source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1808

Last change on this file since 1808 was 1808, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 7 years ago

Remove mentions of "seven" parts.

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  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "July">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30]>
31<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
32<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
33<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
34<?rfc compact="yes"?>
35<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
36<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
37<?rfc editing="no" ?>
38<?rfc comments="yes"?>
39<?rfc inline="yes"?>
40<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
41<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
42<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
43<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
44     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
45     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
46<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
47<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
48<front>
49
50  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
51
52  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
53    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
54    <address>
55      <postal>
56        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
57        <city>San Jose</city>
58        <region>CA</region>
59        <code>95110</code>
60        <country>USA</country>
61      </postal>
62      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
63      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
64    </address>
65  </author>
66
67  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
68    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
69    <address>
70      <postal>
71        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
72        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
73        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
74        <region>AM</region>
75        <code>06902</code>
76        <country>France</country>
77      </postal>
78      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
79      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
80    </address>
81  </author>
82
83  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
84    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
85    <address>
86      <postal>
87        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
88        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
89        <country>Germany</country>
90      </postal>
91      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
92      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
93    </address>
94  </author>
95
96  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
97  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
98
99<abstract>
100<t>
101   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
102   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
103   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
104</t>
105</abstract>
106
107<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
108  <t>
109    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
110    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
111    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
112  </t>
113  <t>
114    The current issues list is at
115    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
116    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
117    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
118  </t>
119  <t>
120    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.20"/>.
121  </t>
122</note>
123</front>
124<middle>
125<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
126<t>
127   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
128   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
129   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
130   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
131   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
132</t>
133<t>
134   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
135   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
136   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
137   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
138   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
139</t>
140
141<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
142<t>
143   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
144   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
145   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
146</t>
147<t>
148   This specification targets conformance criteria according to the role of
149   a participant in HTTP communication.  Hence, HTTP requirements are placed
150   on senders, recipients, clients, servers, user agents, intermediaries,
151   origin servers, proxies, gateways, or caches, depending on what behavior
152   is being constrained by the requirement. See &architecture; for definitions
153   of these terms.
154</t>
155<t>
156   The verb "generate" is used instead of "send" where a requirement
157   differentiates between creating a protocol element and merely forwarding a
158   received element downstream.
159</t>
160<t>
161   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
162   requirements associated with the roles it partakes in HTTP. Note that
163   SHOULD-level requirements are relevant here, unless one of the documented
164   exceptions is applicable.
165</t>
166<t>
167   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
168   (<xref target="notation"/>).
169   In addition to the prose requirements placed upon them, senders &MUST-NOT;
170   generate protocol elements that do not match the grammar defined by the
171   ABNF rules for those protocol elements that are applicable to the sender's
172   role. If a received protocol element is processed, the recipient &MUST; be
173   able to parse any value that would match the ABNF rules for that protocol
174   element, excluding only those rules not applicable to the recipient's role.
175</t>
176<t>
177   Unless noted otherwise, a recipient &MAY; attempt to recover a usable
178   protocol element from an invalid construct.  HTTP does not define
179   specific error handling mechanisms except when they have a direct impact
180   on security, since different applications of the protocol require
181   different error handling strategies.  For example, a Web browser might
182   wish to transparently recover from a response where the
183   <x:ref>Location</x:ref> header field doesn't parse according to the ABNF,
184   whereas a systems control client might consider any form of error recovery
185   to be dangerous.
186</t>
187</section>
188
189<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
190<t>
191   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
192   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
193   &notation;. <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
194   other documents. <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
195   with the list rule expanded.
196</t>
197</section>
198</section>
199
200<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
201
202<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
203  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
204  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
205  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
206  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
207  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
208<t>
209   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
210   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
211   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
212   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
213   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
214   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
215   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
216   information.
217</t>
218<t>
219   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
220   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
221</t>
222<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
223  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
224 
225  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
226
227  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
228                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
229</artwork></figure>
230<t>
231   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
232   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
233   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
234   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
235</t>
236<t>
237   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
238   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
239   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
240   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
241</t>
242<t>   
243   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
244   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
245   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
246   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
247</t>
248<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
249  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
250</artwork></figure>
251<x:note>
252  <t>
253     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
254     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
255     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
256     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
257     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
258  </t>
259</x:note>
260<x:note>
261  <t>
262     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
263     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
264     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
265  </t>
266</x:note>
267<t>
268   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
269   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
270   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
271   request.
