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Sep 4, 2012, 1:16:43 PM (7 years ago)
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fielding@…
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(editorial) Fix the document titles

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  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p6-cache.html

    r1862 r1864  
    44   <head profile="http://www.w3.org/2006/03/hcard http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/08/04/dc-html/">
    55      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
    6       <title>HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title><script>
     6      <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title><script>
    77var buttonsAdded = false;
    88
     
    446446  }
    447447  @top-center {
    448        content: "HTTP/1.1, Part 6";
     448       content: "HTTP/1.1 Caching";
    449449  }
    450450  @bottom-left {
     
    546546         </tbody>
    547547      </table>
    548       <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest</span></p>
     548      <p class="title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest</span></p>
    549549      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
    550550      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
     
    770770      </p>
    771771      <ul class="empty">
    772          <li>A protocol element (e.g., an entity-tag or a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> time) that is used to find out whether a stored response is an equivalent copy of a representation. See <a href="p4-conditional.html#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
     772         <li>A protocol element (e.g., an entity-tag or a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> time) that is used to find out whether a stored response is an equivalent copy of a representation. See <a href="p4-conditional.html#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
    773773         </li>
    774774      </ul>
     
    777777      <ul class="empty">
    778778         <li>A validator that is defined by the origin server such that its current value will change if the representation body changes;
    779             i.e., an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> value that is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
     779            i.e., an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> value that is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
    780780         </li>
    781781      </ul>
     
    786786      <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.2">This specification targets conformance criteria according to the role of a participant in HTTP communication. Hence, HTTP
    787787         requirements are placed on senders, recipients, clients, servers, user agents, intermediaries, origin servers, proxies, gateways,
    788          or caches, depending on what behavior is being constrained by the requirement. See <a href="p1-messaging.html#architecture" title="Architecture">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a> for definitions of these terms.
     788         or caches, depending on what behavior is being constrained by the requirement. See <a href="p1-messaging.html#architecture" title="Architecture">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a> for definitions of these terms.
    789789      </p>
    790790      <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.3">The verb "generate" is used instead of "send" where a requirement differentiates between creating a protocol element and merely
     
    804804      </p>
    805805      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4">1.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation" href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
    806       <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;B</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
     806      <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;B</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
    807807      </p>
    808808      <h3 id="rfc.section.1.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4.1">1.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="delta-seconds" href="#delta-seconds">Delta Seconds</a></h3>
     
    815815      <div id="rfc.iref.c.5"></div>
    816816      <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="caching.overview" href="#caching.overview">Overview of Cache Operation</a></h1>
    817       <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">Proper cache operation preserves the semantics of HTTP transfers (<a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) while eliminating the transfer of information already held in the cache. Although caching is an entirely <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, we assume that reusing the cached response is desirable and that such reuse is the default behavior when
     817      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">Proper cache operation preserves the semantics of HTTP transfers (<a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) while eliminating the transfer of information already held in the cache. Although caching is an entirely <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, we assume that reusing the cached response is desirable and that such reuse is the default behavior when
    818818         no requirement or locally-desired configuration prevents it. Therefore, HTTP cache requirements are focused on preventing
    819819         a cache from either storing a non-reusable response or reusing a stored response inappropriately.
     
    842842         <li>the "private" cache response directive (see <a href="#cache-response-directive.private" title="private">Section&nbsp;7.2.2.2</a>) does not appear in the response, if the cache is shared, and
    843843         </li>
    844          <li>the <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field (see <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" title="Authorization">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>) does not appear in the request, if the cache is shared, unless the response explicitly allows it (see <a href="#caching.authenticated.responses" title="Storing Responses to Authenticated Requests">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>), and
     844         <li>the <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field (see <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" title="Authorization">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>) does not appear in the request, if the cache is shared, unless the response explicitly allows it (see <a href="#caching.authenticated.responses" title="Storing Responses to Authenticated Requests">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>), and
    845845         </li>
    846846         <li>the response either:
     
