source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1481

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "December">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
45<front>
46
47  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
48
49  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
50    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
51    <address>
52      <postal>
53        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
54        <city>San Jose</city>
55        <region>CA</region>
56        <code>95110</code>
57        <country>USA</country>
58      </postal>
59      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
60      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
61    </address>
62  </author>
63
64  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
65    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
66    <address>
67      <postal>
68        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
69        <city>Carlisle</city>
70        <region>MA</region>
71        <code>01741</code>
72        <country>USA</country>
73      </postal>
74      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
75      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
76    </address>
77  </author>
78 
79  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
80    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
81    <address>
82      <postal>
83        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
84        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
85        <city>Palo Alto</city>
86        <region>CA</region>
87        <code>94304</code>
88        <country>USA</country>
89      </postal>
90      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
91    </address>
92  </author>
93
94  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
95    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
96    <address>
97      <postal>
98        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
99        <city>Redmond</city>
100        <region>WA</region>
101        <code>98052</code>
102        <country>USA</country>
103      </postal>
104      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
105    </address>
106  </author>
107
108  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
109    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
110    <address>
111      <postal>
112        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
113        <city>San Jose</city>
114        <region>CA</region>
115        <code>95110</code>
116        <country>USA</country>
117      </postal>
118      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
119      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
120    </address>
121  </author>
122 
123  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
124    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
128        <city>Redmond</city>
129        <region>WA</region>
130        <code>98052</code>
131      </postal>
132      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
133    </address>
134  </author>
135   
136  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
137    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
138    <address>
139      <postal>
140        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
141        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
142        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
143        <city>Cambridge</city>
144        <region>MA</region>
145        <code>02139</code>
146        <country>USA</country>
147      </postal>
148      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
149      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
150    </address>
151  </author>
152
153  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
154    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
155    <address>
156      <postal>
157        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
158        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
159        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
160        <region>AM</region>
161        <code>06902</code>
162        <country>France</country>
163      </postal>
164      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
165      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
166    </address>
167  </author>
168
169  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
170    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
171    <address>
172      <postal>
173        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
174        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
175        <country>Germany</country>
176      </postal>
177      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
178      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
179      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
180      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
181    </address>
182  </author>
183
184  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
185  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
186
187<abstract>
188<t>
189   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
190   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
191   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
192   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
193   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
194</t>
195<t>
196   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
197</t>
198</abstract>
199
200<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
201  <t>
202    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
203    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
204    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
205  </t>
206  <t>
207    The current issues list is at
208    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
209    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
210    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
211  </t>
212  <t>
213    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.16"/>.
214  </t>
215</note>
216</front>
217<middle>
218<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
219<t>
220   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
221   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
222   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
223   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
224   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
225</t>
226<t>
227   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
228   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
229   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
230   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
231   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
232</t>
233
234<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
235<t>
236   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
237   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
238   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
239</t>
240<t>
241   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
242   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
243   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
244   for definitions of these terms.
245</t>
246<t>
247   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
248   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
249   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
250</t>
251<t>
252   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
253   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
254   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
255</t>
256<t>
257   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
258   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
259   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
260   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
261   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
262   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
263   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
264   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
265</t>
266</section>
267
268<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
269  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
270  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
275  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
276<t>
277  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
278  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
279  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
280  rule expanded.
281</t>
282<t>
283  The following core rules are included by
284  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
285  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
286  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
287  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
288  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
289  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
290</t>
291
292<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
293   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
294   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
296   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
297<t>
298   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
299</t>
300<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
301  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
302  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
303  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
304  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
305</artwork></figure>
306</section>
307</section>
308</section>
309
310<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
311
312<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
313  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
317  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
318<t>
319   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
320   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
321   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
322   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
323   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
324   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
325   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
326   information.
327</t>
328<t>
329   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
330   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
331</t>
332<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
333  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
334 
335  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
336
337  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
338                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
339</artwork></figure>
340<t>
341   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
342   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
343   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
344   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
345</t>
346<t>
347   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
348   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
349   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
350   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
351</t>
352<t>   
353   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
354   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
355   header field containing at least one challenge
356   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
357</t>
358<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
359  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
360</artwork></figure>
361<x:note>
362  <t>
363     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
364     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
365     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
366     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
367     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
368  </t>
369</x:note>
370<x:note>
371  <t>
372     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
373     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
374     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
375  </t>
376</x:note>
377<t>
378   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
379   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
380   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
381   request.
382</t>
383<t>   
384   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
385   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
386   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
387   request.
388</t>
389<t>   
390   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
391   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
392   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
393   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
394   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
395</t>
396<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
397  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
398</artwork></figure>
399<t>
400   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
401   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
402   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
403   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
404   resource.
405</t>
406<t>
407   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
408   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
409   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
410   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
411   resource.
