source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2653

Last change on this file since 2653 was 2651, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 6 years ago

"namespace" (#553)

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
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[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[29]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
[2628]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "May">
[2527]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2014">
[1101]17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
[1692]18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x=''>Note:</x:h>">
[2629]19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='RFC7230' xmlns:x=''/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='RFC7231' xmlns:x=''/>">
21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x=''/>">
22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x=''/>">
23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x=''/>">
24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x=''/>">
25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x=''/>">
26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x=''/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x=''/>">
28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x=''/>">
29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x=''/>">
30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='RFC7230' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x=''/>">
31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='RFC7231' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x=''/>">
32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='RFC7234' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x=''/>">
33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='RFC7234' x:rel='' xmlns:x=''/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='RFC7234' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x=''/>">
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[205]43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[799]45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
[8]46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[1477]48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
[446]49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
[153]50     xmlns:x=''>
[1472]51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
[1522]52<x:feedback template="{docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
[1864]55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
[29]57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[8]59    <address>
60      <postal>
[1106]61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]63        <region>CA</region>
[1106]64        <code>95110</code>
[29]65        <country>USA</country>
[8]66      </postal>
[29]67      <email></email>
68      <uri></uri>
[8]69    </address>
70  </author>
[95]72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
[609]80      <email></email>
81      <uri></uri>
[95]82    </address>
83  </author>
[31]85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
[2610]87  <area>Applications</area>
88  <workgroup>HTTPbis</workgroup>
[2576]92   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application-level
93   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.
94   This document defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
98<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
99  <t>
[1764]100    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
[1268]101    mailing list (, which is archived at
102    <eref target=""/>.
103  </t>
104  <t>
105    The current issues list is at
106    <eref target=""/> and related
107    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]108    <eref target=""/>.
[36]109  </t>
[153]110  <t>
[2632]111    <spanx>This is a temporary document for the purpose of tracking the editorial changes made during the AUTH48 (RFC publication) phase.</spanx>
[153]112  </t>
116<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[2576]118   HTTP provides a general framework for access control and authentication,
119   via an extensible set of challenge-response authentication schemes, which
120   can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to
121   provide authentication information. This document defines HTTP/1.1
122   authentication in terms of the architecture defined in
[2629]123   <xref target="RFC7230"/>, including the general framework previously
[2576]124   described in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref> and
125   the related fields and status codes previously defined in
126   <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>.
[2576]129   The IANA Authentication Scheme Registry
130   (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>) lists registered
131   authentication schemes and their corresponding specifications, including
132   the "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes previously defined by
133   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
[1875]136<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
138   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
139   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
140   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
[1875]143   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
144   are defined in &conformance;.
[424]148<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
[2525]150   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
[2531]151   <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list extension, defined in
152   &abnf-extension;, that allows for compact definition of
153   comma-separated lists using a '#' operator (similar to how the '*' operator
154   indicates repetition).
[2525]155   <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
156   other documents.
[2531]157   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected grammar with all list
158   operators expanded to standard ABNF notation.
[998]163<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
165<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
[998]166  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
167  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
[1815]168  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
[229]169  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
170  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
[2211]172   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
[998]173   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
[2229]174   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
175   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
[1394]176   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
[1473]177   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
178   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
[1394]179   information.
[2519]182   Authentication parameters are name=value pairs, where the name token is
183   matched case-insensitively,
[1473]184   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
[1902]186<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
[1386]187  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[1386]189  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
[1815]191  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
[1394]192                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
[2575]195   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters
196   (<xref target="RFC3986"/>), plus a few others, so that it can hold a
197   base64, base64url (URL and filename safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex)
198   encoding, with or without padding, but excluding whitespace
199   (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
[2575]202   A <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin
203   server to challenge the authorization of a user agent, including a
204   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
[1344]205   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[2575]208   A <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
209   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client, including a
210   <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
211   challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
[1902]213<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
[1815]214  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
217  <t>
[2573]218     &Note; Many clients fail to parse a challenge that contains an unknown
219     scheme. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
[1344]220     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see -->
[1018]221  </t>
[1344]224   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
[2575]225   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a
226   <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> &mdash; can do so by including an
227   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the request.
