source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1473

Last change on this file since 1473 was 1473, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

State that auth param names are case-insensitive, and that each name must only occur once per challenge (see #321)

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "November">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
45<front>
46
47  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
48
49  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
50    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
51    <address>
52      <postal>
53        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
54        <city>San Jose</city>
55        <region>CA</region>
56        <code>95110</code>
57        <country>USA</country>
58      </postal>
59      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
60      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
61    </address>
62  </author>
63
64  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
65    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
66    <address>
67      <postal>
68        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
69        <city>Carlisle</city>
70        <region>MA</region>
71        <code>01741</code>
72        <country>USA</country>
73      </postal>
74      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
75      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
76    </address>
77  </author>
78 
79  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
80    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
81    <address>
82      <postal>
83        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
84        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
85        <city>Palo Alto</city>
86        <region>CA</region>
87        <code>94304</code>
88        <country>USA</country>
89      </postal>
90      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
91    </address>
92  </author>
93
94  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
95    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
96    <address>
97      <postal>
98        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
99        <city>Redmond</city>
100        <region>WA</region>
101        <code>98052</code>
102        <country>USA</country>
103      </postal>
104      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
105    </address>
106  </author>
107
108  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
109    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
110    <address>
111      <postal>
112        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
113        <city>San Jose</city>
114        <region>CA</region>
115        <code>95110</code>
116        <country>USA</country>
117      </postal>
118      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
119      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
120    </address>
121  </author>
122 
123  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
124    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
128        <city>Redmond</city>
129        <region>WA</region>
130        <code>98052</code>
131      </postal>
132      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
133    </address>
134  </author>
135   
136  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
137    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
138    <address>
139      <postal>
140        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
141        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
142        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
143        <city>Cambridge</city>
144        <region>MA</region>
145        <code>02139</code>
146        <country>USA</country>
147      </postal>
148      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
149      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
150    </address>
151  </author>
152
153  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
154    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
155    <address>
156      <postal>
157        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
158        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
159        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
160        <region>AM</region>
161        <code>06902</code>
162        <country>France</country>
163      </postal>
164      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
165      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
166    </address>
167  </author>
168
169  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
170    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
171    <address>
172      <postal>
173        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
174        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
175        <country>Germany</country>
176      </postal>
177      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
178      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
179      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
180      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
181    </address>
182  </author>
183
184  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
185  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
186
187<abstract>
188<t>
189   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
190   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
191   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
192   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
193   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
194</t>
195<t>
196   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
197</t>
198</abstract>
199
200<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
201  <t>
202    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
203    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
204    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
205  </t>
206  <t>
207    The current issues list is at
208    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
209    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
210    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
211  </t>
212  <t>
213    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.16"/>.
214  </t>
215</note>
216</front>
217<middle>
218<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
219<t>
220   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
221   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
222   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
223   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
224   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
225</t>
226<t>
227   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
228   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
229   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
230   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
231   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
232</t>
233
234<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
235<t>
236   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
237   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
238   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
239</t>
240<t>
241   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
242   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
243   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
244   for definitions of these terms.
245</t>
246<t>
247   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
248   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
249   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
250</t>
251<t>
252   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
253   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
254   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
255</t>
256<t>
257   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
258   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
259   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
260   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
261   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
262   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
263   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
264   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
265</t>
266</section>
267
268<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
269  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
270  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
275  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
276<t>
277  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
278  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
279  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
280  rule expanded.
281</t>
282<t>
283  The following core rules are included by
284  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
285  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
286  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
287  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
288  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
289  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
290</t>
291
292<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
293   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
294   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
296   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
297<t>
298   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
299</t>
300<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
301  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
302  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
303  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
304  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
305</artwork></figure>
306</section>
307</section>
308</section>
309
310<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
311
312<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
313  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
317  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
318<t>
319   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
320   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
321   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
322   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
323   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
324   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
325   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
326   information.
