source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1472

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "November">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
45<front>
46
47  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
48
49  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
50    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
51    <address>
52      <postal>
53        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
54        <city>San Jose</city>
55        <region>CA</region>
56        <code>95110</code>
57        <country>USA</country>
58      </postal>
59      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
60      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
61    </address>
62  </author>
63
64  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
65    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
66    <address>
67      <postal>
68        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
69        <city>Carlisle</city>
70        <region>MA</region>
71        <code>01741</code>
72        <country>USA</country>
73      </postal>
74      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
75      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
76    </address>
77  </author>
78 
79  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
80    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
81    <address>
82      <postal>
83        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
84        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
85        <city>Palo Alto</city>
86        <region>CA</region>
87        <code>94304</code>
88        <country>USA</country>
89      </postal>
90      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
91    </address>
92  </author>
93
94  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
95    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
96    <address>
97      <postal>
98        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
99        <city>Redmond</city>
100        <region>WA</region>
101        <code>98052</code>
102        <country>USA</country>
103      </postal>
104      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
105    </address>
106  </author>
107
108  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
109    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
110    <address>
111      <postal>
112        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
113        <city>San Jose</city>
114        <region>CA</region>
115        <code>95110</code>
116        <country>USA</country>
117      </postal>
118      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
119      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
120    </address>
121  </author>
122 
123  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
124    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
128        <city>Redmond</city>
129        <region>WA</region>
130        <code>98052</code>
131      </postal>
132      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
133    </address>
134  </author>
135   
136  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
137    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
138    <address>
139      <postal>
140        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
141        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
142        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
143        <city>Cambridge</city>
144        <region>MA</region>
145        <code>02139</code>
146        <country>USA</country>
147      </postal>
148      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
149      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
150    </address>
151  </author>
152
153  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
154    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
155    <address>
156      <postal>
157        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
158        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
159        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
160        <region>AM</region>
161        <code>06902</code>
162        <country>France</country>
163      </postal>
164      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
165      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
166    </address>
167  </author>
168
169  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
170    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
171    <address>
172      <postal>
173        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
174        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
175        <country>Germany</country>
176      </postal>
177      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
178      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
179      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
180      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
181    </address>
182  </author>
183
184  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
185  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
186
187<abstract>
188<t>
189   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
190   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
191   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
192   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
193   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
194</t>
195<t>
196   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
197</t>
198</abstract>
199
200<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
201  <t>
202    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
203    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
204    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
205  </t>
206  <t>
207    The current issues list is at
208    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
209    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
210    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
211  </t>
212  <t>
213    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.16"/>.
214  </t>
215</note>
216</front>
217<middle>
218<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
219<t>
220   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
221   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
222   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
223   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
224   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
225</t>
226<t>
227   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
228   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
229   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
230   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
231   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
232</t>
233
234<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
235<t>
236   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
237   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
238   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
239</t>
240<t>
241   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
242   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
243   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
244   for definitions of these terms.
245</t>
246<t>
247   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
248   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
249   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
250</t>
251<t>
252   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
253   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
254   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
255</t>
256<t>
257   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
258   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
259   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
260   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
261   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
262   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
263   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
264   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
265</t>
266</section>
267
268<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
269  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
270  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
275  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
276<t>
277  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
278  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
279  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
280  rule expanded.
281</t>
282<t>
283  The following core rules are included by
284  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
285  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
286  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
287  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
288  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
289  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
290</t>
291
292<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
293   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
294   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
296   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
297<t>
298   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
299</t>
300<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
301  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
302  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
303  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
304  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
305</artwork></figure>
306</section>
307</section>
308</section>
309
310<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
311
312<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
313  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
317  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
318<t>
319   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
320   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
321   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
322   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
323   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
324   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of attribute-value
325   pairs or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
326   information.
327</t>
328<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
329  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
330 
331  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
332
333  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
334                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
335</artwork></figure>
336<t>
337   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
338   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
339   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
340   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
341</t>
342<t>
343   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
344   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
345   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
346   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
347</t>
348<t>   
349   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
350   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
351   header field containing at least one challenge
352   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
353</t>
354<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
355  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
356</artwork></figure>
357<x:note>
358  <t>
359     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
360     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
361     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
362     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
363     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
364  </t>
365</x:note>
366<x:note>
367  <t>
368     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
369     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
370     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
371  </t>
372</x:note>
373<t>
374   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
375   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
376   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
377   request.
378</t>
379<t>   
380   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
381   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
382   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
383   request.
384</t>
385<t>   
386   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
387   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
388   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
389   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
390   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
391</t>
392<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
393  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
394</artwork></figure>
395<t>
396   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
397   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
398   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
399   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
400   resource.
401</t>
402<t>
403   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
404   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
405   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
406   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
407   resource.
