697                media type defines the transfer-length. This media type UST NOT be used unless the sender knows that the recipient can arse
    1698                it; the presence in a request of a Range header with ultiple byte-range specifiers from a 1.1 client implies that the lient
    1699                can parse multipart/byteranges responses.
    1700             </p>
    1701             <ul class="empty">
    1702                <li>A range header might be forwarded by a 1.0 proxy that does not understand multipart/byteranges; in this case the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> delimit the message using methods defined in items 1, 3 or 5 of this section.
    1703                </li>
    1704             </ul>
    1705          </li>
    1706          <li>
    1707             <p>By the server closing the connection. (Closing the connection cannot be used to indicate the end of a request body, since
    1708                that would leave no possibility for the server to send back a response.)
    1709             </p>
    1710          </li>
    1711       </ol>
    1712       <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.3">For compatibility with HTTP/1.0 applications, HTTP/1.1 requests containing a message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a valid Content-Length header field unless the server is known to be HTTP/1.1 compliant. If a request contains a message-body
    1713          and a Content-Length is not given, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with 400 (bad request) if it cannot determine the length of the message, or with 411 (length required) if it wishes
    1714          to insist on receiving a valid Content-Length.
    1715       </p>
    1716       <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.4">All HTTP/1.1 applications that receive entities <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the "chunked" transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>), thus allowing this mechanism to be used for messages when the message length cannot be determined in advance.
    1717       </p>
    1718       <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.5">Messages <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include both a Content-Length header field and a non-identity transfer-coding. If the message does include a non-identity
    1719          transfer-coding, the Content-Length <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
    1720       </p>
    1721       <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.6">When a Content-Length is given in a message where a message-body is allowed, its field value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> exactly match the number of OCTETs in the message-body. HTTP/1.1 user agents <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> notify the user when an invalid length is received and detected.
    1722       </p>
    1723       <h2 id="rfc.section.4.5"><a href="#rfc.section.4.5">4.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="general.header.fields" href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></h2>
    1724       <p id="rfc.section.4.5.p.1">There are a few header fields which have general applicability for both request and response messages, but which do not apply
    1725          to the entity being transferred. These header fields apply only to the message being transmitted.
    1726       </p>
    1727       <div id="rfc.figure.u.36"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.78"></span>    general-header = Cache-Control            ; <a href="#header.cache-control" id="rfc.xref.header.cache-control.1" title="Cache-Control">Section&nbsp;14.9</a>
     1719               is a property of the message, not of the entity, and thus <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be added or removed by any application along the request/response chain. (However, <a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a> places restrictions on when certain transfer-codings may be used.)
     1720            </p>
     1721            <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.4">The rules for when a message-body is allowed in a message differ for requests and responses.</p>
     1722            <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.5">The presence of a message-body in a request is signaled by the inclusion of a Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding header field
     1723               in the request's message-headers. A message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be included in a request if the specification of the request method (<a href="#method" title="Method">Section&nbsp;5.1.1</a>) does not allow sending an entity-body in requests. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> read and forward a message-body on any request; if the request method does not include defined semantics for an entity-body,
     1724               then the message-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored when handling the request.
     1725            </p>
     1726            <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.6">For response messages, whether or not a message-body is included with a message is dependent on both the request method and
     1727               the response status code (<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase" title="Status Code and Reason Phrase">Section&nbsp;6.1.1</a>). All responses to the HEAD request method <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body, even though the presence of entity-header fields might lead one to believe they do. All 1xx (informational),
     1728               204 (no content), and 304 (not modified) responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message-body. All other responses do include a message-body, although it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be of zero length.
     1729            </p>
     1730         </div>
     1731         <div id="message.length">
     1732            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#message.length">Message Length</a></h2>
     1733            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">The transfer-length of a message is the length of the message-body as it appears in the message; that is, after any transfer-codings
     1734               have been applied. When a message-body is included with a message, the transfer-length of that body is determined by one of
     1735               the following (in order of precedence):
     1736            </p>
     1737            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2"></p>
     1738            <ol>
     1739               <li>
     1740                  <p>Any response message which "<em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em>" include a message-body (such as the 1xx, 204, and 304 responses and any response to a HEAD request) is always terminated
     1741                     by the first empty line after the header fields, regardless of the entity-header fields present in the message.
     1742                  </p>
     1743               </li>
     1744               <li>
     1745                  <p>If a Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="#header.transfer-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.transfer-encoding.3" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.41</a>) is present and has any value other than "identity", then the transfer-length is defined by use of the "chunked" transfer-coding
     1746                     (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>), unless the message is terminated by closing the connection.
     1747                  </p>
     1748               </li>
     1749               <li>
     1750                  <p>If a Content-Length header field (<a href="#header.content-length" id="rfc.xref.header.content-length.1" title="Content-Length">Section&nbsp;14.13</a>) is present, its decimal value in OCTETs represents both the entity-length and the transfer-length. The Content-Length header
     1751                     field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent if these two lengths are different (i.e., if a Transfer-Encoding header field is present). If a message is received
     1752                     with both a Transfer-Encoding header field and a Content-Length header field, the latter <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
     1753                  </p>
     1754               </li>
     1755               <li>
     1756                  <p>If the message uses the media type "multipart/byteranges", and the ransfer-length is not otherwise specified, then this self-elimiting
     1757                     media type defines the transfer-length. This media type UST NOT be used unless the sender knows that the recipient can arse
     1758                     it; the presence in a request of a Range header with ultiple byte-range specifiers from a 1.1 client implies that the lient
     1759                     can parse multipart/byteranges responses.
     1760                  </p>
     1761                  <ul class="empty">
     1762                     <li>A range header might be forwarded by a 1.0 proxy that does not understand multipart/byteranges; in this case the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> delimit the message using methods defined in items 1, 3 or 5 of this section.
     1763                     </li>
     1764                  </ul>
     1765               </li>
     1766               <li>
     1767                  <p>By the server closing the connection. (Closing the connection cannot be used to indicate the end of a request body, since
     1768                     that would leave no possibility for the server to send back a response.)
     1769                  </p>
     1770               </li>
     1771            </ol>
     1772            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.3">For compatibility with HTTP/1.0 applications, HTTP/1.1 requests containing a message-body <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a valid Content-Length header field unless the server is known to be HTTP/1.1 compliant. If a request contains a message-body
     1773               and a Content-Length is not given, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with 400 (bad request) if it cannot determine the length of the message, or with 411 (length required) if it wishes
     1774               to insist on receiving a valid Content-Length.
     1775            </p>
     1776            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.4">All HTTP/1.1 applications that receive entities <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the "chunked" transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>), thus allowing this mechanism to be used for messages when the message length cannot be determined in advance.
     1777            </p>
     1778            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.5">Messages <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include both a Content-Length header field and a non-identity transfer-coding. If the message does include a non-identity
     1779               transfer-coding, the Content-Length <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
     1780            </p>
     1781            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.6">When a Content-Length is given in a message where a message-body is allowed, its field value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> exactly match the number of OCTETs in the message-body. HTTP/1.1 user agents <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> notify the user when an invalid length is received and detected.
