source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1470

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bump up document dates; update to latest version of rfc2629.xslt.

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "November">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<front>
45
46  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
47
48  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
49    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
50    <address>
51      <postal>
52        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
53        <city>San Jose</city>
54        <region>CA</region>
55        <code>95110</code>
56        <country>USA</country>
57      </postal>
58      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
59      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
60    </address>
61  </author>
62
63  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
64    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
65    <address>
66      <postal>
67        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
68        <city>Carlisle</city>
69        <region>MA</region>
70        <code>01741</code>
71        <country>USA</country>
72      </postal>
73      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
74      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
75    </address>
76  </author>
77 
78  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
79    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
80    <address>
81      <postal>
82        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
83        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
84        <city>Palo Alto</city>
85        <region>CA</region>
86        <code>94304</code>
87        <country>USA</country>
88      </postal>
89      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
90    </address>
91  </author>
92
93  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
94    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
95    <address>
96      <postal>
97        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
98        <city>Redmond</city>
99        <region>WA</region>
100        <code>98052</code>
101        <country>USA</country>
102      </postal>
103      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
104    </address>
105  </author>
106
107  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
108    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
109    <address>
110      <postal>
111        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
112        <city>San Jose</city>
113        <region>CA</region>
114        <code>95110</code>
115        <country>USA</country>
116      </postal>
117      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
118      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
119    </address>
120  </author>
121 
122  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
123    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
124    <address>
125      <postal>
126        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
127        <city>Redmond</city>
128        <region>WA</region>
129        <code>98052</code>
130      </postal>
131      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
132    </address>
133  </author>
134   
135  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
136    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
137    <address>
138      <postal>
139        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
140        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
141        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
142        <city>Cambridge</city>
143        <region>MA</region>
144        <code>02139</code>
145        <country>USA</country>
146      </postal>
147      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
148      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
149    </address>
150  </author>
151
152  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
153    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
154    <address>
155      <postal>
156        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
157        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
158        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
159        <region>AM</region>
160        <code>06902</code>
161        <country>France</country>
162      </postal>
163      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
164      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
165    </address>
166  </author>
167
168  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
169    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
170    <address>
171      <postal>
172        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
173        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
174        <country>Germany</country>
175      </postal>
176      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
177      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
178      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
179      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
180    </address>
181  </author>
182
183  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
184  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
185
186<abstract>
187<t>
188   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
189   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
190   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
191   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
192   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
193</t>
194<t>
195   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
196</t>
197</abstract>
198
199<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
200  <t>
201    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
202    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
203    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
204  </t>
205  <t>
206    The current issues list is at
207    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
208    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
209    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
210  </t>
211  <t>
212    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.16"/>.
213  </t>
214</note>
215</front>
216<middle>
217<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
218<t>
219   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
220   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
221   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
222   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
223   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
224</t>
225<t>
226   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
227   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
228   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
229   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
230   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
231</t>
232
233<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
234<t>
235   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
236   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
237   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
238</t>
239<t>
240   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
241   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
242   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
243   for definitions of these terms.
244</t>
245<t>
246   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
247   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
248   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
249</t>
250<t>
251   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
252   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
253   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
254</t>
255<t>
256   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
257   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
258   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
259   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
260   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
261   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
262   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
263   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
264</t>
265</section>
266
267<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
268  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
269  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
270  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
275<t>
276  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
277  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
278  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
279  rule expanded.
280</t>
281<t>
282  The following core rules are included by
283  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
284  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
285  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
286  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
287  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
288  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
289</t>
290
291<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
292   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
293   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
294   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
296<t>
297   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
298</t>
299<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
300  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
301  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
302  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
303  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
304</artwork></figure>
305</section>
306</section>
307</section>
308
309<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
310
311<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
312  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
313  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
317<t>
318   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
319   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
320   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
321   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
322   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
323   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of attribute-value
324   pairs or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
325   information.
326</t>
327<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
328  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
329 
330  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
331
332  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
333                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
334</artwork></figure>
335<t>
336   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
337   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
338   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
339   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
340</t>
341<t>
342   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
343   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
344   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
345   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
346</t>
347<t>   
348   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
349   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
350   header field containing at least one challenge
351   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
352</t>
353<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
354  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
355</artwork></figure>
356<x:note>
357  <t>
358     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
359     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
360     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
361     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
362     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
363  </t>
364</x:note>
365<x:note>
366  <t>
367     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
368     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
369     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
370  </t>
371</x:note>
372<t>
373   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
374   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
375   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
376   request.
377</t>
378<t>   
379   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
380   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
381   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
382   request.
383</t>
384<t>   
385   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
386   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
387   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
388   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
389   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
390</t>
391<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
392  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
393</artwork></figure>
394<t>
395   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
396   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
397   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
398   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
399   resource.