327</t>
328<t>
329   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
330   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
331</t>
332<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
333  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
334 
335  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
336
337  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
338                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
339</artwork></figure>
340<t>
341   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
342   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
343   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
344   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
345</t>
346<t>
347   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
348   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
349   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
350   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
351</t>
352<t>   
353   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
354   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
355   header field containing at least one challenge
356   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
357</t>
358<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
359  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
360</artwork></figure>
361<x:note>
362  <t>
363     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
364     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
365     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
366     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
367     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
368  </t>
369</x:note>
370<x:note>
371  <t>
372     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
373     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
374     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
375  </t>
376</x:note>
377<t>
378   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
379   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
380   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
381   request.
382</t>
383<t>   
384   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
385   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
386   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
387   request.
388</t>
389<t>   
390   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
391   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
392   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
393   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
394   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
395</t>
396<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
397  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
398</artwork></figure>
399<t>
400   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
401   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
402   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
403   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
404   resource.
405</t>
406<t>
407   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
408   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
409   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
410   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
411   resource.
412</t>
413<t>
414   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
415   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
416   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
417   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
418   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
419   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
420</t>
421<t>
422   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
423   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
424</t>
425</section>
426
427<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
428  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
429  <iref item="Realm"/>
430<t>
431   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
432   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
433</t>
434<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
435  realm       = "realm" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> realm-value
436  realm-value = quoted-string
437</artwork></figure>
438<t>
439   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
440   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
441   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
442   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
443   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
444   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
445   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
446   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
447   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
448   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
449   different realms.
450</t>
451<t>
452   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
453   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
454   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
455   protection space for a period of time determined by the
456   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
457   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
458   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
459</t>
460</section>
461
462<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
463<t>
464  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
465  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
466</t>
467<t>
468  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
469  <list style="symbols">
470    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
471    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
472    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
473  </list>
474</t>
475<t>
476  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
477  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
478</t>
479<t>
480  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
481</t>
482
483<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
484<t>
485  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
486  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
487</t>
488<t>
489  <list style="symbols">
490    <x:lt>
491    <t>
492      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
493      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
494      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
495      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
496      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
497    </t>
498    </x:lt>
499    <x:lt>
500    <t>
501      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
502      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
503      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
504    </t>
505    </x:lt>
506    <x:lt>
507    <t>
508      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
509      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
510      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
511      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
512    </t>
513    </x:lt>
514    <x:lt>
515    <t>
516      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
517      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
518      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
519      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
520      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
521      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
522      all authentication schemes.
523    </t>
524    <t>
525      <x:h>Note:</x:h> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
526      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
527      for new parameters.
528    </t>
529    </x:lt>
530    <x:lt>
531    <t>
532      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
533      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
534      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
535    </t>
536    </x:lt>
537    <x:lt>
538    <t>
539      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
540      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
541      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
542      request they appear in.
543    </t>
544    <t>
545      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
546      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
547      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
548      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
549      directives (e.g., "private").
550    </t>
551    </x:lt>
552  </list>
553</t>
554</section>
555
556</section>
557
558</section>
559
560<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
561<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
562  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
563  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
564<t>
565   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
566   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
567   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
568   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
569   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
570   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
571   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
572   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
573   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
574   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
575   include relevant diagnostic information.
576</t>
577</section>
578<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
579  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
580  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
581<t>
582   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
583   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
584   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
585   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
586   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
587   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
588</t>
589</section>
590</section>
591
592<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
593<t>
594   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
595   related to authentication.
596</t>
597
598<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
599  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
600  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
601  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
602<t>
603   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
604   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
605   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
606   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
607   requested.
608</t>
609<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
610  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
611</artwork></figure>
612<t>
613   If a request is
614   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
615   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
616   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
617   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
618   synchronized clocks).