230   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
[2575]231   but not necessarily, after receiving a
232   <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> &mdash; can do so by
233   including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
[1344]234   request.
[2573]237   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the
238   <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value contain the client's
239   credentials for the realm of the resource being requested, based upon a
240   challenge received in a response (possibly at some point in the past).
241   When creating their values, the user agent ought to do so by selecting the
242   challenge with what it considers to be the most secure auth-scheme that it
243   understands, obtaining credentials from the user as appropriate.
244   Transmission of credentials within header field values implies significant
245   security considerations regarding the confidentiality of the underlying
246   connection, as described in
247   <xref target="confidentiality.of.credentials"/>.
[1902]249<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
[1815]250  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
[2449]253   Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials,
254   contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials
[2575]255   (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip),
256   an origin server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response
257   that contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least
258   one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[2575]261   Likewise, upon receipt of a request that omits proxy credentials or
262   contains invalid or partial proxy credentials, a proxy that requires
263   authentication &SHOULD; generate a
264   <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that contains
265   a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
[2449]266   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
[2575]269   A server that receives valid credentials which are not adequate to gain
270   access ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status
271   code (&status.403;).
[2463]274   HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response
[2573]275   framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms can be used,
276   such as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation,
277   and with additional header fields specifying authentication information.
278   However, such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
[1344]282<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="">
[1354]283  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
284  <iref item="Realm"/>
[1672]285  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
[2575]287   The "<x:dfn>realm</x:dfn>" authentication parameter is reserved for use by
288   authentication schemes that wish to indicate a scope of protection.
[1354]291   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
292   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
[2629]293   <xref target="RFC7230" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
[1354]294   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
[1344]295   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
296   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
297   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
[2393]298   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
[2229]299   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
300   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
[1344]301   different realms.
304   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
305   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
[2402]306   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
[2457]307   that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
308   scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable
309   inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the authentication
310   scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its
311   server.
[2402]314   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
[1478]315   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
316   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
317   notations for a long time.
[838]323<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
[39]324<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
325  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]326  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
[2066]328   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
329   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
[2575]330   credentials for the target resource.
331   The server generating a 401 response &MUST; send a
332   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
333   (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
[2066]334   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
[2066]337   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
338   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
[2229]339   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
[2066]340   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
341   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
342   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
343   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
344   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
[39]348<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
349  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]350  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
[2066]352   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
353   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
354   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
355   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
356   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
357   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
358   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
[998]359   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
[1415]364<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
[2574]366   This section defines the syntax and semantics of header fields related to
367   the HTTP authentication framework.
[2574]370<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
371  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
372  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
[2575]374   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field indicates the authentication scheme(s)
375   and parameters applicable to the target resource.
377<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
378  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[2575]381   A server generating a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response
382   &MUST; send a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
383   challenge.  A server &MAY; generate a WWW-Authenticate header field
384   in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
385   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
388   A proxy forwarding a response &MUST-NOT; modify any
389   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> fields in that response.
[2574]392   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as
393   it might contain more than one challenge, and each challenge can contain a
394   comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header
395   field itself can occur multiple times.
398  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
399  <artwork type="example">
400  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
401                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
403  <postamble>
404  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
405  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
406  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
407  "simple".
410  <t>
411    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
412    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
413    considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
414    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
415    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
416    harmless.
417  </t>
[8]421<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
[1120]422  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]423  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
[2398]425   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
426   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
427   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
428   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
429   the realm of the resource being requested.
[1230]431<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
432  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[2398]435   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
436   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
437   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
438   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
439   clocks).
[2575]442   A proxy forwarding a request &MUST-NOT; modify any
443   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> fields in that request.
[1999]444   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
445   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
449<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
[1120]450  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]451  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
[1601]453   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
454   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
[2558]455   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI
456   (&effective-request-uri;).
