source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1520

Last change on this file since 1520 was 1518, checked in by fielding@…, 8 years ago

Streamline the meaty sections by moving the miscellaneous conformance
and error handling down where it is applicable, and the ABNF stuff only
used by header fields down to the header fields sections. Simplify
the reference to ABNF in all parts.

Clarify what stateless means for HTTP and correct overstatement
about connection-based authentication. Move discussion of streaming
to where it belongs.

Clarify section on request-target by reordering it by common types
and use an example that has path and query. Provide an example
for CONNECT authority-form. Remove obsolete note about the "no rewrite" rule.

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 57.8 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "January">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
45<front>
46
47  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
48
49  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
50    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
51    <address>
52      <postal>
53        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
54        <city>San Jose</city>
55        <region>CA</region>
56        <code>95110</code>
57        <country>USA</country>
58      </postal>
59      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
60      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
61    </address>
62  </author>
63
64  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
65    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
66    <address>
67      <postal>
68        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
69        <city>Carlisle</city>
70        <region>MA</region>
71        <code>01741</code>
72        <country>USA</country>
73      </postal>
74      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
75      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
76    </address>
77  </author>
78 
79  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
80    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
81    <address>
82      <postal>
83        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
84        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
85        <city>Palo Alto</city>
86        <region>CA</region>
87        <code>94304</code>
88        <country>USA</country>
89      </postal>
90      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
91    </address>
92  </author>
93
94  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
95    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
96    <address>
97      <postal>
98        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
99        <city>Redmond</city>
100        <region>WA</region>
101        <code>98052</code>
102        <country>USA</country>
103      </postal>
104      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
105    </address>
106  </author>
107
108  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
109    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
110    <address>
111      <postal>
112        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
113        <city>San Jose</city>
114        <region>CA</region>
115        <code>95110</code>
116        <country>USA</country>
117      </postal>
118      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
119      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
120    </address>
121  </author>
122 
123  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
124    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
128        <city>Redmond</city>
129        <region>WA</region>
130        <code>98052</code>
131      </postal>
132      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
133    </address>
134  </author>
135   
136  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
137    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
138    <address>
139      <postal>
140        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
141        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
142        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
143        <city>Cambridge</city>
144        <region>MA</region>
145        <code>02139</code>
146        <country>USA</country>
147      </postal>
148      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
149      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
150    </address>
151  </author>
152
153  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
154    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
155    <address>
156      <postal>
157        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
158        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
159        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
160        <region>AM</region>
161        <code>06902</code>
162        <country>France</country>
163      </postal>
164      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
165      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
166    </address>
167  </author>
168
169  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
170    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
171    <address>
172      <postal>
173        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
174        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
175        <country>Germany</country>
176      </postal>
177      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
178      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
179      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
180      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
181    </address>
182  </author>
183
184  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
185  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
186
187<abstract>
188<t>
189   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
190   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
191   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
192   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
193   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
194</t>
195<t>
196   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
197</t>
198</abstract>
199
200<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
201  <t>
202    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
203    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
204    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
205  </t>
206  <t>
207    The current issues list is at
208    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
209    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
210    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
211  </t>
212  <t>
213    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.18"/>.
214  </t>
215</note>
216</front>
217<middle>
218<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
219<t>
220   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
221   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
222   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
223   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
224   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
225</t>
226<t>
227   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
228   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
229   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
230   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
231   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
232</t>
233
234<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
235<t>
236   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
237   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
238   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
239</t>
240<t>
241   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
242   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
243   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
244   for definitions of these terms.
245</t>
246<t>
247   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
248   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
249   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
250</t>
251<t>
252   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
253   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
254   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
255</t>
256<t>
257   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
258   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
259   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
260   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
261   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
262   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
263   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
264   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
265</t>
266</section>
267
268<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
269  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
270  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
275  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
276<t>
277   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
278   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
279   &notation;<xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
280   with the list rule expanded.
