source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1567

Last change on this file since 1567 was 1567, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

make IANA policy definitions consistent (see #346)

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  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 59.2 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "March">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
45<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
46<front>
47
48  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
49
50  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
51    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
52    <address>
53      <postal>
54        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
55        <city>San Jose</city>
56        <region>CA</region>
57        <code>95110</code>
58        <country>USA</country>
59      </postal>
60      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
61      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
62    </address>
63  </author>
64
65  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
66    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
67    <address>
68      <postal>
69        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
70        <city>Carlisle</city>
71        <region>MA</region>
72        <code>01741</code>
73        <country>USA</country>
74      </postal>
75      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
76      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
77    </address>
78  </author>
79 
80  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
81    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
82    <address>
83      <postal>
84        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
85        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
86        <city>Palo Alto</city>
87        <region>CA</region>
88        <code>94304</code>
89        <country>USA</country>
90      </postal>
91      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
92    </address>
93  </author>
94
95  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
96    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
97    <address>
98      <postal>
99        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
100        <city>Redmond</city>
101        <region>WA</region>
102        <code>98052</code>
103        <country>USA</country>
104      </postal>
105      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
106    </address>
107  </author>
108
109  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
110    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
111    <address>
112      <postal>
113        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
114        <city>San Jose</city>
115        <region>CA</region>
116        <code>95110</code>
117        <country>USA</country>
118      </postal>
119      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
120      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
121    </address>
122  </author>
123 
124  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
125    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
126    <address>
127      <postal>
128        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
129        <city>Redmond</city>
130        <region>WA</region>
131        <code>98052</code>
132      </postal>
133      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
134    </address>
135  </author>
136   
137  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
138    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
139    <address>
140      <postal>
141        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
142        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
143        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
144        <city>Cambridge</city>
145        <region>MA</region>
146        <code>02139</code>
147        <country>USA</country>
148      </postal>
149      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
150      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
151    </address>
152  </author>
153
154  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
155    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
156    <address>
157      <postal>
158        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
159        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
160        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
161        <region>AM</region>
162        <code>06902</code>
163        <country>France</country>
164      </postal>
165      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
166      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
167    </address>
168  </author>
169
170  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
171    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
172    <address>
173      <postal>
174        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
175        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
176        <country>Germany</country>
177      </postal>
178      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
179      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
180      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
181      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
182    </address>
183  </author>
184
185  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
186  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
187
188<abstract>
189<t>
190   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
191   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
192   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
193   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
194   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
195</t>
196<t>
197   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
198</t>
199</abstract>
200
201<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
202  <t>
203    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
204    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
205    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
206  </t>
207  <t>
208    The current issues list is at
209    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
210    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
211    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
212  </t>
213  <t>
214    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.18"/>.
215  </t>
216</note>
217</front>
218<middle>
219<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
220<t>
221   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
222   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
223   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
224   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
225   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
226</t>
227<t>
228   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
229   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
230   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
231   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
232   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
233</t>
234
235<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
236<t>
237   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
238   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
239   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
240</t>
241<t>
242   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
243   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
244   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
245   for definitions of these terms.
246</t>
247<t>
248   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
249   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
250   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
251</t>
252<t>
253   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
254   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
255   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
256</t>
257<t>
258   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
259   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
260   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
261   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
262   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
263   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
264   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
265   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
266</t>
267</section>
268
269<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
270  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
275  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
276  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
277<t>
278   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
279   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
280   &notation;<xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
281   with the list rule expanded.
282</t>
283<t>
284  The following core rules are included by
285  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
286  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
287  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
288  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
289  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
290  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
291</t>
292
293<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
294   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
296   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
297   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
298<t>
299   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
300</t>
301<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
302  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
303  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
304  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
305  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
306</artwork></figure>
307</section>
308</section>
309</section>
310
311<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
312
313<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
314  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
317  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
318  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
319<t>
320   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
321   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
322   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
323   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
324   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
325   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
326   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
327   information.
