source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1394

Last change on this file since 1394 was 1394, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

fix ABNF to be compatible with Basic by introducing 'b64token', but recommend against it for new schemes due to poor extensibility story (#see 195)

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
File size: 54.2 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "August">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2011">
17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
18  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY acks                       "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message-orientation-and-buffering' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26]>
27<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
28<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
29<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
30<?rfc compact="yes"?>
31<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
32<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
33<?rfc editing="no" ?>
34<?rfc comments="yes"?>
35<?rfc inline="yes"?>
36<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
37<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
38<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
39<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
40     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
41     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
42<front>
43
44  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
45
46  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
47    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
48    <address>
49      <postal>
50        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
51        <city>San Jose</city>
52        <region>CA</region>
53        <code>95110</code>
54        <country>USA</country>
55      </postal>
56      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
57      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
58    </address>
59  </author>
60
61  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
62    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
63    <address>
64      <postal>
65        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
66        <city>Carlisle</city>
67        <region>MA</region>
68        <code>01741</code>
69        <country>USA</country>
70      </postal>
71      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
72      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
73    </address>
74  </author>
75 
76  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
77    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
78    <address>
79      <postal>
80        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
81        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
82        <city>Palo Alto</city>
83        <region>CA</region>
84        <code>94304</code>
85        <country>USA</country>
86      </postal>
87      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
88    </address>
89  </author>
90
91  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
92    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
93    <address>
94      <postal>
95        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
96        <city>Redmond</city>
97        <region>WA</region>
98        <code>98052</code>
99        <country>USA</country>
100      </postal>
101      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
102    </address>
103  </author>
104
105  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
106    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
107    <address>
108      <postal>
109        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
110        <city>San Jose</city>
111        <region>CA</region>
112        <code>95110</code>
113        <country>USA</country>
114      </postal>
115      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
116      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
117    </address>
118  </author>
119 
120  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
121    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
122    <address>
123      <postal>
124        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
125        <city>Redmond</city>
126        <region>WA</region>
127        <code>98052</code>
128      </postal>
129      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
130    </address>
131  </author>
132   
133  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
134    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
135    <address>
136      <postal>
137        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
138        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
139        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
140        <city>Cambridge</city>
141        <region>MA</region>
142        <code>02139</code>
143        <country>USA</country>
144      </postal>
145      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
146      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
147    </address>
148  </author>
149
150  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
151    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
152    <address>
153      <postal>
154        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
155        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
156        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
157        <region>AM</region>
158        <code>06902</code>
159        <country>France</country>
160      </postal>
161      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
162      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
163    </address>
164  </author>
165
166  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
167    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
168    <address>
169      <postal>
170        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
171        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
172        <country>Germany</country>
173      </postal>
174      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
175      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
176      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
177      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
178    </address>
179  </author>
180
181  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
182  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
183
184<abstract>
185<t>
186   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
187   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
188   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
189   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
190   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
191</t>
192<t>
193   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
194</t>
195</abstract>
196
197<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
198  <t>
199    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
200    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
201    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
202  </t>
203  <t>
204    The current issues list is at
205    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
206    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
207    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
208  </t>
209  <t>
210    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.15"/>.
211  </t>
212</note>
213</front>
214<middle>
215<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
216<t>
217   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
218   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
219   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
220   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
221   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
222</t>
223<t>
224   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
225   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
226   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
227   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
228   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
229</t>
230
231<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
232<t>
233   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
234   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
235   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
236</t>
237<t>
238   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
239   of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
240   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED"
241   level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said
242   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST"
243   level requirements but not all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its
244   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant".
245</t>
246</section>
247
248<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
249  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
250  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
251  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
252  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
253  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
254  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
255  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
256  <x:anchor-alias value="WSP"/>
257<t>
258  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
259  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
260  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
261  rule expanded.