281</t>
282<t>
283  The following core rules are included by
284  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
285  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
286  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
287  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
288  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
289  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
290</t>
291
292<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
293   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
294   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
296   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
297<t>
298   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
299</t>
300<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
301  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
302  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
303  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
304  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
305</artwork></figure>
306</section>
307</section>
308</section>
309
310<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
311
312<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
313  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
317  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
318<t>
319   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
320   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
321   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
322   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
323   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
324   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
325   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
326   information.
327</t>
328<t>
329   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
330   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
331</t>
332<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
333  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
334 
335  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
336
337  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
338                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
339</artwork></figure>
340<t>
341   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
342   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
343   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
344   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
345</t>
346<t>
347   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
348   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
349   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
350   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
351</t>
352<t>   
353   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
354   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
355   header field containing at least one challenge
356   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
357</t>
358<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
359  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
360</artwork></figure>
361<x:note>
362  <t>
363     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
364     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
365     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
366     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
367     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
368  </t>
369</x:note>
370<x:note>
371  <t>
372     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
373     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
374     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
375  </t>
376</x:note>
377<t>
378   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
379   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
380   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
381   request.
382</t>
383<t>   
384   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
385   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
386   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
387   request.
388</t>
389<t>   
390   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
391   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
392   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
393   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
394   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
395</t>
396<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
397  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
398</artwork></figure>
399<t>
400   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
401   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
402   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
403   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
404   resource.
405</t>
406<t>
407   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
408   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
409   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
410   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
411   resource.
412</t>
413<t>
414   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
415   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
416   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
417   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
418   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
419   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
420</t>
421<t>
422   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
423   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
424</t>
425</section>
426
427<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
428  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
429  <iref item="Realm"/>
430<t>
431   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
432   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
433</t>
434<t>
435   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
436   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
437   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
438   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
439   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
440   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
441   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
442   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
443   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
444   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
445   different realms.
446</t>
447<t>
448   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
449   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
450   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
451   protection space for a period of time determined by the
452   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
453   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
454   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
455</t>
456<t>
457   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
458   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
459   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
460   notations for a long time.
461</t>
462</section>
463
464<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
465<t>
466  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
467  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
468</t>
469<t>
470  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
471  <list style="symbols">
472    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
473    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
474    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
475  </list>
476</t>
477<t>
478  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
479  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
480</t>
481<t>
482  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
483</t>
484
485<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
486<t>
487  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
488  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
489</t>
490<t>
491  <list style="symbols">
492    <x:lt>
493    <t>
494      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
495      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
496      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
497      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
498      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
499      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
500      party other than the authenticated user
501      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
502    </t>
503    </x:lt>
504    <x:lt>
505    <t>
506      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
507      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
508      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
509    </t>
510    </x:lt>
511    <x:lt>
512    <t>
513      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
514      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
515      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
516      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
517    </t>
518    </x:lt>
519    <x:lt>
520    <t>
521      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
522      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
523      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
524      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
525      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
526      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
527      all authentication schemes.
528    </t>
529    <t>
530      <x:h>Note:</x:h> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
531      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
532      for new parameters.
533    </t>
534    </x:lt>
535    <x:lt>
536    <t>
537      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
538      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
539      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
540    </t>
541    </x:lt>
542    <x:lt>
543    <t>
544      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
545      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
546      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
547      request they appear in.
548    </t>
549    <t>
550      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
551      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
552      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
553      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
554      directives (e.g., "private").
555    </t>
556    </x:lt>
557  </list>
558</t>
559</section>
560
561</section>
562
563</section>
564
565<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
566<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
567  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
568  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
569<t>
570   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
571   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
572   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
573   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
574   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
575   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
576   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
577   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
578   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
579   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
580   include relevant diagnostic information.
581</t>
582</section>
583<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
584  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
585  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
586<t>
587   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
588   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
589   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
590   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
591   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
592   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
593</t>
594</section>
595</section>
596
597<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
598<t>
599   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
600   related to authentication.
601</t>
602
603<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
604  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
605  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
606  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
607<t>
608   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
609   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
610   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
611   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
612   requested.
