source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p6-cache.xml @ 949

Last change on this file since 949 was 949, checked in by mnot@…, 9 years ago

reformat xml (in hopefully the right place)

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Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "July">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2010">
17  <!ENTITY notation                    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
18  <!ENTITY basic-rules                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY uri                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri      "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY messaging                   "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY conditional                 "<xref target='Part4' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY partial                     "<xref target='Part5' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY combining-byte-ranges       "<xref target='Part5' x:rel='#combining.byte.ranges' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY full-date                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#date.time.formats.full.date' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY header-authorization        "<xref target='Part7' x:rel='#header.authorization' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY header-connection           "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.connection' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY header-date                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.date' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY header-via                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.via' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY header-last-modified        "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#header.last-modified' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31  <!ENTITY header-fields               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
32  <!ENTITY safe-methods                "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#safe.methods' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
33  <!ENTITY weak-and-strong             "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#weak.and.strong.validators' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
34  <!ENTITY status-codes                "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.codes' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
35  <!ENTITY status.2xx                  "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.2xx' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
36]>
37<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
38<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
39<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
40<?rfc compact="yes"?>
41<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
42<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
43<?rfc editing="no" ?>
44<?rfc comments="yes"?>
45<?rfc inline="yes"?>
46<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
47<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
48<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
49<rfc category="std" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;" ipr="pre5378Trust200902"
50  obsoletes="2616" x:maturity-level="draft" xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext">
51<front>
52
53  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 6">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
54
55  <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
56    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
57    <address>
58      <postal>
59        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
60        <city>Newport Beach</city>
61        <region>CA</region>
62        <code>92660</code>
63        <country>USA</country>
64      </postal>
65      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
66      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
67      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
68      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
69    </address>
70  </author>
71
72  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
73    <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
77        <city>Carlisle</city>
78        <region>MA</region>
79        <code>01741</code>
80        <country>USA</country>
81      </postal>
82      <email>jg@freedesktop.org</email>
83      <uri>http://gettys.wordpress.com/</uri>
84    </address>
85  </author>
86
87  <author fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
88    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
89    <address>
90      <postal>
91        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
92        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
93        <city>Palo Alto</city>
94        <region>CA</region>
95        <code>94304</code>
96        <country>USA</country>
97      </postal>
98      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
99    </address>
100  </author>
101
102  <author fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
103    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
104    <address>
105      <postal>
106        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
107        <city>Redmond</city>
108        <region>WA</region>
109        <code>98052</code>
110        <country>USA</country>
111      </postal>
112      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
113    </address>
114  </author>
115
116  <author fullname="Larry Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
117    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
118    <address>
119      <postal>
120        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
121        <city>San Jose</city>
122        <region>CA</region>
123        <code>95110</code>
124        <country>USA</country>
125      </postal>
126      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
127      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
128    </address>
129  </author>
130
131  <author fullname="Paul J. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
132    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
133    <address>
134      <postal>
135        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
136        <city>Redmond</city>
137        <region>WA</region>
138        <code>98052</code>
139      </postal>
140      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
141    </address>
142  </author>
143
144  <author fullname="Tim Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
145    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
146    <address>
147      <postal>
148        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
149        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
150        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
151        <city>Cambridge</city>
152        <region>MA</region>
153        <code>02139</code>
154        <country>USA</country>
155      </postal>
156      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
157      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
158    </address>
159  </author>
160
161  <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
162    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
163    <address>
164      <postal>
165        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
166        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
167        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
168        <region>AM</region>
169        <code>06902</code>
170        <country>France</country>
171      </postal>
172      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
173      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
174    </address>
175  </author>
176
177  <author fullname="Mark Nottingham" initials="M." role="editor" surname="Nottingham">
178    <address>
179      <email>mnot@mnot.net</email>
180      <uri>http://www.mnot.net/</uri>
181    </address>
182  </author>
183
184  <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
185    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
186    <address>
187      <postal>
188        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
189        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
190        <country>Germany</country>
191      </postal>
192      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
193      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
194      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
195      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
196    </address>
197  </author>
198
199  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
200  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
201
202<abstract>
203<t>
204   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
205   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
206   is Part 6 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
207   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 6
208   defines requirements on HTTP caches and the associated header fields that
209   control cache behavior or indicate cacheable response messages.
210</t>
211</abstract>
212
213<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
214   <t>
215      Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
216      mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues list is at <eref
217      target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
218      documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at <eref
219      target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
220   </t>
221   <t>
222      The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref
223      target="changes.since.10"/>.
224   </t>
225</note>
226
227   </front>
228   <middle>
229
230<section anchor="caching" title="Introduction">
231<t>
232   HTTP is typically used for distributed information systems, where
233   performance can be improved by the use of response caches. This document
234   defines aspects of HTTP/1.1 related to caching and reusing response
235   messages.
236</t>
237
238<section anchor="intro.purpose" title="Purpose">
239<iref item="cache" />
240<t>
241   An HTTP <x:dfn>cache</x:dfn> is a local store of response messages and the
242   subsystem that controls its message storage, retrieval, and deletion. A
243   cache stores cacheable responses in order to reduce the response time and
244   network bandwidth consumption on future, equivalent requests. Any client or
245   server &MAY; employ a cache, though a cache cannot be used by a server that
246   is acting as a tunnel.
247</t>
248<t>
249   Caching would be useless if it did not significantly improve performance.
250   The goal of caching in HTTP/1.1 is to reuse a prior response message to
251   satisfy a current request. In some cases, a stored response can be reused
252   without the need for a network request, reducing latency and network
253   round-trips; a "freshness" mechanism is used for this purpose (see <xref
254   target="expiration.model" />). Even when a new request is required, it is
255   often possible to reuse all or parts of the payload of a prior response to
256   satisfy the request, thereby reducing network bandwidth usage; a
257   "validation" mechanism is used for this purpose (see <xref
258   target="validation.model" />).
259</t>
260</section>
261
262<section anchor="intro.terminology" title="Terminology">
263<t>
264   This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles played by
265   participants in, and objects of, HTTP caching.
266</t>
267<t>
268   <iref item="cacheable" />
269   <x:dfn>cacheable</x:dfn>
270   <list>
271      <t>A response is cacheable if a cache is allowed to store a copy of the
272      response message for use in answering subsequent requests. Even when a
273      response is cacheable, there might be additional constraints on whether
274      a cache can use the cached copy to satisfy a particular request.</t>
275   </list>
276</t>
277<t>
278   <iref item="explicit expiration time" />
279   <x:dfn>explicit expiration time</x:dfn>
280   <list>
281      <t>The time at which the origin server intends that a representation
282      should no longer be returned by a cache without further validation.</t>
283   </list>
284</t>
285<t>
286   <iref item="heuristic expiration time" />
287   <x:dfn>heuristic expiration time</x:dfn>
288   <list>
289      <t>An expiration time assigned by a cache when no explicit expiration
290      time is available.</t>
291   </list>
292</t>
293<t>
294   <iref item="age" />
295   <x:dfn>age</x:dfn>
296   <list>
297      <t>The age of a response is the time since it was sent by, or
298      successfully validated with, the origin server.</t>
299   </list>
300</t>
301<t>
302   <iref item="first-hand" />
303   <x:dfn>first-hand</x:dfn>
304   <list>
305      <t>A response is first-hand if the freshness model is not in use; i.e.,
306      its age is 0.</t>
307   </list>
308</t>
309<t>
310   <iref item="freshness lifetime" />
311   <x:dfn>freshness lifetime</x:dfn>
312   <list>
313      <t>The length of time between the generation of a response and its
314      expiration time.</t>
315   </list>
316</t>
317<t>
318   <iref item="fresh" />
319   <x:dfn>fresh</x:dfn>
320   <list>
321      <t>A response is fresh if its age has not yet exceeded its freshness
322      lifetime.</t>
323   </list>
324</t>
325<t>
326   <iref item="stale" />
327   <x:dfn>stale</x:dfn>
328   <list>
329      <t>A response is stale if its age has passed its freshness lifetime
330      (either explicit or heuristic).</t>
331   </list>
332</t>
333<t>
334   <iref item="validator" />
335   <x:dfn>validator</x:dfn>
336   <list>
337      <t>A protocol element (e.g., an entity-tag or a Last-Modified time) that
338      is used to find out whether a stored response has an equivalent copy of
339      a representation.</t>
340   </list>
341</t>
342<t anchor="shared.and.non-shared.caches">
343   <iref item="validator" />
344   <x:dfn>shared cache</x:dfn>
345   <list>
346      <t>A cache that is accessible to more than one user. A non-shared cache
347      is dedicated to a single user.</t>
348   </list>
349</t>
350</section>
351
352<section anchor="intro.requirements" title="Requirements">
353<t>
354   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
355   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
356   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
357</t>
358<t>
359   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of
360   the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
361   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED"
362   level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said to
363   be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST" level
364   requirements but not all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols
365   is said to be "conditionally compliant".
366</t>
367</section>
368
369<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
370   <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
371   <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
372   <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
373   <x:anchor-alias value="DQUOTE"/>
374   <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
375   <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
376   <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
377   <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
378   <x:anchor-alias value="WSP"/>
379<t>
380   This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
381   extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
382   <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
383   rule expanded.
