source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1803

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "July">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30]>
31<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
32<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
33<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
34<?rfc compact="yes"?>
35<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
36<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
37<?rfc editing="no" ?>
38<?rfc comments="yes"?>
39<?rfc inline="yes"?>
40<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
41<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
42<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
43<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
44     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
45     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
46<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
47<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
48<front>
49
50  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
51
52  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
53    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
54    <address>
55      <postal>
56        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
57        <city>San Jose</city>
58        <region>CA</region>
59        <code>95110</code>
60        <country>USA</country>
61      </postal>
62      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
63      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
64    </address>
65  </author>
66
67  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
68    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
69    <address>
70      <postal>
71        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
72        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
73        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
74        <region>AM</region>
75        <code>06902</code>
76        <country>France</country>
77      </postal>
78      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
79      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
80    </address>
81  </author>
82
83  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
84    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
85    <address>
86      <postal>
87        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
88        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
89        <country>Germany</country>
90      </postal>
91      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
92      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
93    </address>
94  </author>
95
96  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
97  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
98
99<abstract>
100<t>
101   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
102   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
103   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
104   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
105   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
106</t>
107<t>
108   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
109</t>
110</abstract>
111
112<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
113  <t>
114    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
115    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
116    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
117  </t>
118  <t>
119    The current issues list is at
120    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
121    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
122    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
123  </t>
124  <t>
125    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.19"/>.
126  </t>
127</note>
128</front>
129<middle>
130<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
131<t>
132   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
133   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
134   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
135   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
136   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
137</t>
138<t>
139   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
140   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
141   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
142   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
143   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
144</t>
145
146<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
147<t>
148   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
149   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
150   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
151</t>
152<t>
153   This specification targets conformance criteria according to the role of
154   a participant in HTTP communication.  Hence, HTTP requirements are placed
155   on senders, recipients, clients, servers, user agents, intermediaries,
156   origin servers, proxies, gateways, or caches, depending on what behavior
157   is being constrained by the requirement. See &architecture; for definitions
158   of these terms.
159</t>
160<t>
161   The verb "generate" is used instead of "send" where a requirement
162   differentiates between creating a protocol element and merely forwarding a
163   received element downstream.
164</t>
165<t>
166   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
167   requirements associated with the roles it partakes in HTTP. Note that
168   SHOULD-level requirements are relevant here, unless one of the documented
169   exceptions is applicable.
170</t>
171<t>
172   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
173   (<xref target="notation"/>).
174   In addition to the prose requirements placed upon them, senders &MUST-NOT;
175   generate protocol elements that do not match the grammar defined by the
176   ABNF rules for those protocol elements that are applicable to the sender's
177   role. If a received protocol element is processed, the recipient &MUST; be
178   able to parse any value that would match the ABNF rules for that protocol
179   element, excluding only those rules not applicable to the recipient's role.
180</t>
181<t>
182   Unless noted otherwise, a recipient &MAY; attempt to recover a usable
183   protocol element from an invalid construct.  HTTP does not define
184   specific error handling mechanisms except when they have a direct impact
185   on security, since different applications of the protocol require
186   different error handling strategies.  For example, a Web browser might
187   wish to transparently recover from a response where the
188   <x:ref>Location</x:ref> header field doesn't parse according to the ABNF,
189   whereas a systems control client might consider any form of error recovery
190   to be dangerous.
191</t>
192</section>
193
194<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
195  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
196  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
197  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
198  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
199  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
200  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
201  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
202<t>
203   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
204   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
205   &notation;<xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
206   with the list rule expanded.
207</t>
208<t>
209  The following core rules are included by
210  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
211  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
212  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
213  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
214  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
215  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
216</t>
217
218<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
219   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
220   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
221   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
222   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
223<t>
224   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
225</t>
226<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
227  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
228  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
229  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
230  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
231</artwork></figure>
232</section>
233</section>
234</section>
235
236<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
237
238<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
239  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
240  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
241  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
242  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
243  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
244<t>
245   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
246   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
247   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
248   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
249   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
250   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
251   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
252   information.
