source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 2211

Last change on this file since 2211 was 2211, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

tune terminology (see #439)

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[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[29]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
[2195]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "March">
[2080]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2013">
[1101]17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
[1692]18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x=''>Note:</x:h>">
[2069]19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x=''/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1452]21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1875]22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x=''/>">
[424]23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1399]25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x=''/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x=''/>">
[961]28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x=''/>">
[998]30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1693]31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1999]32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x=''/>">
34<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]35<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
36<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]37<?rfc compact="yes"?>
38<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
39<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
40<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[205]41<?rfc comments="yes"?>
42<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[799]43<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
[8]44<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
45<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[1477]46<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
[446]47     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
[153]48     xmlns:x=''>
[1472]49<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
[1522]50<x:feedback template="{docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
[1864]53  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
[29]55  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]56    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[8]57    <address>
58      <postal>
[1106]59        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
60        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]61        <region>CA</region>
[1106]62        <code>95110</code>
[29]63        <country>USA</country>
[8]64      </postal>
[29]65      <email></email>
66      <uri></uri>
[8]67    </address>
68  </author>
[95]70  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
71    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
72    <address>
73      <postal>
74        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
75        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
76        <country>Germany</country>
77      </postal>
[609]78      <email></email>
79      <uri></uri>
[95]80    </address>
81  </author>
[31]83  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
[440]84  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
[1373]88   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
[1808]89   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
90   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
94<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
95  <t>
[1764]96    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
[1268]97    mailing list (, which is archived at
98    <eref target=""/>.
99  </t>
100  <t>
101    The current issues list is at
102    <eref target=""/> and related
103    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]104    <eref target=""/>.
[36]105  </t>
[153]106  <t>
[2190]107    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.22"/>.
[153]108  </t>
112<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[998]114   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
115   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
[1636]116   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
[998]117   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
118   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
121   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
[2211]122   schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
[998]123   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
124   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
125   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
[1875]128<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
130   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
131   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
132   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
[1875]135   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
136   are defined in &conformance;.
[424]140<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
[1518]142   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
143   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
[1805]144   &notation;. <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
145   other documents. <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
[1518]146   with the list rule expanded.
[998]151<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
153<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
[998]154  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
155  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
[1815]156  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
[229]157  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
158  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
[2211]160   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
[998]161   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
162   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
[1394]163   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
164   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
[1473]165   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
166   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
[1394]167   information.
170   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
171   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
[1902]173<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
[1386]174  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[1386]176  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
[1815]178  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
[1394]179                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
[1815]182   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
[1394]183   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
184   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
185   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
[1708]188   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
[998]189   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
[1736]190   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
[1344]191   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[1736]194   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
195   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
196   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
197   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
[1902]199<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
[1815]200  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
203  <t>
[1692]204     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
[1736]205     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
206     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
207     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
208     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
[998]209  </t>
212  <t>
[1692]213     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
[1343]214     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
[1344]215     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see -->
[1018]216  </t>
[1344]219   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
[1708]220   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
[1736]221   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
[1344]222   request.
225   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
[1708]226   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
[1736]227   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
[1344]228   request.
[1736]231   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
[1669]232   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
233   requested, based upon a challenge received from the server (possibly at
234   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
235   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
236   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
237   as appropriate.
[1902]239<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
[1815]240  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
[1694]243   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
244   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
245   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
[2066]246   server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response that
247   contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
248   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[1694]251   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
252   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
[2066]253   send a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that
254   contains a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with a (possibly
[1694]255   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
[1681]258   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
[1713]259   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
[998]262   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
[2211]263   challenge-response framework for access authentication. Additional
[998]264   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
265   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
[1107]266   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
[998]267   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
[1736]270   Proxies &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
271   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
272   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
[1344]276<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="">
[1354]277  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
278  <iref item="Realm"/>
[1672]279  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
[1354]281   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
[1478]282   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
[1354]285   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
286   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
287   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
288   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
[1344]289   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
290   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
291   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
[2074]292   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, that can have
[1344]293   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
294   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
295   different realms.
298   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
299   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
300   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
301   protection space for a period of time determined by the
302   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
303   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
304   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
307   For historical reasons, senders &MUST; only use the quoted-string syntax.
308   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
309   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
310   notations for a long time.