384</t>
385<t>
386   The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <xref
387   target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage
388   return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double
389   quote), HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit
390   sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character), and
391   WSP (whitespace).
392</t>
393
394<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
395   <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
396   <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
397   <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
398<t>
399   The core rules below are defined in &basic-rules;:
400</t>
401<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
402  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
403  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
404  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
405</artwork></figure>
406</section>
407
408<section title="ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification"
409    anchor="abnf.dependencies">
410   <x:anchor-alias value="field-name"/>
411   <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-date"/>
412   <x:anchor-alias value="port"/>
413   <x:anchor-alias value="pseudonym"/>
414   <x:anchor-alias value="uri-host"/>
415<t>
416   The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
417</t>
418<figure><!--Part1--><artwork type="abnf2616">
419  <x:ref>field-name</x:ref>    = &lt;field-name, defined in &header-fields;&gt;
420  <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in &full-date;&gt;
421  <x:ref>port</x:ref>          = &lt;port, defined in &uri;&gt;
422  <x:ref>pseudonym</x:ref>     = &lt;pseudonym, defined in &header-via;&gt; 
423  <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref>      = &lt;uri-host, defined in &uri;&gt;
424</artwork></figure>
425</section>
426
427</section>
428</section>
429
430<section anchor="caching.overview" title="Cache Operation">
431
432<section anchor="response.cacheability" title="Response Cacheability">
433<t>
434   A cache &MUST-NOT; store a response to any request, unless:
435   <list style="symbols">
436      <t>The request method is understood by the cache and defined as being
437      cacheable, and</t>
438      <t>the response status code is understood by the cache, and</t>
439      <t>the "no-store" cache directive (see <xref
440      target="header.cache-control" />) does not appear in request or response
441      headers, and</t>
442      <t>the "private" cache response directive (see <xref
443      target="cache-response-directive" /> does not appear in the response, if
444      the cache is shared, and</t>
445      <t>the "Authorization" header (see &header-authorization;) does not
446      appear in the request, if the cache is shared, unless the response
447      explicitly allows it (see <xref target="caching.authenticated.responses"
448      />), and</t>
449      <t>the response either:
450         <list style="symbols">
451            <t>contains an Expires header (see <xref target="header.expires"
452            />), or</t>
453            <t>contains a max-age response cache directive (see <xref
454            target="cache-response-directive" />), or</t>
455            <t>contains a s-maxage response cache directive and the cache is
456            shared, or</t>
457            <t>contains a Cache Control Extension (see <xref
458            target="cache.control.extensions" />) that allows it to be cached,
459            or</t>
460            <t>has a status code that can be served with heuristic freshness
461            (see <xref target="heuristic.freshness" />).</t>
462         </list>
463      </t>
464   </list>
465</t>
466<t>
467   In this context, a cache has "understood" a request method or a response
468   status code if it recognises it and implements any cache-specific
469   behaviour. In particular, 206 Partial Content responses cannot be cached by
470   an implementation that does not handle partial content (see <xref
471   target="errors.or.incomplete.response.cache.behavior" />).
472</t>
473<t>
474   Note that in normal operation, most caches will not store a response that
475   has neither a cache validator nor an explicit expiration time, as such
476   responses are not usually useful to store. However, caches are not
477   prohibited from storing such responses.
478</t>
479
480<section anchor="errors.or.incomplete.response.cache.behavior" 
481   title="Storing Partial and Incomplete Responses">
482<t>
483   A cache that receives an incomplete response (for example, with fewer bytes
484   of data than specified in a Content-Length header) can store the response,
485   but &MUST; treat it as a partial response &partial;. Partial responses can
486   be combined as described in &combining-byte-ranges;; the result might be a
487   full response or might still be partial. A cache &MUST-NOT; return a
488   partial response to a client without explicitly marking it as such using
489   the 206 (Partial Content) status code.
490</t>
491<t>
492   A cache that does not support the Range and Content-Range headers
493   &MUST-NOT; store incomplete or partial responses.
494</t>
495</section>
496
497</section>
498
499
500<section anchor="constructing.responses.from.caches" 
501   title="Constructing Responses from Caches">
502<t>
503   For a presented request, a cache &MUST-NOT; return a stored response,
504   unless:
505   <list style="symbols">
506      <t>The presented Effective Request URI (&effective-request-uri;) and
507      that of the stored response match, and</t>
508      <t>the request method associated with the stored response allows it to
509      be used for the presented request, and</t>
510      <t>selecting request-headers nominated by the stored response (if any)
511      match those presented (see <xref target="caching.negotiated.responses"
512      />), and</t>
513      <t>the presented request and stored response are free from directives
514      that would prevent its use (see <xref target="header.cache-control" />
515      and <xref target="header.pragma"/>), and</t>
516      <t>the stored response is either:
517         <list style="symbols">
518            <t>fresh (see <xref target="expiration.model" />), or</t>
519            <t>allowed to be served stale (see <xref
520            target="serving.stale.responses" />), or</t>
521            <t>successfully validated (see <xref target="validation.model"
522            />).</t>
523         </list>
524      </t>
525  </list>
526</t>
527<t>
528   When a stored response is used to satisfy a request without validation,
529   caches &MUST; include a single Age header field (<xref target="header.age"
530   />) in the response with a value equal to the stored response's
531   current_age; see <xref target="age.calculations" />.
532</t>
533<t>
534   Requests with methods that are unsafe (&safe-methods;) &MUST; be written
535   through the cache to the origin server; i.e., a cache must not reply to
536   such a request before having forwarded the request and having received a
537   corresponding response.
538</t>
539<t>
540   Also, note that unsafe requests might invalidate already stored responses;
541   see <xref target="invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions" />.
542</t>
543<t>
544   Caches &MUST; use the most recent response (as determined by the Date
545   header) when more than one suitable response is stored. They can also
546   forward a request with "Cache-Control: max-age=0" or "Cache-Control:
547   no-cache" to disambiguate which response to use.
548</t>
549</section>
550
551<section anchor="expiration.model" title="Freshness Model">
552<t>
553   When a response is "fresh" in the cache, it can be used to satisfy
554   subsequent requests without contacting the origin server, thereby improving
555   efficiency.
556</t>
557<t>
558   The primary mechanism for determining freshness is for an origin server to
559   provide an explicit expiration time in the future, using either the Expires
560   header (<xref target="header.expires" />) or the max-age response cache
561   directive (<xref target="cache-response-directive" />). Generally, origin
562   servers will assign future explicit expiration times to responses in the
563   belief that the representation is not likely to change in a semantically
564   significant way before the expiration time is reached.
565</t>
566<t>
567   If an origin server wishes to force a cache to validate every request, it
568   can assign an explicit expiration time in the past. This means that the
569   response is always stale, so that caches should validate it before using it
570   for subsequent requests. <cref anchor="TODO-response-stale">This wording
571   might cause confusion, because the response might still be served
572   stale.</cref>
573</t>
574<t>
575   Since origin servers do not always provide explicit expiration times, HTTP
576   caches &MAY; assign heuristic expiration times when explicit times are not
577   specified, employing algorithms that use other header values (such as the
578   Last-Modified time) to estimate a plausible expiration time. The HTTP/1.1
579   specification does not provide specific algorithms, but does impose
580   worst-case constraints on their results.
581</t>
582<figure>
583<preamble>
584  The calculation to determine if a response is fresh is:
585</preamble>
586<artwork type="code">
587   response_is_fresh = (freshness_lifetime &gt; current_age)
588</artwork>
589</figure>
590<t>
591   The freshness_lifetime is defined in <xref
592   target="calculating.freshness.lifetime" />; the current_age is defined in
593   <xref target="age.calculations" />.
594</t>
595<t>
596   Additionally, clients might need to influence freshness calculation. They
597   can do this using several request cache directives, with the effect of
598   either increasing or loosening constraints on freshness. See <xref
599   target="cache-request-directive" />.
600</t>
601<t>
602   <cref anchor="ISSUE-no-req-for-directives">there are not requirements
603   directly applying to cache-request-directives and freshness.</cref>
604</t>
605<t>
606   Note that freshness applies only to cache operation; it cannot be used to
607   force a user agent to refresh its display or reload a resource. See <xref
608   target="history.lists" /> for an explanation of the difference between
609   caches and history mechanisms.
610</t>
611
612<section anchor="calculating.freshness.lifetime" 
613   title="Calculating Freshness Lifetime">
614<t>
615   A cache can calculate the freshness lifetime (denoted as
616   freshness_lifetime) of a response by using the first match of:
617   <list style="symbols">
618      <t>If the cache is shared and the s-maxage response cache directive
619      (<xref target="cache-response-directive" />) is present, use its value,
620      or</t>
621      <t>If the max-age response cache directive (<xref
622      target="cache-response-directive" />) is present, use its value, or</t>
623      <t>If the Expires response header (<xref target="header.expires" />) is
624      present, use its value minus the value of the Date response header,
625      or</t>
626      <t>Otherwise, no explicit expiration time is present in the response. A
627      heuristic freshness lifetime might be applicable; see <xref
628      target="heuristic.freshness" />.</t>
629   </list>
630</t>
631<t>
632   Note that this calculation is not vulnerable to clock skew, since all of
633   the information comes from the origin server.
634</t>
635
636<section anchor="heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">
637<t>
638   If no explicit expiration time is present in a stored response that has a
639   status code whose definition allows heuristic freshness to be used
640   (including the following in &status-codes;: 200, 203, 206, 300, 301 and
641   410), a heuristic expiration time &MAY; be calculated. Heuristics
642   &MUST-NOT; be used for response status codes that do not explicitly allow
643   it.
644</t>
645<t>
646   When a heuristic is used to calculate freshness lifetime, the cache
647   &SHOULD; attach a Warning header with a 113 warn-code to the response if
648   its current_age is more than 24 hours and such a warning is not already
649   present.
650</t>
651<t>
652   Also, if the response has a Last-Modified header (&header-last-modified;),
653   the heuristic expiration value &SHOULD; be no more than some fraction of
654   the interval since that time. A typical setting of this fraction might be
655   10%.
656</t>
657<x:note>
658   <t>
659      <x:h>Note:</x:h> RFC 2616 (<xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt=","
660      x:sec="13.9"/>) required that caches do not calculate heuristic
661      freshness for URLs with query components (i.e., those containing '?').
662      In practice, this has not been widely implemented. Therefore, servers
663      are encouraged to send explicit directives (e.g., Cache-Control:
664      no-cache) if they wish to preclude caching.
665   </t>
666</x:note>
667</section>
668</section>
669
670<section anchor="age.calculations" title="Calculating Age">
671<t>
672   HTTP/1.1 uses the Age response-header to convey the estimated age of the
673   response message when obtained from a cache. The Age field value is the
674   cache's estimate of the amount of time since the response was generated or
675   validated by the origin server. In essence, the Age value is the sum of the
676   time that the response has been resident in each of the caches along the
677   path from the origin server, plus the amount of time it has been in transit
678   along network paths.
679</t>
680<t>
681   The following data is used for the age calculation:
682</t>
683<t>
684   <x:dfn>age_value</x:dfn>
685   <list>
686      <t>
687         The term "age_value" denotes the value of the Age header (<xref
688         target="header.age"/>), in a form appropriate for arithmetic
689         operation; or 0, if not available.
690      </t>
691   </list>
692</t>
693<t>
694   <x:dfn>date_value</x:dfn>
695   <list>
696      <t>
697         HTTP/1.1 requires origin servers to send a Date header, if possible,
698         with every response, giving the time at which the response was
699         generated. The term "date_value" denotes the value of the Date
700         header, in a form appropriate for arithmetic operations. See
701         &header-date; for the definition of the Date header, and for
702         requirements regarding responses without a Date response header.
703      </t>
704   </list>
705</t>
706<t>
707   <x:dfn>now</x:dfn>
708   <list>
709      <t>
710         The term "now" means "the current value of the clock at the host
711         performing the calculation". Hosts that use HTTP, but especially
712         hosts running origin servers and caches, &SHOULD; use NTP (<xref
713         target="RFC1305"/>) or some similar protocol to synchronize their
714         clocks to a globally accurate time standard.
