source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1396

Last change on this file since 1396 was 1396, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

fix ABNF links (see [1393])

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
File size: 54.4 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "August">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY acks                       "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY field-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27]>
28<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
29<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
30<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc compact="yes"?>
32<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
33<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
34<?rfc editing="no" ?>
35<?rfc comments="yes"?>
36<?rfc inline="yes"?>
37<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
38<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
39<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
40<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
41     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
42     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
43<front>
44
45  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
46
47  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
48    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
49    <address>
50      <postal>
51        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
52        <city>San Jose</city>
53        <region>CA</region>
54        <code>95110</code>
55        <country>USA</country>
56      </postal>
57      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
58      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
59    </address>
60  </author>
61
62  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
63    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
64    <address>
65      <postal>
66        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
67        <city>Carlisle</city>
68        <region>MA</region>
69        <code>01741</code>
70        <country>USA</country>
71      </postal>
72      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
73      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
74    </address>
75  </author>
76 
77  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
78    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
79    <address>
80      <postal>
81        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
82        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
83        <city>Palo Alto</city>
84        <region>CA</region>
85        <code>94304</code>
86        <country>USA</country>
87      </postal>
88      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
89    </address>
90  </author>
91
92  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
93    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
94    <address>
95      <postal>
96        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
97        <city>Redmond</city>
98        <region>WA</region>
99        <code>98052</code>
100        <country>USA</country>
101      </postal>
102      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
103    </address>
104  </author>
105
106  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
107    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
108    <address>
109      <postal>
110        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
111        <city>San Jose</city>
112        <region>CA</region>
113        <code>95110</code>
114        <country>USA</country>
115      </postal>
116      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
117      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
118    </address>
119  </author>
120 
121  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
122    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
123    <address>
124      <postal>
125        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
126        <city>Redmond</city>
127        <region>WA</region>
128        <code>98052</code>
129      </postal>
130      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
131    </address>
132  </author>
133   
134  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
135    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
136    <address>
137      <postal>
138        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
139        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
140        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
141        <city>Cambridge</city>
142        <region>MA</region>
143        <code>02139</code>
144        <country>USA</country>
145      </postal>
146      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
147      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
148    </address>
149  </author>
150
151  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
152    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
153    <address>
154      <postal>
155        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
156        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
157        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
158        <region>AM</region>
159        <code>06902</code>
160        <country>France</country>
161      </postal>
162      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
163      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
164    </address>
165  </author>
166
167  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
168    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
169    <address>
170      <postal>
171        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
172        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
173        <country>Germany</country>
174      </postal>
175      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
176      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
177      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
178      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
179    </address>
180  </author>
181
182  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
183  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
184
185<abstract>
186<t>
187   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
188   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
189   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
190   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
191   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
192</t>
193<t>
194   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
195</t>
196</abstract>
197
198<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
199  <t>
200    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
201    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
202    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
203  </t>
204  <t>
205    The current issues list is at
206    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
207    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
208    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
209  </t>
210  <t>
211    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.15"/>.
212  </t>
213</note>
214</front>
215<middle>
216<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
217<t>
218   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
219   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
220   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
221   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
222   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
223</t>
224<t>
225   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
226   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
227   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
228   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
229   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
230</t>
231
232<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
233<t>
234   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
235   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
236   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
237</t>
238<t>
239   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
240   of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
241   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED"
242   level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said
243   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST"
244   level requirements but not all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its
245   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant".
246</t>
247</section>
248
249<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
250  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
251  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
252  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
253  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
254  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
255  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
256  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
257  <x:anchor-alias value="WSP"/>
258<t>
259  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
260  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
261  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
262  rule expanded.
263</t>
264<t>
265  The following core rules are included by
266  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
267  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
268  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
269  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
270  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space),
271  VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
272  and WSP (whitespace).
273</t>
274
275<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
276   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
277   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
278   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
279   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
280<t>
281   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
282</t>
283<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
284  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
285  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
286  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
287  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-rules;&gt;
288</artwork></figure>
289</section>
290</section>
291</section>
292
293<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
294
295<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
296  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
297  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
298  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
299  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
300  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
301<t>
302   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
303   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
304   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
305   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
306   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
307   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of attribute-value
308   pairs or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
309   information.
310</t>
311<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
312  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
313 
314  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
315
316  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
317                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
318</artwork></figure>
319<t>
320   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
321   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
322   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
323   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
324</t>
325<t>
326   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
327   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
328   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
329   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
330</t>
331<t>   
332   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
333   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
334   header field containing at least one challenge
335   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
336</t>
337<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
338  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
339</artwork></figure>
340<x:note>
341  <t>
342     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
343     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
344     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
345     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
346     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
347  </t>
348</x:note>
349<x:note>
350  <t>
351     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
352     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
353     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
354  </t>
355</x:note>
356<t>
357   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
358   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
359   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
360   request.
