source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2572

Last change on this file since 2572 was 2572, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

(editorial) rephrase reference to Basic and Digest to point readers to the registry rather than directly to RFC 2617

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  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "January">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2014">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-request-directive.no-store' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
35]>
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
50     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
52<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
53<front>
54
55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
56
57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
59    <address>
60      <postal>
61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
63        <region>CA</region>
64        <code>95110</code>
65        <country>USA</country>
66      </postal>
67      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
68      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
69    </address>
70  </author>
71
72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
80      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
81      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
82    </address>
83  </author>
84
85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
86  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
87
88<abstract>
89<t>
90   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level protocol for
91   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
92   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
93</t>
94</abstract>
95
96<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
97  <t>
98    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
99    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
100    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
101  </t>
102  <t>
103    The current issues list is at
104    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
105    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
106    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
107  </t>
108  <t>
109    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.25"/>.
110  </t>
111</note>
112</front>
113<middle>
114<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
115<t>
116   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
117   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
118   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
119   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
120   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
121</t>
122<t>
123   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
124   schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
125   by a client to provide authentication information. See the IANA
126   Authentication Scheme Registry (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
127   for the definitions of the "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes
128   which were defined by <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
129</t>
130
131<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
132<t>
133   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
134   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
135   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
136</t>
137<t>
138   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
139   are defined in &conformance;.
140</t>
141</section>
142
143<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
144<t>
145   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
146   <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list extension, defined in
147   &abnf-extension;, that allows for compact definition of
148   comma-separated lists using a '#' operator (similar to how the '*' operator
149   indicates repetition).
150   <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
151   other documents.
152   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected grammar with all list
153   operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
154</t>
155</section>
156</section>
157
158<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
159
160<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
161  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
162  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
163  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
164  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
165  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
166<t>
167   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
168   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
169   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
170   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
171   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
172   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
173   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
174   information.
175</t>
176<t>
177   Challenges and responses are transmitted in header field values, and thus
178   can easily leak information when not using a secured connection. Depending
179   on the type of the authentication scheme, it therefore can be necessary to
180   use a TLS-secured connection ("Transport Layer Security", <xref target="RFC5246"/>).
181</t>
182<t>
183   Authentication parameters are name=value pairs, where the name token is
184   matched case-insensitively,
185   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
186</t>
187<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
188  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
189 
190  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
191
192  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
193                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
194</artwork></figure>
195<t>
196   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
197   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
198   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
199   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
200</t>
201<t>
202   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
203   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
204   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
205   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
206</t>
207<t>  
208   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
209   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
210   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
211   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
212</t>
213<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
214  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
215</artwork></figure>
216<x:note>
217  <t>
218     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
219     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
220     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
221  </t>
222</x:note>
223<t>
224   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
225   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
226   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
227   request.
228</t>
229<t>  
230   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
231   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
232   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
233   request.
234</t>
235<t>
236   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
237   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
238   requested, based upon a challenge received in a response (possibly at
239   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
240   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
241   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
242   as appropriate.
243</t>
244<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
245  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
246</artwork></figure>
247<t>
248   Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials,
249   contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials
250   (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an
251   origin server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response that
252   contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
253   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
254</t>
255<t>
256   Likewise, upon receipt of a request that requires authentication by proxies
257   that omit credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy
258   &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response
259   that contains a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with a
260   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
261</t>
262<t>
263   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
264   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
265</t>
266<t>
267   HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response
268   framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms can be used, such
269   as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation, and
270   with additional header fields specifying authentication information. However,
271   such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
272</t>
273<t>
274   A proxy &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
275   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
276   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
277</t>
278</section>
279
280<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
281  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
282  <iref item="Realm"/>
283  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
284<t>
285   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
286   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
287</t>
288<t>
289   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
290   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
291   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
292   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
293   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
294   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
295   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
296   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
297   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
298   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
299   different realms.
300</t>
301<t>
302   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
303   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
304   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
305   that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
306   scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable
307   inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the authentication
308   scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its
309   server.
310</t>
311<t>
312   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
313   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
314   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
315   notations for a long time.
316</t>
317</section>
318
319</section>
320
321<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
322<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
323  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
324  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
325<t>
326   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
327   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
328   credentials for the target resource. The origin server &MUST; send a
329   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
330   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
331   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
332   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
333   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
334   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
335   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
336   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
337   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
338   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
339</t>
340</section>
341<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
342  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
343  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
344<t>
345   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
346   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
347   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
348   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
349   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
350   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
351   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
352   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
353</t>
354</section>
355</section>
356
357<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
358<t>
359   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
360   related to authentication.