408</t>
409<t>
410   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
411   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
412   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
413   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
414   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
415   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
416</t>
417<t>
418   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
419   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
420</t>
421</section>
422
423<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
424  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
425  <iref item="Realm"/>
426<t>
427   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
428   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
429</t>
430<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
431  realm       = "realm" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> realm-value
432  realm-value = quoted-string
433</artwork></figure>
434<t>
435   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
436   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
437   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
438   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
439   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
440   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
441   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
442   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
443   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
444   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
445   different realms.
446</t>
447<t>
448   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
449   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
450   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
451   protection space for a period of time determined by the
452   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
453   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
454   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
455</t>
456</section>
457
458<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
459<t>
460  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
461  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
462</t>
463<t>
464  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
465  <list style="symbols">
466    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
467    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
468    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
469  </list>
470</t>
471<t>
472  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
473  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
474</t>
475<t>
476  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
477</t>
478
479<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
480<t>
481  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
482  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
483</t>
484<t>
485  <list style="symbols">
486    <x:lt>
487    <t>
488      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
489      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
490      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
491      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
492      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
493    </t>
494    </x:lt>
495    <x:lt>
496    <t>
497      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
498      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
499      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
500    </t>
501    </x:lt>
502    <x:lt>
503    <t>
504      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
505      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
506      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
507      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
508    </t>
509    </x:lt>
510    <x:lt>
511    <t>
512      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
513      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
514      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
515      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
516      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
517      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
518      all authentication schemes.
519    </t>
520    <t>
521      <x:h>Note:</x:h> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
522      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
523      for new parameters.
524    </t>
525    </x:lt>
526    <x:lt>
527    <t>
528      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
529      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
530      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
531    </t>
532    </x:lt>
533    <x:lt>
534    <t>
535      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
536      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
537      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
538      request they appear in.
539    </t>
540    <t>
541      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
542      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
543      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
544      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
545      directives (e.g., "private").
546    </t>
547    </x:lt>
548  </list>
549</t>
550</section>
551
552</section>
553
554</section>
555
556<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
557<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
558  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
559  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
560<t>
561   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
562   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
563   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
564   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
565   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
566   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
567   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
568   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
569   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
570   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
571   include relevant diagnostic information.
572</t>
573</section>
574<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
575  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
576  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
577<t>
578   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
579   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
580   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
581   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
582   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
583   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
584</t>
585</section>
586</section>
587
588<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
589<t>
590   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
591   related to authentication.
592</t>
593
594<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
595  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
596  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
597  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
598<t>
599   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
600   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
601   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
602   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
603   requested.
604</t>
605<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
606  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
607</artwork></figure>
608<t>
609   If a request is
610   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
611   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
612   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
613   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
614   synchronized clocks).
615</t>
616<t>
617      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
618      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
619      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
620      of the following specific exceptions holds:
621</t>
622<t>
623  <list style="numbers">
624      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
625         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
626         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
627         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
628         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
629         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
630         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
631         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
632         it.</t>
633
634      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
635         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
636         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
637         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
638         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
639         to authenticate the new request.</t>
640
641      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
642         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
643  </list>
644</t>
645</section>
646
647<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
648  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
649  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
650  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
651<t>
652   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
653   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
654   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
655   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
656</t>
657<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
658  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
659</artwork></figure>
660<t>
661   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
662   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
663   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
664   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
665   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
666   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
667</t>
668</section>
669
670<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
671  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
672  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
673  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
674<t>
675   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
676   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
677   authentication. Its value consists of
678   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
679   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
680</t>
681<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
682  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
683</artwork></figure>
684<t>
685   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
686   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
687   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
688   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
689   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
690   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
691   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
692   request.
693</t>
694</section>
695
696<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
697  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
698  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
699  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
700<t>
701   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
702   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
703   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
704</t>
705<t>   
706   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
707   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
708   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
709</t>
710<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
711  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
712</artwork></figure>
713<t>
714   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
715   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
716   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
717   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
718   authentication parameters.