361</t>
362<t>   
363   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
364   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
365   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
366   request.
367</t>
368<t>   
369   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
370   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
371   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
372   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
373   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
374</t>
375<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
376  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
377</artwork></figure>
378<t>
379   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
380   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
381   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
382   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
383   resource.
384</t>
385<t>
386   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
387   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
388   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
389   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
390   resource.
391</t>
392<t>
393   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
394   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
395   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
396   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
397   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
398   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
399</t>
400<t>
401   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
402   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
403</t>
404</section>
405
406<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
407  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
408  <iref item="Realm"/>
409<t>
410   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
411   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
412</t>
413<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
414  realm       = "realm" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> realm-value
415  realm-value = quoted-string
416</artwork></figure>
417<t>
418   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
419   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
420   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
421   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
422   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
423   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
424   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
425   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
426   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
427   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
428   different realms.
429</t>
430<t>
431   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
432   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
433   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
434   protection space for a period of time determined by the
435   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
436   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
437   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
438</t>
439</section>
440
441<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
442<t>
443  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
444  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
445</t>
446<t>
447  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
448  <list style="symbols">
449    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
450    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
451    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
452  </list>
453</t>
454<t>
455  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
456  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
457</t>
458<t>
459  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
460</t>
461
462<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
463<t>
464  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
465  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
466</t>
467<t>
468  <list style="symbols">
469    <x:lt>
470    <t>
471      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
472      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
473      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
474      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
475      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
476    </t>
477    </x:lt>
478    <x:lt>
479    <t>
480      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
481      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
482      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
483    </t>
484    </x:lt>
485    <x:lt>
486    <t>
487      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
488      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
489      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
490      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
491    </t>
492    </x:lt>
493    <x:lt>
494    <t>
495      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
496      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
497      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
498    </t>
499    </x:lt>
500    <x:lt>
501    <t>
502      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
503      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
504      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
505      request they appear in.
506    </t>
507    <t>
508      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
509      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
510      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
511      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
512      directives (e.g., "private").
513    </t>
514    </x:lt>
515  </list>
516</t>
517</section>
518
519</section>
520
521</section>
522
523<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
524<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
525  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
526  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
527<t>
528   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
529   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
530   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
531   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
532   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
533   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
534   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
535   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
536   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
537   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
538   include relevant diagnostic information.
539</t>
540</section>
541<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
542  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
543  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
544<t>
545   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
546   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
547   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
548   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
549   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
550   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
551</t>
552</section>
553</section>
554
555<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
556<t>
557   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
558   related to authentication.
559</t>
560
561<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
562  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
563  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
564  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
565<t>
566   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
567   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
568   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
569   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
570   requested.
571</t>
572<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
573  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
574</artwork></figure>
575<t>
576   If a request is
577   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
578   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
579   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
580   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
581   synchronized clocks).
582</t>
583<t>
584      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
585      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
586      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
587      of the following specific exceptions holds:
588</t>
589<t>
590  <list style="numbers">
591      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
592         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
593         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
594         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
595         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
596         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
597         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
598         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
599         it.</t>
600
601      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
602         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
603         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
604         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
605         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
606         to authenticate the new request.</t>
607
608      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
609         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
610  </list>
611</t>
612</section>
613
614<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
615  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
616  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
617  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
618<t>
619   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
620   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
621   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
622   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
623</t>
624<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
625  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
626</artwork></figure>
627<t>
628   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
629   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
630   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
631   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
632   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
633   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
634</t>
635</section>
636
637<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
638  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
639  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
640  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
641<t>
642   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
643   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
644   authentication. Its value consists of
645   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
646   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
647</t>
648<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
649  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
650</artwork></figure>
651<t>
652   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
653   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
654   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
655   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
656   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
657   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
658   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
659   request.
660</t>
661</section>
662
663<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
664  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
665  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
666  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
667<t>
668   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
669   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
670   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
671</t>
672<t>   
673   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
674   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
675   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
676</t>
677<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
678  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
679</artwork></figure>
680<t>
681   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
682   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
683   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
684   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
685   authentication parameters.