613</t>
614<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
615  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
616</artwork></figure>
617<t>
618   If a request is
619   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
620   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
621   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
622   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
623   synchronized clocks).
624</t>
625<t>
626      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
627      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
628      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
629      of the following specific exceptions holds:
630</t>
631<t>
632  <list style="numbers">
633      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
634         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
635         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
636         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
637         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
638         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
639         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
640         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
641         it.</t>
642
643      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
644         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
645         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
646         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
647         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
648         to authenticate the new request.</t>
649
650      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
651         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
652  </list>
653</t>
654</section>
655
656<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
657  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
658  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
659  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
660<t>
661   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
662   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
663   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
664   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
665</t>
666<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
667  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
668</artwork></figure>
669<t>
670   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
671   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
672   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
673   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
674   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
675   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
676</t>
677</section>
678
679<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
680  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
681  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
682  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
683<t>
684   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
685   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
686   authentication. Its value consists of
687   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
688   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
689</t>
690<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
691  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
692</artwork></figure>
693<t>
694   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
695   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
696   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
697   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
698   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
699   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
700   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
701   request.
702</t>
703</section>
704
705<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
706  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
707  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
708  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
709<t>
710   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
711   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
712   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
713</t>
714<t>   
715   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
716   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
717   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
718</t>
719<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
720  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
721</artwork></figure>
722<t>
723   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
724   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
725   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
726   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
727   authentication parameters.
728</t>
729<figure>
730  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
731  <artwork type="example">
732  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
733                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
734</artwork>
735  <postamble>
736  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
737  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
738  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
739</postamble></figure>
740</section>
741
742</section>
743
744<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
745
746<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
747<t>
748  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
749  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
750</t>
751<t>
752   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
753</t>
754</section>
755
756<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
757<t>
758   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
759   shall be updated with the registrations below:
760</t>
761<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
762<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
763<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
764   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
765   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
766   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
767   <c>401</c>
768   <c>Unauthorized</c>
769   <c>
770      <xref target="status.401"/>
771   </c>
772   <c>407</c>
773   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
774   <c>
775      <xref target="status.407"/>
776   </c>
777</texttable>
778<!--(END)-->
779<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
780</section>
781
782<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
783<t>
784   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
785   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
786</t>
787<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
788<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
789<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
790   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
791   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
792   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
793   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
794
795   <c>Authorization</c>
796   <c>http</c>
797   <c>standard</c>
798   <c>
799      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
800   </c>
801   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
802   <c>http</c>
803   <c>standard</c>
804   <c>
805      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
806   </c>
807   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
808   <c>http</c>
809   <c>standard</c>
810   <c>
811      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
812   </c>
813   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
814   <c>http</c>
815   <c>standard</c>
816   <c>
817      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
818   </c>
819</texttable>
820<!--(END)-->
821<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
822<t>
823   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
824</t>
825</section>
826</section>
827
828<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
829<t>
830   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
831   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
832   described by this document. The discussion does not include
833   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
834   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
835</t>
836
837<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
838<t>
839   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
840   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
841   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
842   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
843   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
844   application's security model include but are not limited to:
845  <list style="symbols">
846     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
847        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
848        user for credentials.</t>
849
850     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
851        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
852        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
853        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
854  </list>
855</t>
856<t>
857   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
858   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
859   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
860   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
861   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
862   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
863   cached credentials under user control.
864</t>
865</section>
866</section>
867
868<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
869<t>
870  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
871  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
872  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
873  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
874  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
875  for further acknowledgements. 
