source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2575

Last change on this file since 2575 was 2575, checked in by fielding@…, 8 years ago

(editorial) move requirements specific to a given header field to where the field is defined; properly target requirements to roles; see #536

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  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 51.9 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "January">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2014">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-request-directive.no-store' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
35]>
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
50     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
52<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
53<front>
54
55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
56
57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
59    <address>
60      <postal>
61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
63        <region>CA</region>
64        <code>95110</code>
65        <country>USA</country>
66      </postal>
67      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
68      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
69    </address>
70  </author>
71
72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
80      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
81      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
82    </address>
83  </author>
84
85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
86  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
87
88<abstract>
89<t>
90   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level protocol for
91   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
92   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
93</t>
94</abstract>
95
96<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
97  <t>
98    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
99    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
100    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
101  </t>
102  <t>
103    The current issues list is at
104    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
105    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
106    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
107  </t>
108  <t>
109    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.25"/>.
110  </t>
111</note>
112</front>
113<middle>
114<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
115<t>
116   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
117   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
118   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
119   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
120   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
121</t>
122<t>
123   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
124   schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
125   by a client to provide authentication information. See the IANA
126   Authentication Scheme Registry (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
127   for the definitions of the "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes
128   which were defined by <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
129</t>
130
131<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
132<t>
133   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
134   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
135   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
136</t>
137<t>
138   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
139   are defined in &conformance;.
140</t>
141</section>
142
143<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
144<t>
145   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
146   <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list extension, defined in
147   &abnf-extension;, that allows for compact definition of
148   comma-separated lists using a '#' operator (similar to how the '*' operator
149   indicates repetition).
150   <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
151   other documents.
152   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected grammar with all list
153   operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
154</t>
155</section>
156</section>
157
158<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
159
160<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
161  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
162  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
163  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
164  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
165  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
166<t>
167   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
168   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
169   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
170   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
171   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
172   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
173   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
174   information.
175</t>
176<t>
177   Authentication parameters are name=value pairs, where the name token is
178   matched case-insensitively,
179   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
180</t>
181<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
182  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
183 
184  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
185
186  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
187                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
188</artwork></figure>
189<t>
190   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters
191   (<xref target="RFC3986"/>), plus a few others, so that it can hold a
192   base64, base64url (URL and filename safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex)
193   encoding, with or without padding, but excluding whitespace
194   (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
195</t>
196<t>
197   A <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin
198   server to challenge the authorization of a user agent, including a
199   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
200   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
201</t>
202<t>  
203   A <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
204   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client, including a
205   <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
206   challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
207</t>
208<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
209  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
210</artwork></figure>
211<x:note>
212  <t>
213     &Note; Many clients fail to parse a challenge that contains an unknown
214     scheme. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
215     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
216  </t>
217</x:note>
218<t>
219   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
220   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a
221   <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> &mdash; can do so by including an
222   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the request.
223</t>
224<t>  
225   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
226   but not necessarily, after receiving a
227   <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> &mdash; can do so by
228   including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
229   request.
230</t>
231<t>
232   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the
233   <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value contain the client's
234   credentials for the realm of the resource being requested, based upon a
235   challenge received in a response (possibly at some point in the past).
236   When creating their values, the user agent ought to do so by selecting the
237   challenge with what it considers to be the most secure auth-scheme that it
238   understands, obtaining credentials from the user as appropriate.
239   Transmission of credentials within header field values implies significant
240   security considerations regarding the confidentiality of the underlying
241   connection, as described in
242   <xref target="confidentiality.of.credentials"/>.
243</t>
244<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
245  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
246</artwork></figure>
247<t>
248   Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials,
249   contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials
250   (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip),
251   an origin server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response
252   that contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least
253   one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
254</t>
255<t>
256   Likewise, upon receipt of a request that omits proxy credentials or
257   contains invalid or partial proxy credentials, a proxy that requires
258   authentication &SHOULD; generate a
259   <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that contains
260   a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
261   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
262</t>
263<t>
264   A server that receives valid credentials which are not adequate to gain
265   access ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status
266   code (&status.403;).
