source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 95

Last change on this file since 95 was 95, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 14 years ago

List Yves Lafon & Julian Reschke as Editors everywhere, remove specific ack for Julian.

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<!DOCTYPE rfc [
3  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
4  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
14  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "December">
15  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2007">
16  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x=''/>">
18<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
19<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
20<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
21<?rfc compact="yes"?>
22<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
23<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
24<?rfc editing="no" ?>
25<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
26<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
27<rfc obsoletes="2068, 2616" updates="2617" category="std"
28     ipr="full3978" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
29     xmlns:x='' xmlns:ed="">
32  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
34  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
35    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
36    <address>
37      <postal>
38        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
39        <city>Newport Beach</city>
40        <region>CA</region>
41        <code>92660</code>
42        <country>USA</country>
43      </postal>
44      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
45      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
46      <email></email>
47      <uri></uri>
48    </address>
49  </author>
51  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
52    <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
53    <address>
54      <postal>
55        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
56        <city>Carlisle</city>
57        <region>MA</region>
58        <code>01741</code>
59        <country>USA</country>
60      </postal>
61      <email></email>
62      <uri></uri>
63    </address>
64  </author>
66  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
67    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
68    <address>
69      <postal>
70        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
71        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
72        <city>Palo Alto</city>
73        <region>CA</region>
74        <code>94304</code>
75        <country>USA</country>
76      </postal>
77      <email></email>
78    </address>
79  </author>
81  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
82    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
83    <address>
84      <postal>
85        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
86        <city>Redmond</city>
87        <region>WA</region>
88        <code>98052</code>
89        <country>USA</country>
90      </postal>
91      <email></email>
92    </address>
93  </author>
95  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
96    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
97    <address>
98      <postal>
99        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
100        <city>San Jose</city>
101        <region>CA</region>
102        <code>95110</code>
103        <country>USA</country>
104      </postal>
105      <email></email>
106      <uri></uri>
107    </address>
108  </author>
110  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
111    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
112    <address>
113      <postal>
114        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
115        <city>Redmond</city>
116        <region>WA</region>
117        <code>98052</code>
118      </postal>
119      <email></email>
120    </address>
121  </author>
123  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
124    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
128        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
129        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
130        <city>Cambridge</city>
131        <region>MA</region>
132        <code>02139</code>
133        <country>USA</country>
134      </postal>
135      <email></email>
136      <uri></uri>
137    </address>
138  </author>
140  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
141    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
142    <address>
143      <postal>
144        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
145        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
146        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
147        <region>AM</region>
148        <code>06902</code>
149        <country>France</country>
150      </postal>
151      <email></email>
152      <uri></uri>
153    </address>
154  </author>
156  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
157    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
158    <address>
159      <postal>
160        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
161        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
162        <country>Germany</country>
163      </postal>
164      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>   
165      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>   
166      <email></email>       
167      <uri></uri>     
168    </address>
169  </author>
171  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
175   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
176   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
177   systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information
178   initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification
179   that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together,
180   obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.
184<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
185  <t>
186    This version of the HTTP specification contains only minimal editorial
187    changes from <xref target="RFC2616"/> (abstract, introductory paragraph,
188    and authors' addresses).  All other changes are due to partitioning the
189    original into seven mostly independent parts.  The intent is for readers
190    of future drafts to able to use draft 00 as the basis for comparison
191    when the WG makes later changes to the specification text.  This draft
192    will shortly be followed by draft 01 (containing the first round of changes
193    that have already been agreed to on the mailing list). There is no point in
194    reviewing this draft other than to verify that the partitioning has been
195    done correctly.  Roy T. Fielding, Yves Lafon, and Julian Reschke
196    will be the editors after draft 00 is submitted.
197  </t>
198  <t>
199    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
200    mailing list ( The current issues list is
201    at <eref target=""/>
202    and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
203    <eref target=""/>.
204  </t>
208<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
210   This document will define aspects of HTTP related to access control and
211   authentication. Right now it only includes the extracted relevant sections
212   of <xref target="RFC2616">RFC 2616</xref> with only minor edits.
215   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
216   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client
217   request and by a client to provide authentication information. The
218   general framework for access authentication, and the specification of
219   "basic" and "digest" authentication, are specified in "HTTP
220   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. This
221   specification adopts the definitions of "challenge" and "credentials"
222   from that specification.
226<section title="Status Code Definitions">
227<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
228  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
229  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
231   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
232   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
233   applicable to the requested resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
234   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
235   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
236   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
237   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
238   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
239   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
240   entity that was given in the response, since that entity might
241   include relevant diagnostic information. HTTP access authentication
242   is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
243   Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>.
246<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
247  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
248  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
250   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
251   client must first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
252   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
253   challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource. The
254   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
255   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>). HTTP access authentication is explained
256   in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication"
257   <xref target="RFC2617"/>.
262<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
264   This section defines the syntax and semantics of all standard
265   HTTP/1.1 header fields. For entity-header fields, both sender and
266   recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who
267   sends and who receives the entity.
270<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
271  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header" x:for-anchor=""/>
272  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
274      A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with a server--
275      usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 response--does
276      so by including an Authorization request-header field with the
277      request.  The Authorization field value consists of credentials
278      containing the authentication information of the user agent for
279      the realm of the resource being requested.
281<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
282       Authorization  = "Authorization" ":" credentials
285      HTTP access authentication is described in "HTTP Authentication:
286      Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. If a request is
287      authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
288      be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
289      the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
290      as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
291      synchronized clocks).
294      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