876</t>
877<t>
878  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
879</t>
880</section>
881</middle>
882
883<back>
884
885<references title="Normative References">
886
887<reference anchor="Part1">
888  <front>
889    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
890    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
891      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
892      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
893    </author>
894    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
895      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
896      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
897    </author>
898    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
899      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
900      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
901    </author>
902    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
903      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
904      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
905    </author>
906    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
907      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
908      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
909    </author>
910    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
911      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
912      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
913    </author>
914    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
915      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
916      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
917    </author>
918    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
919      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
920      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
921    </author>
922    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
923      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
924      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
925    </author>
926    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
927  </front>
928  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
929  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
930</reference>
931
932<reference anchor="Part6">
933  <front>
934    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
935    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
936      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
937      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
938    </author>
939    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
940      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
941      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
942    </author>
943    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
944      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
945      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
946    </author>
947    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
948      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
949      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
950    </author>
951    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
952      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
953      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
954    </author>
955    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
956      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
957      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
958    </author>
959    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
960      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
961      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
962    </author>
963    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
964      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
965      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
966    </author>
967    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
968      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
969      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
970    </author>
971    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
972      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
973      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
974    </author>
975    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
976  </front>
977  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
978  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
979</reference>
980
981<reference anchor="RFC2119">
982  <front>
983    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
984    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
985      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
986      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
987    </author>
988    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
989  </front>
990  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
991  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
992</reference>
993
994<reference anchor="RFC5234">
995  <front>
996    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
997    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
998      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
999      <address>
1000        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
1001      </address> 
1002    </author>
1003    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1004      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1005      <address>
1006        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
1007      </address>
1008    </author>
1009    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1010  </front>
1011  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1012  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1013</reference>
1014
1015</references>
1016
1017<references title="Informative References">
1018
1019<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1020  <front>
1021    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1022    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1023      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1024      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1025    </author>
1026    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1027      <organization>W3C</organization>
1028      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1029    </author>
1030    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1031      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1032      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1033    </author>
1034    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1035      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1036      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1037    </author>
1038    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1039      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1040      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1041    </author>
1042    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1043      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1044      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1045    </author>
1046    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1047      <organization>W3C</organization>
1048      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1049    </author>
1050    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1051  </front>
1052  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1053</reference>
1054
1055<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1056  <front>
1057    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1058    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1059      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1060      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1061    </author>
1062    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1063      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1064      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1065    </author>
1066    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1067      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1068      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1069    </author>
1070    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1071      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1072      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1073    </author>
1074    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1075      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1076      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1077    </author>
1078    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1079      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1080    </author>
1081    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1082      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1083      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1084    </author>
1085    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1086  </front>
1087  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1088</reference>
1089
1090<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1091  <front>
1092    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1093    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1094      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1095      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1096    </author>
1097    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1098      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1099      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1100    </author>
1101    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1102      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1103      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1104    </author>
1105    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1106  </front>
1107  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1108  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1109</reference>
1110
1111<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1112 <front>
1113  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1114  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1115    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1116    <address>
1117       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1118       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1119    </address>
1120  </author>
1121  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1122    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1123    <address>
1124      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1125      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1126    </address>
1127  </author>
1128  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1129    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1130    <address>
1131      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1132      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1133    </address>
1134  </author>
1135  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1136 </front>
1137 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1138 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1139</reference>
1140
1141<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1142  <front>
1143    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1144    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1145    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1146  </front>
1147  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1148</reference>
1149
1150<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1151  <front>
1152    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1153    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1154      <organization>IBM</organization>
1155      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1156    </author>
1157    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1158      <organization>Google</organization>
1159      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1160    </author>
1161    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1162  </front>
1163  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1164  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1165</reference>
1166
1167</references>
1168
1169<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1170<t>
1171  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1172  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1173  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1174</t>
1175<t>
1176  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1177  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1178  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1179</t>
1180<t>
1181  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1182  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1183</t>
1184</section>
1185 
1186<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1187<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1188<figure>
1189<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1190<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1191
1192<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1193
1194<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1195
1196<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1197 challenge ] )
1198<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1199
1200<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1201 ] )
1202
1203<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1204<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1205
1206<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1207 *"="
1208
1209<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1210 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1211<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1212 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1213
1214<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1215
1216<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1217</artwork>
1218</figure>
1219<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1220; Authorization defined but not used
1221; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1222; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1223; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1224</artwork></figure></section>
1225<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1226
1227<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1228
1229<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1230<t>
1231  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1232</t>
1233</section>
1234
1235<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1236<t>
1237  Closed issues:
1238  <list style="symbols"> 
1239    <t>
1240      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1241      "Normative and Informative references"
1242    </t>
1243  </list>
1244</t>
1245</section>
1246
1247<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1248<t>
1249  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1250  <list style="symbols"> 
1251    <t>
1252      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1253    </t>
1254    <t>
1255      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1256    </t>
1257  </list>
1258</t>
1259</section>
1260
1261<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1262<t>
1263  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1264  <list style="symbols"> 
1265    <t>
1266      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1267      in this document.
