Ignore:
Timestamp:
Dec 15, 2012, 7:46:23 PM (7 years ago)
Author:
fielding@…
Message:

editorial fixes in methods; use send instead of return, sent instead of returned; partly addresses #419

File:
1 edited

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  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p1-messaging.html

    r2049 r2052  
    449449  }
    450450  @bottom-center {
    451        content: "Expires June 14, 2013";
     451       content: "Expires June 18, 2013";
    452452  }
    453453  @bottom-right {
     
    491491      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
    492492      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">
    493       <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-12-11">
     493      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-12-15">
    494494      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2145">
    495495      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
     
    520520            <tr>
    521521               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
    522                <td class="right">December 11, 2012</td>
     522               <td class="right">December 15, 2012</td>
    523523            </tr>
    524524            <tr>
    525                <td class="left">Expires: June 14, 2013</td>
     525               <td class="left">Expires: June 18, 2013</td>
    526526               <td class="right"></td>
    527527            </tr>
     
    551551         in progress”.
    552552      </p>
    553       <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on June 14, 2013.</p>
     553      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on June 18, 2013.</p>
    554554      <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
    555555      <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
     
    884884         or an intranet-to-Internet privacy filter. Such transformations are presumed to be desired by the client (or client organization)
    885885         that selected the proxy and are beyond the scope of this specification. However, when a proxy is not intended to transform
    886          a given message, we use the term "<dfn>non-transforming proxy</dfn>" to target requirements that preserve HTTP message semantics. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.203" title="203 Non-Authoritative Information">Section 7.3.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> and <a href="p6-cache.html#header.warning" title="Warning">Section 7.5</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a> for status and warning codes related to transformations.
     886         a given message, we use the term "<dfn>non-transforming proxy</dfn>" to target requirements that preserve HTTP message semantics. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.203" title="203 Non-Authoritative Information">Section 6.3.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> and <a href="p6-cache.html#header.warning" title="Warning">Section 7.5</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a> for status and warning codes related to transformations.
    887887      </p>
    888888      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.7"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.r.4"></span>  <span id="rfc.iref.a.1"></span> A "<dfn>gateway</dfn>" (a.k.a., "<dfn>reverse proxy</dfn>") is a receiving agent that acts as a layer above some other server(s) and translates the received requests to the underlying
     
    10541054      </p>
    10551055      <p id="rfc.section.2.7.1.p.6">When an "http" URI is used within a context that calls for access to the indicated resource, a client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt access by resolving the host to an IP address, establishing a TCP connection to that address on the indicated port,
    1056          and sending an HTTP request message (<a href="#http.message" title="Message Format">Section&nbsp;3</a>) containing the URI's identifying data (<a href="#message.routing" title="Message Routing">Section&nbsp;5</a>) to the server. If the server responds to that request with a non-interim HTTP response message, as described in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Response Status Codes">Section 7</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, then that response is considered an authoritative answer to the client's request.
     1056         and sending an HTTP request message (<a href="#http.message" title="Message Format">Section&nbsp;3</a>) containing the URI's identifying data (<a href="#message.routing" title="Message Routing">Section&nbsp;5</a>) to the server. If the server responds to that request with a non-interim HTTP response message, as described in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Response Status Codes">Section 6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, then that response is considered an authoritative answer to the client's request.
    10571057      </p>
    10581058      <p id="rfc.section.2.7.1.p.7">Although HTTP is independent of the transport protocol, the "http" scheme is specific to TCP-based services because the name
     
    11541154      </div>
    11551155      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span>  <a href="#method" class="smpl">method</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    1156 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.5">The methods defined by this specification can be found in <a href="p2-semantics.html#methods" title="Request Methods">Section 5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, along with information regarding the HTTP method registry and considerations for defining new methods.
     1156</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.5">The methods defined by this specification can be found in <a href="p2-semantics.html#methods" title="Request Methods">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, along with information regarding the HTTP method registry and considerations for defining new methods.
    11571157      </p>
    11581158      <div id="rfc.iref.r.6"></div>
     