     1782            </p>
     1783         </div>
     1784         <div id="general.header.fields">
     1785            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.5"><a href="#rfc.section.4.5">4.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#general.header.fields">General Header Fields</a></h2>
     1786            <p id="rfc.section.4.5.p.1">There are a few header fields which have general applicability for both request and response messages, but which do not apply
     1787               to the entity being transferred. These header fields apply only to the message being transmitted.
     1788            </p>
     1789            <div id="rfc.figure.u.36"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.78"></span>    general-header = Cache-Control            ; <a href="#header.cache-control" id="rfc.xref.header.cache-control.1" title="Cache-Control">Section&nbsp;14.9</a>
    17281790                   | Connection               ; <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.1" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;14.10</a>
    17291791                   | Date                     ; <a href="#header.date" id="rfc.xref.header.date.1" title="Date">Section&nbsp;14.18</a>
     
    17351797                   | Warning                  ; <a href="#header.warning" id="rfc.xref.header.warning.1" title="Warning">Section&nbsp;14.46</a>
    17361798</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.5.p.3">General-header field names can be extended reliably only in combination with a change in the protocol version. However, new
    1737          or experimental header fields may be given the semantics of general header fields if all parties in the communication recognize
    1738          them to be general-header fields. Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
    1739       </p>
    1740       <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="request" href="#request">Request</a></h1>
    1741       <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the
    1742          resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use.
    1743       </p>
    1744       <div id="rfc.figure.u.37"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.79"></span>     Request       = Request-Line              ; <a href="#request-line" title="Request-Line">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>
     1799               or experimental header fields may be given the semantics of general header fields if all parties in the communication recognize
     1800               them to be general-header fields. Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
     1801            </p>
     1802         </div>
     1803      </div>
     1804      <div id="request">
     1805         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#request">Request</a></h1>
     1806         <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the
     1807            resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use.
     1808         </p>
     1809         <div id="rfc.figure.u.37"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.79"></span>     Request       = Request-Line              ; <a href="#request-line" title="Request-Line">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>
    17451810                     *(( general-header        ; <a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>
    17461811                      | request-header         ; <a href="#request.header.fields" title="Request Header Fields">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>
     
    17481813                     CRLF
    17491814                     [ message-body ]          ; <a href="#message.body" title="Message Body">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>
    1750 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="request-line" href="#request-line">Request-Line</a></h2>
    1751       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The Request-Line begins with a method token, followed by the Request-URI and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF. The
    1752          elements are separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final CRLF sequence.
    1753       </p>
    1754       <div id="rfc.figure.u.38"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.80"></span>     Request-Line   = Method SP Request-URI SP HTTP-Version CRLF
    1755 </pre><h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="method" href="#method">Method</a></h3>
    1756       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-sensitive.</p>
    1757       <div id="rfc.figure.u.39"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.81"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.82"></span>    Method         = "OPTIONS"                ; <a href="#OPTIONS" id="rfc.xref.OPTIONS.1" title="OPTIONS">Section&nbsp;9.2</a>
     1815</pre><div id="request-line">
     1816            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#request-line">Request-Line</a></h2>
     1817            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The Request-Line begins with a method token, followed by the Request-URI and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF. The
     1818               elements are separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final CRLF sequence.
     1819            </p>
     1820            <div id="rfc.figure.u.38"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.80"></span>     Request-Line   = Method SP Request-URI SP HTTP-Version CRLF
     1821</pre><div id="method">
     1822               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#method">Method</a></h3>
     1823               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-sensitive.</p>
     1824               <div id="rfc.figure.u.39"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.81"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.82"></span>    Method         = "OPTIONS"                ; <a href="#OPTIONS" id="rfc.xref.OPTIONS.1" title="OPTIONS">Section&nbsp;9.2</a>
    17581825                   | "GET"                    ; <a href="#GET" id="rfc.xref.GET.1" title="GET">Section&nbsp;9.3</a>
    17591826                   | "HEAD"                   ; <a href="#HEAD" id="rfc.xref.HEAD.1" title="HEAD">Section&nbsp;9.4</a>
     
    17661833    extension-method = token
    17671834</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.3">The list of methods allowed by a resource can be specified in an Allow header field (<a href="#header.allow" id="rfc.xref.header.allow.1" title="Allow">Section&nbsp;14.7</a>). The return code of the response always notifies the client whether a method is currently allowed on a resource, since the
    1768          set of allowed methods can change dynamically. An origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return the status code 405 (Method Not Allowed) if the method is known by the origin server but not allowed for the requested
    1769          resource, and 501 (Not Implemented) if the method is unrecognized or not implemented by the origin server. The methods GET
    1770          and HEAD <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be supported by all general-purpose servers. All other methods are <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em>; however, if the above methods are implemented, they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be implemented with the same semantics as those specified in <a href="#method.definitions" title="Method Definitions">Section&nbsp;9</a>.
    1771       </p>
    1772       <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="request-uri" href="#request-uri">Request-URI</a></h3>
    1773       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.1">The Request-URI is a Uniform Resource Identifier (<a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) and identifies the resource upon which to apply the request.
    1774       </p>
    1775       <div id="rfc.figure.u.40"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.83"></span>    Request-URI    = "*" | absoluteURI | abs_path | authority
     1835                  set of allowed methods can change dynamically. An origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return the status code 405 (Method Not Allowed) if the method is known by the origin server but not allowed for the requested
     1836                  resource, and 501 (Not Implemented) if the method is unrecognized or not implemented by the origin server. The methods GET
     1837                  and HEAD <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be supported by all general-purpose servers. All other methods are <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em>; however, if the above methods are implemented, they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be implemented with the same semantics as those specified in <a href="#method.definitions" title="Method Definitions">Section&nbsp;9</a>.
     1838               </p>
     1839            </div>
     1840            <div id="request-uri">
     1841               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#request-uri">Request-URI</a></h3>
     1842               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.1">The Request-URI is a Uniform Resource Identifier (<a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) and identifies the resource upon which to apply the request.
     1843               </p>
     1844               <div id="rfc.figure.u.40"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.83"></span>    Request-URI    = "*" | absoluteURI | abs_path | authority
    17761845</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.3">The four options for Request-URI are dependent on the nature of the request. The asterisk "*" means that the request does
    1777          not apply to a particular resource, but to the server itself, and is only allowed when the method used does not necessarily
    1778          apply to a resource. One example would be
    1779       </p>
    1780       <div id="rfc.figure.u.41"></div><pre class="text">    OPTIONS * HTTP/1.1
     1846                  not apply to a particular resource, but to the server itself, and is only allowed when the method used does not necessarily
     1847                  apply to a resource. One example would be
     1848               </p>
     1849               <div id="rfc.figure.u.41"></div><pre class="text">    OPTIONS * HTTP/1.1
    17811850</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.5">The absoluteURI form is <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> when the request is being made to a proxy. The proxy is requested to forward the request or service it from a valid cache,
    1782          and return the response. Note that the proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> forward the request on to another proxy or directly to the server specified by the absoluteURI. In order to avoid request
    1783          loops, a proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recognize all of its server names, including any aliases, local variations, and the numeric IP address. An example
    1784          Request-Line would be:
    1785       </p>
    1786       <div id="rfc.figure.u.42"></div><pre class="text">    GET http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
     1851                  and return the response. Note that the proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> forward the request on to another proxy or directly to the server specified by the absoluteURI. In order to avoid request
     1852                  loops, a proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recognize all of its server names, including any aliases, local variations, and the numeric IP address. An example
     1853                  Request-Line would be:
     1854               </p>
     1855               <div id="rfc.figure.u.42"></div><pre class="text">    GET http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
    17871856</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.7">To allow for transition to absoluteURIs in all requests in future versions of HTTP, all HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept the absoluteURI form in requests, even though HTTP/1.1 clients will only generate them in requests to proxies.
