source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2688

Last change on this file since 2688 was 2667, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 6 years ago

shorten "defined in" to "see" to avoid overlong lines in artwork (#553)

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 50.4 KB
[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[29]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
[2628]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "May">
[2527]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2014">
[1101]17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
[1692]18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x=''>Note:</x:h>">
[2629]19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='RFC7230' xmlns:x=''/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='RFC7231' xmlns:x=''/>">
21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x=''/>">
22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x=''/>">
23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x=''/>">
24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x=''/>">
25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x=''/>">
26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x=''/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x=''/>">
28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x=''/>">
29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x=''/>">
30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x=''/>">
31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='RFC7231' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x=''/>">
32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='RFC7234' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x=''/>">
33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='RFC7234' x:rel='' xmlns:x=''/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='RFC7234' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x=''/>">
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[205]43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[799]45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
[8]46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[1477]48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
[446]49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
[153]50     xmlns:x=''>
[1472]51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
[1522]52<x:feedback template="{docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
[1864]55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
[29]57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[8]59    <address>
60      <postal>
[1106]61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]63        <region>CA</region>
[1106]64        <code>95110</code>
[29]65        <country>USA</country>
[8]66      </postal>
[29]67      <email></email>
68      <uri></uri>
[8]69    </address>
70  </author>
[95]72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
[609]80      <email></email>
81      <uri></uri>
[95]82    </address>
83  </author>
[31]85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
[2610]87  <area>Applications</area>
88  <workgroup>HTTPbis</workgroup>
[2662]90  <keyword>Hypertext Transfer Protocol</keyword>
91  <keyword>HTTP</keyword>
92  <keyword>HTTP authentication</keyword>
[2576]96   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level
97   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.
98   This document defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
102<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
103  <t>
[1764]104    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
[1268]105    mailing list (, which is archived at
106    <eref target=""/>.
107  </t>
108  <t>
109    The current issues list is at
110    <eref target=""/> and related
111    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]112    <eref target=""/>.
[36]113  </t>
[153]114  <t>
[2632]115    <spanx>This is a temporary document for the purpose of tracking the editorial changes made during the AUTH48 (RFC publication) phase.</spanx>
[153]116  </t>
120<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[2576]122   HTTP provides a general framework for access control and authentication,
123   via an extensible set of challenge-response authentication schemes, which
124   can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to
125   provide authentication information. This document defines HTTP/1.1
126   authentication in terms of the architecture defined in
[2629]127   <xref target="RFC7230"/>, including the general framework previously
[2576]128   described in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref> and
129   the related fields and status codes previously defined in
130   <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>.
[2576]133   The IANA Authentication Scheme Registry
134   (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>) lists registered
135   authentication schemes and their corresponding specifications, including
136   the "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes previously defined by
137   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
[1875]140<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
142   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
143   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
144   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
[1875]147   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
148   are defined in &conformance;.
[424]152<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
[2525]154   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
[2531]155   <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list extension, defined in
156   &abnf-extension;, that allows for compact definition of
157   comma-separated lists using a '#' operator (similar to how the '*' operator
158   indicates repetition).
[2525]159   <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
160   other documents.
[2531]161   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected grammar with all list
162   operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
[998]167<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
169<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
[998]170  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
171  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
[1815]172  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
[229]173  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
174  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
[2211]176   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
[998]177   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
[2229]178   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
179   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
[1394]180   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
[1473]181   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
182   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
[1394]183   information.
[2519]186   Authentication parameters are name=value pairs, where the name token is
187   matched case-insensitively,
[1473]188   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
[1902]190<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
[1386]191  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[1386]193  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
[1815]195  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
[1394]196                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
[2575]199   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters
200   (<xref target="RFC3986"/>), plus a few others, so that it can hold a
201   base64, base64url (URL and filename safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex)
202   encoding, with or without padding, but excluding whitespace
203   (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
[2575]206   A <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin
207   server to challenge the authorization of a user agent, including a
208   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
[1344]209   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[2575]212   A <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
213   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client, including a
214   <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
215   challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
[1902]217<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
[1815]218  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
221  <t>
[2573]222     &Note; Many clients fail to parse a challenge that contains an unknown
223     scheme. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
[1344]224     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see -->
[1018]225  </t>
[1344]228   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
[2575]229   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a
230   <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> &mdash; can do so by including an
231   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the request.