272</t>
273<t>   
274   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
275   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
276   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
277   request.
278</t>
279<t>
280   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
281   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
282   requested, based upon a challenge received from the server (possibly at
283   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
284   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
285   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
286   as appropriate.
287</t>
288<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
289  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
290</artwork></figure>
291<t>
292   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
293   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
294   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
295   server &SHOULD; return a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Such
296   responses &MUST; include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
297   containing at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the
298   requested resource.
299</t>
300<t>
301   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
302   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
303   return a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response. Such responses
304   &MUST; include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing a (possibly
305   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
306</t>
307<t>
308   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
309   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
310</t>
311<t>
312   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
313   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
314   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
315   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
316   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
317   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
318</t>
319<t>
320   Proxies &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
321   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
322   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
323</t>
324</section>
325
326<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
327  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
328  <iref item="Realm"/>
329  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
330<t>
331   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
332   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
333</t>
334<t>
335   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
336   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
337   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
338   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
339   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
340   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
341   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
342   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
343   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
344   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
345   different realms.
346</t>
347<t>
348   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
349   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
350   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
351   protection space for a period of time determined by the
352   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
353   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
354   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
355</t>
356<t>
357   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
358   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
359   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
360   notations for a long time.
361</t>
362</section>
363
364<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
365<t>
366  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
367  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
368</t>
369<t>
370  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
371  <list style="symbols">
372    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
373    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
374    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
375  </list>
376</t>
377<t>
378  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
379  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
380</t>
381<t>
382  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
383</t>
384
385<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
386<t>
387  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
388  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
389</t>
390<t>
391  <list style="symbols">
392    <x:lt>
393    <t>
394      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
395      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
396      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
397      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
398      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
399      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
400      party other than the authenticated user
401      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
402    </t>
403    </x:lt>
404    <x:lt>
405    <t>
406      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
407      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
408      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
409    </t>
410    </x:lt>
411    <x:lt>
412    <t>
413      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
414      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
415      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
416      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
417    </t>
418    </x:lt>
419    <x:lt>
420    <t>
421      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
422      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
423      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
424      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
425      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
426      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
427      all authentication schemes.
428    </t>
429    <t>
430      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
431      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
432      for new parameters.
433    </t>
434    </x:lt>
435    <x:lt>
436    <t>
437      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
438      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
439      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
440      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
441      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
442      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
443    </t>
444    </x:lt>
445    <x:lt>
446    <t>
447      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
448      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
449      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
450    </t>
451    </x:lt>
452    <x:lt>
453    <t>
454      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
455      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
456      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
457      request they appear in.
458    </t>
459    <t>
460      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
461      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
462      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
463      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
464      directives (e.g., "private").
465    </t>
466    </x:lt>
467  </list>
468</t>
469</section>
470
471</section>
472
473</section>
474
475<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
476<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
477  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
478  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
479  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
480<t>
481   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
482   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
483   containing a challenge applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY;
484   repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field
485   (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If the request already included
486   Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization
487   has been refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the
488   same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
489   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
490   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
491   include relevant diagnostic information.
492</t>
493</section>
494<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
495  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
496  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
497  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
498<t>
499   This code is similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the
500   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
501   return a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
502   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
503   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
504   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
505</t>
506</section>
507</section>
508
509<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
510<t>
511   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
512   related to authentication.
513</t>
514
515<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
516  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
517  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
518  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
519<t>
520   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
521   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401
522   (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of credentials containing
523   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
524   requested.
525</t>
526<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
527  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
528</artwork></figure>
529<t>
530   If a request is
531   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
532   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
533   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
534   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
535   synchronized clocks).
536</t>
537<t>
538      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
539      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
540      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
541      of the following specific exceptions holds:
542</t>
543<t>
544  <list style="numbers">
545      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
546         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
547         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
548         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
549         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
550         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
551         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
552         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
553         it.</t>
554
555      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
556         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
557         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
558         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
559         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
560         to authenticate the new request.</t>
561
562      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
563         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
564  </list>
565</t>
566</section>
567
568<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
569  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
570  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
571  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
572<t>
573   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
574   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
575   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
576   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
577</t>
578<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
579  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
580</artwork></figure>
581<t>
582   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
583   applies only to the current connection, and intermediaries &SHOULD-NOT;
584   forward it to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need
585   to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream client,
586   which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
587   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
588</t>
589<t>
590   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
591   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
592   for details.