[1026]314<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
316  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
317  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
320  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
321  <list style="symbols">
322    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
323    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
[1371]324    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
[1026]325  </list>
[1567]328  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
329  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
332  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target=""/>.
335<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="">
337  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
338  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
341  <list style="symbols">
[1360]342    <x:lt>
[1356]343    <t>
[1518]344      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
345      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
346      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
347      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
348      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
349      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
350      party other than the authenticated user
351      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
[1356]352    </t>
[1360]353    </x:lt>
354    <x:lt>
[1356]355    <t>
356      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
357      Spaces as defined in <xref target=""/>. New schemes
358      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
359    </t>
[1360]360    </x:lt>
361    <x:lt>
[1356]362    <t>
[1815]363      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
[1394]364      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
365      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
366      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
367    </t>
368    </x:lt>
369    <x:lt>
370    <t>
[1465]371      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
372      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
373      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
374      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
375      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
376      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
377      all authentication schemes.
378    </t>
379    <t>
[1692]380      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
[1465]381      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
382      for new parameters.
383    </t>
384    </x:lt>
385    <x:lt>
386    <t>
[1562]387      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
388      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
389      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
390      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
391      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
392      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
393    </t>
394    </x:lt>
395    <x:lt>
396    <t>
[1357]397      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
[1736]398      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
399      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
[1360]400    </t>
401    </x:lt>
402    <x:lt>
403    <t>
[1736]404      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
[1360]405      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
406      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
407      request they appear in.
408    </t>
409    <t>
[2074]410      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
[1736]411      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
412      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
[1360]413      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
414      directives (e.g., "private").
415    </t>
416    </x:lt>
[1356]417  </list>
[838]425<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
[39]426<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
427  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]428  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
[2066]430   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
431   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
432   credentials for the target resource. The origin server &MUST; send a
[1736]433   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
[2066]434   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
435   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
436   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
437   The client &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
438   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
439   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
440   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
441   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
442   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
445<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
446  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]447  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
[2066]449   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
450   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
451   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
452   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
453   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
454   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
455   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
[998]456   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
[1415]461<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
[117]463   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
464   related to authentication.
467<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
[1120]468  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]469  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
[1163]471   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
[1708]472   itself with a server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401
473   (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of credentials containing
[698]474   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
475   requested.
[1230]477<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
478  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[998]481   If a request is
[698]482   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
483   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
484   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
485   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
486   synchronized clocks).
[1999]489   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
490   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
494<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
[1120]495  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]496  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
[1601]498   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
499   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
500   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
[1708]501   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
[1230]503<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
504  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[1736]507   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
508   applies only to the current connection, and intermediaries &SHOULD-NOT;
509   forward it to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need
510   to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream client,
511   which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
[8]512   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
[1736]515   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
516   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
517   for details.
521<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
[1120]522  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]523  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
[1163]525   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
[2074]526   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
[698]527   authentication. Its value consists of
[8]528   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
529   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
[1230]531<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
532  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[1736]535   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
536   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
[8]537   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
538   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
539   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
540   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
541   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
542   request.
546<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
[1120]547  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]548  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
[1163]550   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
[698]551   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
[1360]552   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
[1708]555   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
[1360]556   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
557   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
[1230]559<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
560  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[998]563   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
[8]564   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
565   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
566   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
567   authentication parameters.
570  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
571  <artwork type="example">
572  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
573                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
575  <postamble>
576  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
577  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
[1533]578  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
579  "simple".
582  <t>
[1692]583    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
[1533]584    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
585    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
586    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
587    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
588    harmless.
589  </t>
[29]595<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
[1759]597<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
599  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
600  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
603   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target=""/>.
