source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2568

Last change on this file since 2568 was 2568, checked in by fielding@…, 6 years ago

(editorial) update security section intro for p7; see #520 and #549

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "January">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2014">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-request-directive.no-store' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
35]>
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
50     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
52<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
53<front>
54
55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
56
57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
59    <address>
60      <postal>
61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
63        <region>CA</region>
64        <code>95110</code>
65        <country>USA</country>
66      </postal>
67      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
68      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
69    </address>
70  </author>
71
72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
80      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
81      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
82    </address>
83  </author>
84
85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
86  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
87
88<abstract>
89<t>
90   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level protocol for
91   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
92   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
93</t>
94</abstract>
95
96<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
97  <t>
98    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
99    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
100    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
101  </t>
102  <t>
103    The current issues list is at
104    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
105    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
106    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
107  </t>
108  <t>
109    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.25"/>.
110  </t>
111</note>
112</front>
113<middle>
114<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
115<t>
116   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
117   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
118   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
119   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
120   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
121</t>
122<t>
123   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
124   schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
125   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
126   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
127   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
128</t>
129
130<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
131<t>
132   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
133   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
134   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
135</t>
136<t>
137   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
138   are defined in &conformance;.
139</t>
140</section>
141
142<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
143<t>
144   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
145   <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list extension, defined in
146   &abnf-extension;, that allows for compact definition of
147   comma-separated lists using a '#' operator (similar to how the '*' operator
148   indicates repetition).
149   <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
150   other documents.
151   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected grammar with all list
152   operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
153</t>
154</section>
155</section>
156
157<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
158
159<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
160  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
161  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
162  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
163  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
164  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
165<t>
166   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
167   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
168   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
169   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
170   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
171   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
172   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
173   information.
174</t>
175<t>
176   Authentication parameters are name=value pairs, where the name token is
177   matched case-insensitively,
178   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
179</t>
180<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
181  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
182 
183  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
184
185  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
186                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
187</artwork></figure>
188<t>
189   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
190   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
191   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
192   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
193</t>
194<t>
195   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
196   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
197   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
198   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
199</t>
200<t>  
201   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
202   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
203   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
204   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
205</t>
206<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
207  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
208</artwork></figure>
209<x:note>
210  <t>
211     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
212     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
213     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
214  </t>
215</x:note>
216<t>
217   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
218   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
219   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
220   request.
221</t>
222<t>  
223   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
224   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
225   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
226   request.
227</t>
228<t>
229   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
230   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
231   requested, based upon a challenge received in a response (possibly at
232   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
233   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
234   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
235   as appropriate.
236</t>
237<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
238  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
239</artwork></figure>
240<t>
241   Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials,
242   contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials
243   (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an
244   origin server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response that
245   contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
246   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
247</t>
248<t>
249   Likewise, upon receipt of a request that requires authentication by proxies
250   that omit credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy
251   &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response
252   that contains a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with a
253   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
254</t>
255<t>
256   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
257   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
258</t>
259<t>
260   HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response
261   framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms can be used, such
262   as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation, and
263   with additional header fields specifying authentication information. However,
264   such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
265</t>
266<t>
267   A proxy &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
268   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
269   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
270</t>
271</section>
272
273<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
274  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
275  <iref item="Realm"/>
276  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
277<t>
278   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
279   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
280</t>
281<t>
282   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
283   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
284   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
285   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
286   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
287   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
288   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
289   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
290   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
291   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
292   different realms.
293</t>
294<t>
295   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
296   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
297   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
298   that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
299   scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable
300   inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the authentication
301   scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its
302   server.
303</t>
304<t>
305   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
306   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
307   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
308   notations for a long time.
309</t>
310</section>
311
312</section>
313
314<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
315<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
316  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
317  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
318<t>
319   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
320   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
321   credentials for the target resource. The origin server &MUST; send a
322   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
323   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
324   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
325   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
326   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
327   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
328   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
329   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
330   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
331   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
332</t>
333</section>
334<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
335  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
336  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
337<t>
338   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
339   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
340   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
341   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
342   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
343   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
344   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
345   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
346</t>
347</section>
348</section>
349
350<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
351<t>
352   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
353   related to authentication.