267</t>
268<t>
269   HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response
270   framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms can be used,
271   such as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation,
272   and with additional header fields specifying authentication information.
273   However, such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
274</t>
275</section>
276
277<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
278  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
279  <iref item="Realm"/>
280  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
281<t>
282   The "<x:dfn>realm</x:dfn>" authentication parameter is reserved for use by
283   authentication schemes that wish to indicate a scope of protection.
284</t>
285<t>
286   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
287   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
288   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
289   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
290   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
291   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
292   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
293   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
294   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
295   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
296   different realms.
297</t>
298<t>
299   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
300   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
301   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
302   that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
303   scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable
304   inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the authentication
305   scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its
306   server.
307</t>
308<t>
309   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
310   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
311   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
312   notations for a long time.
313</t>
314</section>
315
316</section>
317
318<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
319<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
320  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
321  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
322<t>
323   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
324   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
325   credentials for the target resource.
326   The server generating a 401 response &MUST; send a
327   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
328   (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
329   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
330</t>
331<t>
332   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
333   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
334   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
335   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
336   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
337   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
338   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
339   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
340</t>
341</section>
342
343<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
344  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
345  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
346<t>
347   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
348   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
349   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
350   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
351   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
352   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
353   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
354   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
355</t>
356</section>
357</section>
358
359<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
360<t>
361   This section defines the syntax and semantics of header fields related to
362   the HTTP authentication framework.
363</t>
364
365<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
366  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
367  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
368<t>
369   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field indicates the authentication scheme(s)
370   and parameters applicable to the target resource.
371</t>
372<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
373  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
374</artwork></figure>
375<t>
376   A server generating a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response
377   &MUST; send a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
378   challenge.  A server &MAY; generate a WWW-Authenticate header field
379   in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
380   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
381</t>
382<t>
383   A proxy forwarding a response &MUST-NOT; modify any
384   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> fields in that response.
385</t>
386<t>
387   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as
388   it might contain more than one challenge, and each challenge can contain a
389   comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header
390   field itself can occur multiple times.
391</t>
392<figure>
393  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
394  <artwork type="example">
395  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
396                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
397</artwork>
398  <postamble>
399  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
400  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
401  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
402  "simple".
403</postamble></figure>
404<x:note>
405  <t>
406    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
407    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
408    considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
409    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
410    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
411    harmless.
412  </t>
413</x:note>
414</section>
415
416<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
417  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
418  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
419<t>
420   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
421   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
422   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
423   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
424   the realm of the resource being requested.
425</t>
426<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
427  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
428</artwork></figure>
429<t>
430   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
431   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
432   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
433   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
434   clocks).
435</t>
436<t>
437   A proxy forwarding a request &MUST-NOT; modify any
438   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> fields in that request.
439   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
440   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
441</t>
442</section>
443
444<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
445  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
446  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
447<t>
448   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
449   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
450   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI
451   (&effective-request-uri;).
452   A proxy &MUST; send at least one Proxy-Authenticate header field in
453   each <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that it
454   generates.
455</t>
456<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
457  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
458</artwork></figure>
459<t>
460   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
461   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain.
462   This is because only the client that chose a given proxy is likely to have
463   the credentials necessary for authentication.  However, when multiple
464   proxies are used within the same administrative domain, such as office and
465   regional caching proxies within a large corporate network, it is common
466   for credentials to be generated by the user agent and passed through the
467   hierarchy until consumed.  Hence, in such a configuration, it will appear
468   as if Proxy-Authenticate is being forwarded because each proxy will send
469   the same challenge set.
470</t>
471<t>
472   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
473   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
474   for details.
475</t>
476</section>
477
478<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
479  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
480  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
481<t>
482   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
483   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
484   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
485   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
486   resource being requested.
487</t>
488<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
489  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
490</artwork></figure>
491<t>
492   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
493   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
494   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
495   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
496   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
497   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
498   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
499   request.