619</t>
620<t>
621      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
622      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
623      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
624      of the following specific exceptions holds:
625</t>
626<t>
627  <list style="numbers">
628      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
629         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
630         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
631         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
632         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
633         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
634         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
635         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
636         it.</t>
637
638      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
639         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
640         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
641         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
642         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
643         to authenticate the new request.</t>
644
645      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
646         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
647  </list>
648</t>
649</section>
650
651<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
652  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
653  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
654  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
655<t>
656   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
657   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
658   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
659   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
660</t>
661<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
662  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
663</artwork></figure>
664<t>
665   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
666   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
667   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
668   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
669   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
670   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
671</t>
672</section>
673
674<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
675  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
676  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
677  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
678<t>
679   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
680   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
681   authentication. Its value consists of
682   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
683   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
684</t>
685<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
686  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
687</artwork></figure>
688<t>
689   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
690   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
691   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
692   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
693   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
694   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
695   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
696   request.
697</t>
698</section>
699
700<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
701  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
702  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
703  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
704<t>
705   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
706   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
707   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
708</t>
709<t>   
710   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
711   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
712   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
713</t>
714<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
715  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
716</artwork></figure>
717<t>
718   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
719   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
720   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
721   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
722   authentication parameters.
723</t>
724<figure>
725  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
726  <artwork type="example">
727  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
728                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
729</artwork>
730  <postamble>
731  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
732  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
733  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
734</postamble></figure>
735</section>
736
737</section>
738
739<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
740
741<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
742<t>
743  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
744  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
745</t>
746<t>
747   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
748</t>
749</section>
750
751<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
752<t>
753   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
754   shall be updated with the registrations below:
755</t>
756<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
757<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
758<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
759   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
760   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
761   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
762   <c>401</c>
763   <c>Unauthorized</c>
764   <c>
765      <xref target="status.401"/>
766   </c>
767   <c>407</c>
768   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
769   <c>
770      <xref target="status.407"/>
771   </c>
772</texttable>
773<!--(END)-->
774<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
775</section>
776
777<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
778<t>
779   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
780   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
781</t>
782<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
783<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
784<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
785   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
786   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
787   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
788   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
789
790   <c>Authorization</c>
791   <c>http</c>
792   <c>standard</c>
793   <c>
794      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
795   </c>
796   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
797   <c>http</c>
798   <c>standard</c>
799   <c>
800      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
801   </c>
802   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
803   <c>http</c>
804   <c>standard</c>
805   <c>
806      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
807   </c>
808   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
809   <c>http</c>
810   <c>standard</c>
811   <c>
812      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
813   </c>
814</texttable>
815<!--(END)-->
816<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
817<t>
818   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
819</t>
820</section>
821</section>
822
823<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
824<t>
825   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
826   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
827   described by this document. The discussion does not include
828   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
829   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
830</t>
831
832<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
833<t>
834   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
835   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
836   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
837   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
838   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
839   application's security model include but are not limited to:
840  <list style="symbols">
841     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
842        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
843        user for credentials.</t>
844
845     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
846        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
847        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
848        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
849  </list>
850</t>
851<t>
852   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
853   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
854   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
855   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
856   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
857   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
858   cached credentials under user control.
859</t>
860</section>
861</section>
862
863<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
864<t>
865  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
866  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
867  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
868  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
869  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
870  for further acknowledgements. 
