source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1915

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "September">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31]>
32<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
33<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
34<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
35<?rfc compact="yes"?>
36<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
37<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
38<?rfc editing="no" ?>
39<?rfc comments="yes"?>
40<?rfc inline="yes"?>
41<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
42<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
43<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
44<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
45     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
46     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
47<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
48<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
49<front>
50
51  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
52
53  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
54    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
55    <address>
56      <postal>
57        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
58        <city>San Jose</city>
59        <region>CA</region>
60        <code>95110</code>
61        <country>USA</country>
62      </postal>
63      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
64      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
65    </address>
66  </author>
67
68  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
69    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
70    <address>
71      <postal>
72        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
73        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
74        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
75        <region>AM</region>
76        <code>06902</code>
77        <country>France</country>
78      </postal>
79      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
80      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
81    </address>
82  </author>
83
84  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
85    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
86    <address>
87      <postal>
88        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
89        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
90        <country>Germany</country>
91      </postal>
92      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
93      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
94    </address>
95  </author>
96
97  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
98  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
99
100<abstract>
101<t>
102   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
103   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
104   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
105</t>
106</abstract>
107
108<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
109  <t>
110    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
111    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
112    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
113  </t>
114  <t>
115    The current issues list is at
116    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
117    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
118    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
119  </t>
120  <t>
121    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.20"/>.
122  </t>
123</note>
124</front>
125<middle>
126<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
127<t>
128   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
129   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
130   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
131   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
132   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
133</t>
134<t>
135   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
136   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
137   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
138   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
139   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
140</t>
141
142<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
143<t>
144   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
145   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
146   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
147</t>
148<t>
149   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
150   are defined in &conformance;.
151</t>
152</section>
153
154<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
155<t>
156   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
157   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
158   &notation;. <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
159   other documents. <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
160   with the list rule expanded.
161</t>
162</section>
163</section>
164
165<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
166
167<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
168  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
169  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
170  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
171  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
172  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
173<t>
174   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
175   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
176   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
177   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
178   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
179   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
180   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
181   information.
182</t>
183<t>
184   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
185   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
186</t>
187<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
188  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
189 
190  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
191
192  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
193                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
194</artwork></figure>
195<t>
196   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
197   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
198   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
199   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
200</t>
201<t>
202   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
203   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
204   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
205   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
206</t>
207<t>  
208   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
209   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
210   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
211   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
212</t>
213<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
214  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
215</artwork></figure>
216<x:note>
217  <t>
218     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
219     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
220     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
221     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
222     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
223  </t>
224</x:note>
225<x:note>
226  <t>
227     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
228     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
229     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
230  </t>
231</x:note>
232<t>
233   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
234   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
235   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
236   request.
237</t>
238<t>  
239   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
240   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
241   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
242   request.
243</t>
244<t>
245   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
246   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
247   requested, based upon a challenge received from the server (possibly at
248   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
249   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
250   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
251   as appropriate.
252</t>
253<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
254  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
255</artwork></figure>
256<t>
257   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
258   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
259   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
260   server &SHOULD; return a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Such
261   responses &MUST; include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
262   containing at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the
263   requested resource.
264</t>
265<t>
266   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
267   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
268   return a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response. Such responses
269   &MUST; include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing a (possibly
270   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
271</t>
272<t>
273   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
274   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
275</t>
276<t>
277   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
278   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
279   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
280   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
281   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
282   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
283</t>
284<t>
285   Proxies &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
286   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
287   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
288</t>
289</section>
290
291<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
292  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
293  <iref item="Realm"/>
294  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
295<t>
296   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
297   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
298</t>
299<t>
300   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
301   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
302   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
303   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
304   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
305   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
306   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
307   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
308   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
309   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
310   different realms.
311</t>
312<t>
313   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
314   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
315   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
316   protection space for a period of time determined by the
317   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
318   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
319   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
320</t>
321<t>
322   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
323   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
324   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
325   notations for a long time.