    1788       </p>
    1789       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.8">The authority form is only used by the CONNECT method (<a href="#CONNECT" id="rfc.xref.CONNECT.2" title="CONNECT">Section&nbsp;9.9</a>).
    1790       </p>
    1791       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.9">The most common form of Request-URI is that used to identify a resource on an origin server or gateway. In this case the absolute
    1792          path of the URI <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted (see <a href="#general.syntax" title="General Syntax">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>, abs_path) as the Request-URI, and the network location of the URI (authority) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted in a Host header field. For example, a client wishing to retrieve the resource above directly from the origin
    1793          server would create a TCP connection to port 80 of the host "www.w3.org" and send the lines:
    1794       </p>
    1795       <div id="rfc.figure.u.43"></div><pre class="text">    GET /pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
     1857               </p>
     1858               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.8">The authority form is only used by the CONNECT method (<a href="#CONNECT" id="rfc.xref.CONNECT.2" title="CONNECT">Section&nbsp;9.9</a>).
     1859               </p>
     1860               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.9">The most common form of Request-URI is that used to identify a resource on an origin server or gateway. In this case the absolute
     1861                  path of the URI <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted (see <a href="#general.syntax" title="General Syntax">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>, abs_path) as the Request-URI, and the network location of the URI (authority) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be transmitted in a Host header field. For example, a client wishing to retrieve the resource above directly from the origin
     1862                  server would create a TCP connection to port 80 of the host "www.w3.org" and send the lines:
     1863               </p>
     1864               <div id="rfc.figure.u.43"></div><pre class="text">    GET /pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
    17961865    Host: www.w3.org
    17971866</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.11">followed by the remainder of the Request. Note that the absolute path cannot be empty; if none is present in the original
    1798          URI, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" (the server root).
    1799       </p>
    1800       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.12">The Request-URI is transmitted in the format specified in <a href="#general.syntax" title="General Syntax">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>. If the Request-URI is encoded using the "% HEX HEX" encoding <a href="#RFC2396" id="rfc.xref.RFC2396.3"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC2396]</cite></a>, the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> decode the Request-URI in order to properly interpret the request. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond to invalid Request-URIs with an appropriate status code.
    1801       </p>
    1802       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.13">A transparent proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> rewrite the "abs_path" part of the received Request-URI when forwarding it to the next inbound server, except as noted above
    1803          to replace a null abs_path with "/".
    1804       </p>
    1805       <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.14"> </p>
    1806       <ul class="empty">
    1807          <li> <b>Note:</b> The "no rewrite" rule prevents the proxy from changing the meaning of the request when the origin server is improperly using
    1808             a non-reserved URI character for a reserved purpose. Implementors should be aware that some pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies have been
    1809             known to rewrite the Request-URI.
    1810          </li>
    1811       </ul>
    1812       <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="the.resource.identified.by.a.request" href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></h2>
    1813       <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The exact resource identified by an Internet request is determined by examining both the Request-URI and the Host header field.</p>
    1814       <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">An origin server that does not allow resources to differ by the requested host <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Host header field value when determining the resource identified by an HTTP/1.1 request. (But see <a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses">Appendix&nbsp;19.6.1.1</a> for other requirements on Host support in HTTP/1.1.)
    1815       </p>
    1816       <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.3">An origin server that does differentiate resources based on the host requested (sometimes referred to as virtual hosts or
    1817          vanity host names) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the following rules for determining the requested resource on an HTTP/1.1 request:
    1818       </p>
    1819       <ol>
    1820          <li>If Request-URI is an absoluteURI, the host is part of the Request-URI. Any Host header field value in the request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
    1821          </li>
    1822          <li>If the Request-URI is not an absoluteURI, and the request includes a Host header field, the host is determined by the Host
    1823             header field value.
    1824          </li>
    1825          <li>If the host as determined by rule 1 or 2 is not a valid host on the server, the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be a 400 (Bad Request) error message.
    1826          </li>
    1827       </ol>
    1828       <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.4">Recipients of an HTTP/1.0 request that lacks a Host header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt to use heuristics (e.g., examination of the URI path for something unique to a particular host) in order to determine
    1829          what exact resource is being requested.
    1830       </p>
    1831       <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="request.header.fields" href="#request.header.fields">Request Header Fields</a></h2>
    1832       <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">The request-header fields allow the client to pass additional information about the request, and about the client itself,
    1833          to the server. These fields act as request modifiers, with semantics equivalent to the parameters on a programming language
    1834          method invocation.
    1835       </p>
    1836       <div id="rfc.figure.u.44"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.84"></span>    request-header = Accept                   ; <a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.2" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;14.1</a>
     1867                  URI, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be given as "/" (the server root).
     1868               </p>
     1869               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.12">The Request-URI is transmitted in the format specified in <a href="#general.syntax" title="General Syntax">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>. If the Request-URI is encoded using the "% HEX HEX" encoding <a href="#RFC2396" id="rfc.xref.RFC2396.3"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC2396]</cite></a>, the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> decode the Request-URI in order to properly interpret the request. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond to invalid Request-URIs with an appropriate status code.
     1870               </p>
     1871               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.13">A transparent proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> rewrite the "abs_path" part of the received Request-URI when forwarding it to the next inbound server, except as noted above
     1872                  to replace a null abs_path with "/".
     1873               </p>
     1874               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.14"></p>
     1875               <ul class="empty">
     1876                  <li><b>Note:</b> The "no rewrite" rule prevents the proxy from changing the meaning of the request when the origin server is improperly using
     1877                     a non-reserved URI character for a reserved purpose. Implementors should be aware that some pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies have been
     1878                     known to rewrite the Request-URI.
     1879                  </li>
     1880               </ul>
     1881            </div>
     1882         </div>
     1883         <div id="the.resource.identified.by.a.request">
     1884            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#the.resource.identified.by.a.request">The Resource Identified by a Request</a></h2>
     1885            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The exact resource identified by an Internet request is determined by examining both the Request-URI and the Host header field.</p>
     1886            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">An origin server that does not allow resources to differ by the requested host <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Host header field value when determining the resource identified by an HTTP/1.1 request. (But see <a href="#changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses">Appendix&nbsp;19.6.1.1</a> for other requirements on Host support in HTTP/1.1.)