457   A proxy &MUST; send at least one Proxy-Authenticate header field in
458   each <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that it
459   generates.
[1230]461<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
462  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[1736]465   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
[2558]466   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain.
467   This is because only the client that chose a given proxy is likely to have
468   the credentials necessary for authentication.  However, when multiple
469   proxies are used within the same administrative domain, such as office and
470   regional caching proxies within a large corporate network, it is common
471   for credentials to be generated by the user agent and passed through the
472   hierarchy until consumed.  Hence, in such a configuration, it will appear
473   as if Proxy-Authenticate is being forwarded because each proxy will send
474   the same challenge set.
[1736]477   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
478   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
479   for details.
483<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
[1120]484  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]485  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
[1163]487   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
[2074]488   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
[2229]489   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
490   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
491   resource being requested.
[1230]493<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
494  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[2326]497   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
498   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
499   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
500   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
501   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
502   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
[8]503   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
504   request.
510<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
[2242]512<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
[2651]514   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the namespace for the
[2245]515   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
[2424]516   maintained at (the suggested URI) <eref target=""/>.
519<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
[2242]521  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
522  <list style="symbols">
523    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
524    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
525    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
526  </list>
[2651]529  Values to be added to this namespace require IETF Review
[2242]530  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
[2242]534<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="">
536  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
537  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
540  <list style="symbols">
541    <x:lt>
542    <t>
543      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
544      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
545      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
546      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
547      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
548      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
549      party other than the authenticated user
550      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
551    </t>
552    </x:lt>
553    <x:lt>
554    <t>
555      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
556      Spaces as defined in <xref target=""/>. New schemes
557      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
558    </t>
559    </x:lt>
560    <x:lt>
561    <t>
562      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
563      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
564      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
565      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
566    </t>
567    </x:lt>
568    <x:lt>
569    <t>
570      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
571      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
572      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
573      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
574      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
575      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
576      all authentication schemes.
577    </t>
578    <t>
579      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
580      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
581      for new parameters.
582    </t>
583    </x:lt>
584    <x:lt>
585    <t>
586      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
587      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
588      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
589      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
590      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
591      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
592    </t>
593    </x:lt>
594    <x:lt>
595    <t>
596      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
597      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
598      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
599    </t>
600    </x:lt>
601    <x:lt>
602    <t>
603      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
604      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
605      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
606      within the scope of the request they appear in.
607    </t>
608    <t>
609      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
610      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
611      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
612      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
613      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
614    </t>
615    </x:lt>
616  </list>
[700]621<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
623   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target=""/>
[969]624   shall be updated with the registrations below:
626<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
627<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
628<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
629   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
630   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
631   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
632   <c>401</c>
633   <c>Unauthorized</c>
634   <c>
635      <xref target="status.401"/>
636   </c>
637   <c>407</c>
638   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
639   <c>
640      <xref target="status.407"/>
641   </c>
644<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
[921]647<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
[2246]649   HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry
650   maintained at
651   <eref target=""/>.
654   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
655   associated registry entries shall be updated according to the permanent
656   registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
[680]658<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[253]659<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]660<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]661   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
662   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
663   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
664   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
666   <c>Authorization</c>
667   <c>http</c>
668   <c>standard</c>
669   <c>
670      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
671   </c>
672   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
673   <c>http</c>
674   <c>standard</c>
675   <c>
676      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
677   </c>
678   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
679   <c>http</c>
680   <c>standard</c>
681   <c>
682      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
683   </c>
684   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
685   <c>http</c>
686   <c>standard</c>
687   <c>
688      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
689   </c>
[680]692<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[290]694   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
699<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
[2069]701   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
[2568]702   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP authentication.
[2069]703   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
704   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
[2568]707   Everything about the topic of HTTP authentication is a security
708   consideration, so the list of considerations below is not exhaustive.
709   Furthermore, it is limited to security considerations regarding the
710   authentication framework, in general, rather than discussing all of the
711   potential considerations for specific authentication schemes (which ought
712   to be documented in the specifications that define those schemes).