262</t>
263<t>
264  The following core rules are included by
265  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
266  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
267  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
268  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
269  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space),
270  VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
271  and WSP (whitespace).
272</t>
273
274<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
275   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
276   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
277   <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
278   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
279<t>
280   The core rules below are defined in &basic-rules;:
281</t>
282<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
283  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
284  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
285  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
286  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
287</artwork></figure>
288</section>
289</section>
290</section>
291
292<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
293
294<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
295  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
296  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
297  <x:anchor-alias value="b64token"/>
298  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
299  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
300<t>
301   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
302   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
303   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
304   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
305   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
306   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of attribute-value
307   pairs or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
308   information.
309</t>
310<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/>
311  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
312 
313  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
314
315  b64token       = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
316                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
317</artwork></figure>
318<t>
319   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
320   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
321   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
322   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
323</t>
324<t>
325   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
326   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
327   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
328   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
329</t>
330<t>   
331   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
332   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
333   header field containing at least one challenge
334   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
335</t>
336<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
337  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
338</artwork></figure>
339<x:note>
340  <t>
341     <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
342     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
343     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
344     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
345     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
346  </t>
347</x:note>
348<x:note>
349  <t>
350     <x:h>Note:</x:h> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
351     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
352     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
353  </t>
354</x:note>
355<t>
356   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
357   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
358   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field with the
359   request.
360</t>
361<t>   
362   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
363   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
364   &mdash; &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
365   request.
366</t>
367<t>   
368   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
369   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
370   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
371   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
372   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
373</t>
374<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
375  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>b64token</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
376</artwork></figure>
377<t>
378   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
379   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
380   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
381   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
382   resource.
383</t>
384<t>
385   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
386   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
387   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
388   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
389   resource.
390</t>
391<t>
392   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
393   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
394   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
395   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
396   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
397   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
398</t>
399<t>
400   Proxies &MUST; forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
401   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
402</t>
403</section>
404
405<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
406  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
407  <iref item="Realm"/>
408<t>
409   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
410   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection:
411</t>
412<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="realm"/>
413  realm       = "realm" "=" realm-value
414  realm-value = quoted-string
415</artwork></figure>
416<t>
417   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
418   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
419   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
420   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
421   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
422   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
423   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
424   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
425   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
426   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
427   different realms.
428</t>
429<t>
430   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
431   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
432   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
433   protection space for a period of time determined by the
434   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
435   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
436   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
437</t>
438</section>
439
440<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
441<t>
442  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
443  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
444</t>
445<t>
446  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
447  <list style="symbols">
448    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
449    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
450    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
451  </list>
452</t>
453<t>
454  Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
455  (<xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
456</t>
457<t>
458  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
459</t>
460
461<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
462<t>
463  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
464  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
465</t>
466<t>
467  <list style="symbols">
468    <x:lt>
469    <t>
470      Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent
471      constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep their
472      semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme
473      can not bind information to the TCP session over which the message
474      was received (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
475    </t>
476    </x:lt>
477    <x:lt>
478    <t>
479      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
480      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
481      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
482    </t>
483    </x:lt>
484    <x:lt>
485    <t>
486      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
487      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
488      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
489      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
490    </t>
491    </x:lt>
492    <x:lt>
493    <t>
494      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
495      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
496      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
497    </t>
498    </x:lt>
499    <x:lt>
500    <t>
501      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
502      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
503      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
504      request they appear in.
505    </t>
506    <t>
507      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
508      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
509      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
510      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
511      directives (e.g., "private").
512    </t>
513    </x:lt>
514  </list>
515</t>
516</section>
517
518</section>
519
520</section>
521
522<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
523<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
524  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
525  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
526<t>
527   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
528   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
529   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
530   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
531   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
532   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
533   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
534   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
535   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
536   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
537   include relevant diagnostic information.
538</t>
539</section>
540<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
541  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
542  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
543<t>
544   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
545   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
546   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
547   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
548   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
549   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
550</t>
551</section>
552</section>
553
554<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
555<t>
556   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
557   related to authentication.