354</t>
355
356<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
357  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
358  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
359<t>
360   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
361   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
362   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
363   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
364   the realm of the resource being requested.
365</t>
366<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
367  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
368</artwork></figure>
369<t>
370   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
371   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
372   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
373   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
374   clocks).
375</t>
376<t>
377   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
378   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
379</t>
380</section>
381
382<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
383  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
384  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
385<t>
386   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
387   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
388   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI
389   (&effective-request-uri;).
390   A proxy &MUST; send at least one Proxy-Authenticate header field in
391   each <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that it
392   generates.
393</t>
394<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
395  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
396</artwork></figure>
397<t>
398   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
399   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain.
400   This is because only the client that chose a given proxy is likely to have
401   the credentials necessary for authentication.  However, when multiple
402   proxies are used within the same administrative domain, such as office and
403   regional caching proxies within a large corporate network, it is common
404   for credentials to be generated by the user agent and passed through the
405   hierarchy until consumed.  Hence, in such a configuration, it will appear
406   as if Proxy-Authenticate is being forwarded because each proxy will send
407   the same challenge set.
408</t>
409<t>
410   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
411   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
412   for details.
413</t>
414</section>
415
416<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
417  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
418  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
419<t>
420   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
421   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
422   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
423   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
424   resource being requested.
425</t>
426<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
427  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
428</artwork></figure>
429<t>
430   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
431   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
432   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
433   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
434   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
435   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
436   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
437   request.
438</t>
439</section>
440
441<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
442  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
443  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
444<t>
445   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
446   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
447   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
448</t>
449<t>  
450   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
451   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
452   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
453</t>
454<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
455  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
456</artwork></figure>
457<t>
458   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as
459   it might contain more than one challenge, and each challenge can contain a
460   comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header
461   field itself can occur multiple times.
462</t>
463<figure>
464  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
465  <artwork type="example">
466  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
467                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
468</artwork>
469  <postamble>
470  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
471  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
472  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
473  "simple".
474</postamble></figure>
475<x:note>
476  <t>
477    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
478    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
479    considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
480    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
481    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
482    harmless.
483  </t>
484</x:note>
485</section>
486
487</section>
488
489<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
490
491<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
492<t>
493   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
494   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
495   maintained at (the suggested URI) <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
496</t>
497
498<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
499<t>
500  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
501  <list style="symbols">
502    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
503    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
504    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
505  </list>
506</t>
507<t>
508  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
509  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
510</t>
511</section>
512
513<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
514<t>
515  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
516  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
517</t>
518<t>
519  <list style="symbols">
520    <x:lt>
521    <t>
522      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
523      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
524      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
525      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
526      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
527      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
528      party other than the authenticated user
529      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
530    </t>
531    </x:lt>
532    <x:lt>
533    <t>
534      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
535      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
536      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
537    </t>
538    </x:lt>
539    <x:lt>
540    <t>
541      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
542      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
543      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
544      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
545    </t>
546    </x:lt>
547    <x:lt>
548    <t>
549      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
550      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
551      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
552      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
553      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
554      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
555      all authentication schemes.
556    </t>
557    <t>
558      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
559      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
560      for new parameters.
561    </t>
562    </x:lt>
563    <x:lt>
564    <t>
565      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
566      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
567      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
568      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
569      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
570      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
571    </t>
572    </x:lt>
573    <x:lt>
574    <t>
575      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
576      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
577      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
578    </t>
579    </x:lt>
580    <x:lt>
581    <t>
582      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
583      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
584      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
585      within the scope of the request they appear in.
586    </t>
587    <t>
588      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
589      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
590      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
591      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
592      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
593    </t>
594    </x:lt>
595  </list>
596</t>
597</section>
598</section>
599
600<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
601<t>
602   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
603   shall be updated with the registrations below:
604</t>
605<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
606<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
607<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
608   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
609   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
610   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
611   <c>401</c>
612   <c>Unauthorized</c>
613   <c>
614      <xref target="status.401"/>
615   </c>
616   <c>407</c>
617   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
618   <c>
619      <xref target="status.407"/>
620   </c>
621</texttable>
622<!--(END)-->
623<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
624</section>
625
626<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
627<t>
628   HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry
629   maintained at
630   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/>.