713   Various organizations maintain topical information and links to current
714   research on Web application security (e.g., <xref target="OWASP"/>),
715   including common pitfalls for implementing and using the authentication
716   schemes found in practice.
[2573]719<section title="Confidentiality of Credentials" anchor="confidentiality.of.credentials">
721   The HTTP authentication framework does not define a single mechanism for
722   maintaining the confidentiality of credentials; instead, each
723   authentication scheme defines how the credentials are encoded prior to
724   transmission. While this provides flexibility for the development of future
725   authentication schemes, it is inadequate for the protection of existing
726   schemes that provide no confidentiality on their own, or that do not
727   sufficiently protect against replay attacks. Furthermore, if the server
728   expects credentials that are specific to each individual user, the exchange
729   of those credentials will have the effect of identifying that user even if
730   the content within credentials remains confidential.
733   HTTP depends on the security properties of the underlying transport or
734   session-level connection to provide confidential transmission of header
735   fields. In other words, if a server limits access to authenticated users
736   using this framework, the server needs to ensure that the connection is
737   properly secured in accordance with the nature of the authentication
738   scheme used. For example, services that depend on individual user
739   authentication often require a connection to be secured with TLS
740   ("Transport Layer Security", <xref target="RFC5246"/>) prior to exchanging
741   any credentials.
[8]745<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
747   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
[2399]748   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
749   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
750   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
751   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
752   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
[8]755   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
756   application's security model include but are not limited to:
757  <list style="symbols">
[2074]758     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
759        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
[8]760        user for credentials.</t>
[2074]762     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
[746]763        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
764        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
[8]765        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
766  </list>
[2399]769   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
770   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
774<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
776  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
[2229]777  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
778  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
779  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
780  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
781  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
[2229]784  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
[1791]785  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target=""/>).
[1672]786  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
787  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
[1736]788  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
[2229]789  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
[1364]794<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
[998]796  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
[1363]797  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
798  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
[998]799  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
[1389]800  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
[1363]801  for further acknowledgements. 
804  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
[119]811<references title="Normative References">
[2629]813<reference anchor="RFC7230">
[205]814  <front>
[1864]815    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
[205]816    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]817      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[205]818      <address><email></email></address>
819    </author>
820    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
821      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
822      <address><email></email></address>
823    </author>
824    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
825  </front>
826  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
827  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
[2629]830<reference anchor="RFC7231">
[1693]831  <front>
[1864]832    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
[1693]833    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
834      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
835      <address><email></email></address>
836    </author>
837    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
838      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
839      <address><email></email></address>
840    </author>
841    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
842  </front>
843  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
[1713]844  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
845    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
[1740]846    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
[1713]847  </x:source>
[2629]850<reference anchor="RFC7234">
[119]851  <front>
[1864]852    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
[119]853    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]854      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[119]855      <address><email></email></address>
856    </author>
[601]857    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
[1915]858      <organization>Akamai</organization>
[601]859      <address><email></email></address>
860    </author>
[119]861    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
862      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
863      <address><email></email></address>
864    </author>
865    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
866  </front>
867  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
868  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
[96]871<reference anchor="RFC2119">
872  <front>
873    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
874    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
875      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
876      <address><email></email></address>
877    </author>
878    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
879  </front>
880  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
881  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[425]884<reference anchor="RFC5234">
885  <front>
886    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
887    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
888      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
889      <address>
[728]890        <email></email>
891      </address> 
[425]892    </author>
893    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
894      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
895      <address>
[728]896        <email></email>
897      </address>
[425]898    </author>
899    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
900  </front>
901  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
902  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
907<references title="Informative References">
909<reference anchor="RFC2616">
910  <front>
911    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
912    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
913      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
914      <address><email></email></address>
915    </author>
916    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
917      <organization>W3C</organization>
918      <address><email></email></address>
919    </author>
920    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
921      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
922      <address><email></email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
925      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
926      <address><email></email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
929      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
930      <address><email></email></address>
931    </author>
932    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
933      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
934      <address><email></email></address>
935    </author>
936    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
937      <organization>W3C</organization>
938      <address><email></email></address>