     1887            </p>
     1888            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.3">An origin server that does differentiate resources based on the host requested (sometimes referred to as virtual hosts or
     1889               vanity host names) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the following rules for determining the requested resource on an HTTP/1.1 request:
     1890            </p>
     1891            <ol>
     1892               <li>If Request-URI is an absoluteURI, the host is part of the Request-URI. Any Host header field value in the request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
     1893               </li>
     1894               <li>If the Request-URI is not an absoluteURI, and the request includes a Host header field, the host is determined by the Host
     1895                  header field value.
     1896               </li>
     1897               <li>If the host as determined by rule 1 or 2 is not a valid host on the server, the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be a 400 (Bad Request) error message.
     1898               </li>
     1899            </ol>
     1900            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.4">Recipients of an HTTP/1.0 request that lacks a Host header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt to use heuristics (e.g., examination of the URI path for something unique to a particular host) in order to determine
     1901               what exact resource is being requested.
     1902            </p>
     1903         </div>
     1904         <div id="request.header.fields">
     1905            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#request.header.fields">Request Header Fields</a></h2>
     1906            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">The request-header fields allow the client to pass additional information about the request, and about the client itself,
     1907               to the server. These fields act as request modifiers, with semantics equivalent to the parameters on a programming language
     1908               method invocation.
     1909            </p>
     1910            <div id="rfc.figure.u.44"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.84"></span>    request-header = Accept                   ; <a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.2" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;14.1</a>
    18371911                   | Accept-Charset           ; <a href="#header.accept-charset" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.1" title="Accept-Charset">Section&nbsp;14.2</a>
    18381912                   | Accept-Encoding          ; <a href="#header.accept-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.2" title="Accept-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.3</a>
     
    18541928                   | User-Agent               ; <a href="#header.user-agent" id="rfc.xref.header.user-agent.1" title="User-Agent">Section&nbsp;14.43</a>
    18551929</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.3">Request-header field names can be extended reliably only in combination with a change in the protocol version. However, new
    1856          or experimental header fields <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be given the semantics of request-header fields if all parties in the communication recognize them to be request-header fields.
    1857          Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
    1858       </p>
    1859       <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="response" href="#response">Response</a></h1>
    1860       <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message.</p>
    1861       <div id="rfc.figure.u.45"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.85"></span>    Response      = Status-Line               ; <a href="#status-line" title="Status-Line">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>
     1930               or experimental header fields <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be given the semantics of request-header fields if all parties in the communication recognize them to be request-header fields.
     1931               Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
     1932            </p>
     1933         </div>
     1934      </div>
     1935      <div id="response">
     1936         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#response">Response</a></h1>
     1937         <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message.</p>
     1938         <div id="rfc.figure.u.45"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.85"></span>    Response      = Status-Line               ; <a href="#status-line" title="Status-Line">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>
    18621939                    *(( general-header        ; <a href="#general.header.fields" title="General Header Fields">Section&nbsp;4.5</a>
    18631940                     | response-header        ; <a href="#response.header.fields" title="Response Header Fields">Section&nbsp;6.2</a>
     
    18651942                    CRLF
    18661943                    [ message-body ]          ; <a href="#entity.body" title="Entity Body">Section&nbsp;7.2</a>
    1867 </pre><h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status-line" href="#status-line">Status-Line</a></h2>
    1868       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The first line of a Response message is the Status-Line, consisting of the protocol version followed by a numeric status code
    1869          and its associated textual phrase, with each element separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final
    1870          CRLF sequence.
    1871       </p>
    1872       <div id="rfc.figure.u.46"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.86"></span>    Status-Line = HTTP-Version SP Status-Code SP Reason-Phrase CRLF
    1873 </pre><h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.1">6.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.and.reason.phrase" href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></h3>
    1874       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.1">The Status-Code element is a 3-digit integer result code of the attempt to understand and satisfy the request. These codes
    1875          are fully defined in <a href="#status.codes" title="Status Code Definitions">Section&nbsp;10</a>. The Reason-Phrase is intended to give a short textual description of the Status-Code. The Status-Code is intended for use
    1876          by automata and the Reason-Phrase is intended for the human user. The client is not required to examine or display the Reason-Phrase.
    1877       </p>
    1878       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.2">The first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response. The last two digits do not have any categorization role.
    1879          There are 5 values for the first digit:
    1880       </p>
    1881       <ul>
    1882          <li>1xx: Informational - Request received, continuing process</li>
    1883          <li>2xx: Success - The action was successfully received, understood, and accepted</li>
    1884          <li>3xx: Redirection - Further action must be taken in order to complete the request</li>
    1885          <li>4xx: Client Error - The request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled</li>
    1886          <li>5xx: Server Error - The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request</li>
    1887       </ul>
    1888       <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.3">The individual values of the numeric status codes defined for HTTP/1.1, and an example set of corresponding Reason-Phrase's,
    1889          are presented below. The reason phrases listed here are only recommendations -- they <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be replaced by local equivalents without affecting the protocol.
    1890       </p>
    1891       <div id="rfc.figure.u.47"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.87"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.88"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.89"></span>   Status-Code    =
     1944</pre><div id="status-line">
     1945            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status-line">Status-Line</a></h2>
     1946            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The first line of a Response message is the Status-Line, consisting of the protocol version followed by a numeric status code
     1947               and its associated textual phrase, with each element separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final
     1948               CRLF sequence.
     1949            </p>
     1950            <div id="rfc.figure.u.46"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.86"></span>    Status-Line = HTTP-Version SP Status-Code SP Reason-Phrase CRLF
     1951</pre><div id="status.code.and.reason.phrase">
     1952               <h3 id="rfc.section.6.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1.1">6.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.and.reason.phrase">Status Code and Reason Phrase</a></h3>
     1953               <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.1">The Status-Code element is a 3-digit integer result code of the attempt to understand and satisfy the request. These codes
     1954                  are fully defined in <a href="#status.codes" title="Status Code Definitions">Section&nbsp;10</a>. The Reason-Phrase is intended to give a short textual description of the Status-Code. The Status-Code is intended for use
     1955                  by automata and the Reason-Phrase is intended for the human user. The client is not required to examine or display the Reason-Phrase.
     1956               </p>
     1957               <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.2">The first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response. The last two digits do not have any categorization role.
     1958                  There are 5 values for the first digit:
     1959               </p>
     1960               <ul>
     1961                  <li>1xx: Informational - Request received, continuing process</li>
     1962                  <li>2xx: Success - The action was successfully received, understood, and accepted</li>
     1963                  <li>3xx: Redirection - Further action must be taken in order to complete the request</li>
     1964                  <li>4xx: Client Error - The request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled</li>
     1965                  <li>5xx: Server Error - The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request</li>
     1966               </ul>
     1967               <p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.3">The individual values of the numeric status codes defined for HTTP/1.1, and an example set of corresponding Reason-Phrase's,
     1968                  are presented below. The reason phrases listed here are only recommendations -- they <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be replaced by local equivalents without affecting the protocol.
