source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1743

Last change on this file since 1743 was 1740, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

Work-in-progress: hyperlink header field definitions, plus minor editorial improvements (P2)

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "July">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
19  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30]>
31<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
32<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
33<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
34<?rfc compact="yes"?>
35<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
36<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
37<?rfc editing="no" ?>
38<?rfc comments="yes"?>
39<?rfc inline="yes"?>
40<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
41<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
42<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
43<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
44     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
45     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
46<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
47<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
48<front>
49
50  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
51
52  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
53    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
54    <address>
55      <postal>
56        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
57        <city>San Jose</city>
58        <region>CA</region>
59        <code>95110</code>
60        <country>USA</country>
61      </postal>
62      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
63      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
64    </address>
65  </author>
66
67  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
68    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
69    <address>
70      <postal>
71        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
72        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
73        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
74        <region>AM</region>
75        <code>06902</code>
76        <country>France</country>
77      </postal>
78      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
79      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
80    </address>
81  </author>
82
83  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
84    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
85    <address>
86      <postal>
87        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
88        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
89        <country>Germany</country>
90      </postal>
91      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
92      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
93    </address>
94  </author>
95
96  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
97  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
98
99<abstract>
100<t>
101   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
102   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
103   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
104   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
105   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
106</t>
107<t>
108   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
109</t>
110</abstract>
111
112<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
113  <t>
114    Discussion of this draft ought to take place on the HTTPBIS working group
115    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
116    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
117  </t>
118  <t>
119    The current issues list is at
120    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
121    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
122    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
123  </t>
124  <t>
125    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.19"/>.
126  </t>
127</note>
128</front>
129<middle>
130<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
131<t>
132   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
133   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
134   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
135   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
136   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
137</t>
138<t>
139   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
140   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
141   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
142   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
143   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
144</t>
145
146<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
147<t>
148   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
149   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
150   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
151</t>
152<t>
153   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
154   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
155   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
156   for definitions of these terms.
157</t>
158<t>
159   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
160   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
161   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
162</t>
163<t>
164   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
165   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
166   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
167</t>
168<t>
169   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MUST; be able to parse all protocol
170   elements matching the ABNF rules defined for them and &MAY; take steps to
171   recover a usable protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
172   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
173   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
174   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser might wish to
175   transparently recover from a response where the <x:ref>Location</x:ref>
176   header field doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems
177   control protocol using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to
178   dangerous consequences.
179</t>
180</section>
181
182<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
183  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
184  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
185  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
186  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
187  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
188  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
189  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
190<t>
191   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
192   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
193   &notation;.  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
194   with the list rule expanded.
195</t>
196<t>
197  The following core rules are included by
198  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
199  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
200  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
201  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
202  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
203  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
204</t>
205
206<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
207   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
208   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
209   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
210   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
211<t>
212   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
213</t>
214<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
215  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
216  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
217  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
218  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
219</artwork></figure>
220</section>
221</section>
222</section>
223
224<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
225
226<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
227  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
228  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
229  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
230  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
231  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
232<t>
233   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
234   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
235   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
236   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
237   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
238   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
239   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
240   information.
241</t>
242<t>
243   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
244   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
245</t>
246<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
247  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
248 
249  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
250
251  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
252                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
253</artwork></figure>
254<t>
255   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
256   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
257   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
258   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
259</t>
260<t>
261   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
262   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
263   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
264   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
265</t>
266<t>  
267   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
268   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
269   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
270   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
271</t>
272<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
273  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
274</artwork></figure>
275<x:note>
276  <t>
277     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
278     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
279     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
280     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
281     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
282  </t>
283</x:note>
284<x:note>
285  <t>
286     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
287     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
288     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
289  </t>
290</x:note>
291<t>
292   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
293   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
294   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
295   request.
296</t>
297<t>  
298   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
299   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
300   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
301   request.
302</t>
303<t>
304   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
305   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
306   requested, based upon a challenge received from the server (possibly at
307   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
308   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
309   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
310   as appropriate.