234   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
[2575]235   but not necessarily, after receiving a
236   <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> &mdash; can do so by
237   including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
[1344]238   request.
[2573]241   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the
242   <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value contain the client's
243   credentials for the realm of the resource being requested, based upon a
244   challenge received in a response (possibly at some point in the past).
245   When creating their values, the user agent ought to do so by selecting the
246   challenge with what it considers to be the most secure auth-scheme that it
247   understands, obtaining credentials from the user as appropriate.
248   Transmission of credentials within header field values implies significant
249   security considerations regarding the confidentiality of the underlying
250   connection, as described in
251   <xref target="confidentiality.of.credentials"/>.
[1902]253<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
[1815]254  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
[2449]257   Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials,
258   contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials
[2575]259   (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip),
260   an origin server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response
261   that contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least
262   one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[2575]265   Likewise, upon receipt of a request that omits proxy credentials or
266   contains invalid or partial proxy credentials, a proxy that requires
267   authentication &SHOULD; generate a
268   <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that contains
269   a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
[2449]270   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
[2575]273   A server that receives valid credentials which are not adequate to gain
274   access ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status
275   code (&status.403;).
[2463]278   HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response
[2573]279   framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms can be used,
280   such as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation,
281   and with additional header fields specifying authentication information.
282   However, such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
[1344]286<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="">
[1354]287  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
288  <iref item="Realm"/>
[1672]289  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
[2575]291   The "<x:dfn>realm</x:dfn>" authentication parameter is reserved for use by
292   authentication schemes that wish to indicate a scope of protection.
[1354]295   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
296   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
[2629]297   <xref target="RFC7230" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
[1354]298   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
[1344]299   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
300   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
301   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
[2393]302   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
[2229]303   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
304   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
[1344]305   different realms.
308   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
309   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
[2402]310   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
[2457]311   that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
312   scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable
313   inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the authentication
314   scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its
315   server.
[2402]318   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
[1478]319   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
320   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
321   notations for a long time.
[838]327<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
[39]328<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
329  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]330  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
[2066]332   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
333   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
[2575]334   credentials for the target resource.
335   The server generating a 401 response &MUST; send a
336   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
337   (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
[2066]338   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
[2066]341   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
342   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
[2229]343   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
[2066]344   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
345   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
346   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
347   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
348   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
[39]352<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
353  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]354  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
[2066]356   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
357   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
358   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
359   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
360   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
361   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
362   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
[998]363   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
[1415]368<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
[2574]370   This section defines the syntax and semantics of header fields related to
371   the HTTP authentication framework.
[2574]374<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
375  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
376  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
[2575]378   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field indicates the authentication scheme(s)
379   and parameters applicable to the target resource.
381<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
382  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[2575]385   A server generating a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response
386   &MUST; send a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
387   challenge.  A server &MAY; generate a WWW-Authenticate header field
388   in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
389   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
392   A proxy forwarding a response &MUST-NOT; modify any
393   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> fields in that response.
[2574]396   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as
397   it might contain more than one challenge, and each challenge can contain a
398   comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header
399   field itself can occur multiple times.
402  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
403  <artwork type="example">
404  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
405                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
407  <postamble>
408  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
409  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
410  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
411  "simple".
414  <t>
415    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
416    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
417    considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
418    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
419    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
420    harmless.
421  </t>
[8]425<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
[1120]426  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]427  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
[2398]429   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
430   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
431   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
432   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
433   the realm of the resource being requested.
[1230]435<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
436  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[2398]439   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
440   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
441   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
442   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
443   clocks).
[2575]446   A proxy forwarding a request &MUST-NOT; modify any
447   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> fields in that request.
[1999]448   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
449   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
453<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
[1120]454  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]455  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
[1601]457   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
458   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
[2558]459   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI
460   (&effective-request-uri;).