715      </t>
716   </list>
717</t>
718<t>
719   <x:dfn>request_time</x:dfn>
720   <list>
721      <t>
722         The current value of the clock at the host at the time the request
723         resulting in the stored response was made.
724      </t>
725   </list>
726</t>
727<t>
728   <x:dfn>response_time</x:dfn>
729   <list>
730      <t>
731         The current value of the clock at the host at the time the response
732         was received.
733      </t>
734   </list>
735</t>
736<t>
737   A response's age can be calculated in two entirely independent ways:
738   <list style="numbers">
739      <t>the "apparent_age": response_time minus date_value, if the local
740      clock is reasonably well synchronized to the origin server's clock. If
741      the result is negative, the result is replaced by zero.</t>
742      <t>the "corrected_age_value", if all of the caches along the response
743      path implement HTTP/1.1; note this value &MUST; be interpreted relative
744      to the time the request was initiated, not the time that the response
745      was received.</t>
746   </list>
747</t>
748<figure>
749<artwork type="code">
750  apparent_age = max(0, response_time - date_value);
751
752  response_delay = response_time - request_time;
753  corrected_age_value = age_value + response_delay; 
754</artwork>
755</figure>
756<figure>
757<preamble>These are combined as</preamble>
758<artwork type="code">
759  corrected_initial_age = max(apparent_age, corrected_age_value);
760</artwork></figure>
761<t>
762   The current_age of a stored response can then be calculated by adding the
763   amount of time (in seconds) since the stored response was last validated by
764   the origin server to the corrected_initial_age.
765</t>
766<figure><artwork type="code">
767  resident_time = now - response_time;
768  current_age = corrected_initial_age + resident_time;
769</artwork></figure>
770</section>
771
772<section anchor="serving.stale.responses" title="Serving Stale Responses">
773<t>
774   A "stale" response is one that either has explicit expiry information or is
775   allowed to have heuristic expiry calculated, but is not fresh according to
776   the calculations in <xref target="expiration.model" />.
777</t>
778<t>
779   Caches &MUST-NOT; return a stale response if it is prohibited by an
780   explicit in-protocol directive (e.g., by a "no-store" or "no-cache" cache
781   directive, a "must-revalidate" cache-response-directive, or an applicable
782   "s-maxage" or "proxy-revalidate" cache-response-directive; see <xref
783   target="cache-response-directive"/>).
784</t>
785<t>
786   Caches &SHOULD-NOT; return stale responses unless they are disconnected
787   (i.e., it cannot contact the origin server or otherwise find a forward
788   path) or otherwise explicitly allowed (e.g., the max-stale request
789   directive; see <xref target="cache-request-directive" />).
790</t>
791<t>
792   Stale responses &SHOULD; have a Warning header with the 110 warn-code (see
793   <xref target="header.warning" />). Likewise, the 112 warn-code &SHOULD; be
794   sent on stale responses if the cache is disconnected.
795</t>
796<t>
797   If a cache receives a first-hand response (either an entire response, or a
798   304 (Not Modified) response) that it would normally forward to the
799   requesting client, and the received response is no longer fresh, the cache
800   &SHOULD; forward it to the requesting client without adding a new Warning
801   (but without removing any existing Warning headers). A cache &SHOULD-NOT;
802   attempt to validate a response simply because that response became stale in
803   transit.
804</t>
805</section>
806</section>
807
808<section anchor="validation.model" title="Validation Model">
809<t>
810   When a cache has one or more stored responses for a requested URI, but
811   cannot serve any of them (e.g., because they are not fresh, or one cannot
812   be selected; see <xref target="caching.negotiated.responses"/>), it can use
813   the conditional request mechanism &conditional; in the forwarded request to
814   give the origin server an opportunity to both select a valid stored
815   response to be used, and to update it. This process is known as
816   "validating" or "revalidating" the stored response.
817</t>
818<t>
819   When sending such a conditional request, the cache &SHOULD; add an
820   If-Modified-Since header whose value is that of the Last-Modified header
821   from the selected (see <xref target="caching.negotiated.responses"/>)
822   stored response, if available.
823</t>
824<t>
825   Additionally, the cache &SHOULD; add an If-None-Match header whose value is
826   that of the ETag header(s) from all responses stored for the requested URI,
827   if present. However, if any of the stored responses contains only partial
828   content, its entity-tag &SHOULD-NOT; be included in the If-None-Match
829   header field unless the request is for a range that would be fully
830   satisfied by that stored response.
831</t>
832<t>
833   A 304 (Not Modified) response status code indicates that the stored
834   response can be updated and reused; see <xref target="combining.headers"/>.
835</t>
836<t>
837   A full response (i.e., one with a response body) indicates that none of the
838   stored responses nominated in the conditional request is suitable. Instead,
839   the full response &SHOULD; be used to satisfy the request and &MAY; replace
840   the stored response.
841</t>
842<t>
843   If a cache receives a 5xx response while attempting to validate a response,
844   it &MAY; either forward this response to the requesting client, or act as
845   if the server failed to respond. In the latter case, it &MAY; return a
846   previously stored response (see <xref target="serving.stale.responses" />).
847</t>
848</section>
849
850<section anchor="invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions" 
851   title="Request Methods that Invalidate">
852<t>
853   Because unsafe methods (&safe-methods;) have the potential for changing
854   state on the origin server, intervening caches can use them to keep their
855   contents up-to-date.
856</t>
857<t>
858<<<<<<< .mine
859   The following HTTP methods &MUST; cause a cache to invalidate the Effective
860   Request URI (&effective-request-uri;) as well as the URI(s) in the Location
861   and Content-Location headers (if present):
862   <list style="symbols">
863      <t>PUT</t>
864      <t>DELETE</t>
865      <t>POST</t>
866   </list>
867=======
868  In a succesful exchange (&status.2xx;), the following HTTP methods &MUST; cause a cache
869  to invalidate the Effective Request URI (&effective-request-uri;) as well
870  as the URI(s) in the Location and Content-Location headers (if present):
871  <list style="symbols">
872    <t>PUT</t>
873    <t>DELETE</t>
874    <t>POST</t>
875  </list>
876>>>>>>> .r948
877</t>
878<t>
879   An invalidation based on a URI from a Location or Content-Location header
880   &MUST-NOT; be performed if the host part of that URI differs from the host
881   part in the Effective Request URI (&effective-request-uri;). This helps
882   prevent denial of service attacks.
883</t>
884<t>
885   A cache that passes through requests for methods it does not understand
886   &SHOULD; invalidate the Effective Request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
887</t>
888<t>
889   Here, "invalidate" means that the cache will either remove all stored
890   responses related to the Effective Request URI, or will mark these as
891   "invalid" and in need of a mandatory validation before they can be returned
892   in response to a subsequent request.
893</t>
894<t>
895   Note that this does not guarantee that all appropriate responses are
896   invalidated. For example, the request that caused the change at the origin
897   server might not have gone through the cache where a response is stored.
898</t>
899</section>
900
901<section anchor="caching.authenticated.responses" 
902   title="Shared Caching of Authenticated Responses">
903
904<t>
905   Shared caches &MUST-NOT; use a cached response to a request with an
906   Authorization header (&header-authorization;) to satisfy any subsequent
907   request unless a cache directive that allows such responses to be stored is
908   present in the response.
909</t>
910
911<t>
912   In this specification, the following Cache-Control response directives
913   (<xref target="cache-response-directive"/>) have such an effect:
914   must-revalidate, public, s-maxage.
915</t>
916
917<t>
918   Note that cached responses that contain the "must-revalidate" and/or
919   "s-maxage" response directives are not allowed to be served stale (<xref
920   target="serving.stale.responses"/>) by shared caches. In particular, a
921   response with either "max-age=0, must-revalidate" or "s-maxage=0" cannot be
922   used to satisfy a subsequent request without revalidating it on the origin
923   server.
924</t>
925</section>
926
927<section anchor="caching.negotiated.responses" 
928   title="Caching Negotiated Responses">
929<t>
930   When a cache receives a request that can be satisfied by a stored response
931   that has a Vary header field (<xref target="header.vary"/>), it &MUST-NOT;
932   use that response unless all of the selecting request-headers nominated by
933   the Vary header match in both the original request (i.e., that associated
934   with the stored response), and the presented request.
935</t>
936<t>
937   The selecting request-headers from two requests are defined to match if and
938   only if those in the first request can be transformed to those in the
939   second request by applying any of the following:
940   <list style="symbols">
941      <t>
942         adding or removing whitespace, where allowed in the header's syntax
943      </t>
944      <t>
945         combining multiple message-header fields with the same field name
946         (see &header-fields;)
947      </t>
948      <t>
949         normalizing both header values in a way that is known to have
950         identical semantics, according to the header's specification (e.g.,
951         re-ordering field values when order is not significant;
952         case-normalization, where values are defined to be case-insensitive)
953      </t>
954  </list>
955</t>
956<t>
957   If (after any normalization that might take place) a header field is absent
958   from a request, it can only match another request if it is also absent
959   there.
960</t>
961<t>
962   A Vary header field-value of "*" always fails to match, and subsequent
963   requests to that resource can only be properly interpreted by the origin
964   server.
965</t>
966<t>
967   The stored response with matching selecting request-headers is known as the
968   selected response.
969</t>
970<t>
971   If no selected response is available, the cache &MAY; forward the presented
972   request to the origin server in a conditional request; see <xref
973   target="validation.model"/>.
974</t>
975</section>
976
977<section anchor="combining.headers" title="Combining Responses">
978<t>
979   When a cache receives a 304 (Not Modified) response or a 206 (Partial
980   Content) response (in this section, the "new" response"), it needs to
981   created an updated response by combining the stored response with the new
982   one, so that the updated response can be used to satisfy the request, and
983   potentially update the cached response.
984</t>
985<t>
986   If the new response contains an ETag, it identifies the stored response to
987   use. <cref anchor="TODO-mention-CL">might need language about
988   Content-Location here</cref><cref
989   anchor="TODO-select-for-combine">Shouldn't this be the selected
990   response?</cref>
991</t>
992<t>
993   If the new response's status code is 206 (partial content), both the stored
994   and new responses &MUST; have validators, and those validators &MUST; match
995   using the strong comparison function (see &weak-and-strong;). Otherwise,
996   the responses &MUST-NOT; be combined.