    11671167      </p>
    11681168      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.9">HTTP does not place a pre-defined limit on the length of a request-line. A server that receives a method longer than any that
    1169          it implements <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with either a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.405" class="smpl">405 (Method Not Allowed)</a>, if it is an origin server, or a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.501" class="smpl">501 (Not Implemented)</a> status code. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and respond with the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" class="smpl">414 (URI Too Long)</a> status code if the received request-target would be longer than the server wishes to handle (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 7.5.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     1169         it implements <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with either a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.405" class="smpl">405 (Method Not Allowed)</a>, if it is an origin server, or a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.501" class="smpl">501 (Not Implemented)</a> status code. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and respond with the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" class="smpl">414 (URI Too Long)</a> status code if the received request-target would be longer than the server wishes to handle (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 6.5.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    11701170      </p>
    11711171      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.10">Various ad-hoc limitations on request-line length are found in practice. It is <em class="bcp14">RECOMMENDED</em> that all HTTP senders and recipients support, at a minimum, request-line lengths of 8000 octets.
     
    11781178</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.2.p.3">The status-code element is a 3-digit integer code describing the result of the server's attempt to understand and satisfy
    11791179         the client's corresponding request. The rest of the response message is to be interpreted in light of the semantics defined
    1180          for that status code. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Response Status Codes">Section 7</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> for information about the semantics of status codes, including the classes of status code (indicated by the first digit),
     1180         for that status code. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Response Status Codes">Section 6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> for information about the semantics of status codes, including the classes of status code (indicated by the first digit),
    11811181         the status codes defined by this specification, considerations for the definition of new status codes, and the IANA registry.
    11821182      </p>
     
    11991199                 ; see <a href="#field.parsing" title="Field Parsing">Section&nbsp;3.2.4</a>
    12001200</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">The field-name token labels the corresponding field-value as having the semantics defined by that header field. For example,
    1201          the <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a> header field is defined in <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 8.1.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.9"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> as containing the origination timestamp for the message in which it appears.
     1201         the <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a> header field is defined in <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 7.1.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.9"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> as containing the origination timestamp for the message in which it appears.
    12021202      </p>
    12031203      <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="field.extensibility" href="#field.extensibility">Field Extensibility</a></h3>
     
    12071207         the protocol version if their defined semantics allow them to be safely ignored by recipients that do not recognize them.
    12081208      </p>
    1209       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.2">New HTTP header fields ought to be be registered with IANA in the Message Header Field Registry, as described in <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.field.registry" title="Header Field Registry">Section 9.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.10"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward unrecognized header fields unless the field-name is listed in the <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a> header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>) or the proxy is specifically configured to block, or otherwise transform, such fields. Other recipients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ignore unrecognized header fields.
     1209      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.2">New HTTP header fields ought to be be registered with IANA in the Message Header Field Registry, as described in <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.field.registry" title="Header Field Registry">Section 8.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.10"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward unrecognized header fields unless the field-name is listed in the <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a> header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>) or the proxy is specifically configured to block, or otherwise transform, such fields. Other recipients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ignore unrecognized header fields.
    12101210      </p>
    12111211      <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="field.order" href="#field.order">Field Order</a></h3>
     
