source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2530

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "January">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2014">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-request-directive.no-store' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
35]>
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
50     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
52<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
53<front>
54
55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
56
57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
59    <address>
60      <postal>
61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
63        <region>CA</region>
64        <code>95110</code>
65        <country>USA</country>
66      </postal>
67      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
68      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
69    </address>
70  </author>
71
72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
80      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
81      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
82    </address>
83  </author>
84
85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
86  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
87
88<abstract>
89<t>
90   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
91   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
92   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
93</t>
94</abstract>
95
96<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
97  <t>
98    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
99    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
100    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
101  </t>
102  <t>
103    The current issues list is at
104    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
105    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
106    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
107  </t>
108  <t>
109    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.25"/>.
110  </t>
111</note>
112</front>
113<middle>
114<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
115<t>
116   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
117   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
118   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
119   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
120   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
121</t>
122<t>
123   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
124   schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
125   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
126   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
127   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
128</t>
129
130<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
131<t>
132   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
133   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
134   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
135</t>
136<t>
137   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
138   are defined in &conformance;.
139</t>
140</section>
141
142<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
143<t>
144   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
145   <xref target="RFC5234"/> with an extension defined in &abnf-extension;
146   that adds compact support for comma-separated lists with the addition of a
147   '#' operator, similar to the '*' operator.
148   <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
149   other documents.
150   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF with the rules using
151   the list operator expanded to standard ABNF notation.
152</t>
153</section>
154</section>
155
156<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
157
158<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
159  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
160  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
161  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
162  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
163  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
164<t>
165   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
166   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
167   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
168   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
169   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
170   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
171   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
172   information.
173</t>
174<t>
175   Authentication parameters are name=value pairs, where the name token is
176   matched case-insensitively,
177   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
178</t>
179<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
180  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
181 
182  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
183
184  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
185                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
186</artwork></figure>
187<t>
188   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
189   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
190   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
191   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
192</t>
193<t>
194   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
195   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
196   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
197   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
198</t>
199<t>  
200   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
201   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
202   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
203   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
204</t>
205<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
206  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
207</artwork></figure>
208<x:note>
209  <t>
210     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
211     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
212     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
213  </t>
214</x:note>
215<t>
216   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
217   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
218   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
219   request.
220</t>
221<t>  
222   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
223   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
224   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
225   request.
226</t>
227<t>
228   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
229   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
230   requested, based upon a challenge received in a response (possibly at
231   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
232   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
233   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
234   as appropriate.
235</t>
236<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
237  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
238</artwork></figure>
239<t>
240   Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials,
241   contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials
242   (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an
243   origin server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response that
244   contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
245   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
246</t>
247<t>
248   Likewise, upon receipt of a request that requires authentication by proxies
249   that omit credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy
250   &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response
251   that contains a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with a
252   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
253</t>
254<t>
255   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
256   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
257</t>
258<t>
259   HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response
260   framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms can be used, such
261   as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation, and
262   with additional header fields specifying authentication information. However,
263   such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
264</t>
265<t>
266   A proxy &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
267   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
268   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
269</t>
270</section>
271
272<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
273  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
274  <iref item="Realm"/>
275  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
276<t>
277   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
278   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
279</t>
280<t>
281   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
282   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
283   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
284   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
285   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
286   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
287   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
288   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
289   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
290   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
291   different realms.
292</t>
293<t>
294   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
295   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
296   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
297   that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
298   scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable
299   inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the authentication
300   scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its
301   server.
302</t>
303<t>
304   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
305   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
306   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
307   notations for a long time.
308</t>
309</section>
310
311</section>
312
313<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
314<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
315  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
317<t>
318   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
319   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
320   credentials for the target resource. The origin server &MUST; send a
321   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
322   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
323   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
324   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
325   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
326   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
327   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
328   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
329   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
330   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
331</t>
332</section>
333<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
334  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
335  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
336<t>
337   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
338   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
339   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
340   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
341   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
342   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
343   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
344   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
345</t>
346</section>
347</section>
348
349<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
350<t>
351   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
352   related to authentication.
353</t>
354
355<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
356  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
357  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
358<t>
359   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
360   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
361   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
362   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
363   the realm of the resource being requested.
364</t>
365<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
366  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
367</artwork></figure>
368<t>
369   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
370   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
371   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
372   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
373   clocks).
374</t>
375<t>
376   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
377   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
378</t>
379</section>
380
381<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
382  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
383  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
384<t>
385   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
386   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
387   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
388   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
389</t>
390<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
391  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
392</artwork></figure>
393<t>
394   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
395   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain that chose
396   to direct its request to the responding proxy. If that recipient is also a
397   proxy, it will generally consume the Proxy-Authenticate header field (and
398   generate an appropriate <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> in a subsequent
399   request) rather than forward the header field to its own outbound clients.
400   However, if a recipient proxy needs to obtain its own credentials by
401   requesting them from a further outbound client, it will generate its own
402   407 response, and this might have the appearance of forwarding the
403   Proxy-Authenticate header field if both proxies use the same challenge set.
404</t>
405<t>
406   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
407   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
408   for details.
