source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1431

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "September">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27]>
28<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
29<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
30<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc compact="yes"?>
32<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
33<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
34<?rfc editing="no" ?>
35<?rfc comments="yes"?>
36<?rfc inline="yes"?>
37<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
38<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
39<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
40<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
41     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
42     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
43<front>
44
45  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
46
47  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
48    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
49    <address>
50      <postal>
51        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
52        <city>San Jose</city>
53        <region>CA</region>
54        <code>95110</code>
55        <country>USA</country>
56      </postal>
57      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
58      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
59    </address>
60  </author>
61
62  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
63    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
64    <address>
65      <postal>
66        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
67        <city>Carlisle</city>
68        <region>MA</region>
69        <code>01741</code>
70        <country>USA</country>
71      </postal>
72      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
73      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
74    </address>
75  </author>
76 
77  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
78    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
79    <address>
80      <postal>
81        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
82        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
83        <city>Palo Alto</city>
84        <region>CA</region>
85        <code>94304</code>
86        <country>USA</country>
87      </postal>
88      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
89    </address>
90  </author>
91
92  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
93    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
94    <address>
95      <postal>
96        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
97        <city>Redmond</city>
98        <region>WA</region>
99        <code>98052</code>
100        <country>USA</country>
101      </postal>
102      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
103    </address>
104  </author>
105
106  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
107    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
108    <address>
109      <postal>
110        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
111        <city>San Jose</city>
112        <region>CA</region>
113        <code>95110</code>
114        <country>USA</country>
115      </postal>
116      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
117      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
118    </address>
119  </author>
120 
121  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
122    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
123    <address>
124      <postal>
125        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
126        <city>Redmond</city>
127        <region>WA</region>
128        <code>98052</code>
129      </postal>
130      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
131    </address>
132  </author>
133   
134  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
135    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
136    <address>
137      <postal>
138        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
139        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
140        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
141        <city>Cambridge</city>
142        <region>MA</region>
143        <code>02139</code>
144        <country>USA</country>
145      </postal>
146      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
147      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
148    </address>
149  </author>
150
151  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
152    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
153    <address>
154      <postal>
155        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
156        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
157        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
158        <region>AM</region>
159        <code>06902</code>
160        <country>France</country>
161      </postal>
162      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
163      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
164    </address>
165  </author>
166
167  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
168    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
169    <address>
170      <postal>
171        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
172        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
173        <country>Germany</country>
174      </postal>
175      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
176      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
177      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
178      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
179    </address>
180  </author>
181
182  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
183  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
184
185<abstract>
186<t>
187   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
188   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
189   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
190   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
191   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
192</t>
193<t>
194   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
195</t>
196</abstract>
197
198<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
199  <t>
200    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
201    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
202    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
203  </t>
204  <t>
205    The current issues list is at
206    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
207    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
208    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
209  </t>
210  <t>
211    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.16"/>.
212  </t>
213</note>
214</front>
215<middle>
216<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
217<t>
218   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
219   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
220   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
221   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
222   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
223</t>
224<t>
225   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
226   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
227   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
228   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
229   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
230</t>
231
232<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
233<t>
234   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
235   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
236   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
237</t>
238<t>
239   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
240   of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
241   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED"
242   level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said
243   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST"
244   level requirements but not all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its
245   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant".
246</t>
247</section>
248
249<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
250  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
251  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
252  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
253  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
254  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
255  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
256  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
257<t>
258  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
259  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
260  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
261  rule expanded.
262</t>
263<t>
264  The following core rules are included by
265  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
266  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
267  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
268  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
269  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
270  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
271</t>
272
273<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
274   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
275   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
276   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
277   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
278<t>
279   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
280</t>
281<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
282  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
283  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
284  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
285  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
286</artwork></figure>
287</section>
288</section>
289</section>
290
291<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
292
293<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
294  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
295  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
296  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
297  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
298  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
299<t>
300   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
301   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
302   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
303   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
304   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
305   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of attribute-value
306   pairs or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
307   information.
308</t>
309<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
310  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
311 
312  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
313
314  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
315                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
316</artwork></figure>
317<t>
318   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
319   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
320   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
321   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
322</t>
323<t>
324   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
325   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
326   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
327   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
328</t>
329<t>   
330   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
331   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
332   header field containing at least one challenge
333   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
334</t>
335<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
336  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
337</artwork></figure>
338<x:note>
339  <t>
340     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
341     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
342     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
343     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
344     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
345  </t>
346</x:note>
347<x:note>
348  <t>
349     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
350     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
351     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
352  </t>
353</x:note>
354<t>
355   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
356   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
357   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
358   request.