328</t>
329<t>
330   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
331   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
332</t>
333<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
334  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
335 
336  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
337
338  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
339                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
340</artwork></figure>
341<t>
342   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
343   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
344   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
345   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
346</t>
347<t>
348   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
349   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
350   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
351   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
352</t>
353<t>   
354   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
355   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
356   header field containing at least one challenge
357   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
358</t>
359<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
360  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
361</artwork></figure>
362<x:note>
363  <t>
364     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
365     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
366     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
367     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
368     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
369  </t>
370</x:note>
371<x:note>
372  <t>
373     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
374     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
375     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
376  </t>
377</x:note>
378<t>
379   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
380   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
381   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
382   request.
383</t>
384<t>   
385   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
386   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
387   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
388   request.
389</t>
390<t>   
391   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
392   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
393   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
394   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
395   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
396</t>
397<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
398  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
399</artwork></figure>
400<t>
401   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
402   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
403   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
404   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
405   resource.
406</t>
407<t>
408   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
409   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
410   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
411   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
412   resource.
413</t>
414<t>
415   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
416   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
417   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
418   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
419   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
420   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
421</t>
422<t>
423   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
424   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
425</t>
426</section>
427
428<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
429  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
430  <iref item="Realm"/>
431<t>
432   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
433   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
434</t>
435<t>
436   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
437   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
438   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
439   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
440   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
441   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
442   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
443   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
444   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
445   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
446   different realms.
447</t>
448<t>
449   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
450   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
451   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
452   protection space for a period of time determined by the
453   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
454   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
455   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
456</t>
457<t>
458   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
459   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
460   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
461   notations for a long time.
462</t>
463</section>
464
465<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
466<t>
467  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
468  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
469</t>
470<t>
471  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
472  <list style="symbols">
473    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
474    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
475    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
476  </list>
477</t>
478<t>
479  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
480  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
481</t>
482<t>
483  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
484</t>
485
486<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
487<t>
488  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
489  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
490</t>
491<t>
492  <list style="symbols">
493    <x:lt>
494    <t>
495      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
496      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
497      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
498      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
499      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
500      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
501      party other than the authenticated user
502      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
503    </t>
504    </x:lt>
505    <x:lt>
506    <t>
507      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
508      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
509      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
510    </t>
511    </x:lt>
512    <x:lt>
513    <t>
514      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
515      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
516      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
517      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
518    </t>
519    </x:lt>
520    <x:lt>
521    <t>
522      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
523      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
524      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
525      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
526      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
527      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
528      all authentication schemes.
529    </t>
530    <t>
531      <x:h>Note:</x:h> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
532      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
533      for new parameters.
534    </t>
535    </x:lt>
536    <x:lt>
537    <t>
538      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
539      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
540      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
541      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
542      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
543      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
544    </t>
545    </x:lt>
546    <x:lt>
547    <t>
548      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
549      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
550      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
551    </t>
552    </x:lt>
553    <x:lt>
554    <t>
555      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
556      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
557      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
558      request they appear in.
559    </t>
560    <t>
561      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
562      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
563      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
564      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
565      directives (e.g., "private").
566    </t>
567    </x:lt>
568  </list>
569</t>
570</section>
571
572</section>
573
574</section>
575
576<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
577<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
578  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
579  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
580<t>
581   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
582   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
583   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
584   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
585   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
586   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
587   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
588   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
589   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
590   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
591   include relevant diagnostic information.
592</t>
593</section>
594<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
595  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
596  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
597<t>
598   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
599   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
600   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
601   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
602   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
603   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
604</t>
605</section>
606</section>
607
608<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
609<t>
610   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
611   related to authentication.
612</t>
613
614<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
615  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
616  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
617  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
618<t>
619   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
620   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
621   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
622   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
623   requested.
624</t>
625<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
626  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
627</artwork></figure>
628<t>
629   If a request is
630   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
631   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
632   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
633   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
634   synchronized clocks).