409</t>
410</section>
411
412<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
413  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
414  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
415<t>
416   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
417   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
418   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
419   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
420   resource being requested.
421</t>
422<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
423  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
424</artwork></figure>
425<t>
426   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
427   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
428   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
429   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
430   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
431   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
432   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
433   request.
434</t>
435</section>
436
437<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
438  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
439  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
440<t>
441   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
442   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
443   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
444</t>
445<t>  
446   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
447   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
448   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
449</t>
450<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
451  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
452</artwork></figure>
453<t>
454   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as
455   it might contain more than one challenge, and each challenge can contain a
456   comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header
457   field itself can occur multiple times.
458</t>
459<figure>
460  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
461  <artwork type="example">
462  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
463                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
464</artwork>
465  <postamble>
466  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
467  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
468  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
469  "simple".
470</postamble></figure>
471<x:note>
472  <t>
473    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
474    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
475    considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
476    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
477    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
478    harmless.
479  </t>
480</x:note>
481</section>
482
483</section>
484
485<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
486
487<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
488<t>
489   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
490   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
491   maintained at (the suggested URI) <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
492</t>
493
494<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
495<t>
496  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
497  <list style="symbols">
498    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
499    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
500    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
501  </list>
502</t>
503<t>
504  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
505  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
506</t>
507</section>
508
509<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
510<t>
511  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
512  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
513</t>
514<t>
515  <list style="symbols">
516    <x:lt>
517    <t>
518      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
519      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
520      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
521      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
522      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
523      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
524      party other than the authenticated user
525      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
526    </t>
527    </x:lt>
528    <x:lt>
529    <t>
530      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
531      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
532      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
533    </t>
534    </x:lt>
535    <x:lt>
536    <t>
537      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
538      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
539      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
540      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
541    </t>
542    </x:lt>
543    <x:lt>
544    <t>
545      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
546      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
547      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
548      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
549      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
550      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
551      all authentication schemes.
552    </t>
553    <t>
554      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
555      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
556      for new parameters.
557    </t>
558    </x:lt>
559    <x:lt>
560    <t>
561      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
562      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
563      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
564      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
565      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
566      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
567    </t>
568    </x:lt>
569    <x:lt>
570    <t>
571      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
572      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
573      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
574    </t>
575    </x:lt>
576    <x:lt>
577    <t>
578      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
579      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
580      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
581      within the scope of the request they appear in.
582    </t>
583    <t>
584      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
585      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
586      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
587      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
588      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
589    </t>
590    </x:lt>
591  </list>
592</t>
593</section>
594</section>
595
596<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
597<t>
598   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
599   shall be updated with the registrations below:
600</t>
601<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
602<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
603<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
604   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
605   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
606   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
607   <c>401</c>
608   <c>Unauthorized</c>
609   <c>
610      <xref target="status.401"/>
611   </c>
612   <c>407</c>
613   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
614   <c>
615      <xref target="status.407"/>
616   </c>
617</texttable>
618<!--(END)-->
619<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
620</section>
621
622<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
623<t>
624   HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry
625   maintained at
626   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/>.
627</t>
628<t>
629   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
630   associated registry entries shall be updated according to the permanent
631   registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
632</t>
633<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
634<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
635<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
636   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
637   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
638   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
639   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
640
641   <c>Authorization</c>
642   <c>http</c>
643   <c>standard</c>
644   <c>
645      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
646   </c>
647   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
648   <c>http</c>
649   <c>standard</c>
650   <c>
651      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
652   </c>
653   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
654   <c>http</c>
655   <c>standard</c>
656   <c>
657      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
658   </c>
659   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
660   <c>http</c>
661   <c>standard</c>
662   <c>
663      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
664   </c>
665</texttable>
666<!--(END)-->
667<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
668<t>
669   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
670</t>
671</section>
672</section>
673
674<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
675<t>
676   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
677   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP/1.1 authentication.
678   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
679   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
680</t>
681
682<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
683<t>
684   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
685   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
686   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
687   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
688   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
689   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
690</t>
691<t>
692   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
693   application's security model include but are not limited to:
694  <list style="symbols">
695     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
696        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
697        user for credentials.</t>
698
699     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
700        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
701        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
702        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
703  </list>
704</t>
705<t>
706   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
707   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
708</t>
709</section>
710
711<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
712<t>
713  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
714  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
715  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
716  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
717  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
718  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
719</t>
720<t>
721  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
722  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
723  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
724  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
725  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
726  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
727</t>
728</section>
729</section>
730
731<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
732<t>
733  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
734  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
735  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
736  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
737  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
738  for further acknowledgements. 