719</t>
720<figure>
721  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
722  <artwork type="example">
723  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
724                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
725</artwork>
726  <postamble>
727  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
728  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
729  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
730</postamble></figure>
731</section>
732
733</section>
734
735<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
736
737<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
738<t>
739  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
740  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
741</t>
742<t>
743   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
744</t>
745</section>
746
747<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
748<t>
749   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
750   shall be updated with the registrations below:
751</t>
752<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
753<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
754<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
755   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
756   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
757   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
758   <c>401</c>
759   <c>Unauthorized</c>
760   <c>
761      <xref target="status.401"/>
762   </c>
763   <c>407</c>
764   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
765   <c>
766      <xref target="status.407"/>
767   </c>
768</texttable>
769<!--(END)-->
770<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
771</section>
772
773<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
774<t>
775   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
776   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
777</t>
778<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
779<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
780<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
781   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
782   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
783   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
784   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
785
786   <c>Authorization</c>
787   <c>http</c>
788   <c>standard</c>
789   <c>
790      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
791   </c>
792   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
793   <c>http</c>
794   <c>standard</c>
795   <c>
796      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
797   </c>
798   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
799   <c>http</c>
800   <c>standard</c>
801   <c>
802      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
803   </c>
804   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
805   <c>http</c>
806   <c>standard</c>
807   <c>
808      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
809   </c>
810</texttable>
811<!--(END)-->
812<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
813<t>
814   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
815</t>
816</section>
817</section>
818
819<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
820<t>
821   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
822   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
823   described by this document. The discussion does not include
824   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
825   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
826</t>
827
828<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
829<t>
830   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
831   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
832   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
833   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
834   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
835   application's security model include but are not limited to:
836  <list style="symbols">
837     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
838        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
839        user for credentials.</t>
840
841     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
842        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
843        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
844        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
845  </list>
846</t>
847<t>
848   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
849   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
850   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
851   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
852   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
853   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
854   cached credentials under user control.
855</t>
856</section>
857</section>
858
859<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
860<t>
861  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
862  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
863  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
864  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
865  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
866  for further acknowledgements. 
867</t>
868<t>
869  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
870</t>
871</section>
872</middle>
873
874<back>
875
876<references title="Normative References">
877
878<reference anchor="Part1">
879  <front>
880    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
881    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
882      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
883      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
884    </author>
885    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
886      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
887      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
888    </author>
889    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
890      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
891      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
892    </author>
893    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
894      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
895      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
896    </author>
897    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
898      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
899      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
900    </author>
901    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
902      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
903      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
904    </author>
905    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
906      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
907      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
908    </author>
909    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
910      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
911      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
912    </author>
913    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
914      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
915      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
916    </author>
917    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
918  </front>
919  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
920  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
921</reference>
922
923<reference anchor="Part6">
924  <front>
925    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
926    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
927      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
928      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
929    </author>
930    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
931      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
932      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
933    </author>
934    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
935      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
936      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
937    </author>
938    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
939      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
940      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
941    </author>
942    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
943      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
944      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
945    </author>
946    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
947      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
948      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
949    </author>
950    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
951      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
952      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
953    </author>
954    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
955      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
956      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
957    </author>
958    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
959      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
960      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
961    </author>
962    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
963      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
964      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
965    </author>
966    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
967  </front>
968  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
969  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
970</reference>
971
972<reference anchor="RFC2119">
973  <front>
974    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
975    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
976      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
977      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
978    </author>
979    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
980  </front>
981  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
982  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
983</reference>
984
985<reference anchor="RFC5234">
986  <front>
987    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
988    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
989      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
990      <address>
991        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
992      </address> 
993    </author>
994    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
995      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
996      <address>
997        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
998      </address>
999    </author>
1000    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1001  </front>
1002  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1003  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1004</reference>
1005
1006</references>
1007
1008<references title="Informative References">
1009
1010<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1011  <front>
1012    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1013    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1014      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1015      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1016    </author>
1017    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1018      <organization>W3C</organization>
1019      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1020    </author>
1021    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1022      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1023      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1024    </author>
1025    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1026      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1027      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1028    </author>
1029    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1030      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1031      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1032    </author>
1033    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1034      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1035      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1036    </author>
1037    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1038      <organization>W3C</organization>
1039      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1040    </author>
1041    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1042  </front>
1043  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1044</reference>
1045
1046<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1047  <front>