253</t>
254<t>
255   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
256   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
257</t>
258<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
259  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
260 
261  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
262
263  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
264                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
265</artwork></figure>
266<t>
267   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
268   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
269   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
270   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
271</t>
272<t>
273   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
274   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
275   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
276   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
277</t>
278<t>   
279   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
280   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
281   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
282   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
283</t>
284<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
285  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
286</artwork></figure>
287<x:note>
288  <t>
289     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
290     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
291     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
292     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
293     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
294  </t>
295</x:note>
296<x:note>
297  <t>
298     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
299     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
300     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
301  </t>
302</x:note>
303<t>
304   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
305   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
306   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
307   request.
308</t>
309<t>   
310   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
311   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
312   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
313   request.
314</t>
315<t>
316   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
317   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
318   requested, based upon a challenge received from the server (possibly at
319   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
320   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
321   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
322   as appropriate.
323</t>
324<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
325  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
326</artwork></figure>
327<t>
328   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
329   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
330   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
331   server &SHOULD; return a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Such
332   responses &MUST; include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
333   containing at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the
334   requested resource.
335</t>
336<t>
337   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
338   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
339   return a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response. Such responses
340   &MUST; include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing a (possibly
341   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
342</t>
343<t>
344   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
345   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
346</t>
347<t>
348   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
349   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
350   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
351   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
352   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
353   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
354</t>
355<t>
356   Proxies &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
357   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
358   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
359</t>
360</section>
361
362<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
363  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
364  <iref item="Realm"/>
365  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
366<t>
367   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
368   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
369</t>
370<t>
371   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
372   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
373   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
374   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
375   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
376   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
377   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
378   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
379   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
380   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
381   different realms.
382</t>
383<t>
384   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
385   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
386   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
387   protection space for a period of time determined by the
388   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
389   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
390   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
391</t>
392<t>
393   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
394   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
395   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
396   notations for a long time.
397</t>
398</section>
399
400<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
401<t>
402  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
403  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
404</t>
405<t>
406  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
407  <list style="symbols">
408    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
409    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
410    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
411  </list>
412</t>
413<t>
414  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
415  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
416</t>
417<t>
418  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
419</t>
420
421<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
422<t>
423  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
424  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
425</t>
426<t>
427  <list style="symbols">
428    <x:lt>
429    <t>
430      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
431      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
432      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
433      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
434      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
435      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
436      party other than the authenticated user
437      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
438    </t>
439    </x:lt>
440    <x:lt>
441    <t>
442      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
443      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
444      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
445    </t>
446    </x:lt>
447    <x:lt>
448    <t>
449      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
450      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
451      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
452      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
453    </t>
454    </x:lt>
455    <x:lt>
456    <t>
457      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
458      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
459      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
460      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
461      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
462      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
463      all authentication schemes.
464    </t>
465    <t>
466      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
467      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
468      for new parameters.
469    </t>
470    </x:lt>
471    <x:lt>
472    <t>
473      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
474      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
475      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
476      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
477      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
478      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
479    </t>
480    </x:lt>
481    <x:lt>
482    <t>
483      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
484      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
485      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
486    </t>
487    </x:lt>
488    <x:lt>
489    <t>
490      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
491      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
492      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
493      request they appear in.
494    </t>
495    <t>
496      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
497      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
498      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
499      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
500      directives (e.g., "private").
501    </t>
502    </x:lt>
503  </list>
504</t>
505</section>
506
507</section>
508
509</section>
510
511<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
512<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
513  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
514  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
515  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
516<t>
517   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
518   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
519   containing a challenge applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY;
520   repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field
521   (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If the request already included
522   Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization
523   has been refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the
524   same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
525   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
526   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
527   include relevant diagnostic information.
528</t>
529</section>
530<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
531  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
532  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
533  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
534<t>
535   This code is similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the
536   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
537   return a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
538   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
539   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
540   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
541</t>
542</section>
543</section>
544
545<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
546<t>
547   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
548   related to authentication.
549</t>
550
551<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
552  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
553  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
554  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
555<t>
556   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
557   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401
558   (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of credentials containing
559   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
560   requested.
561</t>
562<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
563  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
564</artwork></figure>
565<t>
566   If a request is
567   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
568   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
569   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
570   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
571   synchronized clocks).