    13401340      </p>
    13411341      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.5">The presence of a message body in a response depends on both the request method to which it is responding and the response
    1342          status code (<a href="#status.line" title="Status Line">Section&nbsp;3.1.2</a>). Responses to the HEAD request method never include a message body because the associated response header fields (e.g., <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>, <a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a>, etc.), if present, indicate only what their values would have been if the request method had been GET (<a href="p2-semantics.html#HEAD" title="HEAD">Section 5.3.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.11"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.2xx" class="smpl">2xx (Successful)</a> responses to CONNECT switch to tunnel mode instead of having a message body (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 5.3.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.12"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). All <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx (Informational)</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.204" class="smpl">204 (No Content)</a>, and <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message body. All other responses do include a message body, although the body <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be of zero length.
     1342         status code (<a href="#status.line" title="Status Line">Section&nbsp;3.1.2</a>). Responses to the HEAD request method never include a message body because the associated response header fields (e.g., <a href="#header.transfer-encoding" class="smpl">Transfer-Encoding</a>, <a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a>, etc.), if present, indicate only what their values would have been if the request method had been GET (<a href="p2-semantics.html#HEAD" title="HEAD">Section 4.3.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.11"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.2xx" class="smpl">2xx (Successful)</a> responses to CONNECT switch to tunnel mode instead of having a message body (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 4.3.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.12"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). All <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx (Informational)</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.204" class="smpl">204 (No Content)</a>, and <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> responses <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a message body. All other responses do include a message body, although the body <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be of zero length.
    13431343      </p>
    13441344      <div id="rfc.iref.t.4"></div>
     
    13821382         payload body. For messages that do include a payload body, the Content-Length field-value provides the framing information
    13831383         necessary for determining where the body (and message) ends. For messages that do not include a payload body, the Content-Length
    1384          indicates the size of the selected representation (<a href="p2-semantics.html#selected.representation" title="Selected Representation Header Fields">Section 8.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.14"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     1384         indicates the size of the selected representation (<a href="p2-semantics.html#selected.representation" title="Selected Representation Header Fields">Section 7.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.14"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    13851385      </p>
    13861386      <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.54"></span>  <a href="#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> = 1*<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
     
    13931393         anticipate such a body.
    13941394      </p>
    1395       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.7">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a Content-Length header field in a response to a HEAD request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#HEAD" title="HEAD">Section 5.3.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.15"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>); a server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send Content-Length in such a response unless its field-value equals the decimal number of octets that would have been sent
     1395      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.7">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a Content-Length header field in a response to a HEAD request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#HEAD" title="HEAD">Section 4.3.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.15"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>); a server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send Content-Length in such a response unless its field-value equals the decimal number of octets that would have been sent
    13961396         in the payload body of a response if the same request had used the GET method.
    13971397      </p>
     
    13991399         in the payload body of a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request.
    14001400      </p>
    1401       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.9">A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a Content-Length header field in any response with a status code of <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx (Informational)</a> or <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.204" class="smpl">204 (No Content)</a>. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> send a Content-Length header field in any <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.2xx" class="smpl">2xx (Successful)</a> response to a CONNECT request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 5.3.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.16"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     1401      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.9">A server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a Content-Length header field in any response with a status code of <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx (Informational)</a> or <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.204" class="smpl">204 (No Content)</a>. A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> send a Content-Length header field in any <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.2xx" class="smpl">2xx (Successful)</a> response to a CONNECT request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 4.3.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.16"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    14021402      </p>
    14031403      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.2.p.10">Aside from the cases defined above, in the absence of Transfer-Encoding, an origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Content-Length header field when the payload body size is known prior to sending the complete header block. This will
     
    16601660      </p>
    16611661      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.7">When multiple transfer codings are acceptable, the client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> rank the codings by preference using a case-insensitive "q" parameter (similar to the qvalues used in content negotiation
    1662          fields, <a href="p2-semantics.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 6.3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.17"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). The rank value is a real number in the range 0 through 1, where 0.001 is the least preferred and 1 is the most preferred;
     1662         fields, <a href="p2-semantics.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 5.3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.17"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). The rank value is a real number in the range 0 through 1, where 0.001 is the least preferred and 1 is the most preferred;
    16631663         a value of 0 means "not acceptable".
    16641664      </p>
     