    867867      </p>
    868868      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="incomplete.responses" href="#incomplete.responses">Storing Incomplete Responses</a></h2>
    869       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">A response message is considered complete when all of the octets indicated by the message framing (<a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>) are received prior to the connection being closed. If the request is GET, the response status is <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200
     869      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">A response message is considered complete when all of the octets indicated by the message framing (<a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>) are received prior to the connection being closed. If the request is GET, the response status is <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200
    870870            (OK)</a>, and the entire response header block has been received, a cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store an incomplete response message body if the cache entry is recorded as incomplete. Likewise, a <a href="p5-range.html#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be stored as if it were an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200
    871871            (OK)</a> cache entry. However, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store incomplete or partial content responses if it does not support the <a href="p5-range.html#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> and <a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header fields or if it does not understand the range units used in those fields.
    872872      </p>
    873       <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> complete a stored incomplete response by making a subsequent range request (<a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>) and combining the successful response with the stored entry, as defined in <a href="#combining.responses" title="Combining Partial Content">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use an incomplete response to answer requests unless the response has been made complete or the request is partial and specifies
     873      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> complete a stored incomplete response by making a subsequent range request (<a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>) and combining the successful response with the stored entry, as defined in <a href="#combining.responses" title="Combining Partial Content">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use an incomplete response to answer requests unless the response has been made complete or the request is partial and specifies
    874874         a range that is wholly within the incomplete response. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a partial response to a client without explicitly marking it as such using the <a href="p5-range.html#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> status code.
    875875      </p>
    876876      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="caching.authenticated.responses" href="#caching.authenticated.responses">Storing Responses to Authenticated Requests</a></h2>
    877       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">A shared cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a cached response to a request with an <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field (<a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" title="Authorization">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>) to satisfy any subsequent request unless a cache directive that allows such responses to be stored is present in the response.
     877      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">A shared cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a cached response to a request with an <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field (<a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" title="Authorization">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>) to satisfy any subsequent request unless a cache directive that allows such responses to be stored is present in the response.
    878878      </p>
    879879      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">In this specification, the following <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a> response directives (<a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;7.2.2</a>) have such an effect: must-revalidate, public, s-maxage.
     
    887887      </p>
    888888      <ul>
    889          <li>The presented effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>) and that of the stored response match, and
     889         <li>The presented effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>) and that of the stored response match, and
    890890         </li>
    891891         <li>the request method associated with the stored response allows it to be used for the presented request, and</li>
     
    911911      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.3">When a stored response is used to satisfy a request without validation, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a single <a href="#header.age" class="smpl">Age</a> header field (<a href="#header.age" id="rfc.xref.header.age.1" title="Age">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>) in the response with a value equal to the stored response's current_age; see <a href="#age.calculations" title="Calculating Age">Section&nbsp;4.1.3</a>.
    912912      </p>
    913       <p id="rfc.section.4.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> write through requests with methods that are unsafe (<a href="p2-semantics.html#safe.methods" title="Safe Methods">Section 5.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) to the origin server; i.e., a cache is not allowed to generate a reply to such a request before having forwarded the request
     913      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> write through requests with methods that are unsafe (<a href="p2-semantics.html#safe.methods" title="Safe Methods">Section 5.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) to the origin server; i.e., a cache is not allowed to generate a reply to such a request before having forwarded the request
    914914         and having received a corresponding response.
    915915      </p>
     
    965965      <h3 id="rfc.section.4.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1.2">4.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="heuristic.freshness" href="#heuristic.freshness">Calculating Heuristic Freshness</a></h3>
    966966      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.1">If no explicit expiration time is present in a stored response that has a status code whose definition allows heuristic freshness
    967          to be used (including the following in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Response Status Codes">Section 7</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>: <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.203" class="smpl">203 (Non-Authoritative Information)</a>, <a href="p5-range.html#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial
     967         to be used (including the following in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Response Status Codes">Section 7</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>: <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.203" class="smpl">203 (Non-Authoritative Information)</a>, <a href="p5-range.html#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial
    968968            Content)</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.300" class="smpl">300 (Multiple Choices)</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.301" class="smpl">301 (Moved
    969969            Permanently)</a> and <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.410" class="smpl">410 (Gone)</a>), a cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> calculate a heuristic expiration time. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use heuristics to determine freshness for responses with status codes that do not explicitly allow it.
     
