source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p7-auth.xml @ 1006

Last change on this file since 1006 was 1006, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 10 years ago

Issue 130 was resolved with [998] (resolves #130)

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[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[29]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
[981]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "September">
[741]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2010">
[424]17  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x=''/>">
[205]18  <!ENTITY notation-abnf                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x=''/>">
19  <!ENTITY basic-rules                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x=''/>">
[961]20  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x=''/>">
[998]21  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x=''/>">
[31]22  <!ENTITY shared-and-non-shared-caches "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#shared.and.non-shared.caches' xmlns:x=''/>">
24<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]25<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
26<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]27<?rfc compact="yes"?>
28<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
29<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
30<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[205]31<?rfc comments="yes"?>
32<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[799]33<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
[8]34<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
35<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[308]36<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
[446]37     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
[153]38     xmlns:x=''>
[120]41  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
[29]43  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
44    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
[8]45    <address>
46      <postal>
[29]47        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
48        <city>Newport Beach</city>
[8]49        <region>CA</region>
[29]50        <code>92660</code>
51        <country>USA</country>
[8]52      </postal>
[29]53      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
54      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
55      <email></email>
56      <uri></uri>
[8]57    </address>
58  </author>
[29]60  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
[844]61    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
[8]62    <address>
63      <postal>
[29]64        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
65        <city>Carlisle</city>
[8]66        <region>MA</region>
[29]67        <code>01741</code>
68        <country>USA</country>
[8]69      </postal>
[844]70      <email></email>
71      <uri></uri>
[8]72    </address>
73  </author>
75  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
[29]76    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
[8]77    <address>
78      <postal>
[29]79        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
80        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
[8]81        <city>Palo Alto</city>
82        <region>CA</region>
[29]83        <code>94304</code>
84        <country>USA</country>
[8]85      </postal>
[29]86      <email></email>
[8]87    </address>
88  </author>
90  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
[29]91    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
[8]92    <address>
93      <postal>
[29]94        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
95        <city>Redmond</city>
96        <region>WA</region>
97        <code>98052</code>
98        <country>USA</country>
[8]99      </postal>
[29]100      <email></email>
[8]101    </address>
102  </author>
104  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
[29]105    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
[8]106    <address>
107      <postal>
[29]108        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
109        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]110        <region>CA</region>
[29]111        <code>95110</code>
112        <country>USA</country>
[8]113      </postal>
[29]114      <email></email>
115      <uri></uri>
[8]116    </address>
117  </author>
119  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
120    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
121    <address>
122      <postal>
123        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
124        <city>Redmond</city>
125        <region>WA</region>
126        <code>98052</code>
127      </postal>
128      <email></email>
129    </address>
130  </author>
132  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
133    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
134    <address>
135      <postal>
[34]136        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
137        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
138        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
[8]139        <city>Cambridge</city>
140        <region>MA</region>
141        <code>02139</code>
[29]142        <country>USA</country>
[8]143      </postal>
144      <email></email>
[34]145      <uri></uri>
[8]146    </address>
147  </author>
[95]149  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
150    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
151    <address>
152      <postal>
153        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
154        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
155        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
156        <region>AM</region>
157        <code>06902</code>
158        <country>France</country>
159      </postal>
160      <email></email>
161      <uri></uri>
162    </address>
163  </author>
165  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
166    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
167    <address>
168      <postal>
169        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
170        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
171        <country>Germany</country>
172      </postal>
[609]173      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
174      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
175      <email></email>
176      <uri></uri>
[95]177    </address>
178  </author>
[31]180  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
[440]181  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
185   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
186   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
[29]187   systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information
[35]188   initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification
[29]189   that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together,
[42]190   obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.
194<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
195  <t>
196    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
197    mailing list ( The current issues list is
[848]198    at <eref target=""/>
[36]199    and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]200    <eref target=""/>.
[36]201  </t>
[153]202  <t>
[973]203    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.11"/>.
[153]204  </t>
208<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[998]210   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
211   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
212   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
213   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
214   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
217   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
[998]218   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
219   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
220   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
221   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
224<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
226   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
227   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
228   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
231   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
[847]232   of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
233   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED"
234   level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said
235   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST"
236   level requirements but not all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its
237   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant".
[424]241<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
[425]242  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
243  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
244  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
245  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
246  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
247  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
[998]248  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
[425]249  <x:anchor-alias value="WSP"/>
[543]251  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
252  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
253  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
254  rule expanded.
[425]257  The following core rules are included by
258  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
259  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
260  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
261  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
262  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space),
263  VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
264  and WSP (whitespace).