1048    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1049    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1050      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1051      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1052    </author>
1053    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1054      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1055      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1056    </author>
1057    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1058      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1059      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1060    </author>
1061    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1062      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1063      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1064    </author>
1065    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1066      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1067      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1068    </author>
1069    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1070      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1071    </author>
1072    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1073      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1074      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1075    </author>
1076    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1077  </front>
1078  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1079</reference>
1080
1081<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1082  <front>
1083    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1084    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1085      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1086      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1087    </author>
1088    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1089      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1090      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1091    </author>
1092    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1093      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1094      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1095    </author>
1096    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1097  </front>
1098  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1099  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1100</reference>
1101
1102<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1103 <front>
1104  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1105  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1106    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1107    <address>
1108       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1109       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1110    </address>
1111  </author>
1112  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1113    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1114    <address>
1115      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1116      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1117    </address>
1118  </author>
1119  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1120    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1121    <address>
1122      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1123      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1124    </address>
1125  </author>
1126  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1127 </front>
1128 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1129 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1130</reference>
1131
1132<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1133  <front>
1134    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1135    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1136    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1137  </front>
1138  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1139</reference>
1140
1141<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1142  <front>
1143    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1144    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1145      <organization>IBM</organization>
1146      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1147    </author>
1148    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1149      <organization>Google</organization>
1150      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1151    </author>
1152    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1153  </front>
1154  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1155  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1156</reference>
1157
1158</references>
1159
1160<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1161<t>
1162  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1163  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1164  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1165</t>
1166<t>
1167  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1168  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1169  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1170</t>
1171<t>
1172  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1173  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1174</t>
1175</section>
1176 
1177<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1178<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1179<figure>
1180<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1181<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1182
1183<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1184
1185<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1186
1187<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1188 challenge ] )
1189<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1190
1191<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1192 ] )
1193
1194<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1195<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1196
1197<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1198 *"="
1199
1200<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1201 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1202<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1203 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1204
1205<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1206
1207realm = "realm" BWS "=" BWS realm-value
1208realm-value = quoted-string
1209
1210<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1211</artwork>
1212</figure>
1213<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1214; Authorization defined but not used
1215; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1216; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1217; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1218; realm defined but not used
1219</artwork></figure></section>
1220<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1221
1222<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1223
1224<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1225<t>
1226  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1227</t>
1228</section>
1229
1230<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1231<t>
1232  Closed issues:
1233  <list style="symbols"> 
1234    <t>
1235      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1236      "Normative and Informative references"
1237    </t>
1238  </list>
1239</t>
1240</section>
1241
1242<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1243<t>
1244  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1245  <list style="symbols"> 
1246    <t>
1247      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1248    </t>
1249    <t>
1250      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1251    </t>
1252  </list>
1253</t>
1254</section>
1255
1256<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1257<t>
1258  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1259  <list style="symbols"> 
1260    <t>
1261      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1262      in this document.
1263    </t>
1264  </list>
1265</t>
1266</section>
1267
1268<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1269<t>
1270  None.
1271</t>
1272</section>
1273
1274<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1275<t>
1276  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1277  <list style="symbols"> 
1278    <t>
1279      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1280    </t>
1281    <t>
1282      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1283      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1284    </t>
1285    <t>
1286      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1287      header field value format definitions.
1288    </t>
1289  </list>
1290</t>
1291</section>
1292
1293<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1294<t>
1295  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1296  <list style="symbols"> 
1297    <t>
1298      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1299    </t>
1300  </list>
1301</t>
1302</section>
1303
1304<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1305<t>
1306  None.
1307</t>
1308</section>
1309
1310<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1311<t>
1312  Closed issues:
1313  <list style="symbols"> 
1314    <t>
1315      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1316      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1317    </t>
1318  </list>
1319</t>
1320</section>
1321
1322<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1323<t>
1324  No significant changes.
1325</t>
1326</section>
1327
1328<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1329<t>
1330  Partly resolved issues:
1331  <list style="symbols"> 
1332    <t>
1333      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1334      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1335    </t>
1336  </list>
1337</t>
1338</section>
1339
1340<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1341<t>
1342  None.
1343</t>
1344</section>
1345
1346<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1347<t>
1348  Closed issues:
1349  <list style="symbols"> 
1350    <t>
1351      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1352      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1353    </t>
1354    <t>
1355      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1356      "auth-param syntax"
1357    </t>
1358    <t>
1359      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1360      "Header Classification"
1361    </t>
1362    <t>
1363      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1364      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1365    </t>
1366  </list>
1367</t>
1368<t>
1369  Partly resolved issues:
1370  <list style="symbols"> 
1371    <t>
1372      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1373      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1374    </t>
1375  </list>
1376</t>
1377</section>
1378
1379<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1380<t>
1381  None.
1382</t>
1383</section>
1384
1385<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1386<t>
1387  Closed issues:
1388  <list style="symbols">
1389    <t>
1390      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1391      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1392    </t>
1393  </list>
1394</t>
1395</section>
1396
1397<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1398<t>
1399  None.
1400</t>
1401</section>
1402
1403<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1404<t>
1405  Closed issues:
1406  <list style="symbols">
1407    <t>
1408      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1409      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1410    </t>
1411    <t>
1412      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1413      "Realm required on challenges"
1414    </t>
1415    <t>
1416      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1417      "auth-param syntax"
1418    </t>
1419    <t>
1420      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1421      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1422    </t>
1423    <t>
1424      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1425      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1426    </t>
1427    <t>
1428      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1429      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1430    </t>
1431  </list>
1432</t>
1433</section>
1434
1435<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1436<t>
1437  Closed issues:
1438  <list style="symbols"> 
1439    <t>
1440      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1441      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1442    </t>
1443    <t>
1444      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1445      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1446    </t>
1447  </list>
1448</t>
1449</section>
1450
1451<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1452<t>
1453  No changes yet.
1454</t>
1455</section>
1456
1457</section>
1458
1459</back>
1460</rfc>
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