source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1452

Last change on this file since 1452 was 1452, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

Rephrase description of conformance; explain how the spec handles error handling (see #186)

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "October">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
39<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
40<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
41<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
42     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
43     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
44<front>
45
46  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
47
48  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
49    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
50    <address>
51      <postal>
52        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
53        <city>San Jose</city>
54        <region>CA</region>
55        <code>95110</code>
56        <country>USA</country>
57      </postal>
58      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
59      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
60    </address>
61  </author>
62
63  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
64    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
65    <address>
66      <postal>
67        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
68        <city>Carlisle</city>
69        <region>MA</region>
70        <code>01741</code>
71        <country>USA</country>
72      </postal>
73      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
74      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
75    </address>
76  </author>
77 
78  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
79    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
80    <address>
81      <postal>
82        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
83        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
84        <city>Palo Alto</city>
85        <region>CA</region>
86        <code>94304</code>
87        <country>USA</country>
88      </postal>
89      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
90    </address>
91  </author>
92
93  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
94    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
95    <address>
96      <postal>
97        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
98        <city>Redmond</city>
99        <region>WA</region>
100        <code>98052</code>
101        <country>USA</country>
102      </postal>
103      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
104    </address>
105  </author>
106
107  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
108    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
109    <address>
110      <postal>
111        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
112        <city>San Jose</city>
113        <region>CA</region>
114        <code>95110</code>
115        <country>USA</country>
116      </postal>
117      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
118      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
119    </address>
120  </author>
121 
122  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
123    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
124    <address>
125      <postal>
126        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
127        <city>Redmond</city>
128        <region>WA</region>
129        <code>98052</code>
130      </postal>
131      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
132    </address>
133  </author>
134   
135  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
136    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
137    <address>
138      <postal>
139        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
140        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
141        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
142        <city>Cambridge</city>
143        <region>MA</region>
144        <code>02139</code>
145        <country>USA</country>
146      </postal>
147      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
148      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
149    </address>
150  </author>
151
152  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
153    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
154    <address>
155      <postal>
156        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
157        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
158        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
159        <region>AM</region>
160        <code>06902</code>
161        <country>France</country>
162      </postal>
163      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
164      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
165    </address>
166  </author>
167
168  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
169    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
170    <address>
171      <postal>
172        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
173        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
174        <country>Germany</country>
175      </postal>
176      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
177      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
178      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
179      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
180    </address>
181  </author>
182
183  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
184  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
185
186<abstract>
187<t>
188   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
189   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
190   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
191   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
192   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
193</t>
194<t>
195   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
196</t>
197</abstract>
198
199<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
200  <t>
201    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
202    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
203    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
204  </t>
205  <t>
206    The current issues list is at
207    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
208    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
209    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
210  </t>
211  <t>
212    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.16"/>.
213  </t>
214</note>
215</front>
216<middle>
217<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
218<t>
219   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
220   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
221   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
222   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
223   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
224</t>
225<t>
226   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
227   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
228   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
229   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
230   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
231</t>
232
233<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
234<t>
235   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
236   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
237   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
238</t>
239<t>
240   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
241   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
242   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
243   for definitions of these terms.
244</t>
245<t>
246   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
247   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
248   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
249</t>
250<t>
251   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
252   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
253   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
254</t>
255<t>
256   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MAY; take steps to recover a usable
257   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
258   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
259   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
260   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
261   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
262   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
263   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
264</t>
265</section>
266
267<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
268  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
269  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
270  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
271  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
272  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
273  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
274  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
275<t>
276  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
277  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
278  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
279  rule expanded.
280</t>
281<t>
282  The following core rules are included by
283  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
284  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
285  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
286  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
287  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
288  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
289</t>
290
291<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
292   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
293   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
294   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
295   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
296<t>
297   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
298</t>
299<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
300  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
301  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
302  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
303  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
304</artwork></figure>
305</section>
306</section>
307</section>
308
309<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
310
311<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
312  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
313  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
316  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
317<t>
318   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
319   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
320   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
321   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
322   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
323   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of attribute-value
324   pairs or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
325   information.
326</t>
327<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
328  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
329 
330  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
331
332  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
333                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
334</artwork></figure>
335<t>
336   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
337   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
338   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
339   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
340</t>
341<t>
342   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
343   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
344   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
345   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
346</t>
347<t>   
348   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
349   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
350   header field containing at least one challenge
351   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
352</t>
353<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
354  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
355</artwork></figure>
356<x:note>
357  <t>
358     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
359     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
360     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
361     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
362     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
363  </t>
364</x:note>
365<x:note>
366  <t>
367     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
368     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
369     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
370  </t>
371</x:note>
372<t>
373   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
374   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
375   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
376   request.
