source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2052

Last change on this file since 2052 was 2052, checked in by fielding@…, 7 years ago

editorial fixes in methods; use send instead of return, sent instead of returned; partly addresses #419

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "December">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31]>
32<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
33<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
34<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
35<?rfc compact="yes"?>
36<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
37<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
38<?rfc editing="no" ?>
39<?rfc comments="yes"?>
40<?rfc inline="yes"?>
41<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
42<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
43<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
44<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
45     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
46     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
47<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
48<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
49<front>
50
51  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
52
53  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
54    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
55    <address>
56      <postal>
57        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
58        <city>San Jose</city>
59        <region>CA</region>
60        <code>95110</code>
61        <country>USA</country>
62      </postal>
63      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
64      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
65    </address>
66  </author>
67
68  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
69    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
70    <address>
71      <postal>
72        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
73        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
74        <country>Germany</country>
75      </postal>
76      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
77      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
78    </address>
79  </author>
80
81  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
82  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
83
84<abstract>
85<t>
86   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
87   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
88   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
89</t>
90</abstract>
91
92<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
93  <t>
94    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
95    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
96    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
97  </t>
98  <t>
99    The current issues list is at
100    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
101    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
102    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
103  </t>
104  <t>
105    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.21"/>.
106  </t>
107</note>
108</front>
109<middle>
110<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
111<t>
112   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
113   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
114   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
115   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
116   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
117</t>
118<t>
119   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
120   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
121   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
122   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
123   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
124</t>
125
126<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
127<t>
128   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
129   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
130   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
131</t>
132<t>
133   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
134   are defined in &conformance;.
135</t>
136</section>
137
138<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
139<t>
140   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
141   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
142   &notation;. <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
143   other documents. <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
144   with the list rule expanded.
145</t>
146</section>
147</section>
148
149<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
150
151<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
152  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
153  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
154  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
155  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
156  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
157<t>
158   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
159   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
160   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
161   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
162   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
163   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
164   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
165   information.
166</t>
167<t>
168   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
169   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
170</t>
171<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
172  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
173 
174  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
175
176  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
177                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
178</artwork></figure>
179<t>
180   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
181   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
182   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
183   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
184</t>
185<t>
186   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
187   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
188   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
189   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
190</t>
191<t>   
192   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
193   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
194   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
195   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
196</t>
197<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
198  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
199</artwork></figure>
200<x:note>
201  <t>
202     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
203     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
204     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
205     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
206     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
207  </t>
208</x:note>
209<x:note>
210  <t>
211     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
212     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
213     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
214  </t>
215</x:note>
216<t>
217   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
218   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
219   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
220   request.
221</t>
222<t>   
223   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
224   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
225   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
226   request.
227</t>
228<t>
229   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
230   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
231   requested, based upon a challenge received from the server (possibly at
232   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
233   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
234   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
235   as appropriate.
236</t>
237<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
238  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
239</artwork></figure>
240<t>
241   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
242   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
243   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
244   server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Such
245   responses &MUST; include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
246   containing at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the
247   requested resource.
248</t>
249<t>
250   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
251   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
252   send a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response. Such responses
253   &MUST; include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing a (possibly
254   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
255</t>
256<t>
257   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
258   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
259</t>
260<t>
261   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
262   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
263   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
264   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
265   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
266   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
267</t>
268<t>
269   Proxies &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
270   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
271   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
272</t>
273</section>
274
275<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
276  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
277  <iref item="Realm"/>
278  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
279<t>
280   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
281   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
282</t>
283<t>
284   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
285   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
286   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
287   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
288   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
289   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
290   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
291   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
292   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
293   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
294   different realms.
295</t>
296<t>
297   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
298   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
299   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
300   protection space for a period of time determined by the
301   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
302   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
303   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
304</t>
305<t>
306   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
307   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
308   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
309   notations for a long time.