461   A proxy &MUST; send at least one Proxy-Authenticate header field in
462   each <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that it
463   generates.
[1230]465<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
466  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[1736]469   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
[2558]470   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain.
471   This is because only the client that chose a given proxy is likely to have
472   the credentials necessary for authentication.  However, when multiple
473   proxies are used within the same administrative domain, such as office and
474   regional caching proxies within a large corporate network, it is common
475   for credentials to be generated by the user agent and passed through the
476   hierarchy until consumed.  Hence, in such a configuration, it will appear
477   as if Proxy-Authenticate is being forwarded because each proxy will send
478   the same challenge set.
[1736]481   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
482   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
483   for details.
487<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
[1120]488  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]489  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
[1163]491   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
[2074]492   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
[2229]493   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
494   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
495   resource being requested.
[1230]497<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
498  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[2326]501   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
502   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
503   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
504   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
505   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
506   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
[8]507   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
508   request.
514<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
[2242]516<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
[2651]518   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the namespace for the
[2245]519   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
[2424]520   maintained at (the suggested URI) <eref target=""/>.
523<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
[2242]525  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
526  <list style="symbols">
527    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
528    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
529    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
530  </list>
[2651]533  Values to be added to this namespace require IETF Review
[2242]534  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
[2242]538<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="">
540  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
541  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
544  <list style="symbols">
545    <x:lt>
546    <t>
547      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
548      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
549      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
550      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
551      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
552      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
553      party other than the authenticated user
554      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
555    </t>
556    </x:lt>
557    <x:lt>
558    <t>
559      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
560      Spaces as defined in <xref target=""/>. New schemes
561      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
562    </t>
563    </x:lt>
564    <x:lt>
565    <t>
566      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
567      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
568      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
569      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
570    </t>
571    </x:lt>
572    <x:lt>
573    <t>
574      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
575      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
576      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
577      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
578      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
579      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
580      all authentication schemes.
581    </t>
582    <t>
583      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
584      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
585      for new parameters.
586    </t>
587    </x:lt>
588    <x:lt>
589    <t>
590      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
591      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
592      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
593      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
594      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
595      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
596    </t>
597    </x:lt>
598    <x:lt>
599    <t>
600      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
601      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
602      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
603    </t>
604    </x:lt>
605    <x:lt>
606    <t>
607      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
608      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
609      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
610      within the scope of the request they appear in.
611    </t>
612    <t>
613      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
614      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
615      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
616      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
617      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
618    </t>
619    </x:lt>
620  </list>
[700]625<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
[2659]627   The "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry" located at <eref target=""/>
628   has been updated with the registrations below:
630<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
631<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
632<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
633   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
634   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
635   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
636   <c>401</c>
637   <c>Unauthorized</c>
638   <c>
639      <xref target="status.401"/>
640   </c>
641   <c>407</c>
642   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
643   <c>
644      <xref target="status.407"/>
645   </c>
648<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
[921]651<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
[2659]653   HTTP header fields are registered within the "Message Headers" registry
[2246]654   maintained at
[2659]655   <eref target=""/>.
[2659]658   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so the
659   "Permanent Message Header Field Names" registry has been updated
660   accordingly (see <xref target="BCP90"/>).
[680]662<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[253]663<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]664<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]665   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
666   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
667   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
668   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
670   <c>Authorization</c>
671   <c>http</c>
672   <c>standard</c>
673   <c>
674      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
675   </c>
676   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
677   <c>http</c>
678   <c>standard</c>
679   <c>
680      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
681   </c>
682   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
683   <c>http</c>
684   <c>standard</c>
685   <c>
686      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
687   </c>
688   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
689   <c>http</c>
690   <c>standard</c>
691   <c>
692      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
693   </c>
[680]696<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[290]698   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
703<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
[2069]705   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
[2568]706   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP authentication.
[2069]707   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
708   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
[2568]711   Everything about the topic of HTTP authentication is a security
712   consideration, so the list of considerations below is not exhaustive.
713   Furthermore, it is limited to security considerations regarding the
714   authentication framework, in general, rather than discussing all of the
715   potential considerations for specific authentication schemes (which ought
716   to be documented in the specifications that define those schemes).
