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Jul 16, 2012, 3:13:57 AM (8 years ago)
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  • draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p1-messaging.html

    r1799 r1803  
    44   <head profile="http://www.w3.org/2006/03/hcard http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/08/04/dc-html/">
    55      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
    6       <title>HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title><script>
     6      <title>HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax"</title><script>
    77var buttonsAdded = false;
    88
     
    449449  }
    450450  @bottom-center {
    451        content: "Expires January 16, 2013";
     451       content: "Expires January 17, 2013";
    452452  }
    453453  @bottom-right {
     
    492492      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
    493493      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">
    494       <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-07-15">
     494      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-07-16">
    495495      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2145">
    496496      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
     
    524524            </tr>
    525525            <tr>
    526                <td class="left">Expires: January 16, 2013</td>
     526               <td class="left">Expires: January 17, 2013</td>
    527527               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
    528528            </tr>
    529529            <tr>
    530530               <td class="left"></td>
    531                <td class="right">July 15, 2012</td>
     531               <td class="right">July 16, 2012</td>
    532532            </tr>
    533533         </tbody>
    534534      </table>
    535       <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest</span></p>
     535      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax"<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest</span></p>
    536536      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
    537537      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
     
    556556         in progress”.
    557557      </p>
    558       <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on January 16, 2013.</p>
     558      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2013.</p>
    559559      <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
    560560      <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
     
    745745      </p>
    746746      <ul class="empty">
    747          <li>RFC xxx1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</li>
    748          <li><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1">RFC xxx2</cite>: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation
     747         <li>RFC xxx1: Message Routing and Syntax</li>
     748         <li><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1">RFC xxx2</cite>: Semantics and Payloads
    749749         </li>
    750750         <li><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1">RFC xxx3</cite>: Conditional Requests
    751751         </li>
    752          <li><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1">RFC xxx4</cite>: Range Requests and Partial Responses
     752         <li><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1">RFC xxx4</cite>: Range Requests
    753753         </li>
    754754         <li><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1">RFC xxx5</cite>: Caching
     
    827827         "<dfn>sender</dfn>" to refer to whichever component sent a given message and the term "<dfn>recipient</dfn>" to refer to any component that receives the message.
    828828      </p>
    829       <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">HTTP relies upon the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) standard <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a> to indicate the target resource (<a href="#target-resource" title="Identifying a Target Resource">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>) and relationships between resources. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by Internet mail <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.1"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a> (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#differences.between.http.and.mime" title="Differences between HTTP and MIME">Appendix A</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a> for the differences between HTTP and MIME messages).
     829      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">HTTP relies upon the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) standard <a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a> to indicate the target resource (<a href="#target-resource" title="Identifying a Target Resource">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>) and relationships between resources. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by Internet mail <a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.1"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a> and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a> (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#differences.between.http.and.mime" title="Differences between HTTP and MIME">Appendix A</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a> for the differences between HTTP and MIME messages).
    830830      </p>
    831831      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">Most HTTP communication consists of a retrieval request (GET) for a representation of some resource identified by a URI. In
     
    923923         or an intranet-to-Internet privacy filter. Such transformations are presumed to be desired by the client (or client organization)
    924924         that selected the proxy and are beyond the scope of this specification. However, when a proxy is not intended to transform
    925          a given message, we use the term "<dfn>non-transforming proxy</dfn>" to target requirements that preserve HTTP message semantics. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.203" title="203 Non-Authoritative Information">Section 4.4.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a> and <a href="p6-cache.html#header.warning" title="Warning">Section 7.6</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a> for status and warning codes related to transformations.
     925         a given message, we use the term "<dfn>non-transforming proxy</dfn>" to target requirements that preserve HTTP message semantics. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.203" title="203 Non-Authoritative Information">Section 4.4.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a> and <a href="p6-cache.html#header.warning" title="Warning">Section 7.6</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a> for status and warning codes related to transformations.
    926926      </p>
    927927      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.7"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.r.4"></span>  <span id="rfc.iref.a.1"></span> A "<dfn>gateway</dfn>" (a.k.a., "<dfn>reverse proxy</dfn>") is a receiving agent that acts as a layer above some other server(s) and translates the received requests to the underlying
     