997</t>
998<t>
999   The stored response headers are used as those of the updated response,
1000   except that
1001   <list style="symbols">
1002      <t>any stored Warning headers with warn-code 1xx (see <xref
1003      target="header.warning" />) &MUST; be deleted.</t>
1004      <t>any stored Warning headers with warn-code 2xx &MUST; be retained.</t>
1005      <t>any other headers provided in the new response &MUST; replace all
1006      instances of the corresponding headers from the stored response.</t>
1007   </list>
1008</t>
1009<t>
1010   The updated response headers &MUST; be used to replace those of the stored
1011   response in cache (unless the stored response is removed from cache). In
1012   the case of a 206 response, the combined representation &MAY; be stored.
1013</t>
1014</section>
1015
1016</section>
1017
1018<section anchor="header.fields" title="Header Field Definitions">
1019<t>
1020   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
1021   related to caching.
1022</t>
1023<t>
1024   For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the
1025   client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the message.
1026</t>
1027
1028<section anchor="header.age" title="Age">
1029   <iref item="Age header" primary="true" x:for-anchor="" />
1030   <iref item="Headers" primary="true" subitem="Age" x:for-anchor="" />
1031   <x:anchor-alias value="Age"/>
1032   <x:anchor-alias value="Age-v"/>
1033   <x:anchor-alias value="age-value"/>
1034<t>
1035   The "Age" response-header field conveys the sender's estimate of the amount
1036   of time since the response was generated or successfully validated at the
1037   origin server. Age values are calculated as specified in <xref
1038   target="age.calculations" />.
1039</t>
1040<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Age"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Age-v"/>
1041  <x:ref>Age</x:ref>   = "Age" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Age-v</x:ref>
1042  <x:ref>Age-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref>
1043</artwork></figure>
1044<t anchor="rule.delta-seconds">
1045  <x:anchor-alias value="delta-seconds" />
1046  Age field-values are non-negative integers, representing time in seconds.
1047</t>
1048<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="Grammar" primary="true" subitem="delta-seconds" />
1049  <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref>  = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
1050</artwork></figure>
1051<t>
1052   If a cache receives a value larger than the largest positive integer it can
1053   represent, or if any of its age calculations overflows, it &MUST; transmit
1054   an Age header with a field-value of 2147483648 (2<x:sup>31</x:sup>). Caches
1055   &SHOULD; use an arithmetic type of at least 31 bits of range.
1056</t>
1057<t>
1058   The presence of an Age header field in a response implies that a response
1059   is not first-hand. However, the converse is not true, since HTTP/1.0 caches
1060   might not implement the Age header field.
1061</t>
1062</section>
1063
1064<section anchor="header.cache-control" title="Cache-Control">
1065   <iref item="Cache-Control header" primary="true" x:for-anchor="" />
1066   <iref item="Headers" primary="true" subitem="Cache-Control" 
1067      x:for-anchor="" />
1068   <x:anchor-alias value="Cache-Control"/>
1069   <x:anchor-alias value="Cache-Control-v"/>
1070   <x:anchor-alias value="cache-directive"/>
1071   <x:anchor-alias value="cache-extension"/>
1072   <x:anchor-alias value="cache-request-directive"/>
1073   <x:anchor-alias value="cache-response-directive"/>
1074<t>
1075   The "Cache-Control" general-header field is used to specify directives for
1076   caches along the request/response chain. Such cache directives are
1077   unidirectional in that the presence of a directive in a request does not
1078   imply that the same directive is to be given in the response.
1079</t>
1080<t>
1081   HTTP/1.1 caches &MUST; obey the requirements of the Cache-Control
1082   directives defined in this section. See <xref
1083   target="cache.control.extensions"/> for information about how Cache-Control
1084   directives defined elsewhere are handled.
1085</t>
1086<x:note>
1087   <t>
1088       <x:h>Note:</x:h> HTTP/1.0 caches might not implement Cache-Control and
1089       might only implement Pragma: no-cache (see <xref target="header.pragma"
1090       />).
1091   </t>
1092</x:note>
1093<t>
1094   Cache directives &MUST; be passed through by a proxy or gateway
1095   application, regardless of their significance to that application, since
1096   the directives might be applicable to all recipients along the
1097   request/response chain. It is not possible to target a directive to a
1098   specific cache.
1099</t>
1100<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Cache-Control"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Cache-Control-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="cache-extension"/>
1101  <x:ref>Cache-Control</x:ref>   = "Cache-Control" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Cache-Control-v</x:ref>
1102  <x:ref>Cache-Control-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>cache-directive</x:ref>
1103
1104  <x:ref>cache-directive</x:ref> = <x:ref>cache-request-directive</x:ref>
1105     / <x:ref>cache-response-directive</x:ref>
1106
1107  <x:ref>cache-extension</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref> [ "=" ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> ) ]
1108</artwork></figure>
1109
1110<section anchor="cache-request-directive" 
1111   title="Request Cache-Control Directives">
1112   <x:anchor-alias value="cache-request-directive" />
1113
1114<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="Grammar" primary="true" 
1115   subitem="cache-request-directive" />
1116  <x:ref>cache-request-directive</x:ref> =
1117       "no-cache"
1118     / "no-store"
1119     / "max-age" "=" <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref>
1120     / "max-stale" [ "=" <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref> ]
1121     / "min-fresh" "=" <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref>
1122     / "no-transform"
1123     / "only-if-cached"
1124     / <x:ref>cache-extension</x:ref>
1125</artwork></figure>
1126
1127<t>
1128   <x:dfn>no-cache</x:dfn>
1129   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="no-cache" />
1130   <iref item="no-cache" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1131   <list>
1132      <t>The no-cache request directive indicates that a stored response
1133      &MUST-NOT; be used to satisfy the request without successful validation
1134      on the origin server.</t> 
1135   </list>
1136</t>
1137<t>
1138   <x:dfn>no-store</x:dfn>
1139   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="no-store" />
1140   <iref item="no-store" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1141   <list>
1142      <t>The no-store request directive indicates that a cache &MUST-NOT;
1143      store any part of either this request or any response to it. This
1144      directive applies to both non-shared and shared caches. "&MUST-NOT;
1145      store" in this context means that the cache &MUST-NOT; intentionally
1146      store the information in non-volatile storage, and &MUST; make a
1147      best-effort attempt to remove the information from volatile storage as
1148      promptly as possible after forwarding it.</t>
1149      <t>This directive is NOT a reliable or sufficient mechanism for ensuring
1150      privacy. In particular, malicious or compromised caches might not
1151      recognize or obey this directive, and communications networks might be
1152      vulnerable to eavesdropping.</t>
1153   </list>
1154</t>
1155<t>
1156   <x:dfn>max-age</x:dfn>
1157   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="max-age" />
1158   <iref item="max-age" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1159   <list>
1160      <t>The max-age request directive indicates that the client is willing to
1161      accept a response whose age is no greater than the specified time in
1162      seconds. Unless the max-stale request directive is also present, the
1163      client is not willing to accept a stale response.</t>
1164   </list>
1165</t>
1166<t>
1167   <x:dfn>max-stale</x:dfn>
1168   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="max-stale" />
1169   <iref item="max-stale" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1170   <list>
1171      <t>The max-stale request directive indicates that the client is willing
1172      to accept a response that has exceeded its expiration time. If max-stale
1173      is assigned a value, then the client is willing to accept a response
1174      that has exceeded its expiration time by no more than the specified
1175      number of seconds. If no value is assigned to max-stale, then the client
1176      is willing to accept a stale response of any age.</t>
1177   </list>
1178</t>
1179<t>
1180   <x:dfn>min-fresh</x:dfn>
1181   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="min-fresh" />
1182   <iref item="min-fresh" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1183   <list>
1184      <t>The min-fresh request directive indicates that the client is willing
1185      to accept a response whose freshness lifetime is no less than its
1186      current age plus the specified time in seconds. That is, the client
1187      wants a response that will still be fresh for at least the specified
1188      number of seconds.</t>
1189   </list>
1190</t>
1191<t>
1192   <x:dfn>no-transform</x:dfn>
1193   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="no-transform" />
1194   <iref item="no-transform" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1195   <list>
1196      <t>The no-transform request directive indicates that an intermediate
1197      cache or proxy &MUST-NOT; change the Content-Encoding, Content-Range or
1198      Content-Type request headers, nor the request representation.</t>
1199   </list>
1200</t>
1201<t>
1202   <x:dfn>only-if-cached</x:dfn>
1203   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="only-if-cached" />
1204   <iref item="only-if-cached" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1205   <list>
1206      <t>The only-if-cached request directive indicates that the client only
1207      wishes to return a stored response. If it receives this directive, a
1208      cache &SHOULD; either respond using a stored response that is consistent
1209      with the other constraints of the request, or respond with a 504
1210      (Gateway Timeout) status code. If a group of caches is being operated as
1211      a unified system with good internal connectivity, such a request &MAY;
1212      be forwarded within that group of caches.</t>
1213   </list>
1214</t>
1215</section>
1216
1217<section anchor="cache-response-directive" 
1218   title="Response Cache-Control Directives">
1219   <x:anchor-alias value="cache-response-directive" />
1220
1221<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref item="Grammar" primary="true" 
1222   subitem="cache-response-directive" />
1223  <x:ref>cache-response-directive</x:ref> =
1224       "public"
1225     / "private" [ "=" <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> 1#<x:ref>field-name</x:ref> <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> ]
1226     / "no-cache" [ "=" <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> 1#<x:ref>field-name</x:ref> <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> ]
1227     / "no-store"
1228     / "no-transform"
1229     / "must-revalidate"
1230     / "proxy-revalidate"
1231     / "max-age" "=" <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref>
1232     / "s-maxage" "=" <x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref>
1233     / <x:ref>cache-extension</x:ref>
1234</artwork></figure>
1235
1236<t>
1237   <x:dfn>public</x:dfn>
1238   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="public" />
1239   <iref item="public" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1240   <list>
1241      <t>The public response directive indicates that the response &MAY; be
1242      cached, even if it would normally be non-cacheable or cacheable only
1243      within a non-shared cache. (See also Authorization,
1244      &header-authorization;, for additional details.) </t>
1245  </list>
1246</t>
1247<t>
1248   <x:dfn>private</x:dfn>
1249   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="private" />
1250   <iref item="private" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1251   <list>