635</t>
636<t>
637      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
638      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
639      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
640      of the following specific exceptions holds:
641</t>
642<t>
643  <list style="numbers">
644      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
645         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
646         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
647         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
648         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
649         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
650         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
651         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
652         it.</t>
653
654      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
655         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
656         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
657         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
658         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
659         to authenticate the new request.</t>
660
661      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
662         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
663  </list>
664</t>
665</section>
666
667<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
668  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
669  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
670  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
671<t>
672   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
673   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
674   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
675   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
676</t>
677<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
678  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
679</artwork></figure>
680<t>
681   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
682   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
683   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
684   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
685   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
686   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
687</t>
688<t>
689   Note that the parsing considerations for WWW-Authenticate apply to this
690   header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/> for
691   details.
692</t>
693</section>
694
695<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
696  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
697  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
698  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
699<t>
700   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
701   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
702   authentication. Its value consists of
703   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
704   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
705</t>
706<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
707  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
708</artwork></figure>
709<t>
710   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
711   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
712   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
713   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
714   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
715   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
716   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
717   request.
718</t>
719</section>
720
721<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
722  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
723  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
724  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
725<t>
726   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
727   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
728   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
729</t>
730<t>   
731   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
732   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
733   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
734</t>
735<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
736  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
737</artwork></figure>
738<t>
739   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
740   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
741   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
742   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
743   authentication parameters.
744</t>
745<figure>
746  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
747  <artwork type="example">
748  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
749                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
750</artwork>
751  <postamble>
752  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
753  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
754  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
755  "simple".
756</postamble></figure>
757<x:note>
758  <t>
759    <x:h>Note:</x:h> The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
760    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
761    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
762    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
763    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
764    harmless.
765  </t>
766</x:note>
767</section>
768
769</section>
770
771<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
772
773<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
774<t>
775  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
776  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
777</t>
778<t>
779   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
780</t>
781</section>
782
783<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
784<t>
785   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
786   shall be updated with the registrations below:
787</t>
788<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
789<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
790<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
791   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
792   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
793   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
794   <c>401</c>
795   <c>Unauthorized</c>
796   <c>
797      <xref target="status.401"/>
798   </c>
799   <c>407</c>
800   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
801   <c>
802      <xref target="status.407"/>
803   </c>
804</texttable>
805<!--(END)-->
806<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
807</section>
808
809<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
810<t>
811   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
812   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
813</t>
814<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
815<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
816<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
817   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
818   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
819   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
820   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
821
822   <c>Authorization</c>
823   <c>http</c>
824   <c>standard</c>
825   <c>
826      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
827   </c>
828   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
829   <c>http</c>
830   <c>standard</c>
831   <c>
832      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
833   </c>
834   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
835   <c>http</c>
836   <c>standard</c>
837   <c>
838      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
839   </c>
840   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
841   <c>http</c>
842   <c>standard</c>
843   <c>
844      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
845   </c>
846</texttable>
847<!--(END)-->
848<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
849<t>
850   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
851</t>
852</section>
853</section>
854
855<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
856<t>
857   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
858   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
859   described by this document. The discussion does not include
860   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
861   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
862</t>
863
864<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
865<t>
866   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
867   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
868   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
869   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
870   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
871   application's security model include but are not limited to:
872  <list style="symbols">
873     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
874        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
875        user for credentials.</t>
876
877     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
878        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
879        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
880        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
881  </list>
882</t>
883<t>
884   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
885   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
886   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
887   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
888   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
889   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
890   cached credentials under user control.
891</t>
892</section>
893</section>
894
895<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
896<t>
897  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
898  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
899  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
900  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
901  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
902  for further acknowledgements. 