326</t>
327</section>
328
329<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
330<t>
331  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
332  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
333</t>
334<t>
335  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
336  <list style="symbols">
337    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
338    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
339    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
340  </list>
341</t>
342<t>
343  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
344  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
345</t>
346<t>
347  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
348</t>
349
350<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
351<t>
352  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
353  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
354</t>
355<t>
356  <list style="symbols">
357    <x:lt>
358    <t>
359      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
360      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
361      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
362      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
363      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
364      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
365      party other than the authenticated user
366      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
367    </t>
368    </x:lt>
369    <x:lt>
370    <t>
371      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
372      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
373      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
374    </t>
375    </x:lt>
376    <x:lt>
377    <t>
378      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
379      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
380      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
381      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
382    </t>
383    </x:lt>
384    <x:lt>
385    <t>
386      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
387      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
388      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
389      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
390      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
391      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
392      all authentication schemes.
393    </t>
394    <t>
395      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
396      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
397      for new parameters.
398    </t>
399    </x:lt>
400    <x:lt>
401    <t>
402      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
403      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
404      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
405      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
406      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
407      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
408    </t>
409    </x:lt>
410    <x:lt>
411    <t>
412      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
413      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
414      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
415    </t>
416    </x:lt>
417    <x:lt>
418    <t>
419      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
420      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
421      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
422      request they appear in.
423    </t>
424    <t>
425      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
426      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
427      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
428      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
429      directives (e.g., "private").
430    </t>
431    </x:lt>
432  </list>
433</t>
434</section>
435
436</section>
437
438</section>
439
440<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
441<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
442  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
443  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
444<t>
445   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
446   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
447   containing a challenge applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY;
448   repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field
449   (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If the request already included
450   Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization
451   has been refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the
452   same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
453   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
454   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
455   include relevant diagnostic information.
456</t>
457</section>
458<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
459  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
460  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
461<t>
462   This code is similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the
463   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
464   return a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
465   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
466   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
467   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
468</t>
469</section>
470</section>
471
472<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
473<t>
474   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
475   related to authentication.
476</t>
477
478<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
479  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
480  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
481<t>
482   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
483   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401
484   (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of credentials containing
485   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
486   requested.
487</t>
488<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
489  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
490</artwork></figure>
491<t>
492   If a request is
493   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
494   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
495   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
496   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
497   synchronized clocks).
498</t>
499<t>
500      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
501      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
502      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
503      of the following specific exceptions holds:
504</t>
505<t>
506  <list style="numbers">
507      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
508         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
509         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
510         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
511         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
512         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
513         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
514         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
515         it.</t>
516
517      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
518         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
519         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
520         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
521         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
522         to authenticate the new request.</t>
523
524      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
525         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
526  </list>
527</t>
528</section>
529
530<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
531  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
532  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
533<t>
534   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
535   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
536   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
537   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
538</t>
539<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
540  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
541</artwork></figure>
542<t>
543   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
544   applies only to the current connection, and intermediaries &SHOULD-NOT;
545   forward it to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need
546   to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream client,
547   which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
548   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
549</t>
550<t>
551   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
552   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
553   for details.
554</t>
555</section>
556
557<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
558  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
559  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
560<t>
561   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
562   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
563   authentication. Its value consists of
564   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
565   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
566</t>
567<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
568  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
569</artwork></figure>
570<t>
571   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
572   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
573   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
574   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
575   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
576   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
577   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
578   request.
579</t>
580</section>
581
582<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
583  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
584  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
585<t>
586   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
587   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
588   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
589</t>
590<t>  
591   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
592   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
593   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
594</t>
595<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
596  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
597</artwork></figure>
598<t>
599   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
600   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
601   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
602   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
603   authentication parameters.
604</t>
605<figure>
606  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
607  <artwork type="example">
608  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
609                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
610</artwork>
611  <postamble>
612  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
613  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
614  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
615  "simple".
616</postamble></figure>
617<x:note>
618  <t>
619    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
620    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
621    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
622    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
623    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
624    harmless.