1252      <t>The private response directive indicates that the response message is
1253      intended for a single user and &MUST-NOT; be stored by a shared cache. A
1254      private (non-shared) cache &MAY; store the response.</t>
1255      <t>If the private response directive specifies one or more field-names,
1256      this requirement is limited to the field-values associated with the
1257      listed response headers. That is, the specified field-names(s)
1258      &MUST-NOT; be stored by a shared cache, whereas the remainder of the
1259      response message &MAY; be.</t>
1260      <t> <x:h>Note:</x:h> This usage of the word private only controls where
1261      the response can be stored; it cannot ensure the privacy of the message
1262      content. Also, private response directives with field-names are often
1263      handled by implementations as if an unqualified private directive was
1264      received; i.e., the special handling for the qualified form is not
1265      widely implemented.</t>
1266   </list>
1267</t>
1268<t>
1269   <x:dfn>no-cache</x:dfn>
1270   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="no-cache" />
1271   <iref item="no-cache" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1272   <list>
1273      <t>The no-cache response directive indicates that the response MUST NOT
1274      be used to satisfy a subsequent request without successful validation on
1275      the origin server. This allows an origin server to prevent a cache from
1276      using it to satisfy a request without contacting it, even by caches that
1277      have been configured to return stale responses.</t>
1278      <t>If the no-cache response directive specifies one or more field-names,
1279      this requirement is limited to the field-values associated with the
1280      listed response headers. That is, the specified field-name(s) &MUST-NOT;
1281      be sent in the response to a subsequent request without successful
1282      validation on the origin server. This allows an origin server to prevent
1283      the re-use of certain header fields in a response, while still allowing
1284      caching of the rest of the response.</t>
1285      <t> <x:h>Note:</x:h> Most HTTP/1.0 caches will not recognize or obey
1286      this directive. Also, no-cache response directives with field-names are
1287      often handled by implementations as if an unqualified no-cache directive
1288      was received; i.e., the special handling for the qualified form is not
1289      widely implemented. </t>
1290   </list>
1291</t>
1292<t>
1293   <x:dfn>no-store</x:dfn>
1294   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="no-store" />
1295   <iref item="no-store" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1296   <list>
1297      <t>The no-store response directive indicates that a cache &MUST-NOT;
1298      store any part of either the immediate request or response. This
1299      directive applies to both non-shared and shared caches. "&MUST-NOT;
1300      store" in this context means that the cache &MUST-NOT; intentionally
1301      store the information in non-volatile storage, and &MUST; make a
1302      best-effort attempt to remove the information from volatile storage as
1303      promptly as possible after forwarding it.</t>
1304      <t>This directive is NOT a reliable or sufficient mechanism for ensuring
1305      privacy. In particular, malicious or compromised caches might not
1306      recognize or obey this directive, and communications networks might be
1307      vulnerable to eavesdropping.</t>
1308   </list>
1309</t>
1310<t>
1311   <x:dfn>must-revalidate</x:dfn>
1312   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="must-revalidate" />
1313   <iref item="must-revalidate" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1314   <list>
1315      <t>The must-revalidate response directive indicates that once it has
1316      become stale, the response &MUST-NOT; be used to satisfy subsequent
1317      requests without successful validation on the origin server.</t>
1318      <t>The must-revalidate directive is necessary to support reliable
1319      operation for certain protocol features. In all circumstances an
1320      HTTP/1.1 cache &MUST; obey the must-revalidate directive; in particular,
1321      if the cache cannot reach the origin server for any reason, it &MUST;
1322      generate a 504 (Gateway Timeout) response.</t>
1323      <t>Servers &SHOULD; send the must-revalidate directive if and only if
1324      failure to validate a request on the representation could result in
1325      incorrect operation, such as a silently unexecuted financial
1326      transaction.</t>
1327   </list>
1328</t>
1329<t>
1330   <x:dfn>proxy-revalidate</x:dfn>
1331   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="proxy-revalidate" />
1332   <iref item="proxy-revalidate" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1333   <list>
1334      <t>The proxy-revalidate response directive has the same meaning as the
1335      must-revalidate response directive, except that it does not apply to
1336      non-shared caches.</t>
1337   </list>
1338</t>
1339<t>
1340   <x:dfn>max-age</x:dfn>
1341   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="max-age" />
1342   <iref item="max-age" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1343   <list>
1344      <t>The max-age response directive indicates that response is to be
1345      considered stale after its age is greater than the specified number of
1346      seconds.</t>
1347   </list>
1348</t>
1349<t>
1350   <x:dfn>s-maxage</x:dfn>
1351   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="s-maxage" />
1352   <iref item="s-maxage" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1353   <list>
1354      <t>The s-maxage response directive indicates that, in shared caches, the
1355      maximum age specified by this directive overrides the maximum age
1356      specified by either the max-age directive or the Expires header. The
1357      s-maxage directive also implies the semantics of the proxy-revalidate
1358      response directive.</t>
1359   </list>
1360</t>
1361<t>
1362   <x:dfn>no-transform</x:dfn>
1363   <iref item="Cache Directives" primary="true" subitem="no-transform" />
1364   <iref item="no-transform" primary="true" subitem="Cache Directive" />
1365   <list>
1366      <t>The no-transform response directive indicates that an intermediate
1367      cache or proxy &MUST-NOT; change the Content-Encoding, Content-Range or
1368      Content-Type response headers, nor the response representation.</t>
1369   </list>
1370</t>
1371
1372</section>
1373
1374<section anchor="cache.control.extensions" title="Cache Control Extensions">
1375<t>
1376   The Cache-Control header field can be extended through the use of one or
1377   more cache-extension tokens, each with an optional value. Informational
1378   extensions (those that do not require a change in cache behavior) can be
1379   added without changing the semantics of other directives. Behavioral
1380   extensions are designed to work by acting as modifiers to the existing base
1381   of cache directives. Both the new directive and the standard directive are
1382   supplied, such that applications that do not understand the new directive
1383   will default to the behavior specified by the standard directive, and those
1384   that understand the new directive will recognize it as modifying the
1385   requirements associated with the standard directive. In this way,
1386   extensions to the cache-control directives can be made without requiring
1387   changes to the base protocol.
1388</t>
1389<t>
1390   This extension mechanism depends on an HTTP cache obeying all of the
1391   cache-control directives defined for its native HTTP-version, obeying
1392   certain extensions, and ignoring all directives that it does not
1393   understand.
1394</t>
1395<t>
1396   For example, consider a hypothetical new response directive called
1397   "community" that acts as a modifier to the private directive. We define
1398   this new directive to mean that, in addition to any non-shared cache, any
1399   cache that is shared only by members of the community named within its
1400   value may cache the response. An origin server wishing to allow the UCI
1401   community to use an otherwise private response in their shared cache(s)
1402   could do so by including
1403</t>
1404<figure><artwork type="example">
1405  Cache-Control: private, community="UCI"
1406</artwork></figure>
1407<t>
1408   A cache seeing this header field will act correctly even if the cache does
1409   not understand the community cache-extension, since it will also see and
1410   understand the private directive and thus default to the safe behavior.
1411</t>
1412<t>
1413   Unrecognized cache directives &MUST; be ignored; it is assumed that any
1414   cache directive likely to be unrecognized by an HTTP/1.1 cache will be
1415   combined with standard directives (or the response's default cacheability)
1416   such that the cache behavior will remain minimally correct even if the
1417   cache does not understand the extension(s).
1418</t>
1419<t>
1420   The HTTP Cache Directive Registry defines the name space for the cache
1421   directives.
1422</t>
1423<t>
1424   Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
1425   <list style="symbols">
1426      <t>Cache Directive Name</t>
1427      <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
1428   </list>
1429</t>
1430<t>
1431   Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review (<xref
1432   target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
1433</t>
1434<t>
1435   The registry itself is maintained at <eref
1436   target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-cache-directives"/>.
1437</t>
1438</section>
1439
1440</section>
1441
1442<section anchor="header.expires" title="Expires">
1443   <iref item="Expires header" primary="true" x:for-anchor="" />
1444   <iref item="Headers" primary="true" subitem="Expires" x:for-anchor="" />
1445   <x:anchor-alias value="Expires"/>
1446   <x:anchor-alias value="Expires-v"/>
1447<t>
1448   The "Expires" entity-header field gives the date/time after which the
1449   response is considered stale. See <xref target="expiration.model" /> for
1450   further discussion of the freshness model.
1451</t>
1452<t>
1453   The presence of an Expires field does not imply that the original resource
1454   will change or cease to exist at, before, or after that time.
1455</t>
1456<t>
1457   The field-value is an absolute date and time as defined by HTTP-date in
1458   &full-date;; it &MUST; be sent in rfc1123-date format.
1459</t>
1460<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Expires"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Expires-v"/>
1461  <x:ref>Expires</x:ref>   = "Expires" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Expires-v</x:ref>
1462  <x:ref>Expires-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
1463</artwork></figure>
1464<figure>
1465  <preamble>For example</preamble>
1466<artwork type="example">
1467  Expires: Thu, 01 Dec 1994 16:00:00 GMT
1468</artwork></figure>
1469<x:note>
1470   <t>
1471       <x:h>Note:</x:h> If a response includes a Cache-Control field with the
1472       max-age directive (see <xref target="cache-response-directive" />),
1473       that directive overrides the Expires field. Likewise, the s-maxage
1474       directive overrides Expires in shared caches.
1475   </t>
1476</x:note>
1477<t>
1478   HTTP/1.1 servers &SHOULD-NOT; send Expires dates more than one year in the
1479   future.
1480</t>
1481<t>
1482   HTTP/1.1 clients and caches &MUST; treat other invalid date formats,
1483   especially including the value "0", as in the past (i.e., "already
1484   expired").
1485</t>
1486</section>
1487
1488<section anchor="header.pragma" title="Pragma">
1489   <iref item="Pragma header" primary="true" x:for-anchor="" />
1490   <iref item="Headers" primary="true" subitem="Pragma" x:for-anchor="" />
1491   <x:anchor-alias value="extension-pragma"/>
1492   <x:anchor-alias value="Pragma"/>
1493   <x:anchor-alias value="Pragma-v"/>
1494   <x:anchor-alias value="pragma-directive"/>
1495<t>
1496   The "Pragma" general-header field is used to include
1497   implementation-specific directives that might apply to any recipient along
1498   the request/response chain. All pragma directives specify optional behavior
1499   from the viewpoint of the protocol; however, some systems &MAY; require
1500   that behavior be consistent with the directives.