361</t>
362
363<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
364  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
365  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
366<t>
367   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
368   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
369   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
370   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
371   the realm of the resource being requested.
372</t>
373<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
374  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
375</artwork></figure>
376<t>
377   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
378   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
379   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
380   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
381   clocks).
382</t>
383<t>
384   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
385   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
386</t>
387</section>
388
389<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
390  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
391  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
392<t>
393   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
394   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
395   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI
396   (&effective-request-uri;).
397   A proxy &MUST; send at least one Proxy-Authenticate header field in
398   each <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that it
399   generates.
400</t>
401<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
402  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
403</artwork></figure>
404<t>
405   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
406   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain.
407   This is because only the client that chose a given proxy is likely to have
408   the credentials necessary for authentication.  However, when multiple
409   proxies are used within the same administrative domain, such as office and
410   regional caching proxies within a large corporate network, it is common
411   for credentials to be generated by the user agent and passed through the
412   hierarchy until consumed.  Hence, in such a configuration, it will appear
413   as if Proxy-Authenticate is being forwarded because each proxy will send
414   the same challenge set.
415</t>
416<t>
417   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
418   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
419   for details.
420</t>
421</section>
422
423<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
424  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
425  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
426<t>
427   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
428   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
429   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
430   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
431   resource being requested.
432</t>
433<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
434  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
435</artwork></figure>
436<t>
437   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
438   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
439   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
440   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
441   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
442   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
443   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
444   request.
445</t>
446</section>
447
448<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
449  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
450  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
451<t>
452   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
453   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
454   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
455</t>
456<t>  
457   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
458   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
459   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
460</t>
461<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
462  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
463</artwork></figure>
464<t>
465   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as
466   it might contain more than one challenge, and each challenge can contain a
467   comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header
468   field itself can occur multiple times.
469</t>
470<figure>
471  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
472  <artwork type="example">
473  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
474                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
475</artwork>
476  <postamble>
477  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
478  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
479  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
480  "simple".
481</postamble></figure>
482<x:note>
483  <t>
484    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
485    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
486    considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
487    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
488    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
489    harmless.
490  </t>
491</x:note>
492</section>
493
494</section>
495
496<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
497
498<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
499<t>
500   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
501   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
502   maintained at (the suggested URI) <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
503</t>
504
505<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
506<t>
507  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
508  <list style="symbols">
509    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
510    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
511    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
512  </list>
513</t>
514<t>
515  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
516  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
517</t>
518</section>
519
520<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
521<t>
522  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
523  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
524</t>
525<t>
526  <list style="symbols">
527    <x:lt>
528    <t>
529      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
530      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
531      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
532      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
533      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
534      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
535      party other than the authenticated user
536      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
537    </t>
538    </x:lt>
539    <x:lt>
540    <t>
541      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
542      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
543      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
544    </t>
545    </x:lt>
546    <x:lt>
547    <t>
548      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
549      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
550      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
551      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
552    </t>
553    </x:lt>
554    <x:lt>
555    <t>
556      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
557      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
558      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
559      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
560      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
561      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
562      all authentication schemes.
563    </t>
564    <t>
565      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
566      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
567      for new parameters.
568    </t>
569    </x:lt>
570    <x:lt>
571    <t>
572      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
573      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
574      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
575      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
576      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
577      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
578    </t>
579    </x:lt>
580    <x:lt>
581    <t>
582      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
583      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
584      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
585    </t>
586    </x:lt>
587    <x:lt>
588    <t>
589      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
590      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
591      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
592      within the scope of the request they appear in.
593    </t>
594    <t>
595      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
596      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
597      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
598      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
599      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
600    </t>
601    </x:lt>
602  </list>
603</t>
604</section>
605</section>
606
607<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
608<t>
609   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
610   shall be updated with the registrations below:
611</t>
612<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
613<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
614<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
615   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
616   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
617   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
618   <c>401</c>
619   <c>Unauthorized</c>
620   <c>
621      <xref target="status.401"/>
622   </c>
623   <c>407</c>
624   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
625   <c>
626      <xref target="status.407"/>
627   </c>
628</texttable>
629<!--(END)-->
630<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
631</section>
632
633<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
634<t>
635   HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry
636   maintained at
637   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/>.