625  </t>
626</x:note>
627</section>
628
629</section>
630
631<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
632
633<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
634<t>
635  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
636  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
637</t>
638<t>
639   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
640</t>
641</section>
642
643<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
644<t>
645   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
646   shall be updated with the registrations below:
647</t>
648<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
649<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
650<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
651   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
652   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
653   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
654   <c>401</c>
655   <c>Unauthorized</c>
656   <c>
657      <xref target="status.401"/>
658   </c>
659   <c>407</c>
660   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
661   <c>
662      <xref target="status.407"/>
663   </c>
664</texttable>
665<!--(END)-->
666<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
667</section>
668
669<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
670<t>
671   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
672   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
673</t>
674<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
675<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
676<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
677   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
678   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
679   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
680   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
681
682   <c>Authorization</c>
683   <c>http</c>
684   <c>standard</c>
685   <c>
686      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
687   </c>
688   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
689   <c>http</c>
690   <c>standard</c>
691   <c>
692      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
693   </c>
694   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
695   <c>http</c>
696   <c>standard</c>
697   <c>
698      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
699   </c>
700   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
701   <c>http</c>
702   <c>standard</c>
703   <c>
704      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
705   </c>
706</texttable>
707<!--(END)-->
708<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
709<t>
710   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
711</t>
712</section>
713</section>
714
715<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
716<t>
717   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
718   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
719   described by this document. The discussion does not include
720   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
721   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
722</t>
723
724<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
725<t>
726   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
727   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
728   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
729   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
730   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
731   application's security model include but are not limited to:
732  <list style="symbols">
733     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
734        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
735        user for credentials.</t>
736
737     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
738        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
739        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
740        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
741  </list>
742</t>
743<t>
744   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
745   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
746   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
747   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
748   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
749   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
750   cached credentials under user control.
751</t>
752</section>
753
754<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
755<t>
756  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
757  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on a
758  server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a
759  resource can use the same authentication credentials for other resources on
760  the same server. This makes it possible for a different resource to harvest
761  authentication credentials for other resources.
762</t>
763<t>
764  This is of particular concern when a server hosts resources for multiple
765  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
766  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
767  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
768  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
769  spaces by using a different host name for each party.
770</t>
771</section>
772</section>
773
774<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
775<t>
776  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
777  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
778  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
779  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
780  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
781  for further acknowledgements. 
782</t>
783<t>
784  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
785</t>
786</section>
787</middle>
788
789<back>
790
791<references title="Normative References">
792
793<reference anchor="Part1">
794  <front>
795    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
796    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
797      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
798      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
799    </author>
800    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
801      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
802      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
803    </author>
804    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
805      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
806      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
807    </author>
808    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
809  </front>
810  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
811  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
812</reference>
813
814<reference anchor="Part2">
815  <front>
816    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
817    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
818      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
819      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
820    </author>
821    <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
822      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
823      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
824    </author>
825    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
826      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
827      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
828    </author>
829    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
830  </front>
831  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
832  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
833    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
834    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
835  </x:source>
836</reference>
837
838<reference anchor="Part6">
839  <front>
840    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
841    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
842      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
843      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
844    </author>
845    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
846      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
847      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
848    </author>
849    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
850      <organization>Akamai</organization>
851      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
852    </author>
853    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
854      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
855      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
856    </author>
857    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
858  </front>
859  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
860  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
861</reference>
862
863<reference anchor="RFC2119">
864  <front>
865    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
866    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
867      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
868      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
869    </author>
870    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
871  </front>
872  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
873  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
874</reference>
875
876<reference anchor="RFC5234">
877  <front>
878    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
879    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
880      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
881      <address>
882        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
883      </address> 
884    </author>
885    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
886      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
887      <address>
888        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
889      </address>
890    </author>
891    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
892  </front>
893  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
894  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
895</reference>
896
897</references>
898
899<references title="Informative References">
900
901<reference anchor="RFC2616">
902  <front>
903    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
904    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
905      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
906      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
907    </author>
908    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
909      <organization>W3C</organization>
910      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
