source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 38

Last change on this file since 38 was 36, checked in by fielding@…, 15 years ago

Add an editorial note about status and list.
Streamline the new references and place them up front.

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
File size: 21.6 KB
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<!DOCTYPE rfc [
3  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
4  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
14  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "December">
15  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2007">
16  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x=''/>">
18<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
19<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
20<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
21<?rfc compact="yes"?>
22<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
23<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
24<?rfc editing="no" ?>
25<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
26<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
27<rfc obsoletes="2068, 2616, 2617" category="std"
28     ipr="full3978" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
29     xmlns:x='' xmlns:ed="">
32  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
34  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
35    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
36    <address>
37      <postal>
38        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
39        <city>Newport Beach</city>
40        <region>CA</region>
41        <code>92660</code>
42        <country>USA</country>
43      </postal>
44      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
45      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
46      <email></email>
47      <uri></uri>
48    </address>
49  </author>
51  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
52    <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
53    <address>
54      <postal>
55        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
56        <city>Carlisle</city>
57        <region>MA</region>
58        <code>01741</code>
59        <country>USA</country>
60      </postal>
61      <email></email>
62      <uri></uri>
63    </address>
64  </author>
66  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
67    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
68    <address>
69      <postal>
70        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
71        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
72        <city>Palo Alto</city>
73        <region>CA</region>
74        <code>94304</code>
75        <country>USA</country>
76      </postal>
77      <email></email>
78    </address>
79  </author>
81  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
82    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
83    <address>
84      <postal>
85        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
86        <city>Redmond</city>
87        <region>WA</region>
88        <code>98052</code>
89        <country>USA</country>
90      </postal>
91      <email></email>
92    </address>
93  </author>
95  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
96    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
97    <address>
98      <postal>
99        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
100        <city>San Jose</city>
101        <region>CA</region>
102        <code>95110</code>
103        <country>USA</country>
104      </postal>
105      <email></email>
106      <uri></uri>
107    </address>
108  </author>
110  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
111    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
112    <address>
113      <postal>
114        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
115        <city>Redmond</city>
116        <region>WA</region>
117        <code>98052</code>
118      </postal>
119      <email></email>
120    </address>
121  </author>
123  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
124    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
128        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
129        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
130        <city>Cambridge</city>
131        <region>MA</region>
132        <code>02139</code>
133        <country>USA</country>
134      </postal>
135      <email></email>
136      <uri></uri>
137    </address>
138  </author>
140  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
144   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
145   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
146   systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information
147   initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification
148   that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together,
149   obsoletes RFC 2616 and RFC 2617.  Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.
153<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
154  <t>
155    This version of the HTTP specification contains only minimal editorial
156    changes from <xref target="RFC2616"/> (abstract, introductory paragraph,
157    and authors' addresses).  All other changes are due to partitioning the
158    original into seven mostly independent parts.  The intent is for readers
159    of future drafts to able to use draft 00 as the basis for comparison
160    when the WG makes later changes to the specification text.  This draft
161    will shortly be followed by draft 01 (containing the first round of changes
162    that have already been agreed to on the mailing list). There is no point in
163    reviewing this draft other than to verify that the partitioning has been
164    done correctly.  Roy T. Fielding, Yves Lafon, and Julian Reschke
165    will be the editors after draft 00 is submitted.
166  </t>
167  <t>
168    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
169    mailing list ( The current issues list is
170    at <eref target=""/>
171    and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
172    <eref target=""/>.
173  </t>
177<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
179   This document will define aspects of HTTP related to access control and
180   authentication. Right now it only includes the extracted relevant sections
181   of <xref target="RFC2616">RFC 2616</xref> with only minor edits.
184   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
185   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client
186   request and by a client to provide authentication information. The
187   general framework for access authentication, and the specification of
188   "basic" and "digest" authentication, are specified in "HTTP
189   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. This
190   specification adopts the definitions of "challenge" and "credentials"
191   from that specification.
194<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
196   This section defines the syntax and semantics of all standard
197   HTTP/1.1 header fields. For entity-header fields, both sender and
198   recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who
199   sends and who receives the entity.
202<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
203  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header" x:for-anchor=""/>
204  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
206      A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with a server--
207      usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 response--does
208      so by including an Authorization request-header field with the
209      request.  The Authorization field value consists of credentials
210      containing the authentication information of the user agent for
211      the realm of the resource being requested.
213<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
214       Authorization  = "Authorization" ":" credentials
217      HTTP access authentication is described in "HTTP Authentication:
218      Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. If a request is
219      authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
220      be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
221      the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
222      as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
223      synchronized clocks).
226      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
227      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
228      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
229      of the following specific exceptions holds:
232  <list style="numbers">
233      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
234         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
235         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
236         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
237         server, using the request-headers from the new request to allow
238         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
239         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
240         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
241         it.</t>
243      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
244         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
245         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
246         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
247         request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server
248         to authenticate the new request.</t>
250      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
251         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
252  </list>
256<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
257  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header" x:for-anchor=""/>
258  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