400</t>
401<t>
402   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
403   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
404   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
405   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
406   resource.
407</t>
408<t>
409   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
410   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
411   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
412   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
413   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
414   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
415</t>
416<t>
417   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
418   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
419</t>
420</section>
421
422<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
423  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
424  <iref item="Realm"/>
425<t>
426   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
427   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
428</t>
429<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
430  realm       = "realm" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> realm-value
431  realm-value = quoted-string
432</artwork></figure>
433<t>
434   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
435   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
436   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
437   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
438   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
439   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
440   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
441   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
442   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
443   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
444   different realms.
445</t>
446<t>
447   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
448   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
449   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
450   protection space for a period of time determined by the
451   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
452   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
453   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
454</t>
455</section>
456
457<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
458<t>
459  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
460  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
461</t>
462<t>
463  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
464  <list style="symbols">
465    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
466    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
467    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
468  </list>
469</t>
470<t>
471  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
472  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
473</t>
474<t>
475  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
476</t>
477
478<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
479<t>
480  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
481  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
482</t>
483<t>
484  <list style="symbols">
485    <x:lt>
486    <t>
487      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
488      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
489      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
490      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
491      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
492    </t>
493    </x:lt>
494    <x:lt>
495    <t>
496      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
497      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
498      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
499    </t>
500    </x:lt>
501    <x:lt>
502    <t>
503      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
504      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
505      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
506      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
507    </t>
508    </x:lt>
509    <x:lt>
510    <t>
511      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
512      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
513      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
514      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
515      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
516      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
517      all authentication schemes.
518    </t>
519    <t>
520      <x:h>Note:</x:h> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
521      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
522      for new parameters.
523    </t>
524    </x:lt>
525    <x:lt>
526    <t>
527      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
528      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
529      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
530    </t>
531    </x:lt>
532    <x:lt>
533    <t>
534      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
535      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
536      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
537      request they appear in.
538    </t>
539    <t>
540      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
541      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
542      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
543      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
544      directives (e.g., "private").
545    </t>
546    </x:lt>
547  </list>
548</t>
549</section>
550
551</section>
552
553</section>
554
555<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
556<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
557  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
558  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
559<t>
560   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
561   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
562   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
563   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
564   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
565   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
566   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
567   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
568   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
569   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
570   include relevant diagnostic information.
571</t>
572</section>
573<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
574  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
575  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
576<t>
577   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
578   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
579   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
580   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
581   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
582   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
583</t>
584</section>
585</section>
586
587<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
588<t>
589   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
590   related to authentication.
591</t>
592
593<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
594  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
595  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
596  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
597<t>
598   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
599   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
600   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
601   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
602   requested.
603</t>
604<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
605  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
606</artwork></figure>
607<t>
608   If a request is
609   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
610   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
611   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
612   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
613   synchronized clocks).
614</t>
615<t>
616      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
617      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
618      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
619      of the following specific exceptions holds:
620</t>
621<t>
622  <list style="numbers">
623      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
624         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
625         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
626         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
627         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
628         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
629         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
630         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
631         it.</t>
632
633      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
634         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
635         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
636         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
637         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
638         to authenticate the new request.</t>
639
640      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
641         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
642  </list>
643</t>
644</section>
645
646<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
647  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
648  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
649  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
650<t>
651   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
652   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
653   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
654   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
655</t>
656<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
657  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
658</artwork></figure>
659<t>
660   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
661   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
662   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
663   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
664   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
665   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
666</t>
667</section>
668
669<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
670  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
671  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
672  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
673<t>
674   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
675   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
676   authentication. Its value consists of
677   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
678   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
679</t>
680<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
681  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
682</artwork></figure>
683<t>
684   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
685   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
686   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
687   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
688   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
689   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
690   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
691   request.
692</t>
693</section>
694
695<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
696  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
697  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
698  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
699<t>
700   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
701   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
702   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
703</t>
704<t>   
705   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
706   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
707   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
708</t>
709<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
710  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
711</artwork></figure>
712<t>
713   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
714   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
715   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
716   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
717   authentication parameters.