686</t>
687</section>
688
689</section>
690
691<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
692
693<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
694<t>
695  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
696  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
697</t>
698<t>
699   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
700</t>
701</section>
702
703<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
704<t>
705   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
706   shall be updated with the registrations below:
707</t>
708<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
709<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
710<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
711   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
712   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
713   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
714   <c>401</c>
715   <c>Unauthorized</c>
716   <c>
717      <xref target="status.401"/>
718   </c>
719   <c>407</c>
720   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
721   <c>
722      <xref target="status.407"/>
723   </c>
724</texttable>
725<!--(END)-->
726<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
727</section>
728
729<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
730<t>
731   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
732   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
733</t>
734<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
735<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
736<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
737   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
738   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
739   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
740   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
741
742   <c>Authorization</c>
743   <c>http</c>
744   <c>standard</c>
745   <c>
746      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
747   </c>
748   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
749   <c>http</c>
750   <c>standard</c>
751   <c>
752      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
753   </c>
754   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
755   <c>http</c>
756   <c>standard</c>
757   <c>
758      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
759   </c>
760   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
761   <c>http</c>
762   <c>standard</c>
763   <c>
764      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
765   </c>
766</texttable>
767<!--(END)-->
768<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
769<t>
770   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
771</t>
772</section>
773</section>
774
775<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
776<t>
777   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
778   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
779   described by this document. The discussion does not include
780   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
781   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
782</t>
783
784<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
785<t>
786   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
787   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
788   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
789   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
790   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
791   application's security model include but are not limited to:
792  <list style="symbols">
793     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
794        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
795        user for credentials.</t>
796
797     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
798        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
799        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
800        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
801  </list>
802</t>
803<t>
804   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
805   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
806   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
807   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
808   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
809   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
810   cached credentials under user control.
811</t>
812</section>
813</section>
814
815<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
816<t>
817  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
818  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
819  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
820  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
821  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
822  for further acknowledgements. 
823</t>
824<t>
825  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
826</t>
827</section>
828</middle>
829
830<back>
831
832<references title="Normative References">
833
834<reference anchor="Part1">
835  <front>
836    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
837    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
838      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
839      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
840    </author>
841    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
842      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
843      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
844    </author>
845    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
846      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
847      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
848    </author>
849    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
850      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
851      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
852    </author>
853    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
854      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
855      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
856    </author>
857    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
858      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
859      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
860    </author>
861    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
862      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
863      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
864    </author>
865    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
866      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
867      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
868    </author>
869    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
870      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
871      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
872    </author>
873    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
874  </front>
875  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
876  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
877</reference>
878
879<reference anchor="Part6">
880  <front>
881    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
882    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
883      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
884      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
885    </author>
886    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
887      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
888      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
889    </author>
890    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
891      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
892      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
893    </author>
894    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
895      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
896      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
897    </author>
898    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
899      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
900      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
901    </author>
902    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
903      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
904      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
905    </author>
906    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
907      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
908      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
909    </author>
910    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
911      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
912      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
913    </author>
914    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
915      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
916    </author>
917    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
918      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
919      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
920    </author>
921    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
922  </front>
923  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
924  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
925</reference>
926
927<reference anchor="RFC2119">
928  <front>
929    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
930    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
931      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
932      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
933    </author>
934    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
935  </front>
936  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
937  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
938</reference>
939
940<reference anchor="RFC5234">
941  <front>
942    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
943    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
944      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
945      <address>
946        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
947      </address> 
948    </author>
949    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
950      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
951      <address>
952        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
953      </address>
954    </author>
955    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
956  </front>
957  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
958  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
959</reference>
960
961</references>
962
963<references title="Informative References">
964
965<reference anchor="RFC2616">
966  <front>
967    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
968    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
969      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
970      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
971    </author>
972    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
973      <organization>W3C</organization>
974      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
975    </author>
976    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
977      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
978      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
979    </author>
980    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
981      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
982      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
983    </author>
984    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
985      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
986      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
987    </author>
988    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
989      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
990      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
991    </author>
992    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
993      <organization>W3C</organization>
994      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
995    </author>
996    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
997  </front>
998  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
999</reference>
1000
1001<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1002  <front>