[700]607<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
609   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target=""/>
[969]610   shall be updated with the registrations below:
612<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
613<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
614<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
615   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
616   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
617   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
618   <c>401</c>
619   <c>Unauthorized</c>
620   <c>
621      <xref target="status.401"/>
622   </c>
623   <c>407</c>
624   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
625   <c>
626      <xref target="status.407"/>
627   </c>
630<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
[921]633<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
[969]635   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target=""/> shall be updated
[2046]636   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
[680]638<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[253]639<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]640<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]641   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
642   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
643   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
644   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
646   <c>Authorization</c>
647   <c>http</c>
648   <c>standard</c>
649   <c>
650      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
651   </c>
652   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
653   <c>http</c>
654   <c>standard</c>
655   <c>
656      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
657   </c>
658   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
659   <c>http</c>
660   <c>standard</c>
661   <c>
662      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
663   </c>
664   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
665   <c>http</c>
666   <c>standard</c>
667   <c>
668      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
669   </c>
[680]672<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[290]674   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
679<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
[2069]681   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
682   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP/1.1 authentication.
683   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
684   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
687<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
689   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
[145]690   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
[8]691   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
692   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
693   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
694   application's security model include but are not limited to:
695  <list style="symbols">
[2074]696     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
697        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
[8]698        user for credentials.</t>
[2074]700     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
[746]701        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
702        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
[8]703        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
704  </list>
707   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
708   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
709   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
[2074]710   methods that mitigate the security problems inherent in this
711   problem. In particular, user agents that cache credentials are
[8]712   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
713   cached credentials under user control.
717<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
719  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
720  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on a
721  server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a
722  resource can use the same authentication credentials for other resources on
723  the same server. This makes it possible for a different resource to harvest
724  authentication credentials for other resources.
727  This is of particular concern when a server hosts resources for multiple
[1791]728  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target=""/>).
[1672]729  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
730  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
[1736]731  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
[1672]732  spaces by using a different host name for each party.
[1364]737<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
[998]739  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
[1363]740  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
741  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
[998]742  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
[1389]743  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
[1363]744  for further acknowledgements. 
747  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
[119]754<references title="Normative References">
[205]756<reference anchor="Part1">
757  <front>
[1864]758    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
[205]759    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]760      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[205]761      <address><email></email></address>
762    </author>
763    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
764      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
765      <address><email></email></address>
766    </author>
767    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
768  </front>
769  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
770  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
[1693]773<reference anchor="Part2">
774  <front>
[1864]775    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
[1693]776    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
777      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
778      <address><email></email></address>
779    </author>
780    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
781      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
782      <address><email></email></address>
783    </author>
784    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
785  </front>
786  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
[1713]787  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
788    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
[1740]789    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
[1713]790  </x:source>
[31]793<reference anchor="Part6">
[119]794  <front>
[1864]795    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
[119]796    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]797      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[119]798      <address><email></email></address>
799    </author>
[601]800    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
[1915]801      <organization>Akamai</organization>
[601]802      <address><email></email></address>
803    </author>
[119]804    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
805      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
806      <address><email></email></address>
807    </author>
808    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
809  </front>
810  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
811  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
[96]814<reference anchor="RFC2119">
815  <front>
816    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
817    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
818      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
819      <address><email></email></address>
820    </author>
821    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
822  </front>
823  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
824  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[425]827<reference anchor="RFC5234">
828  <front>
829    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
830    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
831      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
832      <address>
[728]833        <email></email>
834      </address> 
[425]835    </author>
836    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
837      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
838      <address>
[728]839        <email></email>
840      </address>
[425]841    </author>
842    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
843  </front>
844  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
845  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
850<references title="Informative References">
852<reference anchor="RFC2616">
853  <front>
854    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
855    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
856      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
857      <address><email></email></address>
858    </author>
859    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
860      <organization>W3C</organization>
861      <address><email></email></address>
862    </author>
863    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
864      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
865      <address><email></email></address>
866    </author>
867    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
868      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
869      <address><email></email></address>
870    </author>
871    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
872      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
873      <address><email></email></address>
874    </author>
875    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