631</t>
632<t>
633   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
634   associated registry entries shall be updated according to the permanent
635   registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
636</t>
637<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
638<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
639<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
640   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
641   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
642   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
643   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
644
645   <c>Authorization</c>
646   <c>http</c>
647   <c>standard</c>
648   <c>
649      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
650   </c>
651   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
652   <c>http</c>
653   <c>standard</c>
654   <c>
655      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
656   </c>
657   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
658   <c>http</c>
659   <c>standard</c>
660   <c>
661      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
662   </c>
663   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
664   <c>http</c>
665   <c>standard</c>
666   <c>
667      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
668   </c>
669</texttable>
670<!--(END)-->
671<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
672<t>
673   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
674</t>
675</section>
676</section>
677
678<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
679<t>
680   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
681   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP authentication.
682   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
683   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
684</t>
685<t>
686   Everything about the topic of HTTP authentication is a security
687   consideration, so the list of considerations below is not exhaustive.
688   Furthermore, it is limited to security considerations regarding the
689   authentication framework, in general, rather than discussing all of the
690   potential considerations for specific authentication schemes (which ought
691   to be documented in the specifications that define those schemes).
692   Various organizations maintain topical information and links to current
693   research on Web application security (e.g., <xref target="OWASP"/>),
694   including common pitfalls for implementing and using the authentication
695   schemes found in practice.
696</t>
697
698<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
699<t>
700   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
701   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
702   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
703   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
704   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
705   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
706</t>
707<t>
708   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
709   application's security model include but are not limited to:
710  <list style="symbols">
711     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
712        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
713        user for credentials.</t>
714
715     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
716        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
717        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
718        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
719  </list>
720</t>
721<t>
722   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
723   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
724</t>
725</section>
726
727<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
728<t>
729  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
730  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
731  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
732  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
733  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
734  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
735</t>
736<t>
737  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
738  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
739  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
740  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
741  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
742  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
743</t>
744</section>
745</section>
746
747<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
748<t>
749  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
750  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
751  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
752  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
753  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
754  for further acknowledgements. 
755</t>
756<t>
757  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
758</t>
759</section>
760</middle>
761
762<back>
763
764<references title="Normative References">
765
766<reference anchor="Part1">
767  <front>
768    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
769    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
770      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
771      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
772    </author>
773    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
774      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
775      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
776    </author>
777    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
778  </front>
779  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
780  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
781</reference>
782
783<reference anchor="Part2">
784  <front>
785    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
786    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
787      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
788      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
789    </author>
790    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
791      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
792      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
793    </author>
794    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
795  </front>
796  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
797  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
798    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
799    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
800  </x:source>
801</reference>
802
803<reference anchor="Part6">
804  <front>
805    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
806    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
807      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
808      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
809    </author>
810    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
811      <organization>Akamai</organization>
812      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
813    </author>
814    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
815      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
816      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
817    </author>
818    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
819  </front>
820  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
821  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
822</reference>
823
824<reference anchor="RFC2119">
825  <front>
826    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
827    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
828      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
829      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
830    </author>
831    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
832  </front>
833  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
834  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
835</reference>
836
837<reference anchor="RFC5234">
838  <front>
839    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
840    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
841      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
842      <address>
843        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
844      </address> 
845    </author>
846    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
847      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
848      <address>
849        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
850      </address>
851    </author>
852    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
853  </front>
854  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
855  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
856</reference>
857
858</references>
859
860<references title="Informative References">
861
862<reference anchor="RFC2616">
863  <front>
864    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
865    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
866      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
867      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
868    </author>
869    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
870      <organization>W3C</organization>
871      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
872    </author>
873    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
874      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
875      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
876    </author>
877    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
878      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
879      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
880    </author>
881    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
882      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
883      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
884    </author>
885    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
886      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
887      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
888    </author>
889    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
890      <organization>W3C</organization>
891      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
892    </author>
893    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
894  </front>
895  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
896</reference>
897
898<reference anchor="RFC2617">
899  <front>
900    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