572</t>
573<t>
574      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
575      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
576      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
577      of the following specific exceptions holds:
578</t>
579<t>
580  <list style="numbers">
581      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
582         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
583         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
584         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
585         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
586         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
587         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
588         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
589         it.</t>
590
591      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
592         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
593         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
594         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
595         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
596         to authenticate the new request.</t>
597
598      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
599         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
600  </list>
601</t>
602</section>
603
604<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
605  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
606  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
607  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
608<t>
609   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
610   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
611   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
612   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
613</t>
614<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
615  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
616</artwork></figure>
617<t>
618   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
619   applies only to the current connection, and intermediaries &SHOULD-NOT;
620   forward it to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need
621   to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream client,
622   which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
623   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
624</t>
625<t>
626   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
627   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
628   for details.
629</t>
630</section>
631
632<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
633  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
634  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
635  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
636<t>
637   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
638   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
639   authentication. Its value consists of
640   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
641   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
642</t>
643<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
644  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
645</artwork></figure>
646<t>
647   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
648   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
649   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
650   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
651   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
652   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
653   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
654   request.
655</t>
656</section>
657
658<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
659  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
660  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
661  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
662<t>
663   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
664   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
665   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
666</t>
667<t>   
668   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
669   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
670   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
671</t>
672<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
673  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
674</artwork></figure>
675<t>
676   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
677   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
678   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
679   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
680   authentication parameters.
681</t>
682<figure>
683  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
684  <artwork type="example">
685  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
686                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
687</artwork>
688  <postamble>
689  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
690  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
691  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
692  "simple".
693</postamble></figure>
694<x:note>
695  <t>
696    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
697    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
698    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
699    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
700    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
701    harmless.
702  </t>
703</x:note>
704</section>
705
706</section>
707
708<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
709
710<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
711<t>
712  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
713  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
714</t>
715<t>
716   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
717</t>
718</section>
719
720<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
721<t>
722   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
723   shall be updated with the registrations below:
724</t>
725<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
726<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
727<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
728   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
729   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
730   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
731   <c>401</c>
732   <c>Unauthorized</c>
733   <c>
734      <xref target="status.401"/>
735   </c>
736   <c>407</c>
737   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
738   <c>
739      <xref target="status.407"/>
740   </c>
741</texttable>
742<!--(END)-->
743<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
744</section>
745
746<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
747<t>
748   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
749   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
750</t>
751<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
752<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
753<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
754   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
755   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
756   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
757   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
758
759   <c>Authorization</c>
760   <c>http</c>
761   <c>standard</c>
762   <c>
763      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
764   </c>
765   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
766   <c>http</c>
767   <c>standard</c>
768   <c>
769      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
770   </c>
771   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
772   <c>http</c>
773   <c>standard</c>
774   <c>
775      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
776   </c>
777   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
778   <c>http</c>
779   <c>standard</c>
780   <c>
781      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
782   </c>
783</texttable>
784<!--(END)-->
785<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
786<t>
787   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
788</t>
789</section>
790</section>
791
792<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
793<t>
794   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
795   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
796   described by this document. The discussion does not include
797   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
798   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
799</t>
800
801<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
802<t>
803   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
804   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
805   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
806   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
807   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
808   application's security model include but are not limited to:
809  <list style="symbols">
810     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
811        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
812        user for credentials.</t>
813
814     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
815        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
816        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
817        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
818  </list>
819</t>
820<t>
821   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
822   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
823   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
824   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
825   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
826   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
827   cached credentials under user control.
828</t>
829</section>
830
831<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
832<t>
833  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
834  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on a
835  server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a
836  resource can use the same authentication credentials for other resources on
837  the same server. This makes it possible for a different resource to harvest
838  authentication credentials for other resources.
839</t>
840<t>
841  This is of particular concern when a server hosts resources for multiple
842  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.space"/>).
843  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
844  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
845  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
846  spaces by using a different host name for each party.
847</t>
848</section>
849</section>
850
851<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
852<t>
853  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
854  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
855  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
856  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
857  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
858  for further acknowledgements. 