    972972         present.
    973973      </p>
    974       <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.3">Also, if the response has a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> header field (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" title="Last-Modified">Section 2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>), caches are encouraged to use a heuristic expiration value that is no more than some fraction of the interval since that
     974      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.2.p.3">Also, if the response has a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> header field (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" title="Last-Modified">Section 2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>), caches are encouraged to use a heuristic expiration value that is no more than some fraction of the interval since that
    975975         time. A typical setting of this fraction might be 10%.
    976976      </p>
     
    998998      <ul class="empty">
    999999         <li>HTTP/1.1 requires origin servers to send a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a> header field, if possible, with every response, giving the time at which the response was generated. The term "date_value"
    1000             denotes the value of the Date header field, in a form appropriate for arithmetic operations. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 8.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a> for the definition of the Date header field, and for requirements regarding responses without it.
     1000            denotes the value of the Date header field, in a form appropriate for arithmetic operations. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 8.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a> for the definition of the Date header field, and for requirements regarding responses without it.
    10011001         </li>
    10021002      </ul>
     
    10731073      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="validation.model" href="#validation.model">Validation Model</a></h2>
    10741074      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">When a cache has one or more stored responses for a requested URI, but cannot serve any of them (e.g., because they are not
    1075          fresh, or one cannot be selected; see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Using Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>), it can use the conditional request mechanism <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a> in the forwarded request to give the origin server an opportunity to both select a valid stored response to be used, and to
     1075         fresh, or one cannot be selected; see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Using Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>), it can use the conditional request mechanism <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a> in the forwarded request to give the origin server an opportunity to both select a valid stored response to be used, and to
    10761076         update it. This process is known as "validating" or "revalidating" the stored response.
    10771077      </p>
     
    11211121      </ul>
    11221122      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="caching.negotiated.responses" href="#caching.negotiated.responses">Using Negotiated Responses</a></h2>
    1123       <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">When a cache receives a request that can be satisfied by a stored response that has a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a> header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" title="Vary">Section 8.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>), it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use that response unless all of the selecting header fields nominated by the Vary header field match in both the original
     1123      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">When a cache receives a request that can be satisfied by a stored response that has a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a> header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" title="Vary">Section 8.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>), it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use that response unless all of the selecting header fields nominated by the Vary header field match in both the original
    11241124         request (i.e., that associated with the stored response), and the presented request.
    11251125      </p>
     
    11291129      <ul>
    11301130         <li>adding or removing whitespace, where allowed in the header field's syntax</li>
    1131          <li>combining multiple header fields with the same field name (see <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>)
     1131         <li>combining multiple header fields with the same field name (see <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>)
    11321132         </li>
    11331133         <li>normalizing both header field values in a way that is known to have identical semantics, according to the header field's specification
     
    11491149      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="combining.responses" href="#combining.responses">Combining Partial Content</a></h2>
    11501150      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">A response might transfer only a partial representation if the connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or
    1151          more Range specifiers (<a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>). After several such transfers, a cache might have received several ranges of the same representation. A cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine these ranges into a single stored response, and reuse that response to satisfy later requests, if they all share the
    1152          same strong validator and the cache complies with the client requirements in <a href="p5-range.html#combining.byte.ranges" title="Combining Ranges">Section 4.2</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>.
     1151         more Range specifiers (<a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>). After several such transfers, a cache might have received several ranges of the same representation. A cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine these ranges into a single stored response, and reuse that response to satisfy later requests, if they all share the
     1152         same strong validator and the cache complies with the client requirements in <a href="p5-range.html#combining.byte.ranges" title="Combining Ranges">Section 4.2</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>.
    11531153      </p>
    11541154      <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2">When combining the new response with one or more stored responses, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>:
     