    10931093      </p>
    10941094      <p id="rfc.section.2.8.1.p.6">When an "http" URI is used within a context that calls for access to the indicated resource, a client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> attempt access by resolving the host to an IP address, establishing a TCP connection to that address on the indicated port,
    1095          and sending an HTTP request message (<a href="#http.message" title="Message Format">Section&nbsp;3</a>) containing the URI's identifying data (<a href="#message.routing" title="Message Routing">Section&nbsp;5</a>) to the server. If the server responds to that request with a non-interim HTTP response message, as described in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Status Codes">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>, then that response is considered an authoritative answer to the client's request.
     1095         and sending an HTTP request message (<a href="#http.message" title="Message Format">Section&nbsp;3</a>) containing the URI's identifying data (<a href="#message.routing" title="Message Routing">Section&nbsp;5</a>) to the server. If the server responds to that request with a non-interim HTTP response message, as described in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Status Codes">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>, then that response is considered an authoritative answer to the client's request.
    10961096      </p>
    10971097      <p id="rfc.section.2.8.1.p.7">Although HTTP is independent of the transport protocol, the "http" scheme is specific to TCP-based services because the name
     
    11911191      </div>
    11921192      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span>  <a href="#method" class="smpl">method</a>         = <a href="#rule.token.separators" class="smpl">token</a>
    1193 </pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.6">The methods defined by this specification can be found in <a href="p2-semantics.html#methods" title="Methods">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>, along with information regarding the HTTP method registry and considerations for defining new methods.
     1193</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.6">The methods defined by this specification can be found in <a href="p2-semantics.html#methods" title="Methods">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>, along with information regarding the HTTP method registry and considerations for defining new methods.
    11941194      </p>
    11951195      <div id="rfc.iref.r.6"></div>
     
    12041204      </p>
    12051205      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.10">HTTP does not place a pre-defined limit on the length of a request-line. A server that receives a method longer than any that
    1206          it implements <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with either a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.405" class="smpl">405 (Method Not Allowed)</a>, if it is an origin server, or a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.501" class="smpl">501 (Not Implemented)</a> status code. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and respond with the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" class="smpl">414 (URI Too Long)</a> status code if the received request-target would be longer than the server wishes to handle (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 4.6.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     1206         it implements <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with either a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.405" class="smpl">405 (Method Not Allowed)</a>, if it is an origin server, or a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.501" class="smpl">501 (Not Implemented)</a> status code. A server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and respond with the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" class="smpl">414 (URI Too Long)</a> status code if the received request-target would be longer than the server wishes to handle (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 4.6.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    12071207      </p>
    12081208      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.1.p.11">Various ad-hoc limitations on request-line length are found in practice. It is <em class="bcp14">RECOMMENDED</em> that all HTTP senders and recipients support, at a minimum, request-line lengths of up to 8000 octets.
     
    12171217      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.2.p.4">The status-code element is a 3-digit integer code describing the result of the server's attempt to understand and satisfy
    12181218         the client's corresponding request. The rest of the response message is to be interpreted in light of the semantics defined
    1219          for that status code. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Status Codes">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a> for information about the semantics of status codes, including the classes of status code (indicated by the first digit),
     1219         for that status code. See <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.codes" title="Status Codes">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a> for information about the semantics of status codes, including the classes of status code (indicated by the first digit),
    12201220         the status codes defined by this specification, considerations for the definition of new status codes, and the IANA registry.
    12211221      </p>
     