871</t>
872<t>
873  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
874</t>
875</section>
876</middle>
877
878<back>
879
880<references title="Normative References">
881
882<reference anchor="Part1">
883  <front>
884    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
885    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
886      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
887      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
888    </author>
889    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
890      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
891      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
892    </author>
893    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
894      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
895      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
896    </author>
897    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
898      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
899      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
900    </author>
901    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
902      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
903      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
904    </author>
905    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
906      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
907      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
908    </author>
909    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
910      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
911      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
912    </author>
913    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
914      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
915      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
916    </author>
917    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
918      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
919      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
920    </author>
921    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
922  </front>
923  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
924  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
925</reference>
926
927<reference anchor="Part6">
928  <front>
929    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
930    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
931      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
932      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
933    </author>
934    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
935      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
936      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
937    </author>
938    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
939      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
940      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
941    </author>
942    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
943      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
944      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
945    </author>
946    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
947      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
948      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
949    </author>
950    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
951      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
952      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
953    </author>
954    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
955      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
956      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
957    </author>
958    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
959      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
960      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
961    </author>
962    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
963      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
964      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
965    </author>
966    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
967      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
968      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
969    </author>
970    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
971  </front>
972  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
973  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
974</reference>
975
976<reference anchor="RFC2119">
977  <front>
978    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
979    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
980      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
981      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
982    </author>
983    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
984  </front>
985  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
986  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
987</reference>
988
989<reference anchor="RFC5234">
990  <front>
991    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
992    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
993      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
994      <address>
995        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
996      </address> 
997    </author>
998    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
999      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1000      <address>
1001        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
1002      </address>
1003    </author>
1004    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1005  </front>
1006  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1007  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1008</reference>
1009
1010</references>
1011
1012<references title="Informative References">
1013
1014<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1015  <front>
1016    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1017    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1018      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1019      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1020    </author>
1021    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1022      <organization>W3C</organization>
1023      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1024    </author>
1025    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1026      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1027      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1028    </author>
1029    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1030      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1031      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1032    </author>
1033    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1034      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1035      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1036    </author>
1037    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1038      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1039      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1040    </author>
1041    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1042      <organization>W3C</organization>
1043      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1044    </author>
1045    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1046  </front>
1047  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1048</reference>
1049
1050<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1051  <front>
1052    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1053    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1054      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1055      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1056    </author>
1057    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1058      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1059      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1060    </author>
1061    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1062      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1063      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1064    </author>
1065    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1066      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1067      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1068    </author>
1069    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1070      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1071      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1072    </author>
1073    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1074      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1075    </author>
1076    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1077      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1078      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1079    </author>
1080    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1081  </front>
1082  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1083</reference>
1084
1085<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1086  <front>
1087    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1088    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1089      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1090      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1091    </author>
1092    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1093      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1094      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1095    </author>
1096    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1097      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1098      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1099    </author>
1100    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1101  </front>
1102  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1103  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1104</reference>
1105
1106<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1107 <front>
1108  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1109  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1110    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1111    <address>
1112       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1113       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1114    </address>
1115  </author>
1116  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1117    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1118    <address>
1119      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1120      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1121    </address>
1122  </author>
1123  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1124    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1125    <address>
1126      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1127      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1128    </address>
1129  </author>
1130  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1131 </front>
1132 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1133 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1134</reference>
1135
1136<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1137  <front>
1138    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1139    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1140    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1141  </front>
1142  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1143</reference>
1144
1145<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1146  <front>
1147    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1148    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1149      <organization>IBM</organization>
1150      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1151    </author>
1152    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1153      <organization>Google</organization>
1154      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1155    </author>
1156    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1157  </front>
1158  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1159  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1160</reference>
1161
1162</references>
1163
1164<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1165<t>
1166  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1167  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1168  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1169</t>
1170<t>
1171  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1172  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1173  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1174</t>
1175<t>
1176  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1177  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1178</t>
1179</section>
1180 
1181<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1182<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1183<figure>
1184<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1185<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1186
1187<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1188
1189<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1190
1191<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1192 challenge ] )
1193<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1194
1195<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1196 ] )
1197
1198<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1199<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1200
1201<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1202 *"="
1203
1204<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1205 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1206<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1207 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1208
1209<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1210
1211realm = "realm" BWS "=" BWS realm-value
1212realm-value = quoted-string
1213
1214<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1215</artwork>
1216</figure>
1217<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1218; Authorization defined but not used
1219; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1220; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1221; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1222; realm defined but not used
1223</artwork></figure></section>
1224<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1225
1226<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1227
1228<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1229<t>
1230  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1231</t>
1232</section>
1233
1234<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1235<t>
1236  Closed issues:
1237  <list style="symbols"> 
1238    <t>
1239      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1240      "Normative and Informative references"
1241    </t>
1242  </list>
1243</t>
1244</section>
1245
1246<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1247<t>
1248  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1249  <list style="symbols"> 
1250    <t>
1251      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1252    </t>
1253    <t>
1254      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1255    </t>
1256  </list>
1257</t>
1258</section>
1259
1260<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1261<t>
1262  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1263  <list style="symbols"> 
1264    <t>
1265      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1266      in this document.