1268    </t>
1269  </list>
1270</t>
1271</section>
1272
1273<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1274<t>
1275  None.
1276</t>
1277</section>
1278
1279<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1280<t>
1281  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1282  <list style="symbols"> 
1283    <t>
1284      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1285    </t>
1286    <t>
1287      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1288      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1289    </t>
1290    <t>
1291      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1292      header field value format definitions.
1293    </t>
1294  </list>
1295</t>
1296</section>
1297
1298<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1299<t>
1300  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1301  <list style="symbols"> 
1302    <t>
1303      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1304    </t>
1305  </list>
1306</t>
1307</section>
1308
1309<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1310<t>
1311  None.
1312</t>
1313</section>
1314
1315<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1316<t>
1317  Closed issues:
1318  <list style="symbols"> 
1319    <t>
1320      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1321      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1322    </t>
1323  </list>
1324</t>
1325</section>
1326
1327<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1328<t>
1329  No significant changes.
1330</t>
1331</section>
1332
1333<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1334<t>
1335  Partly resolved issues:
1336  <list style="symbols"> 
1337    <t>
1338      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1339      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1340    </t>
1341  </list>
1342</t>
1343</section>
1344
1345<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1346<t>
1347  None.
1348</t>
1349</section>
1350
1351<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1352<t>
1353  Closed issues:
1354  <list style="symbols"> 
1355    <t>
1356      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1357      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1358    </t>
1359    <t>
1360      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1361      "auth-param syntax"
1362    </t>
1363    <t>
1364      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1365      "Header Classification"
1366    </t>
1367    <t>
1368      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1369      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1370    </t>
1371  </list>
1372</t>
1373<t>
1374  Partly resolved issues:
1375  <list style="symbols"> 
1376    <t>
1377      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1378      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1379    </t>
1380  </list>
1381</t>
1382</section>
1383
1384<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1385<t>
1386  None.
1387</t>
1388</section>
1389
1390<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1391<t>
1392  Closed issues:
1393  <list style="symbols">
1394    <t>
1395      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1396      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1397    </t>
1398  </list>
1399</t>
1400</section>
1401
1402<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1403<t>
1404  None.
1405</t>
1406</section>
1407
1408<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1409<t>
1410  Closed issues:
1411  <list style="symbols">
1412    <t>
1413      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1414      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1415    </t>
1416    <t>
1417      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1418      "Realm required on challenges"
1419    </t>
1420    <t>
1421      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1422      "auth-param syntax"
1423    </t>
1424    <t>
1425      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1426      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1427    </t>
1428    <t>
1429      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1430      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1431    </t>
1432    <t>
1433      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1434      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1435    </t>
1436  </list>
1437</t>
1438</section>
1439
1440<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1441<t>
1442  Closed issues:
1443  <list style="symbols"> 
1444    <t>
1445      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1446      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1447    </t>
1448    <t>
1449      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1450      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1451    </t>
1452  </list>
1453</t>
1454</section>
1455
1456<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1457<t>
1458  Closed issues:
1459  <list style="symbols"> 
1460    <t>
1461      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/314"/>:
1462      "allow unquoted realm parameters"
1463    </t>
1464    <t>
1465      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321"/>:
1466      "Repeating auth-params"
1467    </t>
1468  </list>
1469</t>
1470</section>
1471
1472<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-18" anchor="changes.since.18">
1473<t>
1474  None yet.
1475</t>
1476</section>
1477
1478</section>
1479
1480</back>
1481</rfc>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.