267<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
[998]268   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
269   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
270   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
[998]272   The core rules below are defined in &basic-rules;:
274<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
[998]275  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
276  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
277  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
[998]283<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
284  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
285  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
[229]286  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
287  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
[998]289   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
290   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
291   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
292   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme,
293   followed by a comma-separated list of attribute-value pairs which
294   carry the parameters necessary for achieving authentication via that
295   scheme.
[998]297<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/>
298  auth-scheme    = token
299  auth-param     = token "=" ( token / quoted-string )
302   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
303   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
304   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
305   challenge applicable to the requested resource. The 407 (Proxy
306   Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
307   challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate
308   header field containing at least one challenge
309   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
311<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/>
312  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> 1#<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref>
315  <t>
316   <x:h>Note:</x:h> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
317   or Proxy-Authenticate header field value if it contains
318   more than one challenge, or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header
319   field is provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself
320   contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
321  </t>
324   The authentication parameter realm is defined for all authentication
325   schemes:
327<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="realm" primary="true"/><iref item="realm-value" primary="true"/>
328  realm       = "realm" "=" realm-value
329  realm-value = quoted-string
332   The realm directive (case-insensitive) is required for all
333   authentication schemes that issue a challenge. The realm value
334   (case-sensitive), in combination with the canonical root URL (
335   the scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the server being accessed, defines the protection space.
336   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
337   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
338   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
339   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
340   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
341   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
342   different realms.
345   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin
346   server -- usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
347   (Unauthorized) -- &MAY; do so by including an Authorization header field
348   with the request. A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a
349   proxy -- usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy
350   Authentication Required) -- &MAY; do so by including a Proxy-Authorization
351   header field with the request.  Both the Authorization
352   field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value consist of
353   credentials containing the authentication information of the client
354   for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent &MUST;
355   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
356   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that
357   challenge.
359<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/>
360  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref>
361                            / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>
362                            / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> )
365  <t>
366      <x:h>Note:</x:h> many browsers will only recognize Basic and will require
367      that it be the first auth-scheme presented. Servers should only
368      include Basic if it is minimally acceptable.<cref>Either rephrase and add reference or drop.</cref>
369  </t>
372   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
373   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
374   same credentials &MAY; be reused for all other requests within that
375   protection space for a period of time determined by the
376   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
377   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
378   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
381   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
382   with a request, it &SHOULD; return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
383   response &MUST; include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
384   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
385   resource. If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
386   request, it &SHOULD; return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
387   response &MUST; include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
388   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
389   resource.
392   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
393   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
394   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
395   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
396   specifying authentication information. However, these additional
397   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
400   Proxies &MUST; be completely transparent regarding user agent
401   authentication by origin servers. That is, they &MUST; forward the
402   WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers untouched, and follow the
403   rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>. Both the Proxy-Authenticate and
404   the Proxy-Authorization header fields are hop-by-hop headers (see
405   &end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop;).
[838]409<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
[39]410<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
411  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
412  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized" x:for-anchor=""/>
414   The request requires user authentication. The response &MUST; include a
415   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
[965]416   applicable to the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat the
[39]417   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
418   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
419   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
420   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
421   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
422   authentication at least once, then the user &SHOULD; be presented the
[874]423   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
[998]424   include relevant diagnostic information.
427<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
428  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
429  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required" x:for-anchor=""/>
431   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
[998]432   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy &MUST;
[39]433   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
[965]434   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
[39]435   client &MAY; repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
[998]436   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
[8]441<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
[117]443   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
444   related to authentication.
447<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
448  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header" x:for-anchor=""/>
449  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]450  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
[365]451  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization-v"/>
[698]453   The "Authorization" request-header field allows a user agent to authenticate
[750]454   itself with a server -- usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
[698]455   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
456   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
457   requested.
[365]459<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization-v"/>
[366]460  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>   = "Authorization" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Authorization-v</x:ref>
[365]461  <x:ref>Authorization-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[998]464   If a request is
[698]465   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials &SHOULD;
466   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
467   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
468   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
469   synchronized clocks).
[29]472      When a shared cache (see &shared-and-non-shared-caches;) receives a request
[8]473      containing an Authorization field, it &MUST-NOT; return the
474      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
475      of the following specific exceptions holds:
478  <list style="numbers">
479      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
480         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
481         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
482         passed) a proxy cache &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin
[994]483         server, using the request-header fields from the new request to allow
[8]484         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
485         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
486         the proxy &MUST; always revalidate it before re-using
487         it.</t>
489      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
490         directive, the cache &MAY; use that response in replying to a
491         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
492         &MUST; first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
[994]493         request-header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
[8]494         to authenticate the new request.</t>
496      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
497         it &MAY; be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
498  </list>
502<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
503  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header" x:for-anchor=""/>
504  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]505  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
[365]506  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate-v"/>
[698]508   The "Proxy-Authenticate" response-header field consists of a challenge that
509   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
[965]510   for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included as part
[698]511   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
[365]513<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate-v"/>
[376]514  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>   = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
515                         <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate-v</x:ref>
[365]516  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[998]519   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
[8]520   the current connection and &SHOULD-NOT;  be passed on to downstream
521   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
522   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
523   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
524   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
528<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
529  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header" x:for-anchor=""/>
530  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Proxy-Authorization" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]531  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
[365]532  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization-v"/>
[697]534   The "Proxy-Authorization" request-header field allows the client to
[8]535   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
[698]536   authentication. Its value consists of
[8]537   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
538   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
[365]540<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization-v"/>
[376]541  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>   = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
542                          <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization-v</x:ref>
543  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[998]546   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
[8]547   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
548   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
549   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
550   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY; relay
551   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
552   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
553   request.