311</t>
312<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
313  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
314</artwork></figure>
315<t>
316   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
317   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
318   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
319   server &SHOULD; return a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Such
320   responses &MUST; include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
321   containing at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the
322   requested resource.
323</t>
324<t>
325   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
326   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
327   return a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response. Such responses
328   &MUST; include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing a (possibly
329   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
330</t>
331<t>
332   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
333   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
334</t>
335<t>
336   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
337   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
338   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
339   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
340   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
341   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
342</t>
343<t>
344   Proxies &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
345   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
346   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
347</t>
348</section>
349
350<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
351  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
352  <iref item="Realm"/>
353  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
354<t>
355   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
356   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
357</t>
358<t>
359   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
360   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
361   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
362   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
363   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
364   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
365   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
366   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
367   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
368   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
369   different realms.
370</t>
371<t>
372   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
373   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
374   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
375   protection space for a period of time determined by the
376   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
377   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
378   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
379</t>
380<t>
381   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
382   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
383   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
384   notations for a long time.
385</t>
386</section>
387
388<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
389<t>
390  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
391  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
392</t>
393<t>
394  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
395  <list style="symbols">
396    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
397    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
398    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
399  </list>
400</t>
401<t>
402  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
403  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
404</t>
405<t>
406  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
407</t>
408
409<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
410<t>
411  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
412  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
413</t>
414<t>
415  <list style="symbols">
416    <x:lt>
417    <t>
418      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
419      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
420      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
421      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
422      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
423      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
424      party other than the authenticated user
425      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
426    </t>
427    </x:lt>
428    <x:lt>
429    <t>
430      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
431      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
432      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
433    </t>
434    </x:lt>
435    <x:lt>
436    <t>
437      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
438      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
439      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
440      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
441    </t>
442    </x:lt>
443    <x:lt>
444    <t>
445      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
446      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
447      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
448      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
449      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
450      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
451      all authentication schemes.
452    </t>
453    <t>
454      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
455      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
456      for new parameters.
457    </t>
458    </x:lt>
459    <x:lt>
460    <t>
461      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
462      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
463      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
464      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
465      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
466      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
467    </t>
468    </x:lt>
469    <x:lt>
470    <t>
471      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
472      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
473      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
474    </t>
475    </x:lt>
476    <x:lt>
477    <t>
478      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
479      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
480      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
481      request they appear in.
482    </t>
483    <t>
484      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
485      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
486      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
487      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
488      directives (e.g., "private").
489    </t>
490    </x:lt>
491  </list>
492</t>
493</section>
494
495</section>
496
497</section>
498
499<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
500<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
501  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
502  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
503  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
504<t>
505   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
506   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
507   containing a challenge applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY;
508   repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field
509   (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If the request already included
510   Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization
511   has been refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the
512   same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
513   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
514   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
515   include relevant diagnostic information.
516</t>
517</section>
518<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
519  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
520  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
521  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
522<t>
523   This code is similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the
524   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
525   return a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
526   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
527   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
528   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
529</t>
530</section>
531</section>
532
533<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
534<t>
535   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
536   related to authentication.
537</t>
538
539<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
540  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
541  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
542  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
543<t>
544   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
545   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401
546   (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of credentials containing
547   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
548   requested.
549</t>
550<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
551  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
552</artwork></figure>
553<t>
554   If a request is
555   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
556   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
557   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
558   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
559   synchronized clocks).
560</t>
561<t>
562      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
563      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
564      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
565      of the following specific exceptions holds:
566</t>
567<t>
568  <list style="numbers">
569      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
570         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
571         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
572         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
573         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
574         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
575         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
576         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
577         it.</t>
578
579      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
580         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
581         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
582         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
583         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
584         to authenticate the new request.</t>
585
586      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
587         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
588  </list>
589</t>
590</section>
591
592<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
593  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
594  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
595  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
596<t>
597   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
598   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
599   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
600   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
601</t>
602<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
603  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
604</artwork></figure>
605<t>
606   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
607   applies only to the current connection, and intermediaries &SHOULD-NOT;
608   forward it to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need
609   to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream client,
610   which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
611   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
612</t>
613<t>
614   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
615   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
616   for details.