    12381238                 ; see <a href="#field.parsing" title="Field Parsing">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
    12391239</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">The field-name token labels the corresponding field-value as having the semantics defined by that header field. For example,
    1240          the <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a> header field is defined in <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 9.10</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a> as containing the origination timestamp for the message in which it appears.
     1240         the <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" class="smpl">Date</a> header field is defined in <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 9.10</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a> as containing the origination timestamp for the message in which it appears.
    12411241      </p>
    12421242      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">HTTP header fields are fully extensible: there is no limit on the introduction of new field names, each presumably defining
     
    12461246         them.
    12471247      </p>
    1248       <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.5">New HTTP header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered with IANA according to the procedures in <a href="p2-semantics.html#considerations.for.creating.header.fields" title="Considerations for Creating Header Fields">Section 3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be forwarded by a proxy unless the field-name is listed in the <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a> header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>) or the proxy is specifically configured to block or otherwise transform such fields. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored by other recipients.
     1248      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.5">New HTTP header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be registered with IANA according to the procedures in <a href="p2-semantics.html#considerations.for.creating.header.fields" title="Considerations for Creating Header Fields">Section 3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be forwarded by a proxy unless the field-name is listed in the <a href="#header.connection" class="smpl">Connection</a> header field (<a href="#header.connection" id="rfc.xref.header.connection.3" title="Connection">Section&nbsp;6.1</a>) or the proxy is specifically configured to block or otherwise transform such fields. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored by other recipients.
    12491249      </p>
    12501250      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.6">The order in which header fields with differing field names are received is not significant. However, it is "good practice"
     
    13981398      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.6">If more than one Transfer-Encoding header field is present in a message, the multiple field-values <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be combined into one field-value, according to the algorithm defined in <a href="#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>, before determining the message body length.
    13991399      </p>
    1400       <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.7">Unlike <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 5.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>), Transfer-Encoding is a property of the message, not of the payload, and thus <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be added or removed by any implementation along the request/response chain. Additional information about the encoding parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be provided by other header fields not defined by this specification.
     1400      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.7">Unlike <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 5.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>), Transfer-Encoding is a property of the message, not of the payload, and thus <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be added or removed by any implementation along the request/response chain. Additional information about the encoding parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be provided by other header fields not defined by this specification.
    14011401      </p>
    14021402      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.1.p.8">Transfer-Encoding <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be sent in a response to a HEAD request or in a <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> response (<a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" title="304 Not Modified">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) to a GET request, neither of which includes a message body, to indicate that the origin server would have applied a transfer
     
    16991699      </p>
    17001700      <h3 id="rfc.section.4.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3.1">4.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="quality.values" href="#quality.values">Quality Values</a></h3>
    1701       <p id="rfc.section.4.3.1.p.1">Both transfer codings (<a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE</a> request header field, <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.3" title="TE">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>) and content negotiation (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>) use short "floating point" numbers to indicate the relative importance ("weight") of various negotiable parameters. A weight
     1701      <p id="rfc.section.4.3.1.p.1">Both transfer codings (<a href="#header.te" class="smpl">TE</a> request header field, <a href="#header.te" id="rfc.xref.header.te.3" title="TE">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>) and content negotiation (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) use short "floating point" numbers to indicate the relative importance ("weight") of various negotiable parameters. A weight
    17021702         is normalized to a real number in the range 0 through 1, where 0 is the minimum and 1 the maximum value. If a parameter has
    17031703         a quality value of 0, then content with this parameter is "not acceptable" for the client. HTTP/1.1 applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate more than three digits after the decimal point. User configuration of these values <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> also be limited in this fashion.
     
    17411741      </p>
    17421742      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.2">HTTP communication is initiated by a user agent for some purpose. The purpose is a combination of request semantics, which
    1743          are defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>, and a target resource upon which to apply those semantics. A URI reference (<a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;2.8</a>) is typically used as an identifier for the "target resource", which a user agent would resolve to its absolute form in order
     1743         are defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>, and a target resource upon which to apply those semantics. A URI reference (<a href="#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section&nbsp;2.8</a>) is typically used as an identifier for the "target resource", which a user agent would resolve to its absolute form in order
    17441744         to obtain the "target URI". The target URI excludes the reference's fragment identifier component, if any, since fragment
    17451745         identifiers are reserved for client-side processing (<a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.18"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.5">Section 3.5</a>).
     