911    </author>
912    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
913      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
914      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
915    </author>
916    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
917      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
918      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
919    </author>
920    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
921      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
922      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
925      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
926      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
929      <organization>W3C</organization>
930      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
931    </author>
932    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
933  </front>
934  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
935</reference>
936
937<reference anchor="RFC2617">
938  <front>
939    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
940    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
941      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
942      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
943    </author>
944    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
945      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
946      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
947    </author>
948    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
949      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
950      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
951    </author>
952    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
953      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
954      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
955    </author>
956    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
957      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
958      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
959    </author>
960    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
961      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
962    </author>
963    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
964      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
965      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
966    </author>
967    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
968  </front>
969  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
970</reference>
971
972<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
973  <front>
974    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
975    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
976      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
977      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
978    </author>
979    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
980      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
981      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
982    </author>
983    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
984      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
985      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
986    </author>
987    <date year='2004' month='September' />
988  </front>
989  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
990  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
991</reference>
992
993<reference anchor="RFC3986">
994 <front>
995  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
996  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
997    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
998    <address>
999       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1000       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1001    </address>
1002  </author>
1003  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1004    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1005    <address>
1006      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1007      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1008    </address>
1009  </author>
1010  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1011    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1012    <address>
1013      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1014      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1015    </address>
1016  </author>
1017  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1018 </front>
1019 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1020 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1021</reference>
1022
1023<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1024  <front>
1025    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1026    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1027    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1028  </front>
1029  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1030</reference>
1031
1032<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1033  <front>
1034    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1035    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1036      <organization>IBM</organization>
1037      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1038    </author>
1039    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1040      <organization>Google</organization>
1041      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1042    </author>
1043    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1044  </front>
1045  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1046  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1047</reference>
1048
1049</references>
1050
1051<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1052<t>
1053  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1054  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1055  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1056</t>
1057<t>
1058  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1059  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1060  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1061</t>
1062<t>
1063  Introduce Authentication Scheme Registry.
1064  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1065</t>
1066</section>
1067 
1068<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1069  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1070  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1071  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1072  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1073  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1074  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1075  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1076  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1077  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1078  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1079  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1080<t>
1081  The following core rules are included by
1082  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1083  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1084  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1085  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1086  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1087  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1088</t>
1089<t>
1090   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1091</t>
1092<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1093  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1094  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1095  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1096  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1097</artwork></figure>
1098</section>
1099
1100<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1101<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1102<figure>
1103<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1104<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1105
1106<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1107
1108<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1109
1110<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1111 challenge ] )
1112<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1113
1114<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1115 ] )
1116
1117<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1118<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1119
1120<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1121 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1122<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1123 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1124
1125<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1126
1127<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1128<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1129 *"="
1130</artwork>
1131</figure>
1132</section>
1133<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1134
1135<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1136<t>
1137  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1138  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19#appendix-C"/>.
1139</t>
1140
1141<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1142<t>
1143  Closed issues:
1144  <list style="symbols">
1145    <t>
1146      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/348"/>:
1147      "Realms and scope"
1148    </t>
1149    <t>
1150      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/349"/>:
1151      "Strength"
1152    </t>
1153    <t>
1154      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/357"/>:
1155      "Authentication exchanges"
1156    </t>
1157    <t>
1158      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1159      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1160    </t>
1161    <t>
1162      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368"/>:
1163      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1164    </t>
1165  </list>
1166</t>
1167</section>
1168
1169<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-20" anchor="changes.since.20">
1170<t>
1171  Closed issues:
1172  <list style="symbols">
1173    <t>
1174      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/376"/>:
1175      "rename b64token for clarity"
1176    </t>
1177  </list>
1178</t>
1179<t>
1180  Other changes:
1181  <list style="symbols">
1182    <t>
1183      Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are
1184      now defined in Part 1.
1185    </t>
1186  </list>
1187</t>
1188</section>
1189</section>
1190
1191</back>
1192</rfc>
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