717   Various organizations maintain topical information and links to current
718   research on Web application security (e.g., <xref target="OWASP"/>),
719   including common pitfalls for implementing and using the authentication
720   schemes found in practice.
[2573]723<section title="Confidentiality of Credentials" anchor="confidentiality.of.credentials">
725   The HTTP authentication framework does not define a single mechanism for
726   maintaining the confidentiality of credentials; instead, each
727   authentication scheme defines how the credentials are encoded prior to
728   transmission. While this provides flexibility for the development of future
729   authentication schemes, it is inadequate for the protection of existing
730   schemes that provide no confidentiality on their own, or that do not
731   sufficiently protect against replay attacks. Furthermore, if the server
732   expects credentials that are specific to each individual user, the exchange
733   of those credentials will have the effect of identifying that user even if
734   the content within credentials remains confidential.
[2658]737   HTTP depends on the security properties of the underlying transport- or
[2573]738   session-level connection to provide confidential transmission of header
739   fields. In other words, if a server limits access to authenticated users
740   using this framework, the server needs to ensure that the connection is
741   properly secured in accordance with the nature of the authentication
742   scheme used. For example, services that depend on individual user
743   authentication often require a connection to be secured with TLS
744   ("Transport Layer Security", <xref target="RFC5246"/>) prior to exchanging
745   any credentials.
[8]749<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
751   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
[2399]752   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
753   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
754   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
755   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
756   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
[8]759   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
760   application's security model include but are not limited to:
761  <list style="symbols">
[2074]762     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
763        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
[8]764        user for credentials.</t>
[2074]766     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
[746]767        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
768        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
[8]769        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
770  </list>
[2399]773   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
774   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
778<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
780  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
[2229]781  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
782  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
783  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
784  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
785  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
[2229]788  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
[1791]789  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target=""/>).
[1672]790  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
791  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
[1736]792  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
[2229]793  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
[1364]798<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
[998]800  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
[1363]801  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
802  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
[998]803  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
[1389]804  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
[1363]805  for further acknowledgements. 
808  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
[119]815<references title="Normative References">
[2629]817<reference anchor="RFC7230">
[205]818  <front>
[1864]819    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
[205]820    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]821      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[205]822      <address><email></email></address>
823    </author>
824    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
825      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
826      <address><email></email></address>
827    </author>
828    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
829  </front>
830  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
831  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
[2629]834<reference anchor="RFC7231">
[1693]835  <front>
[1864]836    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
[1693]837    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
838      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
839      <address><email></email></address>
840    </author>
841    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
842      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
843      <address><email></email></address>
844    </author>
845    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
846  </front>
847  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
[1713]848  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
849    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
[1740]850    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
[1713]851  </x:source>
[2629]854<reference anchor="RFC7234">
[119]855  <front>
[1864]856    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
[119]857    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]858      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[119]859      <address><email></email></address>
860    </author>
[601]861    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
[1915]862      <organization>Akamai</organization>
[601]863      <address><email></email></address>
864    </author>
[119]865    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
866      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
867      <address><email></email></address>
868    </author>
869    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
870  </front>
871  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
872  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
[96]875<reference anchor="RFC2119">
876  <front>
877    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
878    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
879      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
880      <address><email></email></address>
881    </author>
882    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
883  </front>
884  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
885  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[425]888<reference anchor="RFC5234">
889  <front>
890    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
891    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
892      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
893      <address>
[728]894        <email></email>
895      </address> 
[425]896    </author>
897    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
898      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
899      <address>
[728]900        <email></email>
901      </address>
[425]902    </author>
903    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
904  </front>
905  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
906  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
911<references title="Informative References">
913<reference anchor="RFC2616">
914  <front>
915    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
916    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
917      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
918      <address><email></email></address>
919    </author>
920    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
921      <organization>W3C</organization>
922      <address><email></email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
925      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
926      <address><email></email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
929      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
930      <address><email></email></address>
931    </author>
932    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
933      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
934      <address><email></email></address>
935    </author>
936    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
937      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
938      <address><email></email></address>
939    </author>
940    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
941      <organization>W3C</organization>
942      <address><email></email></address>
943    </author>
944    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
945  </front>