1501</t>
1502<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Pragma"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Pragma-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="pragma-directive"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="extension-pragma"/>
1503  <x:ref>Pragma</x:ref>            = "Pragma" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Pragma-v</x:ref>
1504  <x:ref>Pragma-v</x:ref>          = 1#<x:ref>pragma-directive</x:ref>
1505  <x:ref>pragma-directive</x:ref>  = "no-cache" / <x:ref>extension-pragma</x:ref>
1506  <x:ref>extension-pragma</x:ref>  = <x:ref>token</x:ref> [ "=" ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> ) ]
1507</artwork></figure>
1508<t>
1509   When the no-cache directive is present in a request message, an application
1510   &SHOULD; forward the request toward the origin server even if it has a
1511   cached copy of what is being requested. This pragma directive has the same
1512   semantics as the no-cache response directive (see <xref
1513   target="cache-response-directive" />) and is defined here for backward
1514   compatibility with HTTP/1.0. Clients &SHOULD; include both header fields
1515   when a no-cache request is sent to a server not known to be HTTP/1.1
1516   compliant. HTTP/1.1 caches &SHOULD; treat "Pragma: no-cache" as if the
1517   client had sent "Cache-Control: no-cache".
1518</t>
1519<x:note>
1520   <t>
1521      <x:h>Note:</x:h> Because the meaning of "Pragma: no-cache" as a
1522      response-header field is not actually specified, it does not provide a
1523      reliable replacement for "Cache-Control: no-cache" in a response.
1524   </t>
1525</x:note>
1526<t>
1527   This mechanism is deprecated; no new Pragma directives will be defined in
1528   HTTP.
1529</t>
1530</section>
1531
1532<section anchor="header.vary" title="Vary">
1533   <iref item="Vary header" primary="true" x:for-anchor="" />
1534   <iref item="Headers" primary="true" subitem="Vary" x:for-anchor="" />
1535   <x:anchor-alias value="Vary"/>
1536   <x:anchor-alias value="Vary-v"/>
1537<t>
1538   The "Vary" response-header field conveys the set of request-header fields
1539   that were used to select the representation.
1540</t>
1541<t>
1542   Caches use this information, in part, to determine whether a stored
1543   response can be used to satisfy a given request; see <xref
1544   target="caching.negotiated.responses" />. determines, while the response is
1545   fresh, whether a cache is permitted to use the response to reply to a
1546   subsequent request without validation; see <xref
1547   target="caching.negotiated.responses" />.
1548</t>
1549<t>
1550   In uncacheable or stale responses, the Vary field value advises the user
1551   agent about the criteria that were used to select the representation.
1552</t>
1553<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Vary"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Vary-v"/>
1554  <x:ref>Vary</x:ref>   = "Vary" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Vary-v</x:ref>
1555  <x:ref>Vary-v</x:ref> = "*" / 1#<x:ref>field-name</x:ref>
1556</artwork></figure>
1557<t>
1558   The set of header fields named by the Vary field value is known as the
1559   selecting request-headers.
1560</t>
1561<t>
1562   Servers &SHOULD; include a Vary header field with any cacheable response
1563   that is subject to server-driven negotiation. Doing so allows a cache to
1564   properly interpret future requests on that resource and informs the user
1565   agent about the presence of negotiation on that resource. A server &MAY;
1566   include a Vary header field with a non-cacheable response that is subject
1567   to server-driven negotiation, since this might provide the user agent with
1568   useful information about the dimensions over which the response varies at
1569   the time of the response.
1570</t>
1571<t>
1572   A Vary field value of "*" signals that unspecified parameters not limited
1573   to the request-headers (e.g., the network address of the client), play a
1574   role in the selection of the response representation; therefore, a cache
1575   cannot determine whether this response is appropriate. The "*" value
1576   &MUST-NOT; be generated by a proxy server.
1577</t>
1578<t>
1579   The field-names given are not limited to the set of standard request-header
1580   fields defined by this specification. Field names are case-insensitive.
1581</t>
1582</section>
1583
1584<section anchor="header.warning" title="Warning">
1585   <iref item="Warning header" primary="true" x:for-anchor="" />
1586   <iref item="Headers" primary="true" subitem="Warning" x:for-anchor="" />
1587   <x:anchor-alias value="Warning"/>
1588   <x:anchor-alias value="Warning-v"/>
1589   <x:anchor-alias value="warning-value"/>
1590   <x:anchor-alias value="warn-agent"/>
1591   <x:anchor-alias value="warn-code"/>
1592   <x:anchor-alias value="warn-date"/>
1593   <x:anchor-alias value="warn-text"/>
1594<t>
1595   The "Warning" general-header field is used to carry additional information
1596   about the status or transformation of a message that might not be reflected
1597   in the message. This information is typically used to warn about possible
1598   incorrectness introduced by caching operations or transformations applied
1599   to the payload of the message.
1600</t>
1601<t>
1602   Warnings can be used for other purposes, both cache-related and otherwise.
1603   The use of a warning, rather than an error status code, distinguishes these
1604   responses from true failures.
1605</t>
1606<t>
1607   Warning headers can in general be applied to any message, however some
1608   warn-codes are specific to caches and can only be applied to response
1609   messages.
1610</t>
1611<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Warning"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Warning-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="warning-value"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="warn-code"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="warn-agent"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="warn-text"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="warn-date"/>
1612  <x:ref>Warning</x:ref>    = "Warning" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Warning-v</x:ref>
1613  <x:ref>Warning-v</x:ref>  = 1#<x:ref>warning-value</x:ref>
1614 
1615  <x:ref>warning-value</x:ref> = <x:ref>warn-code</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>warn-agent</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>warn-text</x:ref>
1616                                        [<x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>warn-date</x:ref>]
1617 
1618  <x:ref>warn-code</x:ref>  = 3<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
1619  <x:ref>warn-agent</x:ref> = ( <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref> [ ":" <x:ref>port</x:ref> ] ) / <x:ref>pseudonym</x:ref>
1620                  ; the name or pseudonym of the server adding
1621                  ; the Warning header, for use in debugging
1622  <x:ref>warn-text</x:ref>  = <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>
1623  <x:ref>warn-date</x:ref>  = <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref>
1624</artwork></figure>
1625<t>
1626   Multiple warnings can be attached to a response (either by the origin
1627   server or by a cache), including multiple warnings with the same code
1628   number, only differing in warn-text.
1629</t>
1630<t>
1631   When this occurs, the user agent &SHOULD; inform the user of as many of
1632   them as possible, in the order that they appear in the response.
1633</t>
1634<t>
1635   Systems that generate multiple Warning headers &SHOULD; order them with
1636   this user agent behavior in mind. New Warning headers &SHOULD; be added
1637   after any existing Warning headers.
1638</t>
1639<t>
1640   Warnings are assigned three digit warn-codes. The first digit indicates
1641   whether the Warning is required to be deleted from a stored response after
1642   validation:
1643   <list style="symbols">
1644      <t>1xx Warnings describe the freshness or validation status of the
1645      response, and so &MUST; be deleted by caches after validation. They can
1646      only be generated by a cache when validating a cached entry, and
1647      &MUST-NOT; be generated in any other situation.</t>
1648      <t>2xx Warnings describe some aspect of the representation that is not
1649      rectified by a validation (for example, a lossy compression of the
1650      representation) and &MUST-NOT; be deleted by caches after validation,
1651      unless a full response is returned, in which case they &MUST; be.</t>
1652   </list>
1653</t>
1654<t>
1655   If an implementation sends a message with one or more Warning headers to a
1656   receiver whose version is HTTP/1.0 or lower, then the sender &MUST; include
1657   in each warning-value a warn-date that matches the Date header in the
1658   message.
1659</t>
1660<t>
1661   If an implementation receives a message with a warning-value that includes
1662   a warn-date, and that warn-date is different from the Date value in the
1663   response, then that warning-value &MUST; be deleted from the message before
1664   storing, forwarding, or using it. (preventing the consequences of naive
1665   caching of Warning header fields.) If all of the warning-values are deleted
1666   for this reason, the Warning header &MUST; be deleted as well.
1667</t>
1668<t>
1669   The following warn-codes are defined by this specification, each with a
1670   recommended warn-text in English, and a description of its meaning.
1671</t>
1672<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1673   110 Response is stale
1674   <list>
1675      <t>&SHOULD; be included whenever the returned response is stale.</t>
1676   </list>
1677</t>
1678<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1679   111 Revalidation failed
1680   <list>
1681      <t>&SHOULD; be included if a cache returns a stale response because an
1682      attempt to validate the response failed, due to an inability to reach
1683      the server.</t>
1684   </list>
1685</t>
1686<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1687   112 Disconnected operation
1688   <list>
1689      <t>&SHOULD; be included if the cache is intentionally disconnected from
1690      the rest of the network for a period of time.</t>
1691   </list>
1692</t>
1693<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1694   113 Heuristic expiration
1695   <list>
1696      <t>&SHOULD; be included if the cache heuristically chose a freshness
1697      lifetime greater than 24 hours and the response's age is greater than 24
1698      hours.</t>
1699   </list>
1700</t>
1701<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1702   199 Miscellaneous warning
1703   <list>
1704      <t>The warning text can include arbitrary information to be presented to
1705      a human user, or logged. A system receiving this warning &MUST-NOT; take
1706      any automated action, besides presenting the warning to the user.</t>
1707   </list>
1708</t>
1709<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1710   214 Transformation applied
1711   <list>
1712      <t>&MUST; be added by an intermediate proxy if it applies any
1713      transformation to the representation, such as changing the
1714      content-coding, media-type, or modifying the representation data, unless
1715      this Warning code already appears in the response.</t>
1716   </list>
1717</t>
1718<t><?rfc needLines="4"?>
1719   299 Miscellaneous persistent warning
1720   <list>
1721      <t>The warning text can include arbitrary information to be presented to
1722      a human user, or logged. A system receiving this warning &MUST-NOT; take
1723      any automated action.</t>
1724   </list>
1725</t>
1726</section>
1727
1728</section>
1729
1730<section anchor="history.lists" title="History Lists">
1731<t>
1732   User agents often have history mechanisms, such as "Back" buttons and
1733   history lists, that can be used to redisplay a representation retrieved
1734   earlier in a session.
1735</t>
1736<t>
1737   The freshness model (<xref target="expiration.model"/>) does not
1738   necessarily apply to history mechanisms. I.e., a history mechanism can
1739   display a previous representation even if it has expired.
1740</t>
1741<t>
1742   This does not prohibit the history mechanism from telling the user that a
1743   view might be stale, or from honoring cache directives (e.g.,
1744   Cache-Control: no-store).
1745</t>
1746</section>
1747
1748
1749<section anchor="IANA.considerations" title="IANA Considerations">
1750
1751<section title="Cache Directive Registry" 
1752   anchor="cache.directive.registration">
1753<t>
1754   The registration procedure for HTTP Cache Directives is defined by <xref
1755   target="cache.control.extensions"/> of this document.