638</t>
639<t>
640   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
641   associated registry entries shall be updated according to the permanent
642   registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
643</t>
644<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
645<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
646<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
647   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
648   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
649   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
650   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
651
652   <c>Authorization</c>
653   <c>http</c>
654   <c>standard</c>
655   <c>
656      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
657   </c>
658   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
659   <c>http</c>
660   <c>standard</c>
661   <c>
662      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
663   </c>
664   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
665   <c>http</c>
666   <c>standard</c>
667   <c>
668      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
669   </c>
670   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
671   <c>http</c>
672   <c>standard</c>
673   <c>
674      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
675   </c>
676</texttable>
677<!--(END)-->
678<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
679<t>
680   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
681</t>
682</section>
683</section>
684
685<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
686<t>
687   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
688   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP authentication.
689   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
690   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
691</t>
692<t>
693   Everything about the topic of HTTP authentication is a security
694   consideration, so the list of considerations below is not exhaustive.
695   Furthermore, it is limited to security considerations regarding the
696   authentication framework, in general, rather than discussing all of the
697   potential considerations for specific authentication schemes (which ought
698   to be documented in the specifications that define those schemes).
699   Various organizations maintain topical information and links to current
700   research on Web application security (e.g., <xref target="OWASP"/>),
701   including common pitfalls for implementing and using the authentication
702   schemes found in practice.
703</t>
704
705<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
706<t>
707   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
708   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
709   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
710   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
711   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
712   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
713</t>
714<t>
715   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
716   application's security model include but are not limited to:
717  <list style="symbols">
718     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
719        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
720        user for credentials.</t>
721
722     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
723        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
724        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
725        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
726  </list>
727</t>
728<t>
729   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
730   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
731</t>
732</section>
733
734<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
735<t>
736  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
737  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
738  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
739  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
740  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
741  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
742</t>
743<t>
744  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
745  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
746  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
747  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
748  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
749  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
750</t>
751</section>
752</section>
753
754<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
755<t>
756  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
757  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
758  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
759  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
760  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
761  for further acknowledgements. 
762</t>
763<t>
764  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
765</t>
766</section>
767</middle>
768
769<back>
770
771<references title="Normative References">
772
773<reference anchor="Part1">
774  <front>
775    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
776    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
777      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
778      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
779    </author>
780    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
781      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
782      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
783    </author>
784    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
785  </front>
786  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
787  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
788</reference>
789
790<reference anchor="Part2">
791  <front>
792    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
793    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
794      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
795      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
796    </author>
797    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
798      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
799      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
800    </author>
801    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
802  </front>
803  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
804  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
805    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
806    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
807  </x:source>
808</reference>
809
810<reference anchor="Part6">
811  <front>
812    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
813    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
814      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
815      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
816    </author>
817    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
818      <organization>Akamai</organization>
819      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
820    </author>
821    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
822      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
823      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
824    </author>
825    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
826  </front>
827  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
828  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
829</reference>
830
831<reference anchor="RFC2119">
832  <front>
833    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
834    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
835      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
836      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
837    </author>
838    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
839  </front>
840  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
841  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
842</reference>
843
844<reference anchor="RFC5234">
845  <front>
846    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
847    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
848      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
849      <address>
850        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
851      </address> 
852    </author>
853    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
854      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
855      <address>
856        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
857      </address>
858    </author>
859    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
860  </front>
861  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
862  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
863</reference>
864
865</references>
866
867<references title="Informative References">
868
869<reference anchor="RFC2616">
870  <front>
871    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
872    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
873      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
874      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
875    </author>
876    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
877      <organization>W3C</organization>
878      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
879    </author>
880    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
881      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
882      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
883    </author>
884    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
885      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
886      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
887    </author>
888    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
889      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
890      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
891    </author>
892    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
893      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
894      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
895    </author>
896    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
897      <organization>W3C</organization>
898      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
899    </author>
900    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
901  </front>
902  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
903</reference>
904
905<reference anchor="RFC2617">
906  <front>
907    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
908    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
909      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
910      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
911    </author>