903</t>
904<t>
905  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
906</t>
907</section>
908</middle>
909
910<back>
911
912<references title="Normative References">
913
914<reference anchor="Part1">
915  <front>
916    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
917    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
918      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
919      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
920    </author>
921    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
922      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
923      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
924    </author>
925    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
926      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
927      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
928    </author>
929    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
930      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
931      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
932    </author>
933    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
934      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
935      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
936    </author>
937    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
938      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
939      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
940    </author>
941    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
942      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
943      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
944    </author>
945    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
946      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
947      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
948    </author>
949    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
950      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
951      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
952    </author>
953    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
954  </front>
955  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
956  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
957</reference>
958
959<reference anchor="Part6">
960  <front>
961    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
962    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
963      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
964      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
965    </author>
966    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
967      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
968      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
969    </author>
970    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
971      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
972      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
973    </author>
974    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
975      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
976      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
977    </author>
978    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
979      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
980      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
981    </author>
982    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
983      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
984      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
985    </author>
986    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
987      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
988      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
989    </author>
990    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
991      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
992      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
993    </author>
994    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
995      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
996      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
997    </author>
998    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
999      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1000      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1001    </author>
1002    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1003  </front>
1004  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1005  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
1006</reference>
1007
1008<reference anchor="RFC2119">
1009  <front>
1010    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
1011    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
1012      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
1013      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
1014    </author>
1015    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
1016  </front>
1017  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
1018  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
1019</reference>
1020
1021<reference anchor="RFC5234">
1022  <front>
1023    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
1024    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
1025      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
1026      <address>
1027        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
1028      </address> 
1029    </author>
1030    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1031      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1032      <address>
1033        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
1034      </address>
1035    </author>
1036    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1037  </front>
1038  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1039  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1040</reference>
1041
1042</references>
1043
1044<references title="Informative References">
1045
1046<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1047  <front>
1048    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1049    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1050      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1051      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1052    </author>
1053    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1054      <organization>W3C</organization>
1055      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1056    </author>
1057    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1058      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1059      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1060    </author>
1061    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1062      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1063      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1064    </author>
1065    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1066      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1067      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1068    </author>
1069    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1070      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1071      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1072    </author>
1073    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1074      <organization>W3C</organization>
1075      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1076    </author>
1077    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1078  </front>
1079  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1080</reference>
1081
1082<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1083  <front>
1084    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1085    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1086      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1087      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1088    </author>
1089    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1090      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1091      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1092    </author>
1093    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1094      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1095      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1096    </author>
1097    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1098      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1099      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1100    </author>
1101    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1102      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1103      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1104    </author>
1105    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1106      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1107    </author>
1108    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1109      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1110      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1111    </author>
1112    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1113  </front>
1114  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1115</reference>
1116
1117<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1118  <front>
1119    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1120    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1121      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1122      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1123    </author>
1124    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1125      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1126      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1127    </author>
1128    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1129      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1130      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1131    </author>
1132    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1133  </front>
1134  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1135  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1136</reference>
1137
1138<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1139 <front>
1140  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1141  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1142    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1143    <address>
1144       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1145       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1146    </address>
1147  </author>
1148  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1149    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1150    <address>
1151      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1152      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1153    </address>
1154  </author>
1155  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1156    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1157    <address>
1158      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1159      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1160    </address>
1161  </author>
1162  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1163 </front>
1164 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1165 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1166</reference>
1167
1168<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1169  <front>
1170    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1171    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1172    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1173  </front>
1174  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1175</reference>
1176
1177<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1178  <front>
1179    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1180    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1181      <organization>IBM</organization>
1182      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1183    </author>
1184    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1185      <organization>Google</organization>
1186      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1187    </author>
1188    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1189  </front>
1190  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1191  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1192</reference>
1193
1194</references>
1195
1196<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1197<t>
1198  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1199  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1200  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1201</t>
1202<t>
1203  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1204  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1205  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1206</t>
1207<t>
1208  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1209  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1210</t>
1211</section>
1212 
1213<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1214<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1215<figure>
1216<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1217<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1218
1219<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1220
1221<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1222
1223<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1224 challenge ] )
1225<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1226
1227<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1228 ] )
1229
1230<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1231<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1232
1233<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1234 *"="
1235
1236<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1237 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1238<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1239 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1240
1241<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1242
1243<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1244</artwork>
1245</figure>
1246<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1247; Authorization defined but not used
1248; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1249; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1250; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1251</artwork></figure></section>
1252<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1253
1254<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1255
1256<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1257<t>
1258  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1259</t>
1260</section>
1261
1262<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1263<t>
1264  Closed issues:
1265  <list style="symbols"> 
1266    <t>
1267      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1268      "Normative and Informative references"
1269    </t>
1270  </list>
1271</t>
1272</section>
1273
1274<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1275<t>
1276  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1277  <list style="symbols"> 
1278    <t>
1279      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1280    </t>
1281    <t>
1282      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1283    </t>
1284  </list>
1285</t>
1286</section>
1287
1288<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1289<t>
1290  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1291  <list style="symbols"> 
1292    <t>
1293      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1294      in this document.