     1969               </p>
     1970               <div id="rfc.figure.u.47"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.87"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.88"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.89"></span>   Status-Code    =
    18921971         "100"  ; <a href="#status.100" id="rfc.xref.status.100.1" title="100 Continue">Section&nbsp;10.1.1</a>: Continue
    18931972       | "101"  ; <a href="#status.101" id="rfc.xref.status.101.1" title="101 Switching Protocols">Section&nbsp;10.1.2</a>: Switching Protocols
     
    19352014   Reason-Phrase  = *&lt;TEXT, excluding CR, LF&gt;
    19362015</pre><p id="rfc.section.6.1.1.p.5">HTTP status codes are extensible. HTTP applications are not required to understand the meaning of all registered status codes,
    1937          though such understanding is obviously desirable. However, applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> understand the class of any status code, as indicated by the first digit, and treat any unrecognized response as being equivalent
    1938          to the x00 status code of that class, with the exception that an unrecognized response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be cached. For example, if an unrecognized status code of 431 is received by the client, it can safely assume that there was
    1939          something wrong with its request and treat the response as if it had received a 400 status code. In such cases, user agents <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> present to the user the entity returned with the response, since that entity is likely to include human-readable information
    1940          which will explain the unusual status.
    1941       </p>
    1942       <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="response.header.fields" href="#response.header.fields">Response Header Fields</a></h2>
    1943       <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">The response-header fields allow the server to pass additional information about the response which cannot be placed in the
    1944          Status-Line. These header fields give information about the server and about further access to the resource identified by
    1945          the Request-URI.
    1946       </p>
    1947       <div id="rfc.figure.u.48"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.90"></span>    response-header = Accept-Ranges           ; <a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;14.5</a>
     2016                  though such understanding is obviously desirable. However, applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> understand the class of any status code, as indicated by the first digit, and treat any unrecognized response as being equivalent
     2017                  to the x00 status code of that class, with the exception that an unrecognized response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be cached. For example, if an unrecognized status code of 431 is received by the client, it can safely assume that there was
     2018                  something wrong with its request and treat the response as if it had received a 400 status code. In such cases, user agents <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> present to the user the entity returned with the response, since that entity is likely to include human-readable information
     2019                  which will explain the unusual status.
     2020               </p>
     2021            </div>
     2022         </div>
     2023         <div id="response.header.fields">
     2024            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#response.header.fields">Response Header Fields</a></h2>
     2025            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">The response-header fields allow the server to pass additional information about the response which cannot be placed in the
     2026               Status-Line. These header fields give information about the server and about further access to the resource identified by
     2027               the Request-URI.
     2028            </p>
     2029            <div id="rfc.figure.u.48"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.90"></span>    response-header = Accept-Ranges           ; <a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;14.5</a>
    19482030                    | Age                     ; <a href="#header.age" id="rfc.xref.header.age.1" title="Age">Section&nbsp;14.6</a>
    19492031                    | ETag                    ; <a href="#header.etag" id="rfc.xref.header.etag.2" title="ETag">Section&nbsp;14.19</a>
     
    19552037                    | WWW-Authenticate        ; <a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;14.47</a>
    19562038</pre><p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.3">Response-header field names can be extended reliably only in combination with a change in the protocol version. However, new
    1957          or experimental header fields <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be given the semantics of response-header fields if all parties in the communication recognize them to be response-header
    1958          fields. Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
    1959       </p>
    1960       <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity" href="#entity">Entity</a></h1>
    1961       <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">Request and Response messages <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> transfer an entity if not otherwise restricted by the request method or response status code. An entity consists of entity-header
    1962          fields and an entity-body, although some responses will only include the entity-headers.
    1963       </p>
    1964       <p id="rfc.section.7.p.2">In this section, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives
    1965          the entity.
    1966       </p>
    1967       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity.header.fields" href="#entity.header.fields">Entity Header Fields</a></h2>
    1968       <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">Entity-header fields define metainformation about the entity-body or, if no body is present, about the resource identified
    1969          by the request. Some of this metainformation is <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em>; some might be <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> by portions of this specification.
    1970       </p>
    1971       <div id="rfc.figure.u.49"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.91"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.92"></span>    entity-header  = Allow                    ; <a href="#header.allow" id="rfc.xref.header.allow.2" title="Allow">Section&nbsp;14.7</a>
     2039               or experimental header fields <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be given the semantics of response-header fields if all parties in the communication recognize them to be response-header
     2040               fields. Unrecognized header fields are treated as entity-header fields.
     2041            </p>
     2042         </div>
     2043      </div>
     2044      <div id="entity">
     2045         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity">Entity</a></h1>
     2046         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">Request and Response messages <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> transfer an entity if not otherwise restricted by the request method or response status code. An entity consists of entity-header
     2047            fields and an entity-body, although some responses will only include the entity-headers.
     2048         </p>
     2049         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.2">In this section, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives
     2050            the entity.
     2051         </p>
     2052         <div id="entity.header.fields">
     2053            <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity.header.fields">Entity Header Fields</a></h2>
     2054            <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">Entity-header fields define metainformation about the entity-body or, if no body is present, about the resource identified
     2055               by the request. Some of this metainformation is <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em>; some might be <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> by portions of this specification.
     2056            </p>
     2057            <div id="rfc.figure.u.49"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.91"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.92"></span>    entity-header  = Allow                    ; <a href="#header.allow" id="rfc.xref.header.allow.2" title="Allow">Section&nbsp;14.7</a>
    19722058                   | Content-Encoding         ; <a href="#header.content-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.2" title="Content-Encoding">Section&nbsp;14.11</a>
    19732059                   | Content-Language         ; <a href="#header.content-language" id="rfc.xref.header.content-language.1" title="Content-Language">Section&nbsp;14.12</a>
     
    19832069    extension-header = message-header
    19842070</pre><p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.3">The extension-header mechanism allows additional entity-header fields to be defined without changing the protocol, but these
    1985          fields cannot be assumed to be recognizable by the recipient. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored by the recipient and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be forwarded by transparent proxies.
    1986       </p>
    1987       <h2 id="rfc.section.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity.body" href="#entity.body">Entity Body</a></h2>
    1988       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.1">The entity-body (if any) sent with an HTTP request or response is in a format and encoding defined by the entity-header fields.</p>
    1989       <div id="rfc.figure.u.50"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.93"></span>    entity-body    = *OCTET
     2071               fields cannot be assumed to be recognizable by the recipient. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored by the recipient and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be forwarded by transparent proxies.
     2072            </p>
     2073         </div>
     2074         <div id="entity.body">
     2075            <h2 id="rfc.section.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity.body">Entity Body</a></h2>
     2076            <p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.1">The entity-body (if any) sent with an HTTP request or response is in a format and encoding defined by the entity-header fields.</p>
     2077            <div id="rfc.figure.u.50"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.93"></span>    entity-body    = *OCTET
    19902078</pre><p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.3">An entity-body is only present in a message when a message-body is present, as described in <a href="#message.body" title="Message Body">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>. The entity-body is obtained from the message-body by decoding any Transfer-Encoding that might have been applied to ensure
    1991          safe and proper transfer of the message.