558</t>
559
560<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
561  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
562  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
563  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
564<t>
565   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
566   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
567   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
568   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
569   requested.
570</t>
571<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
572  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
573</artwork></figure>
574<t>
575   If a request is
576   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
577   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
578   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
579   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
580   synchronized clocks).
581</t>
582<t>
583      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
584      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
585      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
586      of the following specific exceptions holds:
587</t>
588<t>
589  <list style="numbers">
590      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
591         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
592         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
593         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
594         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
595         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
596         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
597         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
598         it.</t>
599
600      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
601         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
602         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
603         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
604         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
605         to authenticate the new request.</t>
606
607      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
608         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
609  </list>
610</t>
611</section>
612
613<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
614  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
615  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
616  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
617<t>
618   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
619   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
620   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
621   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
622</t>
623<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
624  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
625</artwork></figure>
626<t>
627   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
628   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
629   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
630   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
631   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
632   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
633</t>
634</section>
635
636<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
637  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
638  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
639  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
640<t>
641   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
642   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
643   authentication. Its value consists of
644   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
645   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
646</t>
647<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
648  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
649</artwork></figure>
650<t>
651   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
652   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
653   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
654   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
655   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
656   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
657   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
658   request.
659</t>
660</section>
661
662<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
663  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
664  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
665  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
666<t>
667   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
668   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
669   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
670</t>
671<t>   
672   It &MUST; be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and &MAY; be
673   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
674   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
675</t>
676<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
677  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
678</artwork></figure>
679<t>
680   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
681   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
682   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
683   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
684   authentication parameters.
685</t>
686</section>
687
688</section>
689
690<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
691
692<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
693<t>
694  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
695  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
696</t>
697<t>
698   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
699</t>
700</section>
701
702<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
703<t>
704   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
705   shall be updated with the registrations below:
706</t>
707<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
708<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
709<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
710   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
711   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
712   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
713   <c>401</c>
714   <c>Unauthorized</c>
715   <c>
716      <xref target="status.401"/>
717   </c>
718   <c>407</c>
719   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
720   <c>
721      <xref target="status.407"/>
722   </c>
723</texttable>
724<!--(END)-->
725<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
726</section>
727
728<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
729<t>
730   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
731   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
732</t>
733<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
734<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
735<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
736   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
737   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
738   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
739   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
740
741   <c>Authorization</c>
742   <c>http</c>
743   <c>standard</c>
744   <c>
745      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
746   </c>
747   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
748   <c>http</c>
749   <c>standard</c>
750   <c>
751      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
752   </c>
753   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
754   <c>http</c>
755   <c>standard</c>
756   <c>
757      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
758   </c>
759   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
760   <c>http</c>
761   <c>standard</c>
762   <c>
763      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
764   </c>
765</texttable>
766<!--(END)-->
767<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
768<t>
769   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
770</t>
771</section>
772</section>
773
774<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
775<t>
776   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
777   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
778   described by this document. The discussion does not include
779   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
780   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
781</t>
782
783<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
784<t>
785   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
786   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
787   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
788   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
789   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
790   application's security model include but are not limited to:
791  <list style="symbols">
792     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
793        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
794        user for credentials.</t>
795
796     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
797        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
798        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
799        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
800  </list>
801</t>
802<t>
803   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
804   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
805   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
806   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
807   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
808   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
809   cached credentials under user control.
810</t>
811</section>
812</section>
813
814<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
815<t>
816  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
817  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
818  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
819  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
820  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
821  for further acknowledgements. 