859</t>
860<t>
861  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
862</t>
863</section>
864</middle>
865
866<back>
867
868<references title="Normative References">
869
870<reference anchor="Part1">
871  <front>
872    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 1: Message Routing and Syntax"</title>
873    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
874      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
875      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
876    </author>
877    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
878      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
879      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
880    </author>
881    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
882      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
883      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
884    </author>
885    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
886  </front>
887  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
888  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
889</reference>
890
891<reference anchor="Part2">
892  <front>
893    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 2: Semantics and Payloads</title>
894    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
895      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
896      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
897    </author>
898    <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
899      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
900      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
901    </author>
902    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
903      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
904      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
905    </author>
906    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
907  </front>
908  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
909  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
910    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
911    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
912  </x:source>
913</reference>
914
915<reference anchor="Part6">
916  <front>
917    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
918    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
919      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
920      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
921    </author>
922    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
923      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
924      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
925    </author>
926    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
927      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
928      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
929    </author>
930    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
931      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
932      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
933    </author>
934    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
935  </front>
936  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
937  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
938</reference>
939
940<reference anchor="RFC2119">
941  <front>
942    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
943    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
944      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
945      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
946    </author>
947    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
948  </front>
949  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
950  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
951</reference>
952
953<reference anchor="RFC5234">
954  <front>
955    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
956    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
957      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
958      <address>
959        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
960      </address> 
961    </author>
962    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
963      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
964      <address>
965        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
966      </address>
967    </author>
968    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
969  </front>
970  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
971  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
972</reference>
973
974</references>
975
976<references title="Informative References">
977
978<reference anchor="RFC2616">
979  <front>
980    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
981    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
982      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
983      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
984    </author>
985    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
986      <organization>W3C</organization>
987      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
988    </author>
989    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
990      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
991      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
992    </author>
993    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
994      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
995      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
996    </author>
997    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
998      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
999      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1000    </author>
1001    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1002      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1003      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1004    </author>
1005    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1006      <organization>W3C</organization>
1007      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1008    </author>
1009    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1010  </front>
1011  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1012</reference>
1013
1014<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1015  <front>
1016    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1017    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1018      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1019      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1020    </author>
1021    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1022      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1023      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1024    </author>
1025    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1026      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1027      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1028    </author>
1029    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1030      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1031      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1032    </author>
1033    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1034      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1035      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1036    </author>
1037    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1038      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1039    </author>
1040    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1041      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1042      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1043    </author>
1044    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1045  </front>
1046  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1047</reference>
1048
1049<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1050  <front>
1051    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1052    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1053      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1054      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1055    </author>
1056    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1057      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1058      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1059    </author>
1060    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1061      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1062      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1063    </author>
1064    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1065  </front>
1066  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1067  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1068</reference>
1069
1070<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1071 <front>
1072  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1073  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1074    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1075    <address>
1076       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1077       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1078    </address>
1079  </author>
1080  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1081    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1082    <address>
1083      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1084      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1085    </address>
1086  </author>
1087  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1088    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1089    <address>
1090      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1091      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1092    </address>
1093  </author>
1094  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1095 </front>
1096 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1097 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1098</reference>
1099
1100<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1101  <front>
1102    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1103    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1104    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1105  </front>
1106  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1107</reference>
1108
1109<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1110  <front>
1111    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1112    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1113      <organization>IBM</organization>
1114      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1115    </author>
1116    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1117      <organization>Google</organization>
1118      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1119    </author>
1120    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1121  </front>
1122  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1123  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1124</reference>
1125
1126</references>
1127
1128<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1129<t>
1130  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1131  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1132  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1133</t>
1134<t>
1135  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1136  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1137  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1138</t>
1139<t>
1140  Introduce Authentication Scheme Registry.
1141  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
1142</t>
1143<t>
1144  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1145  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1146</t>
1147</section>
1148 
1149<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1150<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1151<figure>
1152<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1153<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1154
1155<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1156
1157<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1158
1159<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1160 challenge ] )
1161<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1162
1163<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1164 ] )
1165
1166<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1167<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1168
1169<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1170 *"="
1171
1172<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1173 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1174<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1175 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1176
1177<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1178
1179<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1180</artwork>
1181</figure>
1182</section>
1183<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1184
1185<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1186<t>
1187  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1188  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19#appendix-C"/>.
1189</t>
1190
1191<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1192<t>
1193  Closed issues:
1194  <list style="symbols">
1195    <t>
1196      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/348"/>:
1197      "Realms and scope"
1198    </t>
1199    <t>
1200      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/349"/>:
1201      "Strength"
1202    </t>
1203    <t>
1204      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/357"/>:
1205      "Authentication exchanges"
1206    </t>
1207    <t>
1208      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1209      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1210    </t>
1211    <t>
1212      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368"/>:
1213      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1214    </t>
1215  </list>
1216</t>
1217</section>
1218
1219</section>
1220
1221</back>
1222</rfc>
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