    1992       </p>
    1993       <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.1">7.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="type" href="#type">Type</a></h3>
    1994       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.1.p.1">When an entity-body is included with a message, the data type of that body is determined via the header fields Content-Type
    1995          and Content-Encoding. These define a two-layer, ordered encoding model:
    1996       </p>
    1997       <div id="rfc.figure.u.51"></div><pre class="text">    entity-body := Content-Encoding( Content-Type( data ) )
     2079               safe and proper transfer of the message.
     2080            </p>
     2081            <div id="type">
     2082               <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.1">7.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#type">Type</a></h3>
     2083               <p id="rfc.section.7.2.1.p.1">When an entity-body is included with a message, the data type of that body is determined via the header fields Content-Type
     2084                  and Content-Encoding. These define a two-layer, ordered encoding model:
     2085               </p>
     2086               <div id="rfc.figure.u.51"></div><pre class="text">    entity-body := Content-Encoding( Content-Type( data ) )
    19982087</pre><p id="rfc.section.7.2.1.p.3">Content-Type specifies the media type of the underlying data. Content-Encoding may be used to indicate any additional content
    1999          codings applied to the data, usually for the purpose of data compression, that are a property of the requested resource. There
    2000          is no default encoding.
    2001       </p>
    2002       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.1.p.4">Any HTTP/1.1 message containing an entity-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Content-Type header field defining the media type of that body. If and only if the media type is not given by a
    2003          Content-Type field, the recipient <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt to guess the media type via inspection of its content and/or the name extension(s) of the URI used to identify the
    2004          resource. If the media type remains unknown, the recipient <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> treat it as type "application/octet-stream".
    2005       </p>
    2006       <h3 id="rfc.section.7.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2.2">7.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity.length" href="#entity.length">Entity Length</a></h3>
    2007       <p id="rfc.section.7.2.2.p.1">The entity-length of a message is the length of the message-body before any transfer-codings have been applied. <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a> defines how the transfer-length of a message-body is determined.
    2008       </p>
    2009       <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a id="connections" href="#connections">Connections</a></h1>
    2010       <h2 id="rfc.section.8.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.connections" href="#persistent.connections">Persistent Connections</a></h2>
    2011       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.1">8.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.purpose" href="#persistent.purpose">Purpose</a></h3>
    2012       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.1.p.1">Prior to persistent connections, a separate TCP connection was established to fetch each URL, increasing the load on HTTP
    2013          servers and causing congestion on the Internet. The use of inline images and other associated data often require a client
    2014          to make multiple requests of the same server in a short amount of time. Analysis of these performance problems and results
    2015          from a prototype implementation are available <a href="#Pad1995" id="rfc.xref.Pad1995.1"><cite title="Improving HTTP Latency">[Pad1995]</cite></a>  <a href="#Spe" id="rfc.xref.Spe.1"><cite title="Analysis of HTTP Performance Problems">[Spe]</cite></a>. Implementation experience and measurements of actual HTTP/1.1 (RFC 2068) implementations show good results <a href="#Nie1997" id="rfc.xref.Nie1997.1"><cite title="Network Performance Effects of HTTP/1.1, CSS1, and PNG">[Nie1997]</cite></a>. Alternatives have also been explored, for example, T/TCP <a href="#Tou1998" id="rfc.xref.Tou1998.1"><cite title="Analysis of HTTP Performance">[Tou1998]</cite></a>.
    2016       </p>
    2017       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.1.p.2">Persistent HTTP connections have a number of advantages: </p>
    2018       <ul>
    2019          <li>By opening and closing fewer TCP connections, CPU time is saved in routers and hosts (clients, servers, proxies, gateways,
    2020             tunnels, or caches), and memory used for TCP protocol control blocks can be saved in hosts.
    2021          </li>
    2022          <li>HTTP requests and responses can be pipelined on a connection. Pipelining allows a client to make multiple requests without
    2023             waiting for each response, allowing a single TCP connection to be used much more efficiently, with much lower elapsed time.
    2024          </li>
    2025          <li>Network congestion is reduced by reducing the number of packets caused by TCP opens, and by allowing TCP sufficient time to
    2026             determine the congestion state of the network.
    2027          </li>
    2028          <li>Latency on subsequent requests is reduced since there is no time spent in TCP's connection opening handshake.</li>
    2029          <li>HTTP can evolve more gracefully, since errors can be reported without the penalty of closing the TCP connection. Clients using
    2030             future versions of HTTP might optimistically try a new feature, but if communicating with an older server, retry with old
    2031             semantics after an error is reported.
    2032          </li>
    2033       </ul>
    2034       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.1.p.3">HTTP implementations <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> implement persistent connections.
    2035       </p>
    2036       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.2">8.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.overall" href="#persistent.overall">Overall Operation</a></h3>
    2037       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.p.1">A significant difference between HTTP/1.1 and earlier versions of HTTP is that persistent connections are the default behavior
    2038          of any HTTP connection. That is, unless otherwise indicated, the client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> assume that the server will maintain a persistent connection, even after error responses from the server.
    2039       </p>
    2040       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.p.2">Persistent connections provide a mechanism by which a client and a server can signal the close of a TCP connection. This signaling
    2041          takes place using the Connection header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.2" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;14.10</a>). Once a close has been signaled, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send any more requests on that connection.
    2042       </p>
    2043       <h4 id="rfc.section.8.1.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.2.1">8.1.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.negotiation" href="#persistent.negotiation">Negotiation</a></h4>
    2044       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.1.p.1">An HTTP/1.1 server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> assume that a HTTP/1.1 client intends to maintain a persistent connection unless a Connection header including the connection-token
    2045          "close" was sent in the request. If the server chooses to close the connection immediately after sending the response, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Connection header including the connection-token close.
    2046       </p>
    2047       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.1.p.2">An HTTP/1.1 client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> expect a connection to remain open, but would decide to keep it open based on whether the response from a server contains
    2048          a Connection header with the connection-token close. In case the client does not want to maintain a connection for more than
    2049          that request, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Connection header including the connection-token close.
    2050       </p>
    2051       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.1.p.3">If either the client or the server sends the close token in the Connection header, that request becomes the last one for the
    2052          connection.
    2053       </p>
    2054       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.1.p.4">Clients and servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> assume that a persistent connection is maintained for HTTP versions less than 1.1 unless it is explicitly signaled. See <a href="#compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections" title="Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections">Appendix&nbsp;19.6.2</a> for more information on backward compatibility with HTTP/1.0 clients.
    2055       </p>
    2056       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.1.p.5">In order to remain persistent, all messages on the connection <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have a self-defined message length (i.e., one not defined by closure of the connection), as described in <a href="#message.length" title="Message Length">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>.