377</t>
378<t>   
379   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
380   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
381   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
382   request.
383</t>
384<t>   
385   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
386   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
387   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
388   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
389   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
390</t>
391<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
392  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
393</artwork></figure>
394<t>
395   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
396   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
397   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
398   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
399   resource.
400</t>
401<t>
402   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
403   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
404   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
405   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
406   resource.
407</t>
408<t>
409   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
410   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
411   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
412   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
413   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
414   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
415</t>
416<t>
417   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
418   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
419</t>
420</section>
421
422<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
423  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
424  <iref item="Realm"/>
425<t>
426   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
427   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
428</t>
429<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
430  realm       = "realm" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> realm-value
431  realm-value = quoted-string
432</artwork></figure>
433<t>
434   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
435   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
436   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
437   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
438   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
439   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
440   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
441   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
442   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
443   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
444   different realms.
445</t>
446<t>
447   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
448   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
449   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
450   protection space for a period of time determined by the
451   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
452   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
453   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
454</t>
455</section>
456
457<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
458<t>
459  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
460  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
461</t>
462<t>
463  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
464  <list style="symbols">
465    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
466    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
467    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
468  </list>
469</t>
470<t>
471  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
472  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
473</t>
474<t>
475  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
476</t>
477
478<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
479<t>
480  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
481  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
482</t>
483<t>
484  <list style="symbols">
485    <x:lt>
486    <t>
487      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
488      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
489      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
490      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
491      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
492    </t>
493    </x:lt>
494    <x:lt>
495    <t>
496      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
497      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
498      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
499    </t>
500    </x:lt>
501    <x:lt>
502    <t>
503      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
504      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
505      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
506      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
507    </t>
508    </x:lt>
509    <x:lt>
510    <t>
511      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
512      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
513      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
514    </t>
515    </x:lt>
516    <x:lt>
517    <t>
518      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
519      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
520      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
521      request they appear in.
522    </t>
523    <t>
524      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
525      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
526      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
527      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
528      directives (e.g., "private").
529    </t>
530    </x:lt>
531  </list>
532</t>
533</section>
534
535</section>
536
537</section>
538
539<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
540<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
541  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
542  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
543<t>
544   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
545   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
546   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
547   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
548   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
549   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
550   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
551   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
552   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
553   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
554   include relevant diagnostic information.
555</t>
556</section>
557<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
558  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
559  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
560<t>
561   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
562   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
563   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
564   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
565   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
566   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
567</t>
568</section>
569</section>
570
571<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
572<t>
573   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
574   related to authentication.
575</t>
576
577<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
578  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
579  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
580  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
581<t>
582   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
583   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
584   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
585   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
586   requested.
587</t>
588<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
589  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
590</artwork></figure>
591<t>
592   If a request is
593   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
594   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
595   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
596   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
597   synchronized clocks).
598</t>
599<t>
600      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
601      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
602      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
603      of the following specific exceptions holds:
604</t>
605<t>
606  <list style="numbers">
607      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
608         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
609         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
610         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
611         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
612         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
613         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
614         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
615         it.</t>
616
617      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
618         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
619         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
620         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
621         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
622         to authenticate the new request.</t>
623
624      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
625         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
626  </list>
627</t>
628</section>
629
630<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
631  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
632  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
633  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
634<t>
635   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
636   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
637   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
638   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
639</t>
640<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
641  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
642</artwork></figure>
643<t>
644   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
645   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
646   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
647   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
648   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
649   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
650</t>
651</section>
652
653<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
654  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
655  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
656  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
657<t>
658   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
659   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
660   authentication. Its value consists of
661   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
662   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
663</t>
664<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
665  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
666</artwork></figure>
667<t>
668   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
669   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
670   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
671   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
672   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
673   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
674   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
675   request.
676</t>
677</section>
678
679<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
680  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
681  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
682  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
683<t>
684   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
685   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
686   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
687</t>
688<t>   
689   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
690   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
691   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
692</t>
693<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
694  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
695</artwork></figure>
696<t>
697   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
698   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
699   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
700   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
701   authentication parameters.