500</t>
501</section>
502
503</section>
504
505<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
506
507<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
508<t>
509   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
510   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
511   maintained at (the suggested URI) <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
512</t>
513
514<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
515<t>
516  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
517  <list style="symbols">
518    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
519    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
520    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
521  </list>
522</t>
523<t>
524  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
525  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
526</t>
527</section>
528
529<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
530<t>
531  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
532  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
533</t>
534<t>
535  <list style="symbols">
536    <x:lt>
537    <t>
538      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
539      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
540      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
541      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
542      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
543      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
544      party other than the authenticated user
545      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
546    </t>
547    </x:lt>
548    <x:lt>
549    <t>
550      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
551      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
552      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
553    </t>
554    </x:lt>
555    <x:lt>
556    <t>
557      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
558      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
559      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
560      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
561    </t>
562    </x:lt>
563    <x:lt>
564    <t>
565      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
566      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
567      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
568      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
569      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
570      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
571      all authentication schemes.
572    </t>
573    <t>
574      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
575      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
576      for new parameters.
577    </t>
578    </x:lt>
579    <x:lt>
580    <t>
581      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
582      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
583      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
584      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
585      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
586      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
587    </t>
588    </x:lt>
589    <x:lt>
590    <t>
591      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
592      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
593      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
594    </t>
595    </x:lt>
596    <x:lt>
597    <t>
598      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
599      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
600      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
601      within the scope of the request they appear in.
602    </t>
603    <t>
604      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
605      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
606      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
607      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
608      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
609    </t>
610    </x:lt>
611  </list>
612</t>
613</section>
614</section>
615
616<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
617<t>
618   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
619   shall be updated with the registrations below:
620</t>
621<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
622<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
623<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
624   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
625   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
626   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
627   <c>401</c>
628   <c>Unauthorized</c>
629   <c>
630      <xref target="status.401"/>
631   </c>
632   <c>407</c>
633   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
634   <c>
635      <xref target="status.407"/>
636   </c>
637</texttable>
638<!--(END)-->
639<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
640</section>
641
642<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
643<t>
644   HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry
645   maintained at
646   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/>.
647</t>
648<t>
649   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
650   associated registry entries shall be updated according to the permanent
651   registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
652</t>
653<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
654<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
655<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
656   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
657   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
658   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
659   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
660
661   <c>Authorization</c>
662   <c>http</c>
663   <c>standard</c>
664   <c>
665      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
666   </c>
667   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
668   <c>http</c>
669   <c>standard</c>
670   <c>
671      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
672   </c>
673   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
674   <c>http</c>
675   <c>standard</c>
676   <c>
677      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
678   </c>
679   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
680   <c>http</c>
681   <c>standard</c>
682   <c>
683      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
684   </c>
685</texttable>
686<!--(END)-->
687<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
688<t>
689   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
690</t>
691</section>
692</section>
693
694<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
695<t>
696   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
697   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP authentication.
698   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
699   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
700</t>
701<t>
702   Everything about the topic of HTTP authentication is a security
703   consideration, so the list of considerations below is not exhaustive.
704   Furthermore, it is limited to security considerations regarding the
705   authentication framework, in general, rather than discussing all of the
706   potential considerations for specific authentication schemes (which ought
707   to be documented in the specifications that define those schemes).
708   Various organizations maintain topical information and links to current
709   research on Web application security (e.g., <xref target="OWASP"/>),
710   including common pitfalls for implementing and using the authentication
711   schemes found in practice.
712</t>
713
714<section title="Confidentiality of Credentials" anchor="confidentiality.of.credentials">
715<t>
716   The HTTP authentication framework does not define a single mechanism for
717   maintaining the confidentiality of credentials; instead, each
718   authentication scheme defines how the credentials are encoded prior to
719   transmission. While this provides flexibility for the development of future
720   authentication schemes, it is inadequate for the protection of existing
721   schemes that provide no confidentiality on their own, or that do not
722   sufficiently protect against replay attacks. Furthermore, if the server
723   expects credentials that are specific to each individual user, the exchange
724   of those credentials will have the effect of identifying that user even if
725   the content within credentials remains confidential.