    2057       </p>
    2058       <h4 id="rfc.section.8.1.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.2.2">8.1.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="pipelining" href="#pipelining">Pipelining</a></h4>
    2059       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.2.p.1">A client that supports persistent connections <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> "pipeline" its requests (i.e., send multiple requests without waiting for each response). A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send its responses to those requests in the same order that the requests were received.
    2060       </p>
    2061       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.2.p.2">Clients which assume persistent connections and pipeline immediately after connection establishment <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be prepared to retry their connection if the first pipelined attempt fails. If a client does such a retry, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> pipeline before it knows the connection is persistent. Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> also be prepared to resend their requests if the server closes the connection before sending all of the corresponding responses.
    2062       </p>
    2063       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.2.2.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent methods or non-idempotent sequences of methods (see <a href="#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section&nbsp;9.1.2</a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
    2064          send a non-idempotent request <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> wait to send that request until it has received the response status for the previous request.
    2065       </p>
    2066       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.3">8.1.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.proxy" href="#persistent.proxy">Proxy Servers</a></h3>
    2067       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.3.p.1">It is especially important that proxies correctly implement the properties of the Connection header field as specified in <a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;14.10</a>.
    2068       </p>
    2069       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.3.p.2">The proxy server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> signal persistent connections separately with its clients and the origin servers (or other proxy servers) that it connects
    2070          to. Each persistent connection applies to only one transport link.
    2071       </p>
    2072       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.3.p.3">A proxy server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> establish a HTTP/1.1 persistent connection with an HTTP/1.0 client (but see RFC 2068 <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a> for information and discussion of the problems with the Keep-Alive header implemented by many HTTP/1.0 clients).
    2073       </p>
    2074       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1.4">8.1.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.practical" href="#persistent.practical">Practical Considerations</a></h3>
    2075       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.4.p.1">Servers will usually have some time-out value beyond which they will no longer maintain an inactive connection. Proxy servers
    2076          might make this a higher value since it is likely that the client will be making more connections through the same server.
    2077          The use of persistent connections places no requirements on the length (or existence) of this time-out for either the client
    2078          or the server.
    2079       </p>
    2080       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.4.p.2">When a client or server wishes to time-out it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> issue a graceful close on the transport connection. Clients and servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> both constantly watch for the other side of the transport close, and respond to it as appropriate. If a client or server does
    2081          not detect the other side's close promptly it could cause unnecessary resource drain on the network.
    2082       </p>
    2083       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.4.p.3">A client, server, or proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> close the transport connection at any time. For example, a client might have started to send a new request at the same time
    2084          that the server has decided to close the "idle" connection. From the server's point of view, the connection is being closed
    2085          while it was idle, but from the client's point of view, a request is in progress.
    2086       </p>
    2087       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.4.p.4">This means that clients, servers, and proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recover from asynchronous close events. Client software <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> reopen the transport connection and retransmit the aborted sequence of requests without user interaction so long as the request
    2088          sequence is idempotent (see <a href="#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section&nbsp;9.1.2</a>). Non-idempotent methods or sequences <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be automatically retried, although user agents <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> offer a human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by user-agent software with semantic understanding
    2089          of the application <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> substitute for user confirmation. The automatic retry <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be repeated if the second sequence of requests fails.
    2090       </p>
    2091       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.4.p.5">Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> always respond to at least one request per connection, if at all possible. Servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> close a connection in the middle of transmitting a response, unless a network or client failure is suspected.
    2092       </p>
    2093       <p id="rfc.section.8.1.4.p.6">Clients that use persistent connections <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> limit the number of simultaneous connections that they maintain to a given server. A single-user client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> maintain more than 2 connections with any server or proxy. A proxy <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use up to 2*N connections to another server or proxy, where N is the number of simultaneously active users. These guidelines
    2094          are intended to improve HTTP response times and avoid congestion.
    2095       </p>
    2096       <h2 id="rfc.section.8.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="message.transmission.requirements" href="#message.transmission.requirements">Message Transmission Requirements</a></h2>
    2097       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.1">8.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.flow" href="#persistent.flow">Persistent Connections and Flow Control</a></h3>
    2098       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.1.p.1">HTTP/1.1 servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> maintain persistent connections and use TCP's flow control mechanisms to resolve temporary overloads, rather than terminating
    2099          connections with the expectation that clients will retry. The latter technique can exacerbate network congestion.
    2100       </p>
    2101       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.2">8.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.monitor" href="#persistent.monitor">Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages</a></h3>
    2102       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.2.p.1">An HTTP/1.1 (or later) client sending a message-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> monitor the network connection for an error status while it is transmitting the request. If the client sees an error status,
    2103          it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> immediately cease transmitting the body. If the body is being sent using a "chunked" encoding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>), a zero length chunk and empty trailer <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to prematurely mark the end of the message. If the body was preceded by a Content-Length header, the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> close the connection.
    2104       </p>
    2105       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.3">8.2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="use.of.the.100.status" href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></h3>
    2106       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.3.p.1">The purpose of the 100 (Continue) status (see <a href="#status.100" id="rfc.xref.status.100.2" title="100 Continue">Section&nbsp;10.1.1</a>) is to allow a client that is sending a request message with a request body to determine if the origin server is willing
    2107          to accept the request (based on the request headers) before the client sends the request body. In some cases, it might either
    2108          be inappropriate or highly inefficient for the client to send the body if the server will reject the message without looking
    2109          at the body.
    2110       </p>
    2111       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.3.p.2">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 clients: </p>
    2112       <ul>
    2113          <li>If a client will wait for a 100 (Continue) response before sending the request body, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send an Expect request-header field (<a href="#header.expect" id="rfc.xref.header.expect.2" title="Expect">Section&nbsp;14.20</a>) with the "100-continue" expectation.
    2114          </li>
    2115          <li>A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send an Expect request-header field (<a href="#header.expect" id="rfc.xref.header.expect.3" title="Expect">Section&nbsp;14.20</a>) with the "100-continue" expectation if it does not intend to send a request body.
    2116          </li>
    2117       </ul>
    2118       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.3.p.3">Because of the presence of older implementations, the protocol allows ambiguous situations in which a client may send "Expect:
    2119          100-continue" without receiving either a 417 (Expectation Failed) status or a 100 (Continue) status. Therefore, when a client
    2120          sends this header field to an origin server (possibly via a proxy) from which it has never seen a 100 (Continue) status, the
    2121          client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> wait for an indefinite period before sending the request body.
    2122       </p>
    2123       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.3.p.4">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 origin servers: </p>
    2124       <ul>
    2125          <li>Upon receiving a request which includes an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation, an origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> either respond with 100 (Continue) status and continue to read from the input stream, or respond with a final status code.
    2126             The origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> wait for the request body before sending the 100 (Continue) response. If it responds with a final status code, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> close the transport connection or it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> continue to read and discard the rest of the request. It <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> perform the requested method if it returns a final status code.