260   The Proxy-Authenticate response-header field &MUST; be included as part
261   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response. The field value
262   consists of a challenge that indicates the authentication scheme and
263   parameters applicable to the proxy for this Request-URI.
265<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
266    Proxy-Authenticate  = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
269   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
270   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. Unlike
271   WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
272   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
273   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
274   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
275   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
276   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
280<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
281  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header" x:for-anchor=""/>
282  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
284   The Proxy-Authorization request-header field allows the client to
285   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
286   authentication. The Proxy-Authorization field value consists of
287   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
288   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
290<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
291    Proxy-Authorization     = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" credentials
294   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
295   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. Unlike
296   Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
297   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
298   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
299   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
300   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
301   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
302   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
303   request.
307<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
308  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header" x:for-anchor=""/>
309  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
311   The WWW-Authenticate response-header field &MUST; be included in 401
312   (Unauthorized) response messages. The field value consists of at
313   least one challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and
314   parameters applicable to the Request-URI.
316<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
317    WWW-Authenticate  = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
320   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
321   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <xref target="RFC2617"/>. User
322   agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
323   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
324   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
325   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
326   authentication parameters.
332<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
334   TBD.
338<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
340   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
341   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
342   described by this document. The discussion does not include
343   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
344   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
347<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
349   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
350   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1. does not provide a method for a
351   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
352   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
353   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
354   application's security model include but are not limited to:
355  <list style="symbols">
356     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
357        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
358        user for credentials.</t>
360     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
361        (such as a `logout' or `commit' button on a page) after which
362        the server side of the application `knows' that there is no
363        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
364  </list>
367   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
368   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
369   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
370   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
371   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
372   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
373   cached credentials under user control.
378<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="ack">
380   Based on an XML translation of RFC 2616 by Julian Reschke.
387<reference anchor="Part6">
388   <front>
389      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
390      <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
391         <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
392         <address><email></email></address>
393      </author>
394      <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
395         <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
396         <address><email></email></address>
397      </author>
398      <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
399         <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
400         <address><email></email></address>
401      </author>
402      <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
403         <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
404         <address><email></email></address>
405      </author>
406      <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
407         <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
408         <address><email></email></address>
409      </author>
410      <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
411         <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
412         <address><email></email></address>
413      </author>
414      <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
415         <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
416         <address><email></email></address>
417      </author>
418      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
419   </front>
420   <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-fielding-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
421   <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
424<reference anchor="RFC2616">
425   <front>
426      <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
427      <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
428         <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
429         <address><email></email></address>
430      </author>
431      <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
432         <organization>W3C</organization>
433         <address><email></email></address>
434      </author>
435      <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
436         <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
437         <address><email></email></address>
438      </author>
439      <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
440         <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
441         <address><email></email></address>
442      </author>
443      <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
444         <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
445         <address><email></email></address>
446      </author>
447      <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
448         <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
449         <address><email></email></address>
450      </author>
451      <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
452         <organization>W3C</organization>
453         <address><email></email></address>
454      </author>
455      <date month="June" year="1999"/>
456   </front>
457   <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
460<reference anchor="RFC2617">
461   <front>
462      <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
463      <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
464         <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
465         <address><email></email></address>
466      </author>
467      <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
468         <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
469         <address><email></email></address>
470      </author>
471      <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
472         <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
473         <address><email></email></address>
474      </author>
475      <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
476         <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
477         <address><email></email></address>
478      </author>
479      <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
480         <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
481         <address><email></email></address>
482      </author>
483      <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
484         <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
485      </author>
486      <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
487         <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
488         <address><email></email></address>
489      </author>
490      <date month="June" year="1999"/>
491   </front>
492   <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
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