1756</t>
1757<t>
1758   The HTTP Cache Directive Registry should be created at <eref
1759   target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-cache-directives"/> and be
1760   populated with the registrations below:
1761</t>
1762<?BEGININC p6-cache.cache-directives ?>
1763<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-cache-directives-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
1764<texttable xmlns:my="#my" align="left" suppress-title="true"
1765           anchor="iana.cache.directive.registration.table">
1766   <ttcol>Cache Directive</ttcol>
1767   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
1768
1769   <c>max-age</c>
1770   <c>
1771      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>, <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1772   </c>
1773   <c>max-stale</c>
1774   <c>
1775      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>
1776   </c>
1777   <c>min-fresh</c>
1778   <c>
1779      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>
1780   </c>
1781   <c>must-revalidate</c>
1782   <c>
1783      <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1784   </c>
1785   <c>no-cache</c>
1786   <c>
1787      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>, <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1788   </c>
1789   <c>no-store</c>
1790   <c>
1791      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>, <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1792   </c>
1793   <c>no-transform</c>
1794   <c>
1795      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>, <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1796   </c>
1797   <c>only-if-cached</c>
1798   <c>
1799      <xref target="cache-request-directive"/>
1800   </c>
1801   <c>private</c>
1802   <c>
1803      <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1804   </c>
1805   <c>proxy-revalidate</c>
1806   <c>
1807      <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1808   </c>
1809   <c>public</c>
1810   <c>
1811      <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1812   </c>
1813   <c>s-maxage</c>
1814   <c>
1815      <xref target="cache-response-directive"/>
1816   </c>
1817   <c>stale-if-error</c>
1818   <c>
1819      <xref xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" target="RFC5861" x:fmt="," x:sec="4"/>
1820   </c>
1821   <c>stale-while-revalidate</c>
1822   <c>
1823      <xref xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" target="RFC5861" x:fmt="," x:sec="3"/>
1824   </c>
1825</texttable>
1826<!--(END)-->
1827<?ENDINC p6-cache.cache-directives ?>
1828</section>
1829
1830<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
1831<t>
1832  The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref 
1833  target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html" />
1834  should be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864" />):
1835</t>
1836<?BEGININC p6-cache.iana-headers ?>
1837<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
1838<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
1839   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
1840   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
1841   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
1842   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
1843
1844   <c>Age</c>
1845   <c>http</c>
1846   <c>standard</c>
1847   <c>
1848      <xref target="header.age"/>
1849   </c>
1850   <c>Cache-Control</c>
1851   <c>http</c>
1852   <c>standard</c>
1853   <c>
1854      <xref target="header.cache-control"/>
1855   </c>
1856   <c>Expires</c>
1857   <c>http</c>
1858   <c>standard</c>
1859   <c>
1860      <xref target="header.expires"/>
1861   </c>
1862   <c>Pragma</c>
1863   <c>http</c>
1864   <c>standard</c>
1865   <c>
1866      <xref target="header.pragma"/>
1867   </c>
1868   <c>Vary</c>
1869   <c>http</c>
1870   <c>standard</c>
1871   <c>
1872      <xref target="header.vary"/>
1873   </c>
1874   <c>Warning</c>
1875   <c>http</c>
1876   <c>standard</c>
1877   <c>
1878      <xref target="header.warning"/>
1879   </c>
1880</texttable>
1881<!--(END)-->
1882<?ENDINC p6-cache.iana-headers ?>
1883<t>
1884   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task
1885   Force".
1886</t>
1887</section>
1888
1889</section>
1890
1891<section anchor="security.considerations" title="Security Considerations">
1892<t>
1893   Caches expose additional potential vulnerabilities, since the contents of
1894   the cache represent an attractive target for malicious exploitation.
1895   Because cache contents persist after an HTTP request is complete, an attack
1896   on the cache can reveal information long after a user believes that the
1897   information has been removed from the network. Therefore, cache contents
1898   should be protected as sensitive information.
1899</t>
1900</section>
1901
1902<section anchor="ack" title="Acknowledgments">
1903<t>
1904   Much of the content and presentation of the caching design is due to
1905   suggestions and comments from individuals including: Shel Kaphan, Paul
1906   Leach, Koen Holtman, David Morris, and Larry Masinter.
1907</t>
1908</section>
1909
1910</middle>
1911
1912<back>
1913<references title="Normative References">
1914
1915  <reference anchor="Part1">
1916    <front>
1917      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
1918      <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
1919        <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1920        <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1921      </author>
1922      <author fullname="Jim Gettys" initials="J." surname="Gettys">
1923        <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
1924        <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
1925      </author>
1926      <author fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
1927        <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1928        <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1929      </author>
1930      <author fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
1931        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1932        <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
1933      </author>
1934      <author fullname="Larry Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
1935        <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1936        <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
1937      </author>
1938      <author fullname="Paul J. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
1939        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1940        <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1941      </author>
1942      <author fullname="Tim Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
1943        <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1944        <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1945      </author>
1946      <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
1947        <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1948        <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1949      </author>
1950      <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
1951        <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1952        <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1953      </author>
1954      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
1955    </front>
1956    <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;" />
1957    <x:source basename="p1-messaging" href="p1-messaging.xml" />
1958  </reference>
1959
1960  <reference anchor="Part2">
1961    <front>
1962      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</title>
1963      <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
1964        <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1965        <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1966      </author>
1967      <author fullname="Jim Gettys" initials="J." surname="Gettys">
1968        <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
1969        <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
1970      </author>
1971      <author fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
1972        <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1973        <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1974      </author>
1975      <author fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
1976        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1977        <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
1978      </author>
1979      <author fullname="Larry Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
1980        <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1981        <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
1982      </author>
1983      <author fullname="Paul J. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
1984        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1985        <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1986      </author>
1987      <author fullname="Tim Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
1988        <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1989        <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1990      </author>
1991      <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
1992        <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1993        <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1994      </author>
1995      <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
1996        <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1997        <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1998      </author>
1999      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
2000    </front>
2001    <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
2002    <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml" />
2003  </reference>
2004
2005  <reference anchor="Part4">
2006    <front>
2007      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</title>
2008      <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
2009        <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
2010        <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
2011      </author>
2012      <author fullname="Jim Gettys" initials="J." surname="Gettys">
2013        <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
2014        <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
2015      </author>
2016      <author fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
2017        <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
2018        <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
2019      </author>
2020      <author fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
2021        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2022        <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
2023      </author>
2024      <author fullname="Larry Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
2025        <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
2026        <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
2027      </author>
2028      <author fullname="Paul J. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
2029        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2030        <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
2031      </author>
2032      <author fullname="Tim Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
2033        <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
2034        <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
2035      </author>
2036      <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
2037        <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
2038        <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
2039      </author>
2040      <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
2041        <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
2042        <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
2043      </author>
2044      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
2045    </front>
2046    <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-&ID-VERSION;" />
2047    <x:source basename="p4-conditional" href="p4-conditional.xml" />
2048  </reference>
2049
2050  <reference anchor="Part5">
2051    <front>
2052      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</title>
2053      <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
2054        <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
2055        <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
2056      </author>
2057      <author fullname="Jim Gettys" initials="J." surname="Gettys">
2058        <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
2059        <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
2060      </author>
2061      <author fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
2062        <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
2063        <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
2064      </author>
2065      <author fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
2066        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2067        <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
2068      </author>
2069      <author fullname="Larry Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
2070        <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
2071        <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
2072      </author>
2073      <author fullname="Paul J. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
2074        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2075        <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
2076      </author>
2077      <author fullname="Tim Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
2078        <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
2079        <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
2080      </author>
2081      <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
2082        <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
2083        <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
2084      </author>
2085      <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
2086        <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
2087        <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
2088      </author>
2089      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
2090    </front>
2091    <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;" />
2092    <x:source basename="p5-range" href="p5-range.xml" />
2093  </reference>
2094
2095  <reference anchor="Part7">
2096    <front>
2097      <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
2098      <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
2099        <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
2100        <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
2101      </author>
2102      <author fullname="Jim Gettys" initials="J." surname="Gettys">
2103        <organization abbrev="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</organization>
2104        <address><email>jg@freedesktop.org</email></address>
2105      </author>
2106      <author fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
2107        <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
2108        <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
2109      </author>
2110      <author fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
2111        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2112        <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
2113      </author>
2114      <author fullname="Larry Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
2115        <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
2116        <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
2117      </author>
2118      <author fullname="Paul J. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
2119        <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2120        <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
2121      </author>
2122      <author fullname="Tim Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
2123        <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
2124        <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
2125      </author>
2126      <author fullname="Yves Lafon" initials="Y." role="editor" surname="Lafon">
2127        <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
2128        <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
2129      </author>
2130      <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
2131        <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
2132        <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
2133      </author>
2134      <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
2135    </front>
2136    <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;" />
2137    <x:source basename="p7-auth" href="p7-auth.xml" />
2138  </reference>
2139
2140  <reference anchor="RFC2119">
2141    <front>
2142      <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
2143      <author fullname="Scott Bradner" initials="S." surname="Bradner">
2144        <organization>Harvard University</organization>
2145        <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
2146      </author>
2147      <date month="March" year="1997" />
2148    </front>
2149    <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14" />
2150    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119" />
2151  </reference>
2152
2153  <reference anchor="RFC5234">
2154    <front>
2155      <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
2156      <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
2157        <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
2158        <address>
2159          <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
2160        </address> 
2161      </author>
2162      <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
2163        <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
2164        <address>
2165          <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
2166        </address>
2167      </author>
2168      <date month="January" year="2008"/>
2169    </front>
2170    <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
2171    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
2172  </reference>
2173 
2174</references>
2175
2176<references title="Informative References">
2177
2178  <reference anchor="RFC1305">
2179    <front>
2180      <title>Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation</title>
2181      <author fullname="David L. Mills" initials="D." surname="Mills">
2182        <organization>University of Delaware, Electrical Engineering Department</organization>
2183        <address><email>mills@udel.edu</email></address>
2184      </author>
2185      <date month="March" year="1992" />
2186    </front>
2187    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1305" />
2188  </reference>
2189
2190  <reference anchor="RFC2616">
2191    <front>
2192      <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
2193      <author fullname="R. Fielding" initials="R." surname="Fielding">
2194        <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
2195        <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
2196      </author>
2197      <author fullname="J. Gettys" initials="J." surname="Gettys">
2198        <organization>W3C</organization>
2199        <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
2200      </author>
2201      <author fullname="J. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
2202        <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
2203        <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
2204      </author>
2205      <author fullname="H. Frystyk" initials="H." surname="Frystyk">
2206        <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2207        <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
2208      </author>
2209      <author fullname="L. Masinter" initials="L." surname="Masinter">
2210        <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
2211        <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
2212      </author>
2213      <author fullname="P. Leach" initials="P." surname="Leach">
2214        <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2215        <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
2216      </author>
2217      <author fullname="T. Berners-Lee" initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee">
2218        <organization>W3C</organization>
2219        <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
2220      </author>
2221      <date month="June" year="1999" />
2222    </front>
2223    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616" />
2224  </reference>
2225
2226  <reference anchor="RFC3864">
2227    <front>
2228      <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
2229      <author fullname="G. Klyne" initials="G." surname="Klyne">
2230        <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
2231        <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
2232      </author>
2233      <author fullname="M. Nottingham" initials="M." surname="Nottingham">
2234        <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
2235        <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
2236      </author>
2237      <author fullname="J. Mogul" initials="J." surname="Mogul">
2238        <organization>HP Labs</organization>
2239        <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
2240      </author>
2241      <date month="September" year="2004" />
2242    </front>
2243    <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="90" />
2244    <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3864" />
2245  </reference>
2246
2247  <reference anchor='RFC5226'>
2248    <front>
2249      <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
2250      <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
2251        <organization>IBM</organization>
2252        <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
2253      </author>
2254      <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
2255        <organization>Google</organization>
2256        <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
2257      </author>
2258      <date year='2008' month='May' />
2259    </front>
2260    <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
2261    <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
2262  </reference>
2263
2264  <reference anchor='RFC5861'>
2265    <front>
2266      <title abbrev="HTTP stale controls">HTTP Cache-Control Extensions for Stale Content</title>
2267      <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham">
2268        <organization>Yahoo! Inc.</organization>
2269        <address><email>mnot@yahoo-inc.com</email></address>
2270      </author>
2271      <date month="April" year="2010"/>
2272    </front>
2273    <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5861' />
2274  </reference>
2275
2276</references>
2277
2278<section anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616" title="Changes from RFC 2616">