310</t>
311</section>
312
313<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
314<t>
315  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
316  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
317</t>
318<t>
319  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
320  <list style="symbols">
321    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
322    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
323    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
324  </list>
325</t>
326<t>
327  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
328  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
329</t>
330<t>
331  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
332</t>
333
334<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
335<t>
336  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
337  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
338</t>
339<t>
340  <list style="symbols">
341    <x:lt>
342    <t>
343      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
344      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
345      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
346      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
347      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
348      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
349      party other than the authenticated user
350      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
351    </t>
352    </x:lt>
353    <x:lt>
354    <t>
355      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
356      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
357      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
358    </t>
359    </x:lt>
360    <x:lt>
361    <t>
362      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
363      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
364      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
365      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
366    </t>
367    </x:lt>
368    <x:lt>
369    <t>
370      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
371      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
372      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
373      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
374      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
375      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
376      all authentication schemes.
377    </t>
378    <t>
379      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
380      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
381      for new parameters.
382    </t>
383    </x:lt>
384    <x:lt>
385    <t>
386      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
387      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
388      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
389      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
390      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
391      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
392    </t>
393    </x:lt>
394    <x:lt>
395    <t>
396      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
397      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
398      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
399    </t>
400    </x:lt>
401    <x:lt>
402    <t>
403      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
404      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
405      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
406      request they appear in.
407    </t>
408    <t>
409      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
410      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
411      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
412      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
413      directives (e.g., "private").
414    </t>
415    </x:lt>
416  </list>
417</t>
418</section>
419
420</section>
421
422</section>
423
424<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
425<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
426  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
427  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
428<t>
429   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
430   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
431   containing a challenge applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY;
432   repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field
433   (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If the request already included
434   Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization
435   has been refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the
436   same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
437   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
438   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
439   include relevant diagnostic information.
440</t>
441</section>
442<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
443  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
444  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
445<t>
446   This code is similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the
447   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
448   send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
449   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
450   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
451   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
452</t>
453</section>
454</section>
455
456<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
457<t>
458   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
459   related to authentication.
460</t>
461
462<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
463  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
464  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
465<t>
466   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
467   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401
468   (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of credentials containing
469   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
470   requested.
471</t>
472<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
473  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
474</artwork></figure>
475<t>
476   If a request is
477   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
478   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
479   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
480   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
481   synchronized clocks).
482</t>
483<t>
484   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
485   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
486</t>
487</section>
488
489<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
490  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
491  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
492<t>
493   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
494   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
495   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
496   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
497</t>
498<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
499  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
500</artwork></figure>
501<t>
502   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
503   applies only to the current connection, and intermediaries &SHOULD-NOT;
504   forward it to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need
505   to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream client,
506   which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
507   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
508</t>
509<t>
510   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
511   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
512   for details.
513</t>
514</section>
515
516<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
517  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
518  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
519<t>
520   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
521   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
522   authentication. Its value consists of
523   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
524   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
525</t>
526<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
527  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
528</artwork></figure>
529<t>
530   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
531   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
532   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
533   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
534   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
535   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
536   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
537   request.
538</t>
539</section>
540
541<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
542  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
543  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
544<t>
545   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
546   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
547   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
548</t>
549<t>   
550   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
551   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
552   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
553</t>
554<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
555  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
556</artwork></figure>
557<t>
558   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
559   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
560   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
561   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
562   authentication parameters.
563</t>
564<figure>
565  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
566  <artwork type="example">
567  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
568                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
569</artwork>
570  <postamble>
571  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
572  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
573  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
574  "simple".
575</postamble></figure>
576<x:note>
577  <t>
578    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
579    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
580    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
581    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
582    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
583    harmless.