718</t>
719<figure>
720  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
721  <artwork type="example">
722  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
723                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
724</artwork>
725  <postamble>
726  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
727  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
728  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
729</postamble></figure>
730</section>
731
732</section>
733
734<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
735
736<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
737<t>
738  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
739  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
740</t>
741<t>
742   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
743</t>
744</section>
745
746<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
747<t>
748   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
749   shall be updated with the registrations below:
750</t>
751<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
752<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
753<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
754   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
755   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
756   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
757   <c>401</c>
758   <c>Unauthorized</c>
759   <c>
760      <xref target="status.401"/>
761   </c>
762   <c>407</c>
763   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
764   <c>
765      <xref target="status.407"/>
766   </c>
767</texttable>
768<!--(END)-->
769<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
770</section>
771
772<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
773<t>
774   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
775   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
776</t>
777<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
778<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
779<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
780   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
781   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
782   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
783   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
784
785   <c>Authorization</c>
786   <c>http</c>
787   <c>standard</c>
788   <c>
789      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
790   </c>
791   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
792   <c>http</c>
793   <c>standard</c>
794   <c>
795      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
796   </c>
797   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
798   <c>http</c>
799   <c>standard</c>
800   <c>
801      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
802   </c>
803   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
804   <c>http</c>
805   <c>standard</c>
806   <c>
807      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
808   </c>
809</texttable>
810<!--(END)-->
811<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
812<t>
813   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
814</t>
815</section>
816</section>
817
818<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
819<t>
820   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
821   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
822   described by this document. The discussion does not include
823   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
824   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
825</t>
826
827<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
828<t>
829   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
830   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
831   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
832   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
833   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
834   application's security model include but are not limited to:
835  <list style="symbols">
836     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
837        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
838        user for credentials.</t>
839
840     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
841        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
842        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
843        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
844  </list>
845</t>
846<t>
847   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
848   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
849   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
850   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
851   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
852   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
853   cached credentials under user control.
854</t>
855</section>
856</section>
857
858<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
859<t>
860  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
861  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
862  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
863  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
864  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
865  for further acknowledgements. 
866</t>
867<t>
868  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
869</t>
870</section>
871</middle>
872
873<back>
874
875<references title="Normative References">
876
877<reference anchor="Part1">
878  <front>
879    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
880    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
881      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
882      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
883    </author>
884    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
885      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
886      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
887    </author>
888    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
889      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
890      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
891    </author>
892    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
893      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
894      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
895    </author>
896    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
897      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
898      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
899    </author>
900    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
901      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
902      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
903    </author>
904    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
905      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
906      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
907    </author>
908    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
909      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
910      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
911    </author>
912    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
913      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
914      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
915    </author>
916    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
917  </front>
918  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
919  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
920</reference>
921
922<reference anchor="Part6">
923  <front>
924    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
925    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
926      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
927      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
928    </author>
929    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
930      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
931      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
932    </author>
933    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
934      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
935      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
936    </author>
937    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
938      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
939      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
940    </author>
941    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
942      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
943      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
944    </author>
945    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
946      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
947      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
948    </author>
949    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
950      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
951      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
952    </author>
953    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
954      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
955      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
956    </author>
957    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
958      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
959      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
960    </author>
961    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
962      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
963      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
964    </author>
965    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
966  </front>
967  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
968  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
969</reference>
970
971<reference anchor="RFC2119">
972  <front>
973    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
974    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
975      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
976      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
977    </author>
978    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
979  </front>
980  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
981  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
982</reference>
983
984<reference anchor="RFC5234">
985  <front>
986    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
987    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
988      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
989      <address>
990        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
991      </address> 
992    </author>
993    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
994      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
995      <address>
996        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
997      </address>
998    </author>
999    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1000  </front>
1001  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1002  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1003</reference>
1004
1005</references>
1006
1007<references title="Informative References">
1008
1009<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1010  <front>
1011    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1012    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1013      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1014      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1015    </author>
1016    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1017      <organization>W3C</organization>
1018      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1019    </author>
1020    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1021      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1022      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1023    </author>
1024    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1025      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1026      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1027    </author>
1028    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1029      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1030      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1031    </author>
1032    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1033      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1034      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1035    </author>
1036    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1037      <organization>W3C</organization>
1038      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1039    </author>
1040    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1041  </front>
1042  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1043</reference>
1044
1045<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1046  <front>