    17401740      </p>
    17411741      <div id="authority-form">
    1742          <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.13"><span id="rfc.iref.a.3"></span> The authority-form of request-target is only used for CONNECT requests (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 5.3.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.19"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). When making a CONNECT request to establish a tunnel through one or more proxies, a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send only the target URI's authority component (excluding any userinfo) as the request-target. For example,
     1742         <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.13"><span id="rfc.iref.a.3"></span> The authority-form of request-target is only used for CONNECT requests (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 4.3.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.19"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). When making a CONNECT request to establish a tunnel through one or more proxies, a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send only the target URI's authority component (excluding any userinfo) as the request-target. For example,
    17431743         </p>
    17441744      </div>
    17451745      <div id="rfc.figure.u.41"></div><pre class="text2">CONNECT www.example.com:80 HTTP/1.1
    17461746</pre><div id="asterisk-form">
    1747          <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.15"><span id="rfc.iref.a.4"></span> The asterisk-form of request-target is only used for a server-wide OPTIONS request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#OPTIONS" title="OPTIONS">Section 5.3.7</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.20"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). When a client wishes to request OPTIONS for the server as a whole, as opposed to a specific named resource of that server,
     1747         <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.15"><span id="rfc.iref.a.4"></span> The asterisk-form of request-target is only used for a server-wide OPTIONS request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#OPTIONS" title="OPTIONS">Section 4.3.7</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.20"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). When a client wishes to request OPTIONS for the server as a whole, as opposed to a specific named resource of that server,
    17481748            the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send only "*" (%x2A) as the request-target. For example,
    17491749         </p>
     
    18271827      <p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.1">HTTP does not include a request identifier for associating a given request message with its corresponding one or more response
    18281828         messages. Hence, it relies on the order of response arrival to correspond exactly to the order in which requests are made
    1829          on the same connection. More than one response message per request only occurs when one or more informational responses (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a>, see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section 7.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.21"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) precede a final response to the same request.
     1829         on the same connection. More than one response message per request only occurs when one or more informational responses (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a>, see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section 6.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.21"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) precede a final response to the same request.
    18301830      </p>
    18311831      <p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.2">A client that has more than one outstanding request on a connection <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> maintain a list of outstanding requests in the order sent and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> associate each received response message on that connection to the highest ordered request that has not yet received a final
     
    19971997      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.1.p.2">Clients which assume persistent connections and pipeline immediately after connection establishment <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be prepared to retry their connection if the first pipelined attempt fails. If a client does such a retry, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> pipeline before it knows the connection is persistent. Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> also be prepared to resend their requests if the server closes the connection before sending all of the corresponding responses.
    19981998      </p>
    1999       <p id="rfc.section.6.3.1.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent request methods or non-idempotent sequences of request methods (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 5.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.23"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
     1999      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.1.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent request methods or non-idempotent sequences of request methods (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 4.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.23"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
    20002000         send a non-idempotent request <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> wait to send that request until it has received the response status line for the previous request.
    20012001      </p>
     
    20032003      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.2.p.1">Connections can be closed at any time, with or without intention. Implementations ought to anticipate the need to recover
    20042004         from asynchronous close events. A client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> open a new connection and retransmit an aborted sequence of requests without user interaction so long as the request sequence
    2005          is idempotent (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 5.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.24"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> automatically retry non-idempotent request sequences, although user agents <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> offer a human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by user agent software with semantic understanding
     2005         is idempotent (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 4.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.24"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>). A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> automatically retry non-idempotent request sequences, although user agents <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> offer a human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by user agent software with semantic understanding
    20062006         of the application <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> substitute for user confirmation. An automatic retry <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be repeated if a second sequence of requests fails.
    20072007      </p>
     
    20962096      </p>
    20972097      <p id="rfc.section.6.7.p.9">The Upgrade header field only applies to switching application-level protocols on the existing connection; it cannot be used
    2098          to switch to a protocol on a different connection. For that purpose, it is more appropriate to use a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" class="smpl">3xx (Redirection)</a> response (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" title="Redirection 3xx">Section 7.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.25"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     2098         to switch to a protocol on a different connection. For that purpose, it is more appropriate to use a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" class="smpl">3xx (Redirection)</a> response (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" title="Redirection 3xx">Section 6.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.25"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    20992099      </p>
    21002100      <p id="rfc.section.6.7.p.10">This specification only defines the protocol name "HTTP" for use by the family of Hypertext Transfer Protocols, as defined
     