1003    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1004    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1005      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1006      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1007    </author>
1008    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1009      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1010      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1011    </author>
1012    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1013      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1014      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1015    </author>
1016    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1017      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1018      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1019    </author>
1020    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1021      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1022      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1023    </author>
1024    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1025      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1026    </author>
1027    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1028      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1029      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1030    </author>
1031    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1032  </front>
1033  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1034</reference>
1035
1036<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1037  <front>
1038    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1039    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1040      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1041      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1042    </author>
1043    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1044      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1045      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1046    </author>
1047    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1048      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1049      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1050    </author>
1051    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1052  </front>
1053  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1054  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1055</reference>
1056
1057<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1058 <front>
1059  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1060  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1061    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1062    <address>
1063       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1064       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1065    </address>
1066  </author>
1067  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1068    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1069    <address>
1070      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1071      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1072    </address>
1073  </author>
1074  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1075    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1076    <address>
1077      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1078      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1079    </address>
1080  </author>
1081  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1082 </front>
1083 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1084 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1085</reference>
1086
1087<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1088  <front>
1089    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1090    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1091    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1092  </front>
1093  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1094</reference>
1095
1096<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1097  <front>
1098    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1099    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1100      <organization>IBM</organization>
1101      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1102    </author>
1103    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1104      <organization>Google</organization>
1105      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1106    </author>
1107    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1108  </front>
1109  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1110  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1111</reference>
1112
1113</references>
1114
1115<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1116<t>
1117  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1118  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1119  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1120</t>
1121<t>
1122  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1123  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1124  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1125</t>
1126<t>
1127  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1128  (<xref target="header.fields"/>)
1129</t>
1130</section>
1131 
1132<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1133<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1134<figure>
1135<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1136<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1137
1138<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1139
1140<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1141
1142<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1143 challenge ] )
1144<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1145
1146<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1147 ] )
1148
1149<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1150<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1151
1152<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1153 *"="
1154
1155<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1156 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1157<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1158 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1159
1160<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1161
1162realm = "realm" BWS "=" BWS realm-value
1163realm-value = quoted-string
1164
1165<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1166</artwork>
1167</figure>
1168<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1169; Authorization defined but not used
1170; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1171; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1172; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1173; realm defined but not used
1174</artwork></figure></section>
1175<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1176
1177<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1178
1179<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1180<t>
1181  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1182</t>
1183</section>
1184
1185<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1186<t>
1187  Closed issues:
1188  <list style="symbols"> 
1189    <t>
1190      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1191      "Normative and Informative references"
1192    </t>
1193  </list>
1194</t>
1195</section>
1196
1197<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1198<t>
1199  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1200  <list style="symbols"> 
1201    <t>
1202      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1203    </t>
1204    <t>
1205      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1206    </t>
1207  </list>
1208</t>
1209</section>
1210
1211<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1212<t>
1213  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1214  <list style="symbols"> 
1215    <t>
1216      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1217      in this document.
1218    </t>
1219  </list>
1220</t>
1221</section>
1222
1223<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1224<t>
1225  None.
1226</t>
1227</section>
1228
1229<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1230<t>
1231  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1232  <list style="symbols"> 
1233    <t>
1234      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1235    </t>
1236    <t>
1237      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1238      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1239    </t>
1240    <t>
1241      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1242      header field value format definitions.
1243    </t>
1244  </list>
1245</t>
1246</section>
1247
1248<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1249<t>
1250  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1251  <list style="symbols"> 
1252    <t>
1253      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1254    </t>
1255  </list>
1256</t>
1257</section>
1258
1259<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1260<t>
1261  None.
1262</t>
1263</section>
1264
1265<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1266<t>
1267  Closed issues:
1268  <list style="symbols"> 
1269    <t>
1270      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1271      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1272    </t>
1273  </list>
1274</t>
1275</section>
1276
1277<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1278<t>
1279  No significant changes.
1280</t>
1281</section>
1282
1283<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1284<t>
1285  Partly resolved issues:
1286  <list style="symbols"> 
1287    <t>
1288      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1289      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1290    </t>
1291  </list>
1292</t>
1293</section>
1294
1295<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1296<t>
1297  None.
1298</t>
1299</section>
1300
1301<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1302<t>
1303  Closed issues:
1304  <list style="symbols"> 
1305    <t>
1306      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1307      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1308    </t>
1309    <t>
1310      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1311      "auth-param syntax"
1312    </t>
1313    <t>
1314      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1315      "Header Classification"
1316    </t>
1317    <t>
1318      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1319      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1320    </t>
1321  </list>
1322</t>
1323<t>
1324  Partly resolved issues:
1325  <list style="symbols"> 
1326    <t>
1327      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1328      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1329    </t>
1330  </list>
1331</t>
1332</section>
1333
1334<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1335<t>
1336  None.
1337</t>
1338</section>
1339
1340<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1341<t>
1342  Closed issues:
1343  <list style="symbols">
1344    <t>
1345      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1346      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1347    </t>
1348  </list>
1349</t>
1350</section>
1351
1352<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1353<t>
1354  None.
1355</t>
1356</section>
1357
1358<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1359<t>
1360  Closed issues:
1361  <list style="symbols">
1362    <t>
1363      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1364      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1365    </t>
1366    <t>
1367      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1368      "Realm required on challenges"
1369    </t>
1370    <t>
1371      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1372      "auth-param syntax"
1373    </t>
1374    <t>
1375      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1376      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1377    </t>
1378    <t>
1379      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1380      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1381    </t>
1382    <t>
1383      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1384      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1385    </t>
1386  </list>
1387</t>
1388</section>
1389
1390</section>
1391
1392</back>
1393</rfc>
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