1267    </t>
1268  </list>
1269</t>
1270</section>
1271
1272<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1273<t>
1274  None.
1275</t>
1276</section>
1277
1278<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1279<t>
1280  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1281  <list style="symbols"> 
1282    <t>
1283      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1284    </t>
1285    <t>
1286      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1287      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1288    </t>
1289    <t>
1290      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1291      header field value format definitions.
1292    </t>
1293  </list>
1294</t>
1295</section>
1296
1297<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1298<t>
1299  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1300  <list style="symbols"> 
1301    <t>
1302      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1303    </t>
1304  </list>
1305</t>
1306</section>
1307
1308<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1309<t>
1310  None.
1311</t>
1312</section>
1313
1314<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1315<t>
1316  Closed issues:
1317  <list style="symbols"> 
1318    <t>
1319      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1320      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1321    </t>
1322  </list>
1323</t>
1324</section>
1325
1326<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1327<t>
1328  No significant changes.
1329</t>
1330</section>
1331
1332<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1333<t>
1334  Partly resolved issues:
1335  <list style="symbols"> 
1336    <t>
1337      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1338      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1339    </t>
1340  </list>
1341</t>
1342</section>
1343
1344<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1345<t>
1346  None.
1347</t>
1348</section>
1349
1350<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1351<t>
1352  Closed issues:
1353  <list style="symbols"> 
1354    <t>
1355      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1356      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1357    </t>
1358    <t>
1359      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1360      "auth-param syntax"
1361    </t>
1362    <t>
1363      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1364      "Header Classification"
1365    </t>
1366    <t>
1367      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1368      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1369    </t>
1370  </list>
1371</t>
1372<t>
1373  Partly resolved issues:
1374  <list style="symbols"> 
1375    <t>
1376      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1377      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1378    </t>
1379  </list>
1380</t>
1381</section>
1382
1383<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1384<t>
1385  None.
1386</t>
1387</section>
1388
1389<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1390<t>
1391  Closed issues:
1392  <list style="symbols">
1393    <t>
1394      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1395      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1396    </t>
1397  </list>
1398</t>
1399</section>
1400
1401<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1402<t>
1403  None.
1404</t>
1405</section>
1406
1407<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1408<t>
1409  Closed issues:
1410  <list style="symbols">
1411    <t>
1412      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1413      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1414    </t>
1415    <t>
1416      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1417      "Realm required on challenges"
1418    </t>
1419    <t>
1420      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1421      "auth-param syntax"
1422    </t>
1423    <t>
1424      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1425      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1426    </t>
1427    <t>
1428      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1429      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1430    </t>
1431    <t>
1432      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1433      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1434    </t>
1435  </list>
1436</t>
1437</section>
1438
1439<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1440<t>
1441  Closed issues:
1442  <list style="symbols"> 
1443    <t>
1444      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1445      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1446    </t>
1447    <t>
1448      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1449      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1450    </t>
1451  </list>
1452</t>
1453</section>
1454
1455<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1456<t>
1457  Closed issues:
1458  <list style="symbols"> 
1459    <t>
1460      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321"/>:
1461      "Repeating auth-params"
1462    </t>
1463  </list>
1464</t>
1465</section>
1466
1467</section>
1468
1469</back>
1470</rfc>
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