946  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[998]949<reference anchor="RFC2617">
950  <front>
951    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
952    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
953      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
954      <address><email></email></address>
955    </author>
956    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
957      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
958      <address><email></email></address>
959    </author>
960    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
961      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
962      <address><email></email></address>
963    </author>
964    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
965      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
966      <address><email></email></address>
967    </author>
968    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
969      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
970      <address><email></email></address>
971    </author>
972    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
973      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
974    </author>
975    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
976      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
977      <address><email></email></address>
978    </author>
979    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
980  </front>
981  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
[2046]984<reference anchor='BCP90'>
[253]985  <front>
986    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
987    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
988      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
989      <address><email></email></address>
990    </author>
991    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
992      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
993      <address><email></email></address>
994    </author>
995    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
996      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
997      <address><email></email></address>
998    </author>
999    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1000  </front>
1001  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1002  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[1394]1005<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1006 <front>
1007  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1008  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1009    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1010    <address>
1011       <email></email>
1012       <uri></uri>
1013    </address>
1014  </author>
1015  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1016    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1017    <address>
1018      <email></email>
1019      <uri></uri>
1020    </address>
1021  </author>
1022  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1023    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1024    <address>
1025      <email></email>
1026      <uri></uri>
1027    </address>
1028  </author>
1029  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1030 </front>
1031 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1032 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1035<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1036  <front>
1037    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1038    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1039    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1040  </front>
1041  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
[1026]1044<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1045  <front>
1046    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1047    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1048      <organization>IBM</organization>
1049      <address><email></email></address>
1050    </author>
1051    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1052      <organization>Google</organization>
1053      <address><email></email></address>
1054    </author>
1055    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1056  </front>
1057  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1058  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
[2568]1061<reference anchor="OWASP" target="">
1062        <front>
1063    <title abbrev="OWASP">A Guide to Building Secure Web Applications and Web Services</title>
1064    <author role="editor" initials="A." surname="van der Stock"
1065            fullname="Andrew van der Stock"/>
1066    <date month="July" day="27" year="2005"/>
1067  </front>
1068  <seriesInfo name="The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP)" value="2.0.1"/>
[2571]1071<reference anchor='RFC5246'>
1072   <front>
1073      <title>The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2</title>
1074      <author initials='T.' surname='Dierks' fullname='T. Dierks'/>
1075      <author initials='E.' surname='Rescorla' fullname='E. Rescorla'>
1076         <organization>RTFM, Inc.</organization>
1077      </author>
1078      <date year='2008' month='August' />
1079   </front>
1080   <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5246' />
[1385]1085<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
[2019]1087  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1088  rather than RFC 2617.
1091  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1092  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
[1385]1093  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[1815]1096  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
[1394]1097  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1098  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[2019]1101  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1102  considerations for new authentication schemes.
[1760]1103  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
[1805]1107<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1108  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1109  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1110  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1111  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1112  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1113  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1114  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1115  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1116  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1117  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1118  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1120  The following core rules are included by
1121  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1122  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1123  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1124  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1125  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1126  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
[2629]1129   The rules below are defined in <xref target="RFC7230"/>:
1131<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
[2667]1132  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, see &whitespace;&gt;
1133  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, see &whitespace;&gt;
1134  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, see &field-components;&gt;
1135  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, see &field-components;&gt;
[680]1139<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[427]1140<section xmlns:x="" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
[2629]1142  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="RFC7230" x:rel="#notation"/>.
[427]1144<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
[1230]1145<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[2667]1147<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, see [RFC7230], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[2667]1149<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, see [RFC7230], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[1230]1151<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]1152 challenge ] )
[1230]1153<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[1230]1155<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1156 ] )
[1386]1158<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
[998]1159<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
[1815]1161<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
[1394]1162 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[1815]1163<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
[1394]1164 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[2667]1166<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, see [RFC7230], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[2667]1168<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, see [RFC7230], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[1815]1169<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1170 *"="
[680]1174<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
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