739</t>
740<t>
741  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
742</t>
743</section>
744</middle>
745
746<back>
747
748<references title="Normative References">
749
750<reference anchor="Part1">
751  <front>
752    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
753    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
754      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
755      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
756    </author>
757    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
758      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
759      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
760    </author>
761    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
762  </front>
763  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
764  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
765</reference>
766
767<reference anchor="Part2">
768  <front>
769    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
770    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
771      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
772      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
773    </author>
774    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
775      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
776      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
777    </author>
778    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
779  </front>
780  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
781  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
782    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
783    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
784  </x:source>
785</reference>
786
787<reference anchor="Part6">
788  <front>
789    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
790    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
791      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
792      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
793    </author>
794    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
795      <organization>Akamai</organization>
796      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
797    </author>
798    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
799      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
800      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
801    </author>
802    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
803  </front>
804  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
805  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
806</reference>
807
808<reference anchor="RFC2119">
809  <front>
810    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
811    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
812      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
813      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
814    </author>
815    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
816  </front>
817  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
818  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
819</reference>
820
821<reference anchor="RFC5234">
822  <front>
823    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
824    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
825      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
826      <address>
827        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
828      </address> 
829    </author>
830    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
831      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
832      <address>
833        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
834      </address>
835    </author>
836    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
837  </front>
838  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
839  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
840</reference>
841
842</references>
843
844<references title="Informative References">
845
846<reference anchor="RFC2616">
847  <front>
848    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
849    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
850      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
851      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
852    </author>
853    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
854      <organization>W3C</organization>
855      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
856    </author>
857    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
858      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
859      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
860    </author>
861    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
862      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
863      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
864    </author>
865    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
866      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
867      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
868    </author>
869    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
870      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
871      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
872    </author>
873    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
874      <organization>W3C</organization>
875      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
876    </author>
877    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
878  </front>
879  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
880</reference>
881
882<reference anchor="RFC2617">
883  <front>
884    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
885    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
886      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
887      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
888    </author>
889    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
890      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
891      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
892    </author>
893    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
894      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
895      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
896    </author>
897    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
898      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
899      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
900    </author>
901    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
902      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
903      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
904    </author>
905    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
906      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
907    </author>
908    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
909      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
910      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
911    </author>
912    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
913  </front>
914  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
915</reference>
916
917<reference anchor='BCP90'>
918  <front>
919    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
920    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
921      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
922      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
925      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
926      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
929      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
930      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
931    </author>
932    <date year='2004' month='September' />
933  </front>
934  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
935  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
936</reference>
937
938<reference anchor="RFC3986">
939 <front>
940  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
941  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
942    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
943    <address>
944       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
945       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
946    </address>
947  </author>
948  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
949    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
950    <address>
951      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
952      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
953    </address>
954  </author>
955  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
956    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
957    <address>
958      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
959      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
960    </address>
961  </author>
962  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
963 </front>
964 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
965 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
966</reference>
967
968<reference anchor="RFC4648">
969  <front>
970    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
971    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
972    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
973  </front>
974  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
975</reference>
976
977<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
978  <front>
979    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
980    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
981      <organization>IBM</organization>
982      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
983    </author>
984    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
985      <organization>Google</organization>
986      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
987    </author>
988    <date year='2008' month='May' />
989  </front>
990  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
991  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
992</reference>
993
994</references>
995
996<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
997<t>
998  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
999  rather than RFC 2617.
1000</t>
1001<t>
1002  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1003  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1004  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1005</t>
1006<t>
1007  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1008  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1009  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1010</t>
1011<t>
1012  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1013  considerations for new authentication schemes.
1014  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1015</t>
1016</section>
1017 
1018<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1019  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1020  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1021  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1022  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1023  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1024  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1025  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1026  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1027  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1028  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1029  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1030<t>
1031  The following core rules are included by
1032  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1033  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1034  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1035  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1036  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1037  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1038</t>
1039<t>
1040   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1041</t>
1042<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1043  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1044  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1045  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1046  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1047</artwork></figure>
1048</section>
1049
1050<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1051<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1052<t>
1053  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="Part1" x:rel="#notation"/>.
1054</t><figure>
1055<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1056<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1057
1058<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1059
1060<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1061
1062<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1063 challenge ] )
1064<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1065
1066<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1067 ] )
1068
1069<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1070<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1071
1072<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1073 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1074<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1075 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1076
1077<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1078
1079<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1080<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1081 *"="
1082</artwork>
1083</figure>
1084</section>
1085<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1086
1087<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1088<t>
1089  Changes up to the IETF Last Call draft are summarized
1090  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24#appendix-D"/>.
1091</t>
1092
1093<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24" anchor="changes.since.24">
1094<t>
1095  Closed issues:
1096  <list style="symbols">
1097    <t>
1098      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/510"/>:
1099      "SECDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1100    </t>
1101    <t>
1102      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/513"/>:
1103      "APPSDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1104    </t>
1105    <t>
1106      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/516"/>:
1107      "note about WWW-A parsing potentially misleading"
1108    </t>
1109  </list>
1110</t>
1111</section>
1112
1113<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25" anchor="changes.since.25">
1114<t>
1115  Closed issues:
1116  <list style="symbols">
1117    <t>
1118      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/522"/>:
1119      "Gen-art review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1120    </t>
1121    <t>
1122      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/536"/>:
1123      "IESG ballot on draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25"
1124    </t>
1125    <t>
1126      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/542"/>:
1127      "improve introduction of list rule"
1128    </t>
1129  </list>
1130</t>
1131</section>
1132</section>
1133
1134</back>
1135</rfc>
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