    24792479      </p>
    24802480      <h2 id="rfc.section.8.3"><a href="#rfc.section.8.3">8.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="attack.pathname" href="#attack.pathname">Attacks Based On File and Path Names</a></h2>
    2481       <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.1">Origin servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be careful to restrict the documents returned by HTTP requests to be only those that were intended by the server administrators.
     2481      <p id="rfc.section.8.3.p.1">Origin servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be careful to restrict the documents sent by HTTP requests to be only those that were intended by the server administrators.
    24822482         If an HTTP server translates HTTP URIs directly into file system calls, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> take special care not to serve files that were not intended to be delivered to HTTP clients. For example, UNIX, Microsoft
    24832483         Windows, and other operating systems use ".." as a path component to indicate a directory level above the current one. On
     
    25122512         that most implementations will choose substantially higher limits.
    25132513      </p>
    2514       <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">This specification also provides a way for servers to reject messages that have request-targets that are too long (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 7.5.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.27"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) or request entities that are too large (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.4xx" title="Client Error 4xx">Section 7.5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.28"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     2514      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">This specification also provides a way for servers to reject messages that have request-targets that are too long (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 6.5.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.27"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) or request entities that are too large (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.4xx" title="Client Error 4xx">Section 6.5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.28"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    25152515      </p>
    25162516      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.4">Recipients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> carefully limit the extent to which they read other fields, including (but not limited to) request methods, response status
     
    32773277                        <li><em>Section 3.1.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.13">3.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.26">7.4</a></li>
    32783278                        <li><em>Section 3.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.22">5.7.2</a></li>
    3279                         <li><em>Section 5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.6">3.1.1</a></li>
    3280                         <li><em>Section 5.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.23">6.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.24">6.3.2</a></li>
    3281                         <li><em>Section 5.3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.11">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.15">3.3.2</a></li>
    3282                         <li><em>Section 5.3.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.12">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.16">3.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.19">5.3</a></li>
    3283                         <li><em>Section 5.3.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.20">5.3</a></li>
    3284                         <li><em>Section 6.3.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.17">4.3</a></li>
    3285                         <li><em>Section 7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">2.7.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.8">3.1.2</a></li>
    3286                         <li><em>Section 7.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.21">5.6</a></li>
    3287                         <li><em>Section 7.3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">2.3</a></li>
    3288                         <li><em>Section 7.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.25">6.7</a></li>
    3289                         <li><em>Section 7.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.28">8.6</a></li>
    3290                         <li><em>Section 7.5.12</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.7">3.1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.27">8.6</a></li>
    3291                         <li><em>Section 8.1.1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.9">3.2</a></li>
    3292                         <li><em>Section 8.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.14">3.3.2</a></li>
    3293                         <li><em>Section 9.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.10">3.2.1</a></li>
     3279                        <li><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.6">3.1.1</a></li>
     3280                        <li><em>Section 4.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.23">6.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.24">6.3.2</a></li>
     3281                        <li><em>Section 4.3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.11">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.15">3.3.2</a></li>
     3282                        <li><em>Section 4.3.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.12">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.16">3.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.19">5.3</a></li>
     3283                        <li><em>Section 4.3.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.20">5.3</a></li>
     3284                        <li><em>Section 5.3.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.17">4.3</a></li>
     3285                        <li><em>Section 6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">2.7.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.8">3.1.2</a></li>
     3286                        <li><em>Section 6.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.21">5.6</a></li>
     3287                        <li><em>Section 6.3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">2.3</a></li>
     3288                        <li><em>Section 6.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.25">6.7</a></li>
     3289                        <li><em>Section 6.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.28">8.6</a></li>
     3290                        <li><em>Section 6.5.12</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.7">3.1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.27">8.6</a></li>
     3291                        <li><em>Section 7.1.1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.9">3.2</a></li>
     3292                        <li><em>Section 7.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.14">3.3.2</a></li>
     3293                        <li><em>Section 8.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.10">3.2.1</a></li>
    32943294                        <li><em>Appendix A</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">2.1</a></li>
    32953295                     </ul>
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