    18001800      </p>
    18011801      <div id="authority-form">
    1802          <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.13"><span id="rfc.iref.a.3"></span> The authority-form of request-target is only used for CONNECT requests (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 2.3.8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>). When making a CONNECT request to establish a tunnel through one or more proxies, a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send only the target URI's authority component (excluding any userinfo) as the request-target. For example,
     1802         <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.13"><span id="rfc.iref.a.3"></span> The authority-form of request-target is only used for CONNECT requests (<a href="p2-semantics.html#CONNECT" title="CONNECT">Section 2.3.8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>). When making a CONNECT request to establish a tunnel through one or more proxies, a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send only the target URI's authority component (excluding any userinfo) as the request-target. For example,
    18031803         </p>
    18041804      </div>
    18051805      <div id="rfc.figure.u.42"></div><pre class="text2">CONNECT www.example.com:80 HTTP/1.1
    18061806</pre><div id="asterisk-form">
    1807          <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.15"><span id="rfc.iref.a.4"></span> The asterisk-form of request-target is only used for a server-wide OPTIONS request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#OPTIONS" title="OPTIONS">Section 2.3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>). When a client wishes to request OPTIONS for the server as a whole, as opposed to a specific named resource of that server,
     1807         <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.15"><span id="rfc.iref.a.4"></span> The asterisk-form of request-target is only used for a server-wide OPTIONS request (<a href="p2-semantics.html#OPTIONS" title="OPTIONS">Section 2.3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>). When a client wishes to request OPTIONS for the server as a whole, as opposed to a specific named resource of that server,
    18081808            the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send only "*" (%x2A) as the request-target. For example,
    18091809         </p>
     
    19341934      </p>
    19351935      <ul>
    1936          <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.allow" class="smpl">Allow</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.allow" title="Allow">Section 9.5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>)
    1937          </li>
    1938          <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" title="Content-Location">Section 9.8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>)
     1936         <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.allow" class="smpl">Allow</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.allow" title="Allow">Section 9.5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>)
     1937         </li>
     1938         <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" title="Content-Location">Section 9.8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>)
    19391939         </li>
    19401940         <li>Content-MD5 (<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616#section-14.15">Section 14.15</a> of <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>)
     
    19441944         <li><a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" title="Last-Modified">Section 2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>)
    19451945         </li>
    1946          <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.server" class="smpl">Server</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.server" title="Server">Section 9.17</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>)
     1946         <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.server" class="smpl">Server</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.server" title="Server">Section 9.17</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>)
    19471947         </li>
    19481948      </ul>
     
    19581958      </p>
    19591959      <ul>
    1960          <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-encoding" title="Content-Encoding">Section 9.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.18"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>)
    1961          </li>
    1962          <li><a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> (<a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" title="Content-Range">Section 5.2</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>)
    1963          </li>
    1964          <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" title="Content-Type">Section 9.9</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.19"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>)
     1960         <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-encoding" title="Content-Encoding">Section 9.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.18"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>)
     1961         </li>
     1962         <li><a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> (<a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" title="Content-Range">Section 5.2</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests">[Part5]</cite></a>)
     1963         </li>
     1964         <li><a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" title="Content-Type">Section 9.9</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.19"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>)
    19651965         </li>
    19661966      </ul>
     