1295    </t>
1296  </list>
1297</t>
1298</section>
1299
1300<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1301<t>
1302  None.
1303</t>
1304</section>
1305
1306<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1307<t>
1308  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1309  <list style="symbols"> 
1310    <t>
1311      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1312    </t>
1313    <t>
1314      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1315      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1316    </t>
1317    <t>
1318      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1319      header field value format definitions.
1320    </t>
1321  </list>
1322</t>
1323</section>
1324
1325<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1326<t>
1327  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1328  <list style="symbols"> 
1329    <t>
1330      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1331    </t>
1332  </list>
1333</t>
1334</section>
1335
1336<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1337<t>
1338  None.
1339</t>
1340</section>
1341
1342<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1343<t>
1344  Closed issues:
1345  <list style="symbols"> 
1346    <t>
1347      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1348      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1349    </t>
1350  </list>
1351</t>
1352</section>
1353
1354<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1355<t>
1356  No significant changes.
1357</t>
1358</section>
1359
1360<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1361<t>
1362  Partly resolved issues:
1363  <list style="symbols"> 
1364    <t>
1365      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1366      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1367    </t>
1368  </list>
1369</t>
1370</section>
1371
1372<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1373<t>
1374  None.
1375</t>
1376</section>
1377
1378<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1379<t>
1380  Closed issues:
1381  <list style="symbols"> 
1382    <t>
1383      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1384      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1385    </t>
1386    <t>
1387      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1388      "auth-param syntax"
1389    </t>
1390    <t>
1391      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1392      "Header Classification"
1393    </t>
1394    <t>
1395      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1396      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1397    </t>
1398  </list>
1399</t>
1400<t>
1401  Partly resolved issues:
1402  <list style="symbols"> 
1403    <t>
1404      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1405      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1406    </t>
1407  </list>
1408</t>
1409</section>
1410
1411<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1412<t>
1413  None.
1414</t>
1415</section>
1416
1417<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1418<t>
1419  Closed issues:
1420  <list style="symbols">
1421    <t>
1422      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1423      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1424    </t>
1425  </list>
1426</t>
1427</section>
1428
1429<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1430<t>
1431  None.
1432</t>
1433</section>
1434
1435<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1436<t>
1437  Closed issues:
1438  <list style="symbols">
1439    <t>
1440      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1441      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1442    </t>
1443    <t>
1444      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1445      "Realm required on challenges"
1446    </t>
1447    <t>
1448      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1449      "auth-param syntax"
1450    </t>
1451    <t>
1452      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1453      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1454    </t>
1455    <t>
1456      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1457      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1458    </t>
1459    <t>
1460      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1461      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1462    </t>
1463  </list>
1464</t>
1465</section>
1466
1467<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1468<t>
1469  Closed issues:
1470  <list style="symbols"> 
1471    <t>
1472      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1473      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1474    </t>
1475    <t>
1476      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1477      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1478    </t>
1479  </list>
1480</t>
1481</section>
1482
1483<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1484<t>
1485  Closed issues:
1486  <list style="symbols"> 
1487    <t>
1488      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/314"/>:
1489      "allow unquoted realm parameters"
1490    </t>
1491    <t>
1492      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321"/>:
1493      "Repeating auth-params"
1494    </t>
1495  </list>
1496</t>
1497</section>
1498
1499<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-18" anchor="changes.since.18">
1500<t>
1501  Closed issues:
1502  <list style="symbols"> 
1503    <t>
1504      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/334"/>:
1505      "recipient behavior for new auth parameters"
1506    </t>
1507    <t>
1508      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/342"/>:
1509      "WWW-Authenticate ABNF slightly ambiguous"
1510    </t>
1511  </list>
1512</t>
1513</section>
1514
1515</section>
1516
1517</back>
1518</rfc>
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