412</t>
413<t>
414   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
415   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
416   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
417   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
418   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
419   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
420</t>
421<t>
422   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
423   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
424</t>
425</section>
426
427<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
428  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
429  <iref item="Realm"/>
430<t>
431   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
432   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
433</t>
434<t>
435   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
436   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
437   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
438   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
439   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
440   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
441   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
442   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
443   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
444   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
445   different realms.
446</t>
447<t>
448   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
449   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
450   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
451   protection space for a period of time determined by the
452   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
453   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
454   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
455</t>
456<t>
457   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
458   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
459   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
460   notations for a long time.
461</t>
462</section>
463
464<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
465<t>
466  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
467  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
468</t>
469<t>
470  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
471  <list style="symbols">
472    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
473    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
474    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
475  </list>
476</t>
477<t>
478  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
479  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
480</t>
481<t>
482  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
483</t>
484
485<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
486<t>
487  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
488  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
489</t>
490<t>
491  <list style="symbols">
492    <x:lt>
493    <t>
494      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
495      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
496      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
497      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
498      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
499    </t>
500    </x:lt>
501    <x:lt>
502    <t>
503      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
504      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
505      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
506    </t>
507    </x:lt>
508    <x:lt>
509    <t>
510      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
511      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
512      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
513      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
514    </t>
515    </x:lt>
516    <x:lt>
517    <t>
518      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
519      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
520      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
521      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
522      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
523      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
524      all authentication schemes.
525    </t>
526    <t>
527      <x:h>Note:</x:h> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
528      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
529      for new parameters.
530    </t>
531    </x:lt>
532    <x:lt>
533    <t>
534      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
535      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
536      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
537    </t>
538    </x:lt>
539    <x:lt>
540    <t>
541      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
542      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
543      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
544      request they appear in.
545    </t>
546    <t>
547      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
548      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
549      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
550      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
551      directives (e.g., "private").
552    </t>
553    </x:lt>
554  </list>
555</t>
556</section>
557
558</section>
559
560</section>
561
562<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
563<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
564  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
565  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
566<t>
567   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
568   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
569   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
570   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
571   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
572   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
573   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
574   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
575   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
576   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
577   include relevant diagnostic information.
578</t>
579</section>
580<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
581  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
582  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
583<t>
584   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
585   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
586   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
587   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
588   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
589   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
590</t>
591</section>
592</section>
593
594<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
595<t>
596   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
597   related to authentication.
598</t>
599
600<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
601  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
602  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
603  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
604<t>
605   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
606   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
607   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
608   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
609   requested.
610</t>
611<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
612  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
613</artwork></figure>
614<t>
615   If a request is
616   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
617   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
618   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
619   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
620   synchronized clocks).
621</t>
622<t>
623      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
624      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
625      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
626      of the following specific exceptions holds:
627</t>
628<t>
629  <list style="numbers">
630      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
631         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
632         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
633         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
634         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
635         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
636         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
637         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
638         it.</t>
639
640      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
641         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
642         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
643         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
644         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
645         to authenticate the new request.</t>
646
647      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
648         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
649  </list>
650</t>
651</section>
652
653<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
654  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
655  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
656  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
657<t>
658   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
659   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
660   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
661   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
662</t>
663<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
664  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
665</artwork></figure>
666<t>
667   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
668   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
669   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
670   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
671   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
672   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
673</t>
674</section>
675
676<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
677  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
678  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
679  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
680<t>
681   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
682   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
683   authentication. Its value consists of
684   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
685   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
686</t>
687<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
688  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
689</artwork></figure>
690<t>
691   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
692   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
693   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
694   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
695   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
696   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
697   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
698   request.
699</t>
700</section>
701
702<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
703  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
704  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
705  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
706<t>
707   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
708   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
709   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
710</t>
711<t>   
712   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
713   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
714   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
715</t>
716<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
717  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
718</artwork></figure>
719<t>
720   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
721   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
722   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
723   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
724   authentication parameters.