584  </t>
585</x:note>
586</section>
587
588</section>
589
590<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
591
592<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
593<t>
594  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
595  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
596</t>
597<t>
598   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
599</t>
600</section>
601
602<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
603<t>
604   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
605   shall be updated with the registrations below:
606</t>
607<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
608<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
609<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
610   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
611   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
612   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
613   <c>401</c>
614   <c>Unauthorized</c>
615   <c>
616      <xref target="status.401"/>
617   </c>
618   <c>407</c>
619   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
620   <c>
621      <xref target="status.407"/>
622   </c>
623</texttable>
624<!--(END)-->
625<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
626</section>
627
628<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
629<t>
630   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
631   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
632</t>
633<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
634<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
635<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
636   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
637   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
638   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
639   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
640
641   <c>Authorization</c>
642   <c>http</c>
643   <c>standard</c>
644   <c>
645      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
646   </c>
647   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
648   <c>http</c>
649   <c>standard</c>
650   <c>
651      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
652   </c>
653   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
654   <c>http</c>
655   <c>standard</c>
656   <c>
657      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
658   </c>
659   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
660   <c>http</c>
661   <c>standard</c>
662   <c>
663      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
664   </c>
665</texttable>
666<!--(END)-->
667<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
668<t>
669   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
670</t>
671</section>
672</section>
673
674<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
675<t>
676   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
677   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
678   described by this document. The discussion does not include
679   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
680   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
681</t>
682
683<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
684<t>
685   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
686   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
687   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
688   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
689   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
690   application's security model include but are not limited to:
691  <list style="symbols">
692     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
693        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
694        user for credentials.</t>
695
696     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
697        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
698        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
699        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
700  </list>
701</t>
702<t>
703   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
704   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
705   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
706   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
707   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
708   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
709   cached credentials under user control.
710</t>
711</section>
712
713<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
714<t>
715  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
716  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on a
717  server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a
718  resource can use the same authentication credentials for other resources on
719  the same server. This makes it possible for a different resource to harvest
720  authentication credentials for other resources.
721</t>
722<t>
723  This is of particular concern when a server hosts resources for multiple
724  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
725  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
726  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
727  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
728  spaces by using a different host name for each party.
729</t>
730</section>
731</section>
732
733<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
734<t>
735  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
736  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
737  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
738  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
739  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
740  for further acknowledgements. 
741</t>
742<t>
743  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
744</t>
745</section>
746</middle>
747
748<back>
749
750<references title="Normative References">
751
752<reference anchor="Part1">
753  <front>
754    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
755    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
756      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
757      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
758    </author>
759    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
760      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
761      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
762    </author>
763    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
764  </front>
765  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
766  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
767</reference>
768
769<reference anchor="Part2">
770  <front>
771    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
772    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
773      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
774      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
775    </author>
776    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
777      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
778      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
779    </author>
780    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
781  </front>
782  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
783  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
784    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
785    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
786  </x:source>
787</reference>
788
789<reference anchor="Part6">
790  <front>
791    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
792    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
793      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
794      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
795    </author>
796    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
797      <organization>Akamai</organization>
798      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
799    </author>
800    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
801      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
802      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
803    </author>
804    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
805  </front>
806  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
807  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
808</reference>
809
810<reference anchor="RFC2119">
811  <front>
812    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
813    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
814      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
815      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
816    </author>
817    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
818  </front>
819  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
820  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
821</reference>
822
823<reference anchor="RFC5234">
824  <front>
825    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
826    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
827      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
828      <address>
829        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
830      </address> 
831    </author>
832    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
833      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
834      <address>
835        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
836      </address>
837    </author>
838    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
839  </front>
840  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
841  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
842</reference>
843
844</references>
845
846<references title="Informative References">
847
848<reference anchor="RFC2616">
849  <front>
850    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
851    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
852      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
853      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
854    </author>
855    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
856      <organization>W3C</organization>
857      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
858    </author>
859    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
860      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
861      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
862    </author>
863    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
864      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
865      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
866    </author>
867    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
868      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