726</t>
727<t>
728   HTTP depends on the security properties of the underlying transport or
729   session-level connection to provide confidential transmission of header
730   fields. In other words, if a server limits access to authenticated users
731   using this framework, the server needs to ensure that the connection is
732   properly secured in accordance with the nature of the authentication
733   scheme used. For example, services that depend on individual user
734   authentication often require a connection to be secured with TLS
735   ("Transport Layer Security", <xref target="RFC5246"/>) prior to exchanging
736   any credentials.
737</t>
738</section>
739
740<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
741<t>
742   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
743   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
744   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
745   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
746   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
747   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
748</t>
749<t>
750   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
751   application's security model include but are not limited to:
752  <list style="symbols">
753     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
754        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
755        user for credentials.</t>
756
757     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
758        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
759        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
760        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
761  </list>
762</t>
763<t>
764   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
765   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
766</t>
767</section>
768
769<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
770<t>
771  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
772  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
773  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
774  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
775  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
776  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
777</t>
778<t>
779  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
780  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
781  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
782  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
783  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
784  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
785</t>
786</section>
787</section>
788
789<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
790<t>
791  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
792  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
793  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
794  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
795  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
796  for further acknowledgements. 
797</t>
798<t>
799  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
800</t>
801</section>
802</middle>
803
804<back>
805
806<references title="Normative References">
807
808<reference anchor="Part1">
809  <front>
810    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
811    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
812      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
813      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
814    </author>
815    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
816      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
817      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
818    </author>
819    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
820  </front>
821  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
822  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
823</reference>
824
825<reference anchor="Part2">
826  <front>
827    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
828    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
829      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
830      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
831    </author>
832    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
833      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
834      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
835    </author>
836    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
837  </front>
838  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
839  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
840    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
841    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
842  </x:source>
843</reference>
844
845<reference anchor="Part6">
846  <front>
847    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
848    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
849      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
850      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
851    </author>
852    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
853      <organization>Akamai</organization>
854      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
855    </author>
856    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
857      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
858      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
859    </author>
860    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
861  </front>
862  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
863  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
864</reference>
865
866<reference anchor="RFC2119">
867  <front>
868    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
869    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
870      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
871      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
872    </author>
873    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
874  </front>
875  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
876  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
877</reference>
878
879<reference anchor="RFC5234">
880  <front>
881    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
882    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
883      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
884      <address>
885        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
886      </address> 
887    </author>
888    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
889      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
890      <address>
891        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
892      </address>
893    </author>
894    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
895  </front>
896  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
897  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
898</reference>
899
900</references>
901
902<references title="Informative References">
903
904<reference anchor="RFC2616">
905  <front>
906    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
907    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
908      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
909      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
910    </author>
911    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
912      <organization>W3C</organization>
913      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
914    </author>
915    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
916      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
917      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
918    </author>
919    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
920      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
921      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
922    </author>
923    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
924      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
925      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
926    </author>
927    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
928      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
929      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
930    </author>
931    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
932      <organization>W3C</organization>
933      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
934    </author>
935    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
936  </front>
937  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
938</reference>
939
940<reference anchor="RFC2617">
941  <front>
942    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
943    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
944      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
945      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
946    </author>
947    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
948      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
949      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
950    </author>
951    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
952      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
953      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
954    </author>
955    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
956      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
957      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
958    </author>
959    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
960      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
961      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
962    </author>
963    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
964      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
965    </author>
966    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
967      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