939    </author>
940    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
941  </front>
942  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[998]945<reference anchor="RFC2617">
946  <front>
947    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
948    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
949      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
950      <address><email></email></address>
951    </author>
952    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
953      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
954      <address><email></email></address>
955    </author>
956    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
957      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
958      <address><email></email></address>
959    </author>
960    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
961      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
962      <address><email></email></address>
963    </author>
964    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
965      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
966      <address><email></email></address>
967    </author>
968    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
969      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
970    </author>
971    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
972      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
973      <address><email></email></address>
974    </author>
975    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
976  </front>
977  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
[2046]980<reference anchor='BCP90'>
[253]981  <front>
982    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
983    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
984      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
985      <address><email></email></address>
986    </author>
987    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
988      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
989      <address><email></email></address>
990    </author>
991    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
992      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
993      <address><email></email></address>
994    </author>
995    <date year='2004' month='September' />
996  </front>
997  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
998  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[1394]1001<reference anchor="RFC3986">
1002 <front>
1003  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
1004  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
1005    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1006    <address>
1007       <email></email>
1008       <uri></uri>
1009    </address>
1010  </author>
1011  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
1012    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1013    <address>
1014      <email></email>
1015      <uri></uri>
1016    </address>
1017  </author>
1018  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
1019    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1020    <address>
1021      <email></email>
1022      <uri></uri>
1023    </address>
1024  </author>
1025  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
1026 </front>
1027 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
1028 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
1031<reference anchor="RFC4648">
1032  <front>
1033    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
1034    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
1035    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
1036  </front>
1037  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
[1026]1040<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1041  <front>
1042    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1043    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1044      <organization>IBM</organization>
1045      <address><email></email></address>
1046    </author>
1047    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1048      <organization>Google</organization>
1049      <address><email></email></address>
1050    </author>
1051    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1052  </front>
1053  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1054  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
[2568]1057<reference anchor="OWASP" target="">
1058        <front>
1059    <title abbrev="OWASP">A Guide to Building Secure Web Applications and Web Services</title>
1060    <author role="editor" initials="A." surname="van der Stock"
1061            fullname="Andrew van der Stock"/>
1062    <date month="July" day="27" year="2005"/>
1063  </front>
1064  <seriesInfo name="The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP)" value="2.0.1"/>
[2571]1067<reference anchor='RFC5246'>
1068   <front>
1069      <title>The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2</title>
1070      <author initials='T.' surname='Dierks' fullname='T. Dierks'/>
1071      <author initials='E.' surname='Rescorla' fullname='E. Rescorla'>
1072         <organization>RTFM, Inc.</organization>
1073      </author>
1074      <date year='2008' month='August' />
1075   </front>
1076   <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5246' />
[1385]1081<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
[2019]1083  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1084  rather than RFC 2617.
1087  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1088  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
[1385]1089  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[1815]1092  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
[1394]1093  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1094  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[2019]1097  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1098  considerations for new authentication schemes.
[1760]1099  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
[1805]1103<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1104  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1105  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1106  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1107  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1108  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1109  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1110  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1111  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1112  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1113  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1114  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1116  The following core rules are included by
1117  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1118  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1119  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1120  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1121  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1122  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
[2629]1125   The rules below are defined in <xref target="RFC7230"/>:
1127<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1128  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1129  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1130  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1131  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
[680]1135<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[427]1136<section xmlns:x="" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
[2629]1138  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="RFC7230" x:rel="#notation"/>.
[427]1140<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
[1230]1141<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[2629]1143<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [RFC7230], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[2629]1145<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [RFC7230], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[1230]1147<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]1148 challenge ] )
[1230]1149<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[1230]1151<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1152 ] )
[1386]1154<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
[998]1155<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
[1815]1157<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
[1394]1158 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[1815]1159<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
[1394]1160 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[2629]1162<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [RFC7230], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[2629]1164<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [RFC7230], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[1815]1165<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1166 *"="
[680]1170<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
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