702</t>
703</section>
704
705</section>
706
707<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
708
709<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
710<t>
711  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
712  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
713</t>
714<t>
715   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
716</t>
717</section>
718
719<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
720<t>
721   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
722   shall be updated with the registrations below:
723</t>
724<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
725<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
726<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
727   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
728   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
729   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
730   <c>401</c>
731   <c>Unauthorized</c>
732   <c>
733      <xref target="status.401"/>
734   </c>
735   <c>407</c>
736   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
737   <c>
738      <xref target="status.407"/>
739   </c>
740</texttable>
741<!--(END)-->
742<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
743</section>
744
745<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
746<t>
747   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
748   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
749</t>
750<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
751<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
752<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
753   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
754   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
755   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
756   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
757
758   <c>Authorization</c>
759   <c>http</c>
760   <c>standard</c>
761   <c>
762      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
763   </c>
764   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
765   <c>http</c>
766   <c>standard</c>
767   <c>
768      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
769   </c>
770   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
771   <c>http</c>
772   <c>standard</c>
773   <c>
774      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
775   </c>
776   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
777   <c>http</c>
778   <c>standard</c>
779   <c>
780      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
781   </c>
782</texttable>
783<!--(END)-->
784<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
785<t>
786   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
787</t>
788</section>
789</section>
790
791<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
792<t>
793   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
794   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
795   described by this document. The discussion does not include
796   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
797   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
798</t>
799
800<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
801<t>
802   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
803   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
804   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
805   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
806   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
807   application's security model include but are not limited to:
808  <list style="symbols">
809     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
810        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
811        user for credentials.</t>
812
813     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
814        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
815        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
816        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
817  </list>
818</t>
819<t>
820   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
821   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
822   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
823   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
824   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
825   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
826   cached credentials under user control.
827</t>
828</section>
829</section>
830
831<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
832<t>
833  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
834  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
835  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
836  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
837  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
838  for further acknowledgements. 
839</t>
840<t>
841  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
842</t>
843</section>
844</middle>
845
846<back>
847
848<references title="Normative References">
849
850<reference anchor="Part1">
851  <front>
852    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
853    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
854      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
855      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
856    </author>
857    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
858      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
859      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
860    </author>
861    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
862      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
863      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
864    </author>
865    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
866      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
867      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
868    </author>
869    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
870      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
871      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
872    </author>
873    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
874      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
875      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
876    </author>
877    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
878      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
879      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
880    </author>
881    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
882      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
883      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
884    </author>
885    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
886      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
887      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
888    </author>
889    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
890  </front>
891  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
892  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
893</reference>
894
895<reference anchor="Part6">
896  <front>
897    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
898    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
899      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
900      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
901    </author>
902    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
903      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
904      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
905    </author>
906    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
907      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
908      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
909    </author>
910    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
911      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
912      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
913    </author>
914    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
915      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
916      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
917    </author>
918    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
919      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
920      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
921    </author>
922    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
923      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
924      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
925    </author>
926    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
927      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
928      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
929    </author>
930    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
931      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
932      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
933    </author>
934    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
935      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
936      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
937    </author>
938    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
939  </front>
940  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
941  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
942</reference>
943
944<reference anchor="RFC2119">
945  <front>
946    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
947    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
948      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
949      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
950    </author>
951    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
952  </front>
953  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
954  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
955</reference>
956
957<reference anchor="RFC5234">
958  <front>
959    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
960    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
961      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
962      <address>
963        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
964      </address> 
965    </author>
966    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
967      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
968      <address>
969        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
970      </address>
971    </author>
972    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
973  </front>
974  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
975  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
976</reference>
977
978</references>
979
980<references title="Informative References">
981
982<reference anchor="RFC2616">
983  <front>
984    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
985    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
986      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
987      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
988    </author>
989    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
990      <organization>W3C</organization>
991      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
992    </author>
993    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
994      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
995      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
996    </author>
997    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
998      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
999      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1000    </author>
1001    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1002      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1003      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1004    </author>
1005    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1006      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1007      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1008    </author>
1009    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1010      <organization>W3C</organization>
1011      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1012    </author>
1013    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1014  </front>
1015  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1016</reference>
1017
1018<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1019  <front>
1020    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1021    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1022      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1023      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1024    </author>