295      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
296      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
297      of the following specific exceptions holds:
300  <list style="numbers">
301      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
302         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
303         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
304         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
305         server, using the request-headers from the new request to allow
306         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
307         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
308         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
309         it.</t>
311      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
312         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
313         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
314         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
315         request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server
316         to authenticate the new request.</t>
318      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
319         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
320  </list>
324<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
325  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header" x:for-anchor=""/>
326  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
328   The Proxy-Authenticate response-header field &MUST; be included as part
329   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response. The field value
330   consists of a challenge that indicates the authentication scheme and
331   parameters applicable to the proxy for this Request-URI.
333<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
334    Proxy-Authenticate  = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
337   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
338   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. Unlike
339   WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
340   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
341   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
342   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
343   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
344   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
348<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
349  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header" x:for-anchor=""/>
350  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
352   The Proxy-Authorization request-header field allows the client to
353   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
354   authentication. The Proxy-Authorization field value consists of
355   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
356   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
358<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
359    Proxy-Authorization     = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" credentials
362   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
363   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. Unlike
364   Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
365   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
366   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
367   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
368   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
369   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
370   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
371   request.
375<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
376  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header" x:for-anchor=""/>
377  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
379   The WWW-Authenticate response-header field &MUST; be included in 401
380   (Unauthorized) response messages. The field value consists of at
381   least one challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and
382   parameters applicable to the Request-URI.
384<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
385    WWW-Authenticate  = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
388   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
389   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. User
390   agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
391   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
392   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
393   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
394   authentication parameters.
400<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
402   TBD.
406<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
408   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
409   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
410   described by this document. The discussion does not include
411   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
412   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
415<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
417   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
418   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1. does not provide a method for a
419   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
420   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
421   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
422   application's security model include but are not limited to:
423  <list style="symbols">
424     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
425        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
426        user for credentials.</t>
428     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
429        (such as a `logout' or `commit' button on a page) after which
430        the server side of the application `knows' that there is no
431        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
432  </list>
435   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
436   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
437   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
438   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
439   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
440   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
441   cached credentials under user control.
446<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="ack">
452<reference anchor="Part6">
453   <front>
454      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
455      <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
456         <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
457         <address><email></email></address>
458      </author>
459      <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
460         <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
461         <address><email></email></address>
462      </author>
463      <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
464         <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
465         <address><email></email></address>
466      </author>
467      <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
468         <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
469         <address><email></email></address>
470      </author>
471      <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
472         <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
473         <address><email></email></address>
474      </author>
475      <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
476         <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
477         <address><email></email></address>
478      </author>
479      <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
480         <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
481         <address><email></email></address>
482      </author>
483      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
484   </front>
485   <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
486   <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
489<reference anchor="RFC2616">
490   <front>
491      <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
492      <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
493         <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
494         <address><email></email></address>
495      </author>
496      <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
497         <organization>W3C</organization>
498         <address><email></email></address>
499      </author>
500      <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
501         <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
502         <address><email></email></address>
503      </author>
504      <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
505         <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
506         <address><email></email></address>
507      </author>
508      <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
509         <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
510         <address><email></email></address>
511      </author>
512      <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
513         <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
514         <address><email></email></address>
515      </author>
516      <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
517         <organization>W3C</organization>
518         <address><email></email></address>
519      </author>
520      <date month="June" year="1999"/>
521   </front>
522   <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
525<reference anchor="RFC2617">
526   <front>
527      <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
528      <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
529         <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
530         <address><email></email></address>
531      </author>
532      <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
533         <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
534         <address><email></email></address>
535      </author>
536      <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
537         <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
538         <address><email></email></address>
539      </author>
540      <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
541         <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
542         <address><email></email></address>
543      </author>
544      <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
545         <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
546         <address><email></email></address>
547      </author>
548      <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
549         <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
550      </author>
551      <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
552         <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
553         <address><email></email></address>
554      </author>
555      <date month="June" year="1999"/>
556   </front>
557   <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
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