557<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
558  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header" x:for-anchor=""/>
559  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="WWW-Authenticate" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]560  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
[365]561  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate-v"/>
[698]563   The "WWW-Authenticate" response-header field consists of at least one
564   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
[965]565   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;). It &MUST; be included in 401
[698]566   (Unauthorized) response messages.
[365]568<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate-v"/>
[366]569  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>   = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate-v</x:ref>
[365]570  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[998]573   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
[8]574   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
575   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
576   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
577   authentication parameters.
[29]583<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
585<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
587   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target=""/>
[969]588   shall be updated with the registrations below:
590<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
591<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
592<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
593   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
594   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
595   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
596   <c>401</c>
597   <c>Unauthorized</c>
598   <c>
599      <xref target="status.401"/>
600   </c>
601   <c>407</c>
602   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
603   <c>
604      <xref target="status.407"/>
605   </c>
608<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
[921]611<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
[969]613   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target=""/> shall be updated
[290]614   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
[680]616<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[253]617<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]618<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]619   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
620   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
621   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
622   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
624   <c>Authorization</c>
625   <c>http</c>
626   <c>standard</c>
627   <c>
628      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
629   </c>
630   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
631   <c>http</c>
632   <c>standard</c>
633   <c>
634      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
635   </c>
636   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
637   <c>http</c>
638   <c>standard</c>
639   <c>
640      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
641   </c>
642   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
643   <c>http</c>
644   <c>standard</c>
645   <c>
646      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
647   </c>
[680]650<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[290]652   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
657<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
659   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
660   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
661   described by this document. The discussion does not include
662   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
663   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
666<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
668   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
[145]669   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
[8]670   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
671   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
672   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
673   application's security model include but are not limited to:
674  <list style="symbols">
675     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
676        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
677        user for credentials.</t>
679     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
[746]680        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
681        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
[8]682        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
683  </list>
686   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
687   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
688   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
689   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
690   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
691   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
692   cached credentials under user control.
697<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="ack">
[998]699  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
700  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>. We thank to John Franks,
701  Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
702  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
703  on that specification.
706  <cref anchor="acks">HTTPbis acknowledgements.</cref>
[119]713<references title="Normative References">
[205]715<reference anchor="Part1">
716  <front>
717    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
718    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
719      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
720      <address><email></email></address>
721    </author>
722    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
[844]723      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
724      <address><email></email></address>
[205]725    </author>
726    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
727      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
728      <address><email></email></address>
729    </author>
730    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
731      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
732      <address><email></email></address>
733    </author>
734    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
735      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
736      <address><email></email></address>
737    </author>
738    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
739      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
740      <address><email></email></address>
741    </author>
742    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
743      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
744      <address><email></email></address>
745    </author>
746    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
747      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
748      <address><email></email></address>
749    </author>
750    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
751      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
752      <address><email></email></address>
753    </author>
754    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
755  </front>
756  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
757  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
[31]760<reference anchor="Part6">
[119]761  <front>
762    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
763    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
764      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
765      <address><email></email></address>
766    </author>
767    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
[844]768      <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
769      <address><email></email></address>
[119]770    </author>
771    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
772      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
773      <address><email></email></address>
774    </author>
775    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
776      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
777      <address><email></email></address>
778    </author>
779    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
780      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
781      <address><email></email></address>
782    </author>
783    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
784      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
785      <address><email></email></address>
786    </author>
787    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
788      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
789      <address><email></email></address>
790    </author>
791    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
792      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
793      <address><email></email></address>
794    </author>
[601]795    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
796      <address><email></email></address>
797    </author>
[119]798    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
799      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
800      <address><email></email></address>
801    </author>
802    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
803  </front>
804  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
805  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
[96]808<reference anchor="RFC2119">
809  <front>
810    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
811    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
812      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
813      <address><email></email></address>
814    </author>
815    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