725</t>
726<figure>
727  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
728  <artwork type="example">
729  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
730                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
731</artwork>
732  <postamble>
733  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
734  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
735  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
736</postamble></figure>
737</section>
738
739</section>
740
741<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
742
743<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
744<t>
745  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
746  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
747</t>
748<t>
749   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
750</t>
751</section>
752
753<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
754<t>
755   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
756   shall be updated with the registrations below:
757</t>
758<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
759<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
760<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
761   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
762   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
763   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
764   <c>401</c>
765   <c>Unauthorized</c>
766   <c>
767      <xref target="status.401"/>
768   </c>
769   <c>407</c>
770   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
771   <c>
772      <xref target="status.407"/>
773   </c>
774</texttable>
775<!--(END)-->
776<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
777</section>
778
779<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
780<t>
781   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
782   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
783</t>
784<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
785<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
786<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
787   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
788   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
789   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
790   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
791
792   <c>Authorization</c>
793   <c>http</c>
794   <c>standard</c>
795   <c>
796      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
797   </c>
798   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
799   <c>http</c>
800   <c>standard</c>
801   <c>
802      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
803   </c>
804   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
805   <c>http</c>
806   <c>standard</c>
807   <c>
808      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
809   </c>
810   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
811   <c>http</c>
812   <c>standard</c>
813   <c>
814      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
815   </c>
816</texttable>
817<!--(END)-->
818<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
819<t>
820   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
821</t>
822</section>
823</section>
824
825<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
826<t>
827   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
828   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
829   described by this document. The discussion does not include
830   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
831   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
832</t>
833
834<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
835<t>
836   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
837   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
838   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
839   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
840   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
841   application's security model include but are not limited to:
842  <list style="symbols">
843     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
844        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
845        user for credentials.</t>
846
847     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
848        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
849        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
850        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
851  </list>
852</t>
853<t>
854   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
855   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
856   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
857   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
858   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
859   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
860   cached credentials under user control.
861</t>
862</section>
863</section>
864
865<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
866<t>
867  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
868  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
869  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
870  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
871  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
872  for further acknowledgements. 
873</t>
874<t>
875  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
876</t>
877</section>
878</middle>
879
880<back>
881
882<references title="Normative References">
883
884<reference anchor="Part1">
885  <front>
886    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
887    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
888      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
889      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
890    </author>
891    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
892      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
893      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
894    </author>
895    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
896      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
897      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
898    </author>
899    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
900      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
901      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
902    </author>
903    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
904      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
905      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
906    </author>
907    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
908      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
909      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
910    </author>
911    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
912      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
913      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
914    </author>
915    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
916      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
917      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
918    </author>
919    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
920      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
921      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
922    </author>
923    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
924  </front>
925  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
926  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
927</reference>
928
929<reference anchor="Part6">
930  <front>
931    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
932    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
933      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
934      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
935    </author>
936    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
937      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
938      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
939    </author>
940    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
941      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
942      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
943    </author>
944    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
945      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
946      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
947    </author>
948    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
949      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
950      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
951    </author>
952    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
953      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
954      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
955    </author>
956    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
957      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
958      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
959    </author>
960    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
961      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
962      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
963    </author>
964    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
965      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
966      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
967    </author>
968    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
969      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
970      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
971    </author>
972    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
973  </front>
974  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
975  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
976</reference>
977
978<reference anchor="RFC2119">
979  <front>
980    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
981    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
982      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
983      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
984    </author>
985    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
986  </front>
987  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
988  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
989</reference>
990
991<reference anchor="RFC5234">
992  <front>
993    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
994    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
995      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
996      <address>
997        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
998      </address> 
999    </author>
1000    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1001      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1002      <address>
1003        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
1004      </address>
1005    </author>
1006    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1007  </front>
1008  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1009  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1010</reference>
1011
1012</references>
1013
1014<references title="Informative References">
1015
1016<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1017  <front>
1018    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1019    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1020      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1021      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1022    </author>
1023    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1024      <organization>W3C</organization>
1025      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1026    </author>
1027    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1028      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1029      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1030    </author>
1031    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1032      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1033      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1034    </author>
1035    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1036      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1037      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1038    </author>
1039    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1040      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1041      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1042    </author>
1043    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1044      <organization>W3C</organization>
1045      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1046    </author>
1047    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1048  </front>
1049  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1050</reference>
1051
1052<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1053  <front>
1054    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1055    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1056      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1057      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1058    </author>