912    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
913      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
914      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
915    </author>
916    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
917      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
918      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
919    </author>
920    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
921      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
922      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
925      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
926      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
929      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
930    </author>
931    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
932      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
933      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
934    </author>
935    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
936  </front>
937  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
938</reference>
939
940<reference anchor='BCP90'>
941  <front>
942    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
943    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
944      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
945      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
946    </author>
947    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
948      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
949      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
950    </author>
951    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
952      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
953      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
954    </author>
955    <date year='2004' month='September' />
956  </front>
957  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
958  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
959</reference>
960
961<reference anchor="RFC3986">
962 <front>
963  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
964  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
965    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
966    <address>
967       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
968       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
969    </address>
970  </author>
971  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
972    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
973    <address>
974      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
975      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
976    </address>
977  </author>
978  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
979    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
980    <address>
981      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
982      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
983    </address>
984  </author>
985  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
986 </front>
987 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
988 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
989</reference>
990
991<reference anchor="RFC4648">
992  <front>
993    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
994    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
995    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
996  </front>
997  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
998</reference>
999
1000<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1001  <front>
1002    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1003    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1004      <organization>IBM</organization>
1005      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1006    </author>
1007    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1008      <organization>Google</organization>
1009      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1010    </author>
1011    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1012  </front>
1013  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1014  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1015</reference>
1016
1017<reference anchor="OWASP" target="https://www.owasp.org/">
1018        <front>
1019    <title abbrev="OWASP">A Guide to Building Secure Web Applications and Web Services</title>
1020    <author role="editor" initials="A." surname="van der Stock"
1021            fullname="Andrew van der Stock"/>
1022    <date month="July" day="27" year="2005"/>
1023  </front>
1024  <seriesInfo name="The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP)" value="2.0.1"/>
1025</reference>
1026
1027<reference anchor='RFC5246'>
1028   <front>
1029      <title>The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2</title>
1030      <author initials='T.' surname='Dierks' fullname='T. Dierks'/>
1031      <author initials='E.' surname='Rescorla' fullname='E. Rescorla'>
1032         <organization>RTFM, Inc.</organization>
1033      </author>
1034      <date year='2008' month='August' />
1035   </front>
1036   <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5246' />
1037</reference>
1038
1039</references>
1040
1041<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1042<t>
1043  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1044  rather than RFC 2617.
1045</t>
1046<t>
1047  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1048  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1049  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1050</t>
1051<t>
1052  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1053  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1054  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1055</t>
1056<t>
1057  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1058  considerations for new authentication schemes.
1059  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1060</t>
1061</section>
1062 
1063<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1064  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1065  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1066  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1067  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1068  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1069  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1070  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1071  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1072  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1073  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1074  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1075<t>
1076  The following core rules are included by
1077  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1078  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1079  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1080  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1081  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1082  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1083</t>
1084<t>
1085   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1086</t>
1087<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1088  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1089  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1090  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1091  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1092</artwork></figure>
1093</section>
1094
1095<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1096<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1097<t>
1098  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="Part1" x:rel="#notation"/>.
1099</t><figure>
1100<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1101<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1102
1103<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1104
1105<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1106
1107<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1108 challenge ] )
1109<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1110
1111<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1112 ] )
1113
1114<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1115<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1116
1117<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1118 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1119<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1120 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1121
1122<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1123
1124<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1125<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1126 *"="
1127</artwork>
1128</figure>
1129</section>
1130<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1131
1132<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1133<t>
1134  Changes up to the IETF Last Call draft are summarized
1135  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24#appendix-D"/>.
1136</t>
1137
1138<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24" anchor="changes.since.24">
1139<t>
1140  Closed issues:
1141  <list style="symbols">
1142    <t>
1143      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/510"/>:
1144      "SECDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1145    </t>
1146    <t>
1147      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/513"/>:
1148      "APPSDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1149    </t>
1150    <t>
1151      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/516"/>:
1152      "note about WWW-A parsing potentially misleading"
1153    </t>
1154  </list>
1155</t>
1156</section>
1157
1158<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25" anchor="changes.since.25">
1159<t>
1160  Closed issues:
1161  <list style="symbols">
1162    <t>
1163      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/522"/>:
1164      "Gen-art review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1165    </t>
1166    <t>
1167      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/536"/>:
1168      "IESG ballot on draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1169    </t>
1170    <t>
1171      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/538"/>:
1172      "add 'stateless' to Abstract"
1173    </t>
1174    <t>
1175      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/539"/>:
1176      "mention TLS vs plain text passwords or dict attacks?"
1177    </t>
1178    <t>
1179      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/542"/>:
1180      "improve introduction of list rule"
1181    </t>
1182    <t>
1183      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/549"/>:
1184      "augment security considerations with pointers to current research"
1185    </t>
1186  </list>
1187</t>
1188</section>
1189</section>
1190
1191</back>
1192</rfc>
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