901    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
902      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
903      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
904    </author>
905    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
906      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
907      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
908    </author>
909    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
910      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
911      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
912    </author>
913    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
914      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
915      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
916    </author>
917    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
918      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
919      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
920    </author>
921    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
922      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
923    </author>
924    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
925      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
926      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
927    </author>
928    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
929  </front>
930  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
931</reference>
932
933<reference anchor='BCP90'>
934  <front>
935    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
936    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
937      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
938      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
939    </author>
940    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
941      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
942      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
943    </author>
944    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
945      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
946      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
947    </author>
948    <date year='2004' month='September' />
949  </front>
950  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
951  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
952</reference>
953
954<reference anchor="RFC3986">
955 <front>
956  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
957  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
958    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
959    <address>
960       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
961       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
962    </address>
963  </author>
964  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
965    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
966    <address>
967      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
968      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
969    </address>
970  </author>
971  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
972    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
973    <address>
974      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
975      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
976    </address>
977  </author>
978  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
979 </front>
980 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
981 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
982</reference>
983
984<reference anchor="RFC4648">
985  <front>
986    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
987    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
988    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
989  </front>
990  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
991</reference>
992
993<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
994  <front>
995    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
996    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
997      <organization>IBM</organization>
998      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
999    </author>
1000    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1001      <organization>Google</organization>
1002      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1003    </author>
1004    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1005  </front>
1006  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1007  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1008</reference>
1009
1010<reference anchor="OWASP" target="https://www.owasp.org/">
1011        <front>
1012    <title abbrev="OWASP">A Guide to Building Secure Web Applications and Web Services</title>
1013    <author role="editor" initials="A." surname="van der Stock"
1014            fullname="Andrew van der Stock"/>
1015    <date month="July" day="27" year="2005"/>
1016  </front>
1017  <seriesInfo name="The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP)" value="2.0.1"/>
1018</reference>
1019
1020</references>
1021
1022<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1023<t>
1024  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1025  rather than RFC 2617.
1026</t>
1027<t>
1028  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1029  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1030  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1031</t>
1032<t>
1033  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1034  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1035  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1036</t>
1037<t>
1038  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1039  considerations for new authentication schemes.
1040  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1041</t>
1042</section>
1043 
1044<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1045  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1046  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1047  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1048  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1049  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1050  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1051  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1052  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1053  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1054  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1055  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1056<t>
1057  The following core rules are included by
1058  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1059  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1060  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1061  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1062  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1063  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1064</t>
1065<t>
1066   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1067</t>
1068<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1069  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1070  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1071  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1072  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1073</artwork></figure>
1074</section>
1075
1076<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1077<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1078<t>
1079  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="Part1" x:rel="#notation"/>.
1080</t><figure>
1081<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1082<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1083
1084<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1085
1086<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1087
1088<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1089 challenge ] )
1090<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1091
1092<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1093 ] )
1094
1095<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1096<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1097
1098<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1099 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1100<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1101 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1102
1103<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1104
1105<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1106<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1107 *"="
1108</artwork>
1109</figure>
1110</section>
1111<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1112
1113<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1114<t>
1115  Changes up to the IETF Last Call draft are summarized
1116  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24#appendix-D"/>.
1117</t>
1118
1119<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24" anchor="changes.since.24">
1120<t>
1121  Closed issues:
1122  <list style="symbols">
1123    <t>
1124      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/510"/>:
1125      "SECDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1126    </t>
1127    <t>
1128      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/513"/>:
1129      "APPSDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1130    </t>
1131    <t>
1132      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/516"/>:
1133      "note about WWW-A parsing potentially misleading"
1134    </t>
1135  </list>
1136</t>
1137</section>
1138
1139<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25" anchor="changes.since.25">
1140<t>
1141  Closed issues:
1142  <list style="symbols">
1143    <t>
1144      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/522"/>:
1145      "Gen-art review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1146    </t>
1147    <t>
1148      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/536"/>:
1149      "IESG ballot on draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1150    </t>
1151    <t>
1152      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/538"/>:
1153      "add 'stateless' to Abstract"
1154    </t>
1155    <t>
1156      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/542"/>:
1157      "improve introduction of list rule"
1158    </t>
1159    <t>
1160      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/549"/>:
1161      "augment security considerations with pointers to current research"
1162    </t>
1163  </list>
1164</t>
1165</section>
1166</section>
1167
1168</back>
1169</rfc>
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