822</t>
823<t>
824  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
825</t>
826</section>
827</middle>
828
829<back>
830
831<references title="Normative References">
832
833<reference anchor="Part1">
834  <front>
835    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
836    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
837      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
838      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
839    </author>
840    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
841      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
842      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
843    </author>
844    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
845      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
846      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
847    </author>
848    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
849      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
850      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
851    </author>
852    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
853      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
854      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
855    </author>
856    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
857      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
858      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
859    </author>
860    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
861      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
862      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
863    </author>
864    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
865      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
866      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
867    </author>
868    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
869      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
870      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
871    </author>
872    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
873  </front>
874  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
875  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
876</reference>
877
878<reference anchor="Part6">
879  <front>
880    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
881    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
882      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
883      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
884    </author>
885    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
886      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
887      <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
888    </author>
889    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
890      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
891      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
892    </author>
893    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
894      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
895      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
896    </author>
897    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
898      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
899      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
900    </author>
901    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
902      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
903      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
904    </author>
905    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
906      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
907      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
908    </author>
909    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
910      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
911      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
912    </author>
913    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
914      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
915    </author>
916    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
917      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
918      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
919    </author>
920    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
921  </front>
922  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
923  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
924</reference>
925
926<reference anchor="RFC2119">
927  <front>
928    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
929    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
930      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
931      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
932    </author>
933    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
934  </front>
935  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
936  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
937</reference>
938
939<reference anchor="RFC5234">
940  <front>
941    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
942    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
943      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
944      <address>
945        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
946      </address> 
947    </author>
948    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
949      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
950      <address>
951        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
952      </address>
953    </author>
954    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
955  </front>
956  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
957  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
958</reference>
959
960</references>
961
962<references title="Informative References">
963
964<reference anchor="RFC2616">
965  <front>
966    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
967    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
968      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
969      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
970    </author>
971    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
972      <organization>W3C</organization>
973      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
974    </author>
975    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
976      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
977      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
978    </author>
979    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
980      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
981      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
982    </author>
983    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
984      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
985      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
986    </author>
987    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
988      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
989      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
990    </author>
991    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
992      <organization>W3C</organization>
993      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
994    </author>
995    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
996  </front>
997  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
998</reference>
999
1000<reference anchor="RFC2617">
1001  <front>
1002    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
1003    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
1004      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
1005      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
1006    </author>
1007    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
1008      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
1009      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
1010    </author>
1011    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
1012      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
1013      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
1014    </author>
1015    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
1016      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
1017      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
1018    </author>
1019    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1020      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1021      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1022    </author>
1023    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
1024      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
1025    </author>
1026    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
1027      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
1028      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
1029    </author>
1030    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1031  </front>
1032  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
1033</reference>
1034
1035<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1036  <front>
1037    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1038    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1039      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1040      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1041    </author>
1042    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1043      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1044      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1045    </author>
1046    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1047      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1048      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1049    </author>
1050    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1051  </front>
1052  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1053  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1054</reference>
1055
1056<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1057 <front>
1058  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1059  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1060    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1061    <address>
1062       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
1063       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
1064    </address>
1065  </author>
1066  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1067    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1068    <address>
1069      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
1070      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
1071    </address>
1072  </author>
1073  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1074    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1075    <address>
1076      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
1077      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
1078    </address>
1079  </author>
1080  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1081 </front>
1082 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1083 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1084</reference>
1085
1086<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1087  <front>
1088    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1089    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1090    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1091  </front>
1092  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
1093</reference>
1094
1095<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1096  <front>
1097    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1098    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1099      <organization>IBM</organization>
1100      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1101    </author>
1102    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1103      <organization>Google</organization>
1104      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1105    </author>
1106    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1107  </front>
1108  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1109  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1110</reference>
1111
1112</references>
1113
1114<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1115<t>
1116  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1117  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1118  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1119</t>
1120<t>
1121  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1122  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1123  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1124</t>
1125<t>
1126  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1127  (<xref target="header.fields"/>)
1128</t>
1129</section>
1130 
1131<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1132<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1133<figure>
1134<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
1135<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1136
1137<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1138
1139<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1140
1141<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1142 challenge ] )
1143<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
1144
1145<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1146 ] )
1147
1148<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1149<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
1150
1151<x:ref>b64token</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1152 *"="
1153
1154<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1155 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1156<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1157 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1158
1159<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1160
1161realm = "realm=" realm-value
1162realm-value = quoted-string
1163
1164<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1165</artwork>
1166</figure>
1167<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1168; Authorization defined but not used
1169; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1170; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1171; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1172; realm defined but not used
1173</artwork></figure></section>
1174<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
1175
1176<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
1177
1178<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1179<t>
1180  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1181</t>
1182</section>
1183
1184<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1185<t>
1186  Closed issues:
1187  <list style="symbols"> 
1188    <t>
1189      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1190      "Normative and Informative references"
1191    </t>
1192  </list>
1193</t>
1194</section>
1195
1196<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1197<t>
1198  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1199  <list style="symbols"> 
1200    <t>
1201      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1202    </t>
1203    <t>
1204      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1205    </t>
1206  </list>
1207</t>
1208</section>
1209
1210<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1211<t>
1212  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1213  <list style="symbols"> 
1214    <t>
1215      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1216      in this document.