    19721972         </p>
    19731973      </div>
    1974       <p id="rfc.section.5.6.2.p.8">A non-transforming proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> preserve the message payload (<a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.20"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>), though it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> change the message body through application or removal of a transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;4</a>).
     1974      <p id="rfc.section.5.6.2.p.8">A non-transforming proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> preserve the message payload (<a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.20"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>), though it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> change the message body through application or removal of a transfer-coding (<a href="#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section&nbsp;4</a>).
    19751975      </p>
    19761976      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.7"><a href="#rfc.section.5.7">5.7</a>&nbsp;<a id="associating.response.to.request" href="#associating.response.to.request">Associating a Response to a Request</a></h2>
    19771977      <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.1">HTTP does not include a request identifier for associating a given request message with its corresponding one or more response
    19781978         messages. Hence, it relies on the order of response arrival to correspond exactly to the order in which requests are made
    1979          on the same connection. More than one response message per request only occurs when one or more informational responses (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a>, see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.21"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>) precede a final response to the same request.
     1979         on the same connection. More than one response message per request only occurs when one or more informational responses (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a>, see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.21"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) precede a final response to the same request.
    19801980      </p>
    19811981      <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.2">A client that uses persistent connections and sends more than one request per connection <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> maintain a list of outstanding requests in the order sent on that connection and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> associate each received response message to the highest ordered request that has not yet received a final (non-<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a>) response.
     
    21222122      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.2.2.p.2">Clients which assume persistent connections and pipeline immediately after connection establishment <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be prepared to retry their connection if the first pipelined attempt fails. If a client does such a retry, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> pipeline before it knows the connection is persistent. Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> also be prepared to resend their requests if the server closes the connection before sending all of the corresponding responses.
    21232123      </p>
    2124       <p id="rfc.section.6.3.2.2.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent request methods or non-idempotent sequences of request methods (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 2.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.22"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
     2124      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.2.2.p.3">Clients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> pipeline requests using non-idempotent request methods or non-idempotent sequences of request methods (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 2.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.22"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>). Otherwise, a premature termination of the transport connection could lead to indeterminate results. A client wishing to
    21252125         send a non-idempotent request <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> wait to send that request until it has received the response status line for the previous request.
    21262126      </p>
     
    21522152      <h3 id="rfc.section.6.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.6.3.4">6.3.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="persistent.retrying.requests" href="#persistent.retrying.requests">Retrying Requests</a></h3>
    21532153      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.4.p.1">Senders can close the transport connection at any time. Therefore, clients, servers, and proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be able to recover from asynchronous close events. Client software <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> reopen the transport connection and retransmit the aborted sequence of requests without user interaction so long as the request
    2154          sequence is idempotent (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 2.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.23"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>). Non-idempotent request methods or sequences <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be automatically retried, although user agents <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> offer a human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by user-agent software with semantic understanding
     2154         sequence is idempotent (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#idempotent.methods" title="Idempotent Methods">Section 2.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.23"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>). Non-idempotent request methods or sequences <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be automatically retried, although user agents <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> offer a human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by user-agent software with semantic understanding
    21552155         of the application <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> substitute for user confirmation. The automatic retry <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be repeated if the second sequence of requests fails.
    21562156      </p>
     
    21652165      </p>
    21662166      <h3 id="rfc.section.6.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.6.4.3">6.4.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="use.of.the.100.status" href="#use.of.the.100.status">Use of the 100 (Continue) Status</a></h3>
    2167       <p id="rfc.section.6.4.3.p.1">The purpose of the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" class="smpl">100 (Continue)</a> status code (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" title="100 Continue">Section 4.3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.24"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>) is to allow a client that is sending a request message with a request body to determine if the origin server is willing
     2167      <p id="rfc.section.6.4.3.p.1">The purpose of the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" class="smpl">100 (Continue)</a> status code (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" title="100 Continue">Section 4.3.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.24"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) is to allow a client that is sending a request message with a request body to determine if the origin server is willing
    21682168         to accept the request (based on the request header fields) before the client sends the request body. In some cases, it might
    21692169         either be inappropriate or highly inefficient for the client to send the body if the server will reject the message without
     
    21722172      <p id="rfc.section.6.4.3.p.2">Requirements for HTTP/1.1 clients: </p>
    21732173      <ul>
    2174          <li>If a client will wait for a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" class="smpl">100 (Continue)</a> response before sending the request body, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send an <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" class="smpl">Expect</a> header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" title="Expect">Section 9.11</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.25"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>) with the "100-continue" expectation.
     2174         <li>If a client will wait for a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" class="smpl">100 (Continue)</a> response before sending the request body, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send an <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" class="smpl">Expect</a> header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" title="Expect">Section 9.11</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.25"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) with the "100-continue" expectation.
    21752175         </li>
    21762176         <li>A client <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send an <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" class="smpl">Expect</a> header field with the "100-continue" expectation if it does not intend to send a request body.
     