593</t>
594</section>
595
596<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
597  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
598  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
599  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
600<t>
601   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
602   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
603   authentication. Its value consists of
604   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
605   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
606</t>
607<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
608  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
609</artwork></figure>
610<t>
611   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
612   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
613   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
614   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
615   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
616   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
617   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
618   request.
619</t>
620</section>
621
622<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
623  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
624  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
625  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
626<t>
627   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
628   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
629   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
630</t>
631<t>   
632   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
633   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
634   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
635</t>
636<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
637  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
638</artwork></figure>
639<t>
640   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
641   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
642   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
643   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
644   authentication parameters.
645</t>
646<figure>
647  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
648  <artwork type="example">
649  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
650                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
651</artwork>
652  <postamble>
653  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
654  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
655  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
656  "simple".
657</postamble></figure>
658<x:note>
659  <t>
660    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
661    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
662    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
663    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
664    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
665    harmless.
666  </t>
667</x:note>
668</section>
669
670</section>
671
672<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
673
674<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
675<t>
676  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
677  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
678</t>
679<t>
680   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
681</t>
682</section>
683
684<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
685<t>
686   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
687   shall be updated with the registrations below:
688</t>
689<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
690<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
691<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
692   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
693   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
694   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
695   <c>401</c>
696   <c>Unauthorized</c>
697   <c>
698      <xref target="status.401"/>
699   </c>
700   <c>407</c>
701   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
702   <c>
703      <xref target="status.407"/>
704   </c>
705</texttable>
706<!--(END)-->
707<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
708</section>
709
710<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
711<t>
712   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
713   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
714</t>
715<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
716<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
717<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
718   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
719   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
720   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
721   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
722
723   <c>Authorization</c>
724   <c>http</c>
725   <c>standard</c>
726   <c>
727      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
728   </c>
729   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
730   <c>http</c>
731   <c>standard</c>
732   <c>
733      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
734   </c>
735   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
736   <c>http</c>
737   <c>standard</c>
738   <c>
739      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
740   </c>
741   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
742   <c>http</c>
743   <c>standard</c>
744   <c>
745      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
746   </c>
747</texttable>
748<!--(END)-->
749<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
750<t>
751   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
752</t>
753</section>
754</section>
755
756<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
757<t>
758   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
759   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
760   described by this document. The discussion does not include
761   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
762   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
763</t>
764
765<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
766<t>
767   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
768   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
769   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
770   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
771   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
772   application's security model include but are not limited to:
773  <list style="symbols">
774     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
775        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
776        user for credentials.</t>
777
778     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
779        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
780        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
781        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
782  </list>
783</t>
784<t>
785   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
786   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
787   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
788   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
789   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
790   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
791   cached credentials under user control.
792</t>
793</section>
794
795<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
796<t>
797  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
798  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on a
799  server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a
800  resource can use the same authentication credentials for other resources on
801  the same server. This makes it possible for a different resource to harvest
802  authentication credentials for other resources.
803</t>
804<t>
805  This is of particular concern when a server hosts resources for multiple
806  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
807  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
808  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
809  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
810  spaces by using a different host name for each party.
811</t>
812</section>
813</section>
814
815<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
816<t>
817  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
818  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
819  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
820  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
821  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
822  for further acknowledgements. 