1217    </t>
1218  </list>
1219</t>
1220</section>
1221
1222<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1223<t>
1224  None.
1225</t>
1226</section>
1227
1228<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1229<t>
1230  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1231  <list style="symbols"> 
1232    <t>
1233      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1234    </t>
1235    <t>
1236      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1237      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1238    </t>
1239    <t>
1240      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1241      header field value format definitions.
1242    </t>
1243  </list>
1244</t>
1245</section>
1246
1247<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1248<t>
1249  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1250  <list style="symbols"> 
1251    <t>
1252      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1253    </t>
1254  </list>
1255</t>
1256</section>
1257
1258<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1259<t>
1260  None.
1261</t>
1262</section>
1263
1264<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1265<t>
1266  Closed issues:
1267  <list style="symbols"> 
1268    <t>
1269      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1270      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1271    </t>
1272  </list>
1273</t>
1274</section>
1275
1276<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1277<t>
1278  No significant changes.
1279</t>
1280</section>
1281
1282<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1283<t>
1284  Partly resolved issues:
1285  <list style="symbols"> 
1286    <t>
1287      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1288      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1289    </t>
1290  </list>
1291</t>
1292</section>
1293
1294<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1295<t>
1296  None.
1297</t>
1298</section>
1299
1300<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1301<t>
1302  Closed issues:
1303  <list style="symbols"> 
1304    <t>
1305      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1306      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1307    </t>
1308    <t>
1309      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1310      "auth-param syntax"
1311    </t>
1312    <t>
1313      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1314      "Header Classification"
1315    </t>
1316    <t>
1317      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1318      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1319    </t>
1320  </list>
1321</t>
1322<t>
1323  Partly resolved issues:
1324  <list style="symbols"> 
1325    <t>
1326      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1327      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1328    </t>
1329  </list>
1330</t>
1331</section>
1332
1333<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1334<t>
1335  None.
1336</t>
1337</section>
1338
1339<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1340<t>
1341  Closed issues:
1342  <list style="symbols">
1343    <t>
1344      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1345      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1346    </t>
1347  </list>
1348</t>
1349</section>
1350
1351<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1352<t>
1353  None.
1354</t>
1355</section>
1356
1357<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1358<t>
1359  Closed issues:
1360  <list style="symbols">
1361    <t>
1362      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1363      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1364    </t>
1365    <t>
1366      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1367      "Realm required on challenges"
1368    </t>
1369    <t>
1370      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1371      "auth-param syntax"
1372    </t>
1373    <t>
1374      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1375      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1376    </t>
1377    <t>
1378      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1379      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1380    </t>
1381    <t>
1382      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1383      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1384    </t>
1385  </list>
1386</t>
1387</section>
1388
1389</section>
1390
1391</back>
1392</rfc>
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