1047    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1048    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1049      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1050      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1051    </author>
1052    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1053      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1054      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1055    </author>
1056    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1057      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1058      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1059    </author>
1060    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1061      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1062      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1063    </author>
1064    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1065      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1066      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1067    </author>
1068    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1069      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1070    </author>
1071    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1072      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1073      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1074    </author>
1075    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1076  </front>
1077  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1078</reference>
1079
1080<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1081  <front>
1082    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1083    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1084      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1085      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1086    </author>
1087    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1088      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1089      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1090    </author>
1091    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1092      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1093      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1094    </author>
1095    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1096  </front>
1097  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1098  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1099</reference>
1100
1101<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1102 <front>
1103  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1104  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1105    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1106    <address>
1107       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1108       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1109    </address>
1110  </author>
1111  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1112    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1113    <address>
1114      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1115      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1116    </address>
1117  </author>
1118  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1119    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1120    <address>
1121      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1122      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1123    </address>
1124  </author>
1125  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1126 </front>
1127 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1128 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1129</reference>
1130
1131<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1132  <front>
1133    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1134    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1135    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1136  </front>
1137  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1138</reference>
1139
1140<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1141  <front>
1142    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1143    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1144      <organization>IBM</organization>
1145      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1146    </author>
1147    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1148      <organization>Google</organization>
1149      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1150    </author>
1151    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1152  </front>
1153  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1154  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1155</reference>
1156
1157</references>
1158
1159<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1160<t>
1161  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1162  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1163  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1164</t>
1165<t>
1166  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1167  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1168  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1169</t>
1170<t>
1171  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1172  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1173</t>
1174</section>
1175 
1176<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1177<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1178<figure>
1179<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1180<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1181
1182<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1183
1184<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1185
1186<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1187 challenge ] )
1188<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1189
1190<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1191 ] )
1192
1193<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1194<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1195
1196<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1197 *"="
1198
1199<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1200 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1201<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1202 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1203
1204<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1205
1206realm = "realm" BWS "=" BWS realm-value
1207realm-value = quoted-string
1208
1209<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1210</artwork>
1211</figure>
1212<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1213; Authorization defined but not used
1214; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1215; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1216; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1217; realm defined but not used
1218</artwork></figure></section>
1219<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1220
1221<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1222
1223<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1224<t>
1225  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1226</t>
1227</section>
1228
1229<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1230<t>
1231  Closed issues:
1232  <list style="symbols"> 
1233    <t>
1234      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1235      "Normative and Informative references"
1236    </t>
1237  </list>
1238</t>
1239</section>
1240
1241<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1242<t>
1243  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1244  <list style="symbols"> 
1245    <t>
1246      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1247    </t>
1248    <t>
1249      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1250    </t>
1251  </list>
1252</t>
1253</section>
1254
1255<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1256<t>
1257  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1258  <list style="symbols"> 
1259    <t>
1260      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1261      in this document.
1262    </t>
1263  </list>
1264</t>
1265</section>
1266
1267<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1268<t>
1269  None.
1270</t>
1271</section>
1272
1273<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1274<t>
1275  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1276  <list style="symbols"> 
1277    <t>
1278      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1279    </t>
1280    <t>
1281      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1282      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1283    </t>
1284    <t>
1285      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1286      header field value format definitions.
1287    </t>
1288  </list>
1289</t>
1290</section>
1291
1292<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1293<t>
1294  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1295  <list style="symbols"> 
1296    <t>
1297      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1298    </t>
1299  </list>
1300</t>
1301</section>
1302
1303<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1304<t>
1305  None.
1306</t>
1307</section>
1308
1309<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1310<t>
1311  Closed issues:
1312  <list style="symbols"> 
1313    <t>
1314      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1315      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1316    </t>
1317  </list>
1318</t>
1319</section>
1320
1321<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1322<t>
1323  No significant changes.
1324</t>
1325</section>
1326
1327<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1328<t>
1329  Partly resolved issues:
1330  <list style="symbols"> 
1331    <t>
1332      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1333      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1334    </t>
1335  </list>
1336</t>
1337</section>
1338
1339<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1340<t>
1341  None.
1342</t>
1343</section>
1344
1345<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1346<t>
1347  Closed issues:
1348  <list style="symbols"> 
1349    <t>
1350      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1351      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1352    </t>
1353    <t>
1354      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1355      "auth-param syntax"
1356    </t>
1357    <t>
1358      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1359      "Header Classification"
1360    </t>
1361    <t>
1362      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1363      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1364    </t>
1365  </list>
1366</t>
1367<t>
1368  Partly resolved issues:
1369  <list style="symbols"> 
1370    <t>
1371      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1372      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1373    </t>
1374  </list>
1375</t>
1376</section>
1377
1378<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1379<t>
1380  None.
1381</t>
1382</section>
1383
1384<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1385<t>
1386  Closed issues:
1387  <list style="symbols">
1388    <t>
1389      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1390      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1391    </t>
1392  </list>
1393</t>
1394</section>
1395
1396<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1397<t>
1398  None.
1399</t>
1400</section>
1401
1402<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1403<t>
1404  Closed issues:
1405  <list style="symbols">
1406    <t>
1407      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1408      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1409    </t>
1410    <t>
1411      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1412      "Realm required on challenges"
1413    </t>
1414    <t>
1415      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1416      "auth-param syntax"
1417    </t>
1418    <t>
1419      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1420      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1421    </t>
1422    <t>
1423      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1424      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1425    </t>
1426    <t>
1427      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1428      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1429    </t>
1430  </list>
1431</t>
1432</section>
1433
1434<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1435<t>
1436  Closed issues:
1437  <list style="symbols"> 
1438    <t>
1439      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1440      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1441    </t>
1442    <t>
1443      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1444      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1445    </t>
1446  </list>
1447</t>
1448</section>
1449
1450<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1451<t>
1452  No changes yet.
1453</t>
1454</section>
1455
1456</section>
1457
1458</back>
1459</rfc>
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