    22102210         <li>Proxies <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> maintain a record of the HTTP version numbers received from recently-referenced next-hop servers.
    22112211         </li>
    2212          <li>A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> forward a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" class="smpl">100 (Continue)</a> response if the request message was received from an HTTP/1.0 (or earlier) client and did not include an <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" class="smpl">Expect</a> header field with the "100-continue" expectation. This requirement overrides the general rule for forwarding of <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a> responses (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.26"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     2212         <li>A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> forward a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.100" class="smpl">100 (Continue)</a> response if the request message was received from an HTTP/1.0 (or earlier) client and did not include an <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.expect" class="smpl">Expect</a> header field with the "100-continue" expectation. This requirement overrides the general rule for forwarding of <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" class="smpl">1xx</a> responses (see <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.1xx" title="Informational 1xx">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.26"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    22132213         </li>
    22142214      </ul>
     
    22472247      </p>
    22482248      <p id="rfc.section.6.5.p.8">The Upgrade header field cannot be used to indicate a switch to a protocol on a different connection. For that purpose, it
    2249          is more appropriate to use a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" class="smpl">3xx (Redirection)</a> response (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" title="Redirection 3xx">Section 4.5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.27"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     2249         is more appropriate to use a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" class="smpl">3xx (Redirection)</a> response (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.3xx" title="Redirection 3xx">Section 4.5</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.27"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    22502250      </p>
    22512251      <p id="rfc.section.6.5.p.9">Servers <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the "Upgrade" header field in <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.101" class="smpl">101 (Switching
     
    25112511         <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
    25122512      </ul>
    2513       <p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.3">Names of transfer codings <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> overlap with names of content codings (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 5.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.28"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>) unless the encoding transformation is identical, as it is the case for the compression codings defined in <a href="#compression.codings" title="Compression Codings">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>.
     2513      <p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.3">Names of transfer codings <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> overlap with names of content codings (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section 5.4</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.28"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) unless the encoding transformation is identical, as it is the case for the compression codings defined in <a href="#compression.codings" title="Compression Codings">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>.
    25142514      </p>
    25152515      <p id="rfc.section.7.4.p.4">Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review (see <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>), and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> conform to the purpose of transfer coding defined in this section.
     
    26702670         that most implementations will choose substantially higher limits.
    26712671      </p>
    2672       <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">This specification also provides a way for servers to reject messages that have request-targets that are too long (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 4.6.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.29"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>) or request entities that are too large (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.4xx" title="Client Error 4xx">Section 4.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.30"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation">[Part2]</cite></a>).
     2672      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.3">This specification also provides a way for servers to reject messages that have request-targets that are too long (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.414" title="414 URI Too Long">Section 4.6.12</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.29"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>) or request entities that are too large (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.4xx" title="Client Error 4xx">Section 4.6</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.30"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads">[Part2]</cite></a>).
    26732673      </p>
    26742674      <p id="rfc.section.8.6.p.4">Other fields (including but not limited to request methods, response status phrases, header field-names, and body chunks) <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be limited by implementations carefully, so as to not impede interoperability.
     
    27182718         <tr>
    27192719            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
    2720             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), July&nbsp;2012.
     2720            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), July&nbsp;2012.
    27212721            </td>
    27222722         </tr>
     
    27282728         <tr>
    27292729            <td class="reference"><b id="Part5">[Part5]</b></td>
    2730             <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest (work in progress), July&nbsp;2012.
     2730            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest (work in progress), July&nbsp;2012.
    27312731            </td>
    27322732         </tr>
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