1025    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1026      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1027      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1028    </author>
1029    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1030      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1031      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1032    </author>
1033    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1034      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1035      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1036    </author>
1037    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1038      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1039      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1040    </author>
1041    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1042      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1043    </author>
1044    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1045      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1046      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1047    </author>
1048    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1049  </front>
1050  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1051</reference>
1052
1053<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1054  <front>
1055    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1056    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1057      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1058      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1059    </author>
1060    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1061      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1062      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1063    </author>
1064    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1065      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1066      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1067    </author>
1068    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1069  </front>
1070  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1071  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1072</reference>
1073
1074<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1075 <front>
1076  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1077  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1078    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1079    <address>
1080       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1081       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1082    </address>
1083  </author>
1084  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1085    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1086    <address>
1087      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1088      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1089    </address>
1090  </author>
1091  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1092    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1093    <address>
1094      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1095      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1096    </address>
1097  </author>
1098  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1099 </front>
1100 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1101 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1102</reference>
1103
1104<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1105  <front>
1106    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1107    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1108    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1109  </front>
1110  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1111</reference>
1112
1113<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1114  <front>
1115    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1116    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1117      <organization>IBM</organization>
1118      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1119    </author>
1120    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1121      <organization>Google</organization>
1122      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1123    </author>
1124    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1125  </front>
1126  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1127  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1128</reference>
1129
1130</references>
1131
1132<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1133<t>
1134  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1135  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1136  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1137</t>
1138<t>
1139  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1140  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1141  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1142</t>
1143<t>
1144  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1145  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1146</t>
1147</section>
1148 
1149<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1150<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1151<figure>
1152<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1153<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1154
1155<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1156
1157<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1158
1159<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1160 challenge ] )
1161<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1162
1163<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1164 ] )
1165
1166<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1167<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1168
1169<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1170 *"="
1171
1172<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1173 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1174<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1175 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1176
1177<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1178
1179realm = "realm" BWS "=" BWS realm-value
1180realm-value = quoted-string
1181
1182<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1183</artwork>
1184</figure>
1185<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1186; Authorization defined but not used
1187; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1188; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1189; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1190; realm defined but not used
1191</artwork></figure></section>
1192<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1193
1194<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1195
1196<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1197<t>
1198  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1199</t>
1200</section>
1201
1202<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1203<t>
1204  Closed issues:
1205  <list style="symbols"> 
1206    <t>
1207      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1208      "Normative and Informative references"
1209    </t>
1210  </list>
1211</t>
1212</section>
1213
1214<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1215<t>
1216  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1217  <list style="symbols"> 
1218    <t>
1219      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1220    </t>
1221    <t>
1222      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1223    </t>
1224  </list>
1225</t>
1226</section>
1227
1228<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1229<t>
1230  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1231  <list style="symbols"> 
1232    <t>
1233      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1234      in this document.
1235    </t>
1236  </list>
1237</t>
1238</section>
1239
1240<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1241<t>
1242  None.
1243</t>
1244</section>
1245
1246<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1247<t>
1248  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1249  <list style="symbols"> 
1250    <t>
1251      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1252    </t>
1253    <t>
1254      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1255      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1256    </t>
1257    <t>
1258      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1259      header field value format definitions.
1260    </t>
1261  </list>
1262</t>
1263</section>
1264
1265<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1266<t>
1267  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1268  <list style="symbols"> 
1269    <t>
1270      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1271    </t>
1272  </list>
1273</t>
1274</section>
1275
1276<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1277<t>
1278  None.
1279</t>
1280</section>
1281
1282<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1283<t>
1284  Closed issues:
1285  <list style="symbols"> 
1286    <t>
1287      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1288      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1289    </t>
1290  </list>
1291</t>
1292</section>
1293
1294<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1295<t>
1296  No significant changes.
1297</t>
1298</section>
1299
1300<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1301<t>
1302  Partly resolved issues:
1303  <list style="symbols"> 
1304    <t>
1305      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1306      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1307    </t>
1308  </list>
1309</t>
1310</section>
1311
1312<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1313<t>
1314  None.
1315</t>
1316</section>
1317
1318<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1319<t>
1320  Closed issues:
1321  <list style="symbols"> 
1322    <t>
1323      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1324      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1325    </t>
1326    <t>
1327      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1328      "auth-param syntax"
1329    </t>
1330    <t>
1331      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1332      "Header Classification"
1333    </t>
1334    <t>
1335      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1336      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1337    </t>
1338  </list>
1339</t>
1340<t>
1341  Partly resolved issues:
1342  <list style="symbols"> 
1343    <t>
1344      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1345      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1346    </t>
1347  </list>
1348</t>
1349</section>
1350
1351<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1352<t>
1353  None.
1354</t>
1355</section>
1356
1357<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1358<t>
1359  Closed issues:
1360  <list style="symbols">
1361    <t>
1362      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1363      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1364    </t>
1365  </list>
1366</t>
1367</section>
1368
1369<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1370<t>
1371  None.
1372</t>
1373</section>
1374
1375<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1376<t>
1377  Closed issues:
1378  <list style="symbols">
1379    <t>
1380      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1381      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1382    </t>
1383    <t>
1384      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1385      "Realm required on challenges"
1386    </t>
1387    <t>
1388      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1389      "auth-param syntax"
1390    </t>
1391    <t>
1392      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1393      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1394    </t>
1395    <t>
1396      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1397      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1398    </t>
1399    <t>
1400      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1401      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1402    </t>
1403  </list>
1404</t>
1405</section>
1406
1407<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1408<t>
1409  Closed issues:
1410  <list style="symbols"> 
1411    <t>
1412      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1413      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1414    </t>
1415  </list>
1416</t>
1417</section>
1418
1419</section>
1420
1421</back>
1422</rfc>
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