    11801180      </ul>
    11811181      <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions" href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions">Request Methods that Invalidate</a></h1>
    1182       <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">Because unsafe request methods (<a href="p2-semantics.html#safe.methods" title="Safe Methods">Section 5.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) such as PUT, POST or DELETE have the potential for changing state on the origin server, intervening caches can use them
     1182      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">Because unsafe request methods (<a href="p2-semantics.html#safe.methods" title="Safe Methods">Section 5.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>) such as PUT, POST or DELETE have the potential for changing state on the origin server, intervening caches can use them
    11831183         to keep their contents up-to-date.
    11841184      </p>
    1185       <p id="rfc.section.6.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> invalidate the effective Request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>) as well as the URI(s) in the <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.location" class="smpl">Location</a> and <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> response header fields (if present) when a non-error response to a request with an unsafe method is received.
    1186       </p>
    1187       <p id="rfc.section.6.p.3">However, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> invalidate a URI from a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.location" class="smpl">Location</a> or <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> response header field if the host part of that URI differs from the host part in the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>). This helps prevent denial of service attacks.
    1188       </p>
    1189       <p id="rfc.section.6.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> invalidate the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>) when it receives a non-error response to a request with a method whose safety is unknown.
     1185      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> invalidate the effective Request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>) as well as the URI(s) in the <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.location" class="smpl">Location</a> and <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> response header fields (if present) when a non-error response to a request with an unsafe method is received.
     1186      </p>
     1187      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.3">However, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> invalidate a URI from a <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.location" class="smpl">Location</a> or <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> response header field if the host part of that URI differs from the host part in the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>). This helps prevent denial of service attacks.
     1188      </p>
     1189      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> invalidate the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>) when it receives a non-error response to a request with a method whose safety is unknown.
    11901190      </p>
    11911191      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.5">Here, a "non-error response" is one with a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.2xx" class="smpl">2xx (Successful)</a> or <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" class="smpl">3xx (Redirection)</a> status code. "Invalidate" means that the cache will either remove all stored responses related to the effective request URI,
     
    14671467         that time.
    14681468      </p>
    1469       <p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.3">The field-value is an absolute date and time as defined by HTTP-date in <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 9.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>; a sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the rfc1123-date format.
     1469      <p id="rfc.section.7.3.p.3">The field-value is an absolute date and time as defined by HTTP-date in <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 9.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>; a sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the rfc1123-date format.
    14701470      </p>
    14711471      <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
     
    18411841      </p>
    18421842      <h1 id="rfc.section.11"><a href="#rfc.section.11">11.</a>&nbsp;<a id="acks" href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
    1843       <p id="rfc.section.11.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 9</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>.
     1843      <p id="rfc.section.11.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 9</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
    18441844      </p>
    18451845      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.12" href="#rfc.section.12">12.</a> References
     
    18501850         <tr>
    18511851            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
    1852             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax"</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
     1852            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
    18531853            </td>
    18541854         </tr>
    18551855         <tr>
    18561856            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
    1857             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
     1857            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
    18581858            </td>
    18591859         </tr>
    18601860         <tr>
    18611861            <td class="reference"><b id="Part4">[Part4]</b></td>
    1862             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
     1862            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
    18631863            </td>
    18641864         </tr>
    18651865         <tr>
    18661866            <td class="reference"><b id="Part5">[Part5]</b></td>
    1867             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
     1867            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
    18681868            </td>
    18691869         </tr>
    18701870         <tr>
    18711871            <td class="reference"><b id="Part7">[Part7]</b></td>
    1872             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
     1872            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-latest (work in progress), September&nbsp;2012.
    18731873            </td>
    18741874         </tr>
     
    19461946         character).
    19471947      </p>
    1948       <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">The rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>:
    1949       </p>
    1950       <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.1</a>&gt;
    1951   <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">field-name</a>    = &lt;field-name, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
    1952   <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
    1953   <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
    1954 
    1955   <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">port</a>          = &lt;port, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.7</a>&gt;
    1956   <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">pseudonym</a>     = &lt;pseudonym, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.via" title="Via">Section 5.7</a>&gt;
    1957   <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">uri-host</a>      = &lt;uri-host, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax&#34;">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.7</a>&gt;
     1948      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">The rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
     1949      </p>
     1950      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.1</a>&gt;
     1951  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">field-name</a>    = &lt;field-name, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
     1952  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
     1953  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
     1954
     1955  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">port</a>          = &lt;port, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.15"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.7</a>&gt;
     1956  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">pseudonym</a>     = &lt;pseudonym, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.16"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.via" title="Via">Section 5.7</a>&gt;
     1957  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">uri-host</a>      = &lt;uri-host, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.17"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.7</a>&gt;
    19581958</pre><p id="rfc.section.B.p.4">The rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
    1959       <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 9.1</a>&gt;
     1959      <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 9.1</a>&gt;
    19601960</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a id="collected.abnf" href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
    19611961      <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div> <pre class="inline"><a href="#header.age" class="smpl">Age</a> = delta-seconds
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