869      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
870    </author>
871    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
872      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
873      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
874    </author>
875    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
876      <organization>W3C</organization>
877      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
878    </author>
879    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
880  </front>
881  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
882</reference>
883
884<reference anchor="RFC2617">
885  <front>
886    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
887    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
888      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
889      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
890    </author>
891    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
892      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
893      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
894    </author>
895    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
896      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
897      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
898    </author>
899    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
900      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
901      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
902    </author>
903    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
904      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
905      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
906    </author>
907    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
908      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
909    </author>
910    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
911      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
912      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
913    </author>
914    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
915  </front>
916  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
917</reference>
918
919<reference anchor='BCP90'>
920  <front>
921    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
922    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
923      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
924      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
925    </author>
926    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
927      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
928      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
929    </author>
930    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
931      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
932      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
933    </author>
934    <date year='2004' month='September' />
935  </front>
936  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
937  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
938</reference>
939
940<reference anchor="RFC3986">
941 <front>
942  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
943  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
944    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
945    <address>
946       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
947       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
948    </address>
949  </author>
950  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
951    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
952    <address>
953      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
954      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
955    </address>
956  </author>
957  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
958    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
959    <address>
960      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
961      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
962    </address>
963  </author>
964  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
965 </front>
966 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
967 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
968</reference>
969
970<reference anchor="RFC4648">
971  <front>
972    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
973    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
974    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
975  </front>
976  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
977</reference>
978
979<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
980  <front>
981    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
982    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
983      <organization>IBM</organization>
984      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
985    </author>
986    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
987      <organization>Google</organization>
988      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
989    </author>
990    <date year='2008' month='May' />
991  </front>
992  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
993  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
994</reference>
995
996</references>
997
998<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
999<t>
1000  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1001  rather than RFC 2617.
1002</t>
1003<t>
1004  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1005  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1006  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1007</t>
1008<t>
1009  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1010  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1011  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1012</t>
1013<t>
1014  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1015  considerations for new authentication schemes.
1016  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1017</t>
1018</section>
1019 
1020<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1021  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1022  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1023  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1024  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1025  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1026  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1027  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1028  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1029  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1030  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1031  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1032<t>
1033  The following core rules are included by
1034  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1035  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1036  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1037  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1038  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1039  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1040</t>
1041<t>
1042   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1043</t>
1044<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1045  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1046  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1047  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1048  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1049</artwork></figure>
1050</section> 
1051
1052<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1053<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1054<figure>
1055<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1056<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1057
1058<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1059
1060<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1061
1062<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1063 challenge ] )
1064<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1065
1066<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1067 ] )
1068
1069<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1070<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1071
1072<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1073 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1074<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1075 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1076
1077<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1078
1079<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1080<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1081 *"="
1082</artwork>
1083</figure>
1084</section>
1085<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1086
1087<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1088<t>
1089  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1090  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19#appendix-C"/>.
1091</t>
1092
1093<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1094<t>
1095  Closed issues:
1096  <list style="symbols">
1097    <t>
1098      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/348"/>:
1099      "Realms and scope"
1100    </t>
1101    <t>
1102      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/349"/>:
1103      "Strength"
1104    </t>
1105    <t>
1106      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/357"/>:
1107      "Authentication exchanges"
1108    </t>
1109    <t>
1110      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1111      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1112    </t>
1113    <t>
1114      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368"/>:
1115      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1116    </t>
1117  </list>
1118</t>
1119</section>
1120
1121<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-20" anchor="changes.since.20">
1122<t>
1123  Closed issues:
1124  <list style="symbols">
1125    <t>
1126      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/376"/>:
1127      "rename b64token for clarity"
1128    </t>
1129  </list>
1130</t>
1131<t>
1132  Other changes:
1133  <list style="symbols">
1134    <t>
1135      Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are
1136      now defined in Part 1.
1137    </t>
1138  </list>
1139</t>
1140</section>
1141
1142<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-21" anchor="changes.since.21">
1143<t>
1144  Closed issues:
1145  <list style="symbols">
1146    <t>
1147      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/403"/>:
1148      "Authentication and caching - max-age"
1149    </t>
1150  </list>
1151</t>
1152</section>
1153</section>
1154
1155</back>
1156</rfc>
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