    2127          </li>
    2128          <li>An origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> send a 100 (Continue) response if the request message does not include an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue"
    2129             expectation, and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a 100 (Continue) response if such a request comes from an HTTP/1.0 (or earlier) client. There is an exception to this
    2130             rule: for compatibility with RFC 2068, a server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a 100 (Continue) status in response to an HTTP/1.1 PUT or POST request that does not include an Expect request-header
    2131             field with the "100-continue" expectation. This exception, the purpose of which is to minimize any client processing delays
    2132             associated with an undeclared wait for 100 (Continue) status, applies only to HTTP/1.1 requests, and not to requests with
    2133             any other HTTP-version value.
    2134          </li>
    2135          <li>An origin server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> omit a 100 (Continue) response if it has already received some or all of the request body for the corresponding request.
    2136          </li>
    2137          <li>An origin server that sends a 100 (Continue) response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ultimately send a final status code, once the request body is received and processed, unless it terminates the transport connection
    2138             prematurely.
    2139          </li>
    2140          <li>If an origin server receives a request that does not include an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation,
    2141             the request includes a request body, and the server responds with a final status code before reading the entire request body
    2142             from the transport connection, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> close the transport connection until it has read the entire request, or until the client closes the connection. Otherwise,
    2143             the client might not reliably receive the response message. However, this requirement is not be construed as preventing a
    2144             server from defending itself against denial-of-service attacks, or from badly broken client implementations.
    2145          </li>
    2146       </ul>
    2147       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.3.p.5">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 proxies: </p>
    2148       <ul>
    2149          <li>If a proxy receives a request that includes an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation, and the proxy
    2150             either knows that the next-hop server complies with HTTP/1.1 or higher, or does not know the HTTP version of the next-hop
    2151             server, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward the request, including the Expect header field.
    2152          </li>
    2153          <li>If the proxy knows that the version of the next-hop server is HTTP/1.0 or lower, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> forward the request, and it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respond with a 417 (Expectation Failed) status.
    2154          </li>
    2155          <li>Proxies <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> maintain a cache recording the HTTP version numbers received from recently-referenced next-hop servers.
    2156          </li>
    2157          <li>A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> forward a 100 (Continue) response if the request message was received from an HTTP/1.0 (or earlier) client and did not include
    2158             an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation. This requirement overrides the general rule for forwarding
    2159             of 1xx responses (see <a href="#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section&nbsp;10.1</a>).
    2160          </li>
    2161       </ul>
    2162       <h3 id="rfc.section.8.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2.4">8.2.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="connection.premature" href="#connection.premature">Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection</a></h3>
    2163       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.4.p.1">If an HTTP/1.1 client sends a request which includes a request body, but which does not include an Expect request-header field
    2164          with the "100-continue" expectation, and if the client is not directly connected to an HTTP/1.1 origin server, and if the
    2165          client sees the connection close before receiving any status from the server, the client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> retry the request. If the client does retry this request, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use the following "binary exponential backoff" algorithm to be assured of obtaining a reliable response:
    2166       </p>
    2167       <ol>
    2168          <li>Initiate a new connection to the server</li>
    2169          <li>Transmit the request-headers</li>
    2170          <li>Initialize a variable R to the estimated round-trip time to the server (e.g., based on the time it took to establish the connection),
    2171             or to a constant value of 5 seconds if the round-trip time is not available.
    2172          </li>
    2173          <li>Compute T = R * (2**N), where N is the number of previous retries of this request.</li>
    2174          <li>Wait either for an error response from the server, or for T seconds (whichever comes first)</li>
    2175          <li>If no error response is received, after T seconds transmit the body of the request.</li>
    2176          <li>If client sees that the connection is closed prematurely, repeat from step 1 until the request is accepted, an error response
    2177             is received, or the user becomes impatient and terminates the retry process.
    2178          </li>
    2179       </ol>
    2180       <p id="rfc.section.8.2.4.p.2">If at any point an error status is received, the client </p>
    2181       <ul>
    2182          <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> continue and
    2183          </li>
    2184          <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> close the connection if it has not completed sending the request message.
    2185          </li>
    2186       </ul>
    2187       <h1 id="rfc.section.9"><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;<a id="method.definitions" href="#method.definitions">Method Definitions</a></h1>
    2188       <p id="rfc.section.9.p.1">The set of common methods for HTTP/1.1 is defined below. Although this set can be expanded, additional methods cannot be assumed
    2189          to share the same semantics for separately extended clients and servers. The Host request-header field (<a href="#header.host" id="rfc.xref.header.host.2" title="Host">Section&nbsp;14.23</a>) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accompany all HTTP/1.1 requests.
    2190       </p>
    2191       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="safe.and.idempotent" href="#safe.and.idempotent">Safe and Idempotent Methods</a></h2>
    2192       <h3 id="rfc.section.9.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1.1">9.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="safe.methods" href="#safe.methods">Safe Methods</a></h3>
    2193       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.1.p.1">Implementors should be aware that the software represents the user in their interactions over the Internet, and should be
    2194          careful to allow the user to be aware of any actions they might take which may have an unexpected significance to themselves
    2195          or others.
    2196       </p>
    2197       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.1.p.2">In particular, the convention has been established that the GET and HEAD methods <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> have the significance of taking an action other than retrieval. These methods ought to be considered "safe". This allows user
    2198          agents to represent other methods, such as POST, PUT and DELETE, in a special way, so that the user is made aware of the fact
    2199          that a possibly unsafe action is being requested.
    2200       </p>
    2201       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.1.p.3">Naturally, it is not possible to ensure that the server does not generate side-effects as a result of performing a GET request;
    2202          in fact, some dynamic resources consider that a feature. The important distinction here is that the user did not request the
    2203          side-effects, so therefore cannot be held accountable for them.
    2204       </p>
    2205       <h3 id="rfc.section.9.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1.2">9.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="idempotent.methods" href="#idempotent.methods">Idempotent Methods</a></h3>
    2206       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.2.p.1">Methods can also have the property of "idempotence" in that (aside from error or expiration issues) the side-effects of N
    2207          &gt; 0 identical requests is the same as for a single request. The methods GET, HEAD, PUT and DELETE share this property. Also,
    2208          the methods OPTIONS and TRACE <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> have side effects, and so are inherently idempotent.
    2209       </p>
    2210       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.2.p.2">However, it is possible that a sequence of several requests is non-idempotent, even if all of the methods executed in that
    2211          sequence are idempotent. (A sequence is idempotent if a single execution of the entire sequence always yields a result that
    2212          is not changed by a reexecution of all, or part, of that sequence.) For example, a sequence is non-idempotent if its result
    2213          depends on a value that is later modified in the same sequence.
    2214       </p>
    2215       <p id="rfc.section.9.1.2.p.3">A sequence that never has side effects is idempotent, by definition (provided that no concurrent operations are being executed
    2216          on the same set of resources).
    2217       </p>
    2218       <div id="rfc.iref.o.3"></div>
    2219       <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
    2220       <h2 id="rfc.section.9.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="OPTIONS" href="#OPTIONS">OPTIONS</a></h2>
    2221       <p id="rfc.section.9.2.p.1">The OPTIONS metho