823</t>
824<t>
825  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
826</t>
827</section>
828</middle>
829
830<back>
831
832<references title="Normative References">
833
834<reference anchor="Part1">
835  <front>
836    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax"</title>
837    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
838      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
839      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
840    </author>
841    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
842      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
843      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
844    </author>
845    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
846      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
847      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
848    </author>
849    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
850  </front>
851  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
852  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
853</reference>
854
855<reference anchor="Part2">
856  <front>
857    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads</title>
858    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
859      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
860      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
861    </author>
862    <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
863      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
864      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
865    </author>
866    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
867      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
868      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
869    </author>
870    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
871  </front>
872  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
873  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
874    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
875    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
876  </x:source>
877</reference>
878
879<reference anchor="Part6">
880  <front>
881    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
882    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
883      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
884      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
885    </author>
886    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
887      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
888      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
889    </author>
890    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
891      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
892      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
893    </author>
894    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
895      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
896      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
897    </author>
898    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
899  </front>
900  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
901  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
902</reference>
903
904<reference anchor="RFC2119">
905  <front>
906    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
907    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
908      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
909      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
910    </author>
911    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
912  </front>
913  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
914  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
915</reference>
916
917<reference anchor="RFC5234">
918  <front>
919    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
920    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
921      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
922      <address>
923        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
924      </address> 
925    </author>
926    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
927      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
928      <address>
929        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
930      </address>
931    </author>
932    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
933  </front>
934  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
935  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
936</reference>
937
938</references>
939
940<references title="Informative References">
941
942<reference anchor="RFC2616">
943  <front>
944    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
945    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
946      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
947      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
948    </author>
949    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
950      <organization>W3C</organization>
951      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
952    </author>
953    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
954      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
955      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
956    </author>
957    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
958      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
959      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
960    </author>
961    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
962      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
963      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
964    </author>
965    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
966      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
967      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
968    </author>
969    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
970      <organization>W3C</organization>
971      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
972    </author>
973    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
974  </front>
975  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
976</reference>
977
978<reference anchor="RFC2617">
979  <front>
980    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
981    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
982      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
983      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
984    </author>
985    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
986      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
987      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
988    </author>
989    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
990      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
991      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
992    </author>
993    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
994      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
995      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
996    </author>
997    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
998      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
999      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1000    </author>
1001    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1002      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1003    </author>
1004    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1005      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1006      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1007    </author>
1008    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1009  </front>
1010  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1011</reference>
1012
1013<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1014  <front>
1015    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1016    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1017      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1018      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1019    </author>
1020    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1021      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1022      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1023    </author>
1024    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1025      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1026      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1027    </author>
1028    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1029  </front>
1030  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1031  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1032</reference>
1033
1034<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1035 <front>
1036  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1037  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1038    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1039    <address>
1040       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1041       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1042    </address>
1043  </author>
1044  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1045    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1046    <address>
1047      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1048      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1049    </address>
1050  </author>
1051  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1052    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1053    <address>
1054      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1055      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1056    </address>
1057  </author>
1058  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1059 </front>
1060 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1061 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1062</reference>
1063
1064<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1065  <front>
1066    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1067    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1068    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1069  </front>
1070  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1071</reference>
1072
1073<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1074  <front>
1075    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1076    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1077      <organization>IBM</organization>
1078      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1079    </author>
1080    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1081      <organization>Google</organization>
1082      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1083    </author>
1084    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1085  </front>
1086  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1087  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1088</reference>
1089
1090</references>
1091
1092<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1093<t>
1094  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1095  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1096  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1097</t>
1098<t>
1099  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1100  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1101  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1102</t>
1103<t>
1104  Introduce Authentication Scheme Registry.
1105  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1106</t>
1107<t>
1108  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1109  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1110</t>
1111</section>
1112 
1113<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1114  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1115  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1116  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1117  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1118  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1119  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1120  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1121  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1122  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1123  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1124  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1125<t>
1126  The following core rules are included by
1127  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1128  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1129  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1130  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1131  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1132  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1133</t>
1134<t>
1135   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1136</t>
1137<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1138  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1139  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1140  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1141  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1142</artwork></figure>
1143</section> 
1144
1145<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1146<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1147<figure>
1148<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1149<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1150
1151<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1152
1153<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1154
1155<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1156 challenge ] )
1157<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1158
1159<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1160 ] )
1161
1162<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1163<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1164
1165<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1166 *"="
1167
1168<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1169 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1170<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1171 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1172
1173<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1174
1175<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1176</artwork>
1177</figure>
1178</section>
1179<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1180
1181<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1182<t>
1183  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1184  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19#appendix-C"/>.
1185</t>
1186
1187<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1188<t>
1189  Closed issues:
1190  <list style="symbols">
1191    <t>
1192      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/348"/>:
1193      "Realms and scope"
1194    </t>
1195    <t>
1196      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/349"/>:
1197      "Strength"
1198    </t>
1199    <t>
1200      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/357"/>:
1201      "Authentication exchanges"
1202    </t>
1203    <t>
1204      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1205      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1206    </t>
1207    <t>
1208      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368"/>:
1209      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1210    </t>
1211  </list>
1212</t>
1213</section>
1214
1215<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-20" anchor="changes.since.20">
1216<t>
1217  None yet.
1218</t>
1219</section>
1220</section>
1221
1222</back>
1223</rfc>
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