968      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
969    </author>
970    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
971  </front>
972  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
973</reference>
974
975<reference anchor='BCP90'>
976  <front>
977    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
978    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
979      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
980      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
981    </author>
982    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
983      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
984      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
985    </author>
986    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
987      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
988      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
989    </author>
990    <date year='2004' month='September' />
991  </front>
992  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
993  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
994</reference>
995
996<reference anchor="RFC3986">
997 <front>
998  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
999  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1000    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1001    <address>
1002       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1003       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1004    </address>
1005  </author>
1006  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1007    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1008    <address>
1009      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1010      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1011    </address>
1012  </author>
1013  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1014    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1015    <address>
1016      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1017      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1018    </address>
1019  </author>
1020  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1021 </front>
1022 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1023 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1024</reference>
1025
1026<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1027  <front>
1028    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1029    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1030    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1031  </front>
1032  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1033</reference>
1034
1035<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1036  <front>
1037    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1038    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1039      <organization>IBM</organization>
1040      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1041    </author>
1042    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1043      <organization>Google</organization>
1044      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1045    </author>
1046    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1047  </front>
1048  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1049  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1050</reference>
1051
1052<reference anchor="OWASP" target="https://www.owasp.org/">
1053        <front>
1054    <title abbrev="OWASP">A Guide to Building Secure Web Applications and Web Services</title>
1055    <author role="editor" initials="A." surname="van der Stock"
1056            fullname="Andrew van der Stock"/>
1057    <date month="July" day="27" year="2005"/>
1058  </front>
1059  <seriesInfo name="The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP)" value="2.0.1"/>
1060</reference>
1061
1062<reference anchor='RFC5246'>
1063   <front>
1064      <title>The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2</title>
1065      <author initials='T.' surname='Dierks' fullname='T. Dierks'/>
1066      <author initials='E.' surname='Rescorla' fullname='E. Rescorla'>
1067         <organization>RTFM, Inc.</organization>
1068      </author>
1069      <date year='2008' month='August' />
1070   </front>
1071   <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5246' />
1072</reference>
1073
1074</references>
1075
1076<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1077<t>
1078  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1079  rather than RFC 2617.
1080</t>
1081<t>
1082  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1083  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1084  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1085</t>
1086<t>
1087  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1088  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1089  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1090</t>
1091<t>
1092  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1093  considerations for new authentication schemes.
1094  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1095</t>
1096</section>
1097 
1098<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1099  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1100  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1101  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1102  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1103  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1104  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1105  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1106  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1107  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1108  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1109  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1110<t>
1111  The following core rules are included by
1112  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1113  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1114  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1115  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1116  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1117  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1118</t>
1119<t>
1120   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1121</t>
1122<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1123  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1124  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1125  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1126  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1127</artwork></figure>
1128</section>
1129
1130<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1131<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1132<t>
1133  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="Part1" x:rel="#notation"/>.
1134</t><figure>
1135<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1136<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1137
1138<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1139
1140<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1141
1142<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1143 challenge ] )
1144<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1145
1146<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1147 ] )
1148
1149<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1150<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1151
1152<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1153 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1154<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1155 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1156
1157<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1158
1159<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1160<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1161 *"="
1162</artwork>
1163</figure>
1164</section>
1165<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1166
1167<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1168<t>
1169  Changes up to the IETF Last Call draft are summarized
1170  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24#appendix-D"/>.
1171</t>
1172
1173<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24" anchor="changes.since.24">
1174<t>
1175  Closed issues:
1176  <list style="symbols">
1177    <t>
1178      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/510"/>:
1179      "SECDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1180    </t>
1181    <t>
1182      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/513"/>:
1183      "APPSDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1184    </t>
1185    <t>
1186      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/516"/>:
1187      "note about WWW-A parsing potentially misleading"
1188    </t>
1189  </list>
1190</t>
1191</section>
1192
1193<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25" anchor="changes.since.25">
1194<t>
1195  Closed issues:
1196  <list style="symbols">
1197    <t>
1198      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/522"/>:
1199      "Gen-art review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1200    </t>
1201    <t>
1202      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/536"/>:
1203      "IESG ballot on draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1204    </t>
1205    <t>
1206      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/538"/>:
1207      "add 'stateless' to Abstract"
1208    </t>
1209    <t>
1210      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/539"/>:
1211      "mention TLS vs plain text passwords or dict attacks?"
1212    </t>
1213    <t>
1214      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/542"/>:
1215      "improve introduction of list rule"
1216    </t>
1217    <t>
1218      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/549"/>:
1219      "augment security considerations with pointers to current research"
1220    </t>
1221  </list>
1222</t>
1223</section>
1224</section>
1225
1226</back>
1227</rfc>
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