617</t>
618</section>
619
620<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
621  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
622  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
623  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
624<t>
625   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
626   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
627   authentication. Its value consists of
628   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
629   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
630</t>
631<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
632  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
633</artwork></figure>
634<t>
635   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
636   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
637   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
638   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
639   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
640   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
641   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
642   request.
643</t>
644</section>
645
646<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
647  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
648  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
649  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
650<t>
651   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
652   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
653   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
654</t>
655<t>  
656   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
657   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
658   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
659</t>
660<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
661  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
662</artwork></figure>
663<t>
664   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
665   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
666   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
667   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
668   authentication parameters.
669</t>
670<figure>
671  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
672  <artwork type="example">
673  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
674                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
675</artwork>
676  <postamble>
677  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
678  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
679  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
680  "simple".
681</postamble></figure>
682<x:note>
683  <t>
684    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
685    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
686    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
687    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
688    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
689    harmless.
690  </t>
691</x:note>
692</section>
693
694</section>
695
696<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
697
698<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
699<t>
700  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
701  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
702</t>
703<t>
704   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
705</t>
706</section>
707
708<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
709<t>
710   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
711   shall be updated with the registrations below:
712</t>
713<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
714<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
715<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
716   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
717   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
718   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
719   <c>401</c>
720   <c>Unauthorized</c>
721   <c>
722      <xref target="status.401"/>
723   </c>
724   <c>407</c>
725   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
726   <c>
727      <xref target="status.407"/>
728   </c>
729</texttable>
730<!--(END)-->
731<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
732</section>
733
734<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
735<t>
736   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
737   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
738</t>
739<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
740<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
741<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
742   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
743   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
744   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
745   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
746
747   <c>Authorization</c>
748   <c>http</c>
749   <c>standard</c>
750   <c>
751      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
752   </c>
753   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
754   <c>http</c>
755   <c>standard</c>
756   <c>
757      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
758   </c>
759   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
760   <c>http</c>
761   <c>standard</c>
762   <c>
763      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
764   </c>
765   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
766   <c>http</c>
767   <c>standard</c>
768   <c>
769      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
770   </c>
771</texttable>
772<!--(END)-->
773<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
774<t>
775   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
776</t>
777</section>
778</section>
779
780<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
781<t>
782   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
783   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
784   described by this document. The discussion does not include
785   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
786   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
787</t>
788
789<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
790<t>
791   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
792   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
793   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
794   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
795   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
796   application's security model include but are not limited to:
797  <list style="symbols">
798     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
799        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
800        user for credentials.</t>
801
802     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
803        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
804        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
805        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
806  </list>
807</t>
808<t>
809   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
810   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
811   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
812   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
813   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
814   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
815   cached credentials under user control.
816</t>
817</section>
818
819<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
820<t>
821  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
822  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on a
823  server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a
824  resource can use the same authentication credentials for other resources on
825  the same server. This makes it possible for a different resource to harvest
826  authentication credentials for other resources.
827</t>
828<t>
829  This is of particular concern when a server hosts resources for multiple
830  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target="protection.spaces"/>).
831  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
832  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
833  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
834  spaces by using a different host name for each party.
835</t>
836</section>
837</section>
838
839<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
840<t>
841  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
842  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
843  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
844  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
845  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
846  for further acknowledgements. 