816  </front>
817  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
818  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[425]821<reference anchor="RFC5234">
822  <front>
823    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
824    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
825      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
826      <address>
[728]827        <email></email>
828      </address> 
[425]829    </author>
830    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
831      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
832      <address>
[728]833        <email></email>
834      </address>
[425]835    </author>
836    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
837  </front>
838  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
839  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
844<references title="Informative References">
846<reference anchor="RFC2616">
847  <front>
848    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
849    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
850      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
851      <address><email></email></address>
852    </author>
853    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
854      <organization>W3C</organization>
855      <address><email></email></address>
856    </author>
857    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
858      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
859      <address><email></email></address>
860    </author>
861    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
862      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
863      <address><email></email></address>
864    </author>
865    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
866      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
867      <address><email></email></address>
868    </author>
869    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
870      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
871      <address><email></email></address>
872    </author>
873    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
874      <organization>W3C</organization>
875      <address><email></email></address>
876    </author>
877    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
878  </front>
879  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[998]882<reference anchor="RFC2617">
883  <front>
884    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
885    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
886      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
887      <address><email></email></address>
888    </author>
889    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
890      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
891      <address><email></email></address>
892    </author>
893    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
894      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
895      <address><email></email></address>
896    </author>
897    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
898      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
899      <address><email></email></address>
900    </author>
901    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
902      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
903      <address><email></email></address>
904    </author>
905    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
906      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
907    </author>
908    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
909      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
910      <address><email></email></address>
911    </author>
912    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
913  </front>
914  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
[253]917<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
918  <front>
919    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
920    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
921      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
922      <address><email></email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
925      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
926      <address><email></email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
929      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
930      <address><email></email></address>
931    </author>
932    <date year='2004' month='September' />
933  </front>
934  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
935  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[911]940<!-- re-add this once we have changes
[99]941<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
[911]943 -->
[680]945<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[427]946<section xmlns:x="" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
948<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
949<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = "Authorization:" OWS Authorization-v
950<x:ref>Authorization-v</x:ref> = credentials
952<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
954<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = "Proxy-Authenticate:" OWS Proxy-Authenticate-v
955<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]956 challenge ] )
[427]957<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = "Proxy-Authorization:" OWS
[425]958 Proxy-Authorization-v
[427]959<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization-v</x:ref> = credentials
961<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = "WWW-Authenticate:" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v
962<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]963 challenge ] )
[998]965<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token "=" ( token / quoted-string )
966<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
968<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme 1*SP *( "," OWS ) auth-param *( OWS "," [ OWS
969 auth-param ] )
970<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme ( token / quoted-string / [ ( "," /
971 auth-param ) *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] )
973<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
975realm = "realm=" realm-value
976realm-value = quoted-string
978<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
[532]981<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
982; Authorization defined but not used
[425]983; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
984; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
985; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
[998]986; realm defined but not used
[680]988<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[252]990<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
[1002]992<section title="Since RFC 2616">
994  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
998<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
[152]1000  Closed issues:
1001  <list style="symbols">
[119]1002    <t>
[324]1003      <eref target=""/>:
[152]1004      "Normative and Informative references"
[119]1005    </t>
1006  </list>
[170]1010<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
[324]1012  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target=""/>):
[191]1013  <list style="symbols">
1014    <t>
1015      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1016    </t>
[205]1017    <t>
1018      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1019    </t>
[191]1020  </list>
[252]1024<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
[994]1026  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target=""/>):
[253]1027  <list style="symbols">
1028    <t>
[994]1029      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
[253]1030      in this document.
1031    </t>
1032  </list>
[267]1036<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
[323]1041<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
[365]1043  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target=""/>):
1044  <list style="symbols">
1045    <t>
1046      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1047    </t>
1048    <t>
1049      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1050      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1051    </t>
1052    <t>
1053      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
[994]1054      header field value format definitions.
[365]1055    </t>
1056  </list>
[382]1060<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
[543]1062  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target=""/>):
[421]1063  <list style="symbols">
1064    <t>
[424]1065      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
[421]1066    </t>
1067  </list>
[547]1071<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
[603]1073  None.
[604]1077<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
[700]1079  Closed issues:
1080  <list style="symbols">
1081    <t>
1082      <eref target=""/>:
1083      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1084    </t>
1085  </list>
[720]1089<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
[765]1091  No significant changes.
[773]1095<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
[823]1097  Partly resolved issues:
1098  <list style="symbols">
1099    <t>
1100      <eref target=""/>:
1101      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1102    </t>
1103  </list>
[841]1107<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1109  None yet.
[973]1113<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
[998]1115  Closed issues:
1116  <list style="symbols">
1117    <t>
[1006]1118      <eref target=""/>:
1119      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1120    </t>
1121    <t>
[998]1122      <eref target=""/>:
1123      "auth-param syntax"
1124    </t>
1125    <t>
1126      <eref target=""/>:
1127      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1128    </t>
1129  </list>
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