359</t>
360<t>   
361   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
362   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
363   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
364   request.
365</t>
366<t>   
367   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
368   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
369   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
370   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
371   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
372</t>
373<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
374  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
375</artwork></figure>
376<t>
377   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
378   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
379   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
380   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
381   resource.
382</t>
383<t>
384   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
385   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
386   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
387   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
388   resource.
389</t>
390<t>
391   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
392   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
393   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
394   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
395   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
396   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
397</t>
398<t>
399   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
400   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
401</t>
402</section>
403
404<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
405  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
406  <iref item="Realm"/>
407<t>
408   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
409   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
410</t>
411<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
412  realm       = "realm" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> realm-value
413  realm-value = quoted-string
414</artwork></figure>
415<t>
416   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
417   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
418   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
419   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
420   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
421   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
422   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
423   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
424   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
425   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
426   different realms.
427</t>
428<t>
429   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
430   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
431   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
432   protection space for a period of time determined by the
433   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
434   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
435   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
436</t>
437</section>
438
439<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
440<t>
441  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
442  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
443</t>
444<t>
445  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
446  <list style="symbols">
447    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
448    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
449    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
450  </list>
451</t>
452<t>
453  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
454  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
455</t>
456<t>
457  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
458</t>
459
460<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
461<t>
462  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
463  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
464</t>
465<t>
466  <list style="symbols">
467    <x:lt>
468    <t>
469      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
470      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
471      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
472      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
473      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
474    </t>
475    </x:lt>
476    <x:lt>
477    <t>
478      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
479      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
480      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
481    </t>
482    </x:lt>
483    <x:lt>
484    <t>
485      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
486      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
487      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
488      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
489    </t>
490    </x:lt>
491    <x:lt>
492    <t>
493      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
494      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
495      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
496    </t>
497    </x:lt>
498    <x:lt>
499    <t>
500      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
501      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
502      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
503      request they appear in.
504    </t>
505    <t>
506      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
507      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
508      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
509      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
510      directives (e.g., "private").
511    </t>
512    </x:lt>
513  </list>
514</t>
515</section>
516
517</section>
518
519</section>
520
521<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
522<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
523  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
524  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
525<t>
526   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
527   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
528   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
529   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
530   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
531   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
532   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
533   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
534   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
535   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
536   include relevant diagnostic information.
537</t>
538</section>
539<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
540  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
541  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
542<t>
543   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
544   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
545   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
546   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
547   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
548   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
549</t>
550</section>
551</section>
552
553<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
554<t>
555   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
556   related to authentication.
557</t>
558
559<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
560  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
561  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
562  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
563<t>
564   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
565   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
566   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
567   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
568   requested.
569</t>
570<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
571  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
572</artwork></figure>
573<t>
574   If a request is
575   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
576   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
577   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
578   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
579   synchronized clocks).
580</t>
581<t>
582      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
583      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
584      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
585      of the following specific exceptions holds:
586</t>
587<t>
588  <list style="numbers">
589      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
590         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
591         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
592         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
593         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
594         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
595         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
596         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
597         it.</t>
598
599      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
600         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
601         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
602         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
603         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
604         to authenticate the new request.</t>
605
606      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
607         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
608  </list>
609</t>
610</section>
611
612<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
613  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
614  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
615  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
616<t>
617   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
618   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
619   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
620   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
621</t>
622<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
623  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
624</artwork></figure>
625<t>
626   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
627   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
628   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
629   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
630   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
631   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
632</t>
633</section>
634
635<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
636  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
637  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
638  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
639<t>
640   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
641   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
642   authentication. Its value consists of
643   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
644   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
645</t>
646<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
647  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
648</artwork></figure>
649<t>
650   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
651   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
652   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
653   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
654   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
655   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
656   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
657   request.
658</t>
659</section>
660
661<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
662  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
663  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
664  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
665<t>
666   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
667   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
668   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
669</t>
670<t>   
671   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
672   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
673   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
674</t>
675<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
676  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
677</artwork></figure>
678<t>
679   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
680   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
681   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
682   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
683   authentication parameters.