847</t>
848<t>
849  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
850</t>
851</section>
852</middle>
853
854<back>
855
856<references title="Normative References">
857
858<reference anchor="Part1">
859  <front>
860    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
861    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
862      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
863      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
864    </author>
865    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
866      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
867      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
868    </author>
869    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
870      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
871      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
872    </author>
873    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
874  </front>
875  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
876  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
877</reference>
878
879<reference anchor="Part2">
880  <front>
881    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation</title>
882    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
883      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
884      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
885    </author>
886    <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
887      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
888      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
889    </author>
890    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
891      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
892      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
893    </author>
894    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
895  </front>
896  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
897  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
898    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
899    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
900  </x:source>
901</reference>
902
903<reference anchor="Part6">
904  <front>
905    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
906    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
907      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
908      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
909    </author>
910    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
911      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
912      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
913    </author>
914    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
915      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
916      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
917    </author>
918    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
919      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
920      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
921    </author>
922    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
923  </front>
924  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
925  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
926</reference>
927
928<reference anchor="RFC2119">
929  <front>
930    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
931    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
932      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
933      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
934    </author>
935    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
936  </front>
937  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
938  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
939</reference>
940
941<reference anchor="RFC5234">
942  <front>
943    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
944    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
945      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
946      <address>
947        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
948      </address> 
949    </author>
950    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
951      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
952      <address>
953        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
954      </address>
955    </author>
956    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
957  </front>
958  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
959  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
960</reference>
961
962</references>
963
964<references title="Informative References">
965
966<reference anchor="RFC2616">
967  <front>
968    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
969    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
970      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
971      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
972    </author>
973    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
974      <organization>W3C</organization>
975      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
976    </author>
977    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
978      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
979      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
980    </author>
981    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
982      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
983      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
984    </author>
985    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
986      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
987      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
988    </author>
989    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
990      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
991      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
992    </author>
993    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
994      <organization>W3C</organization>
995      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
996    </author>
997    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
998  </front>
999  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1000</reference>
1001
1002<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1003  <front>
1004    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1005    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1006      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1007      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1008    </author>
1009    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1010      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1011      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1012    </author>
1013    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1014      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1015      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1016    </author>
1017    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1018      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1019      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1020    </author>
1021    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1022      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1023      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1024    </author>
1025    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1026      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1027    </author>
1028    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1029      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1030      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1031    </author>
1032    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1033  </front>
1034  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1035</reference>
1036
1037<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1038  <front>
1039    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1040    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1041      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1042      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1043    </author>
1044    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1045      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1046      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1047    </author>
1048    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1049      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1050      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1051    </author>
1052    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1053  </front>
1054  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1055  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1056</reference>
1057
1058<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1059 <front>
1060  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1061  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1062    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1063    <address>
1064       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1065       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1066    </address>
1067  </author>
1068  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1069    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1070    <address>
1071      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1072      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1073    </address>
1074  </author>
1075  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1076    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1077    <address>
1078      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1079      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1080    </address>
1081  </author>
1082  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1083 </front>
1084 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1085 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1086</reference>
1087
1088<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1089  <front>
1090    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1091    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1092    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1093  </front>
1094  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1095</reference>
1096
1097<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1098  <front>
1099    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1100    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1101      <organization>IBM</organization>
1102      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1103    </author>
1104    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1105      <organization>Google</organization>
1106      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1107    </author>
1108    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1109  </front>
1110  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1111  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1112</reference>
1113
1114</references>
1115
1116<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1117<t>
1118  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1119  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1120  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1121</t>
1122<t>
1123  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1124  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1125  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1126</t>
1127<t>
1128  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1129  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1130</t>
1131</section>
1132 
1133<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1134<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1135<figure>
1136<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1137<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1138
1139<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1140
1141<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1142
1143<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1144 challenge ] )
1145<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1146
1147<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1148 ] )
1149
1150<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1151<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1152
1153<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1154 *"="
1155
1156<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1157 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1158<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1159 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1160
1161<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1162
1163<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1164</artwork>
1165</figure>
1166<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1167; Authorization defined but not used
1168; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1169; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1170; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1171</artwork></figure></section>
1172<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1173
1174<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1175<t>
1176  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1177  in <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19#appendix-C"/>.
1178</t>
1179
1180<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1181<t>
1182  Closed issues:
1183  <list style="symbols">
1184    <t>
1185      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/348"/>:
1186      "Realms and scope"
1187    </t>
1188    <t>
1189      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/349"/>:
1190      "Strength"
1191    </t>
1192    <t>
1193      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/357"/>:
1194      "Authentication exchanges"
1195    </t>
1196    <t>
1197      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1198      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1199    </t>
1200  </list>
1201</t>
1202</section>
1203
1204</section>
1205
1206</back>
1207</rfc>
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