1059    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1060      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1061      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1062    </author>
1063    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1064      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1065      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1066    </author>
1067    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1068      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1069      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1070    </author>
1071    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1072      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1073      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1074    </author>
1075    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1076      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1077    </author>
1078    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1079      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1080      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1081    </author>
1082    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1083  </front>
1084  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1085</reference>
1086
1087<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1088  <front>
1089    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1090    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1091      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1092      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1093    </author>
1094    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1095      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1096      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1097    </author>
1098    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1099      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1100      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1101    </author>
1102    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1103  </front>
1104  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1105  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1106</reference>
1107
1108<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1109 <front>
1110  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1111  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1112    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1113    <address>
1114       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1115       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1116    </address>
1117  </author>
1118  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1119    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1120    <address>
1121      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1122      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1123    </address>
1124  </author>
1125  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1126    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1127    <address>
1128      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1129      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1130    </address>
1131  </author>
1132  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1133 </front>
1134 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1135 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1136</reference>
1137
1138<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1139  <front>
1140    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1141    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1142    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1143  </front>
1144  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1145</reference>
1146
1147<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1148  <front>
1149    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1150    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1151      <organization>IBM</organization>
1152      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1153    </author>
1154    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1155      <organization>Google</organization>
1156      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1157    </author>
1158    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1159  </front>
1160  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1161  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1162</reference>
1163
1164</references>
1165
1166<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1167<t>
1168  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1169  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1170  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1171</t>
1172<t>
1173  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1174  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1175  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1176</t>
1177<t>
1178  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1179  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1180</t>
1181</section>
1182 
1183<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1184<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1185<figure>
1186<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1187<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1188
1189<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1190
1191<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1192
1193<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1194 challenge ] )
1195<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1196
1197<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1198 ] )
1199
1200<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1201<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1202
1203<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1204 *"="
1205
1206<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1207 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1208<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1209 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1210
1211<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1212
1213<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1214</artwork>
1215</figure>
1216<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1217; Authorization defined but not used
1218; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1219; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1220; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1221</artwork></figure></section>
1222<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1223
1224<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1225
1226<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1227<t>
1228  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1229</t>
1230</section>
1231
1232<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1233<t>
1234  Closed issues:
1235  <list style="symbols"> 
1236    <t>
1237      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1238      "Normative and Informative references"
1239    </t>
1240  </list>
1241</t>
1242</section>
1243
1244<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1245<t>
1246  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1247  <list style="symbols"> 
1248    <t>
1249      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1250    </t>
1251    <t>
1252      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1253    </t>
1254  </list>
1255</t>
1256</section>
1257
1258<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1259<t>
1260  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1261  <list style="symbols"> 
1262    <t>
1263      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1264      in this document.
1265    </t>
1266  </list>
1267</t>
1268</section>
1269
1270<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1271<t>
1272  None.
1273</t>
1274</section>
1275
1276<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1277<t>
1278  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1279  <list style="symbols"> 
1280    <t>
1281      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1282    </t>
1283    <t>
1284      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1285      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1286    </t>
1287    <t>
1288      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1289      header field value format definitions.
1290    </t>
1291  </list>
1292</t>
1293</section>
1294
1295<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1296<t>
1297  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1298  <list style="symbols"> 
1299    <t>
1300      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1301    </t>
1302  </list>
1303</t>
1304</section>
1305
1306<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1307<t>
1308  None.
1309</t>
1310</section>
1311
1312<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1313<t>
1314  Closed issues:
1315  <list style="symbols"> 
1316    <t>
1317      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1318      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1319    </t>
1320  </list>
1321</t>
1322</section>
1323
1324<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1325<t>
1326  No significant changes.
1327</t>
1328</section>
1329
1330<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1331<t>
1332  Partly resolved issues:
1333  <list style="symbols"> 
1334    <t>
1335      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1336      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1337    </t>
1338  </list>
1339</t>
1340</section>
1341
1342<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1343<t>
1344  None.
1345</t>
1346</section>
1347
1348<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1349<t>
1350  Closed issues:
1351  <list style="symbols"> 
1352    <t>
1353      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1354      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1355    </t>
1356    <t>
1357      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1358      "auth-param syntax"
1359    </t>
1360    <t>
1361      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1362      "Header Classification"
1363    </t>
1364    <t>
1365      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1366      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1367    </t>
1368  </list>
1369</t>
1370<t>
1371  Partly resolved issues:
1372  <list style="symbols"> 
1373    <t>
1374      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1375      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1376    </t>
1377  </list>
1378</t>
1379</section>
1380
1381<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1382<t>
1383  None.
1384</t>
1385</section>
1386
1387<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1388<t>
1389  Closed issues:
1390  <list style="symbols">
1391    <t>
1392      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1393      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1394    </t>
1395  </list>
1396</t>
1397</section>
1398
1399<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1400<t>
1401  None.
1402</t>
1403</section>
1404
1405<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1406<t>
1407  Closed issues:
1408  <list style="symbols">
1409    <t>
1410      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1411      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1412    </t>
1413    <t>
1414      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1415      "Realm required on challenges"
1416    </t>
1417    <t>
1418      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1419      "auth-param syntax"
1420    </t>
1421    <t>
1422      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1423      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1424    </t>
1425    <t>
1426      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1427      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1428    </t>
1429    <t>
1430      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1431      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1432    </t>
1433  </list>
1434</t>
1435</section>
1436
1437<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1438<t>
1439  Closed issues:
1440  <list style="symbols"> 
1441    <t>
1442      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1443      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1444    </t>
1445    <t>
1446      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1447      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1448    </t>
1449  </list>
1450</t>
1451</section>
1452
1453<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1454<t>
1455  Closed issues:
1456  <list style="symbols"> 
1457    <t>
1458      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/314"/>:
1459      "allow unquoted realm parameters"
1460    </t>
1461    <t>
1462      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321"/>:
1463      "Repeating auth-params"
1464    </t>
1465  </list>
1466</t>
1467</section>
1468
1469</section>
1470
1471</back>
1472</rfc>
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