684</t>
685</section>
686
687</section>
688
689<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
690
691<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
692<t>
693  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
694  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
695</t>
696<t>
697   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
698</t>
699</section>
700
701<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
702<t>
703   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
704   shall be updated with the registrations below:
705</t>
706<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
707<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
708<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
709   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
710   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
711   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
712   <c>401</c>
713   <c>Unauthorized</c>
714   <c>
715      <xref target="status.401"/>
716   </c>
717   <c>407</c>
718   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
719   <c>
720      <xref target="status.407"/>
721   </c>
722</texttable>
723<!--(END)-->
724<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
725</section>
726
727<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
728<t>
729   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
730   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
731</t>
732<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
733<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
734<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
735   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
736   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
737   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
738   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
739
740   <c>Authorization</c>
741   <c>http</c>
742   <c>standard</c>
743   <c>
744      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
745   </c>
746   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
747   <c>http</c>
748   <c>standard</c>
749   <c>
750      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
751   </c>
752   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
753   <c>http</c>
754   <c>standard</c>
755   <c>
756      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
757   </c>
758   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
759   <c>http</c>
760   <c>standard</c>
761   <c>
762      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
763   </c>
764</texttable>
765<!--(END)-->
766<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
767<t>
768   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
769</t>
770</section>
771</section>
772
773<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
774<t>
775   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
776   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
777   described by this document. The discussion does not include
778   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
779   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
780</t>
781
782<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
783<t>
784   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
785   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
786   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
787   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
788   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
789   application's security model include but are not limited to:
790  <list style="symbols">
791     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
792        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
793        user for credentials.</t>
794
795     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
796        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
797        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
798        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
799  </list>
800</t>
801<t>
802   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
803   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
804   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
805   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
806   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
807   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
808   cached credentials under user control.
809</t>
810</section>
811</section>
812
813<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
814<t>
815  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
816  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
817  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
818  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
819  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
820  for further acknowledgements. 
821</t>
822<t>
823  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
824</t>
825</section>
826</middle>
827
828<back>
829
830<references title="Normative References">
831
832<reference anchor="Part1">
833  <front>
834    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
835    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
836      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
837      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
838    </author>
839    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
840      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
841      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
842    </author>
843    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
844      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
845      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
846    </author>
847    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
848      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
849      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
850    </author>
851    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
852      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
853      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
854    </author>
855    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
856      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
857      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
858    </author>
859    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
860      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
861      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
862    </author>
863    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
864      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
865      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
866    </author>
867    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
868      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
869      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
870    </author>
871    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
872  </front>
873  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
874  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
875</reference>
876
877<reference anchor="Part6">
878  <front>
879    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
880    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
881      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
882      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
883    </author>
884    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
885      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
886      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
887    </author>
888    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
889      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
890      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
891    </author>
892    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
893      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
894      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
895    </author>
896    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
897      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
898      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
899    </author>
900    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
901      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
902      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
903    </author>
904    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
905      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
906      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
907    </author>
908    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
909      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
910      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
911    </author>
912    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
913      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
914    </author>
915    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
916      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
917      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
918    </author>
919    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
920  </front>
921  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
922  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
923</reference>
924
925<reference anchor="RFC2119">
926  <front>
927    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
928    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
929      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
930      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
931    </author>
932    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
933  </front>
934  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
935  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
936</reference>
937
938<reference anchor="RFC5234">
939  <front>
940    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
941    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
942      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
943      <address>
944        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
945      </address> 
946    </author>
947    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
948      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
949      <address>
950        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
951      </address>
952    </author>
953    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
954  </front>
955  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
956  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
957</reference>
958
959</references>
960
961<references title="Informative References">
962
963<reference anchor="RFC2616">
964  <front>
965    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
966    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
967      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
968      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
969    </author>
970    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
971      <organization>W3C</organization>
972      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
973    </author>
974    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
975      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
976      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
977    </author>
978    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
979      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
980      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
981    </author>
982    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
983      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
984      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
985    </author>
986    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
987      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
988      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
989    </author>
990    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
991      <organization>W3C</organization>
992      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
993    </author>
994    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
995  </front>
996  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
997</reference>
998
999<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1000  <front>
1001    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1002    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1003      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1004      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1005    </author>