876      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
877      <address><email></email></address>
878    </author>
879    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
880      <organization>W3C</organization>
881      <address><email></email></address>
882    </author>
883    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
884  </front>
885  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[998]888<reference anchor="RFC2617">
889  <front>
890    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
891    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
892      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
893      <address><email></email></address>
894    </author>
895    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
896      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
897      <address><email></email></address>
898    </author>
899    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
900      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
901      <address><email></email></address>
902    </author>
903    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
904      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
905      <address><email></email></address>
906    </author>
907    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
908      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
909      <address><email></email></address>
910    </author>
911    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
912      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
913    </author>
914    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
915      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
916      <address><email></email></address>
917    </author>
918    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
919  </front>
920  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
[2046]923<reference anchor='BCP90'>
[253]924  <front>
925    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
926    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
927      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
928      <address><email></email></address>
929    </author>
930    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
931      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
932      <address><email></email></address>
933    </author>
934    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
935      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
936      <address><email></email></address>
937    </author>
938    <date year='2004' month='September' />
939  </front>
940  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
941  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[1394]944<reference anchor="RFC3986">
945 <front>
946  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
947  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
948    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
949    <address>
950       <email></email>
951       <uri></uri>
952    </address>
953  </author>
954  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
955    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
956    <address>
957      <email></email>
958      <uri></uri>
959    </address>
960  </author>
961  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
962    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
963    <address>
964      <email></email>
965      <uri></uri>
966    </address>
967  </author>
968  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
969 </front>
970 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
971 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
974<reference anchor="RFC4648">
975  <front>
976    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
977    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
978    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
979  </front>
980  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
[1026]983<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
984  <front>
985    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
986    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
987      <organization>IBM</organization>
988      <address><email></email></address>
989    </author>
990    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
991      <organization>Google</organization>
992      <address><email></email></address>
993    </author>
994    <date year='2008' month='May' />
995  </front>
996  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
997  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
[1385]1002<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
[2019]1004  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1005  rather than RFC 2617.
1008  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1009  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
[1385]1010  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[1815]1013  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
[1394]1014  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1015  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[2019]1018  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1019  considerations for new authentication schemes.
[1760]1020  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
[1805]1024<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1025  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1026  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1027  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1028  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1029  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1030  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1031  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1032  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1033  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1034  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1035  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1037  The following core rules are included by
1038  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1039  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1040  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1041  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1042  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1043  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1046   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1048<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1049  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1050  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1051  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1052  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
[680]1056<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[427]1057<section xmlns:x="" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1059  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="Part1" x:rel="#notation"/>.
[427]1061<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
[1230]1062<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[2045]1064<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[2045]1066<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[1230]1068<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]1069 challenge ] )
[1230]1070<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[1230]1072<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1073 ] )
[1386]1075<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
[998]1076<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
[1815]1078<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
[1394]1079 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[1815]1080<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
[1394]1081 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[2045]1083<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[2045]1085<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[1815]1086<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1087 *"="
[680]1091<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[252]1093<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
[1624]1095  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1096  in <eref target=""/>.
[1592]1099<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
[1669]1101  Closed issues:
1102  <list style="symbols">
1103    <t>
[1672]1104      <eref target=""/>:
1105      "Realms and scope"
1106    </t>
1107    <t>
[1669]1108      <eref target=""/>:
1109      "Strength"
1110    </t>
[1681]1111    <t>
1112      <eref target=""/>:
1113      "Authentication exchanges"
1114    </t>
[1682]1115    <t>
1116      <eref target=""/>:
1117      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1118    </t>
[1760]1119    <t>
1120      <eref target=""/>:
1121      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1122    </t>
[1669]1123  </list>
[1807]1127<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-20" anchor="changes.since.20">
[1815]1129  Closed issues:
1130  <list style="symbols">
1131    <t>
1132      <eref target=""/>:
1133      "rename b64token for clarity"
1134    </t>
1135  </list>
1138  Other changes:
1139  <list style="symbols">
1140    <t>
1141      Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are
1142      now defined in Part 1.
1143    </t>
1144  </list>
1148<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-21" anchor="changes.since.21">
[2000]1150  Closed issues:
1151  <list style="symbols">
1152    <t>
1153      <eref target=""/>:
1154      "Authentication and caching - max-age"
1155    </t>
1156  </list>
[2190]1160<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-22" anchor="changes.since.22">
[2206]1162  Closed issues:
1163  <list style="symbols">
1164    <t>
1165      <eref target=""/>:
1166      "explain list expansion in ABNF appendices"
1167    </t>
[2211]1168    <t>
1169      <eref target=""/>:
1170      "terminology: mechanism vs framework vs scheme"
1171    </t>
[2206]1172  </list>
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