1006    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1007      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1008      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1009    </author>
1010    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1011      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1012      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1013    </author>
1014    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1015      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1016      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1017    </author>
1018    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1019      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1020      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1021    </author>
1022    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1023      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1024    </author>
1025    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1026      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1027      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1028    </author>
1029    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1030  </front>
1031  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1032</reference>
1033
1034<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1035  <front>
1036    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1037    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1038      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1039      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1040    </author>
1041    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1042      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1043      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1044    </author>
1045    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1046      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1047      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1048    </author>
1049    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1050  </front>
1051  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1052  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1053</reference>
1054
1055<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1056 <front>
1057  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1058  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1059    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1060    <address>
1061       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1062       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1063    </address>
1064  </author>
1065  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1066    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1067    <address>
1068      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1069      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1070    </address>
1071  </author>
1072  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1073    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1074    <address>
1075      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1076      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1077    </address>
1078  </author>
1079  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1080 </front>
1081 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1082 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1083</reference>
1084
1085<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1086  <front>
1087    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1088    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1089    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1090  </front>
1091  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1092</reference>
1093
1094<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1095  <front>
1096    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1097    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1098      <organization>IBM</organization>
1099      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1100    </author>
1101    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1102      <organization>Google</organization>
1103      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1104    </author>
1105    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1106  </front>
1107  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1108  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1109</reference>
1110
1111</references>
1112
1113<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1114<t>
1115  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1116  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1117  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1118</t>
1119<t>
1120  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1121  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1122  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1123</t>
1124<t>
1125  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1126  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1127</t>
1128</section>
1129 
1130<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1131<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1132<figure>
1133<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1134<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1135
1136<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1137
1138<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1139
1140<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1141 challenge ] )
1142<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1143
1144<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1145 ] )
1146
1147<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1148<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1149
1150<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1151 *"="
1152
1153<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1154 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1155<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1156 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1157
1158<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1159
1160realm = "realm" BWS "=" BWS realm-value
1161realm-value = quoted-string
1162
1163<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1164</artwork>
1165</figure>
1166<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1167; Authorization defined but not used
1168; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1169; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1170; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1171; realm defined but not used
1172</artwork></figure></section>
1173<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1174
1175<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1176
1177<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1178<t>
1179  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1180</t>
1181</section>
1182
1183<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1184<t>
1185  Closed issues:
1186  <list style="symbols"> 
1187    <t>
1188      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1189      "Normative and Informative references"
1190    </t>
1191  </list>
1192</t>
1193</section>
1194
1195<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1196<t>
1197  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1198  <list style="symbols"> 
1199    <t>
1200      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1201    </t>
1202    <t>
1203      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1204    </t>
1205  </list>
1206</t>
1207</section>
1208
1209<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1210<t>
1211  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1212  <list style="symbols"> 
1213    <t>
1214      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1215      in this document.
1216    </t>
1217  </list>
1218</t>
1219</section>
1220
1221<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1222<t>
1223  None.
1224</t>
1225</section>
1226
1227<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1228<t>
1229  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1230  <list style="symbols"> 
1231    <t>
1232      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1233    </t>
1234    <t>
1235      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1236      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1237    </t>
1238    <t>
1239      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1240      header field value format definitions.
1241    </t>
1242  </list>
1243</t>
1244</section>
1245
1246<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1247<t>
1248  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1249  <list style="symbols"> 
1250    <t>
1251      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1252    </t>
1253  </list>
1254</t>
1255</section>
1256
1257<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1258<t>
1259  None.
1260</t>
1261</section>
1262
1263<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1264<t>
1265  Closed issues:
1266  <list style="symbols"> 
1267    <t>
1268      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1269      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1270    </t>
1271  </list>
1272</t>
1273</section>
1274
1275<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1276<t>
1277  No significant changes.
1278</t>
1279</section>
1280
1281<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1282<t>
1283  Partly resolved issues:
1284  <list style="symbols"> 
1285    <t>
1286      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1287      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1288    </t>
1289  </list>
1290</t>
1291</section>
1292
1293<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1294<t>
1295  None.
1296</t>
1297</section>
1298
1299<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1300<t>
1301  Closed issues:
1302  <list style="symbols"> 
1303    <t>
1304      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1305      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1306    </t>
1307    <t>
1308      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1309      "auth-param syntax"
1310    </t>
1311    <t>
1312      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1313      "Header Classification"
1314    </t>
1315    <t>
1316      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1317      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1318    </t>
1319  </list>
1320</t>
1321<t>
1322  Partly resolved issues:
1323  <list style="symbols"> 
1324    <t>
1325      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1326      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1327    </t>
1328  </list>
1329</t>
1330</section>
1331
1332<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1333<t>
1334  None.
1335</t>
1336</section>
1337
1338<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1339<t>
1340  Closed issues:
1341  <list style="symbols">
1342    <t>
1343      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1344      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1345    </t>
1346  </list>
1347</t>
1348</section>
1349
1350<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1351<t>
1352  None.
1353</t>
1354</section>
1355
1356<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1357<t>
1358  Closed issues:
1359  <list style="symbols">
1360    <t>
1361      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1362      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1363    </t>
1364    <t>
1365      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1366      "Realm required on challenges"
1367    </t>
1368    <t>
1369      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1370      "auth-param syntax"
1371    </t>
1372    <t>
1373      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1374      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1375    </t>
1376    <t>
1377      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1378      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1379    </t>
1380    <t>
1381      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1382      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1383    </t>
1384  </list>
1385</t>
1386</section>
1387
1388<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1389<t>
1390  None yet.
1391</t>
1392</section>
1393
1394</section>
1395
1396</back>
1397</rfc>
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