2279<t>
2280  Make the specified age calculation algorithm less conservative.
2281  (<xref target="age.calculations"/>)
2282</t>
2283<t>
2284  Remove requirement to consider Content-Location in successful responses
2285  in order to determine the appropriate response to use.
2286  (<xref target="validation.model" />)
2287</t>
2288<t>
2289  Clarify denial of service attack avoidance requirement.
2290  (<xref target="invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions" />)
2291</t>
2292<t>
2293  Do not mention RFC 2047 encoding and multiple languages in Warning headers
2294  anymore, as these aspects never were implemented.
2295  (<xref target="header.warning" />)
2296</t>
2297</section>
2298
2299<?BEGININC p6-cache.abnf-appendix ?>
2300<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
2301<figure>
2302<artwork type="abnf" name="p6-cache.parsed-abnf">
2303<x:ref>Age</x:ref> = "Age:" OWS Age-v
2304<x:ref>Age-v</x:ref> = delta-seconds
2305
2306<x:ref>Cache-Control</x:ref> = "Cache-Control:" OWS Cache-Control-v
2307<x:ref>Cache-Control-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) cache-directive *( OWS "," [ OWS
2308 cache-directive ] )
2309
2310<x:ref>Expires</x:ref> = "Expires:" OWS Expires-v
2311<x:ref>Expires-v</x:ref> = HTTP-date
2312
2313<x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part1], Section 6.1&gt;
2314
2315<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
2316
2317<x:ref>Pragma</x:ref> = "Pragma:" OWS Pragma-v
2318<x:ref>Pragma-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) pragma-directive *( OWS "," [ OWS
2319 pragma-directive ] )
2320
2321<x:ref>Vary</x:ref> = "Vary:" OWS Vary-v
2322<x:ref>Vary-v</x:ref> = "*" / ( *( "," OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name
2323 ] ) )
2324
2325<x:ref>Warning</x:ref> = "Warning:" OWS Warning-v
2326<x:ref>Warning-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) warning-value *( OWS "," [ OWS warning-value
2327 ] )
2328
2329<x:ref>cache-directive</x:ref> = cache-request-directive / cache-response-directive
2330<x:ref>cache-extension</x:ref> = token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]
2331<x:ref>cache-request-directive</x:ref> = "no-cache" / "no-store" / ( "max-age="
2332 delta-seconds ) / ( "max-stale" [ "=" delta-seconds ] ) / (
2333 "min-fresh=" delta-seconds ) / "no-transform" / "only-if-cached" /
2334 cache-extension
2335<x:ref>cache-response-directive</x:ref> = "public" / ( "private" [ "=" DQUOTE *( ","
2336 OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name ] ) DQUOTE ] ) / (
2337 "no-cache" [ "=" DQUOTE *( "," OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS
2338 field-name ] ) DQUOTE ] ) / "no-store" / "no-transform" /
2339 "must-revalidate" / "proxy-revalidate" / ( "max-age=" delta-seconds
2340 ) / ( "s-maxage=" delta-seconds ) / cache-extension
2341
2342<x:ref>delta-seconds</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
2343
2344<x:ref>extension-pragma</x:ref> = token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]
2345
2346<x:ref>field-name</x:ref> = &lt;field-name, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2&gt;
2347
2348<x:ref>port</x:ref> = &lt;port, defined in [Part1], Section 2.6&gt;
2349<x:ref>pragma-directive</x:ref> = "no-cache" / extension-pragma
2350<x:ref>pseudonym</x:ref> = &lt;pseudonym, defined in [Part1], Section 9.9&gt;
2351
2352<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
2353
2354<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
2355
2356<x:ref>uri-host</x:ref> = &lt;uri-host, defined in [Part1], Section 2.6&gt;
2357
2358<x:ref>warn-agent</x:ref> = ( uri-host [ ":" port ] ) / pseudonym
2359<x:ref>warn-code</x:ref> = 3DIGIT
2360<x:ref>warn-date</x:ref> = DQUOTE HTTP-date DQUOTE
2361<x:ref>warn-text</x:ref> = quoted-string
2362<x:ref>warning-value</x:ref> = warn-code SP warn-agent SP warn-text [ SP warn-date
2363 ]
2364</artwork>
2365</figure>
2366<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
2367; Age defined but not used
2368; Cache-Control defined but not used
2369; Expires defined but not used
2370; Pragma defined but not used
2371; Vary defined but not used
2372; Warning defined but not used
2373</artwork></figure></section>
2374<?ENDINC p6-cache.abnf-appendix ?>
2375
2376<section anchor="change.log" title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)">
2377
2378<section title="Since RFC2616">
2379  <t>Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616" />.</t>
2380</section>
2381
2382<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-00">
2383<t>
2384  Closed issues:
2385  <list style="symbols">
2386    <t>
2387      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/9" />: "Trailer" (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#trailer-hop" />)</t>
2388    <t>
2389      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/12" />: "Invalidation after Update or Delete" (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#invalidupd" />)</t>
2390    <t>
2391      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35" />: "Normative and Informative references"</t>
2392    <t>
2393      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/48" />: "Date reference typo"</t>
2394    <t>
2395      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/49" />: "Connection header text"</t>
2396    <t>
2397      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/65" />: "Informative references"</t>
2398    <t>
2399      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/66" />: "ISO-8859-1 Reference"</t>
2400    <t>
2401      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86" />: "Normative up-to-date references"</t>
2402    <t>
2403      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/87" />: "typo in 13.2.2"</t>
2404  </list>
2405</t>
2406<t>
2407  Other changes:
2408  <list style="symbols">
2409    <t>Use names of RFC4234 core rules DQUOTE and HTAB (work in progress on <eref
2410        target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36" />)</t>
2411  </list>
2412</t>
2413</section>
2414
2415<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-01">
2416<t>
2417  Closed issues:
2418  <list style="symbols">
2419    <t>
2420      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/82" />: "rel_path not used"</t>
2421  </list>
2422</t>
2423<t>
2424  Other changes:
2425  <list style="symbols">
2426    <t>Get rid of duplicate BNF rule names ("host" -&gt; "uri-host") (work in progress
2427      on <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36" />)</t>
2428    <t>Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the
2429      specification.</t>
2430  </list>
2431</t>
2432</section>
2433
2434<section anchor="changes.since.02" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-02">
2435<t>
2436  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40" />):
2437  <list style="symbols">
2438    <t>Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers defined in this
2439      document.</t>
2440  </list>
2441</t>
2442</section>
2443
2444<section anchor="changes.since.03" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-03">
2445<t>
2446  Closed issues:
2447  <list style="symbols">
2448    <t>
2449      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/106" />: "Vary header classification"</t>
2450  </list>
2451</t>
2452</section>
2453
2454<section anchor="changes.since.04" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-04">
2455<t>
2456  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
2457  <list style="symbols"> 
2458    <t>
2459      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
2460    </t>
2461    <t>
2462      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
2463      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
2464    </t>
2465    <t>
2466      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
2467      header value format definitions.
2468    </t>
2469  </list>
2470</t>
2471</section>
2472
2473<section anchor="changes.since.05" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-05">
2474<t>
2475  This is a total rewrite of this part of the specification.
2476</t>
2477<t>
2478  Affected issues:
2479  <list style="symbols">
2480    <t>
2481      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/54" />: "Definition of 1xx Warn-Codes"</t>
2482    <t>
2483      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/60" />: "Placement of 13.5.1 and 13.5.2"</t>
2484    <t>
2485      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/138" />: "The role of Warning and Semantic Transparency in Caching"</t>
2486    <t>
2487      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/139" />: "Methods and Caching"</t>
2488  </list>
2489</t>
2490<t>
2491  In addition: Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
2492  <list style="symbols"> 
2493    <t>
2494      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
2495    </t>
2496  </list>
2497</t>
2498</section>
2499
2500<section anchor="changes.since.06" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-06">
2501<t>
2502  Closed issues:
2503  <list style="symbols"> 
2504    <t>
2505      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161"/>:
2506      "base for numeric protocol elements"
2507    </t>
2508  </list>
2509</t>
2510<t>
2511  Affected issues:
2512  <list style="symbols">
2513    <t>
2514      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/37"/>:
2515      Vary and non-existant headers
2516    </t>
2517  </list>
2518</t>
2519</section>
2520
2521<section anchor="changes.since.07" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-07">
2522<t>
2523  Closed issues:
2524  <list style="symbols"> 
2525    <t>
2526      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/54" />:
2527      "Definition of 1xx Warn-Codes"
2528    </t>
2529    <t>
2530      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/167"/>:
2531      "Content-Location on 304 responses"
2532    </t>
2533    <t>
2534      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/169" />:
2535      "private and no-cache CC directives with headers"
2536    </t>
2537    <t>
2538      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/187"/>:
2539      "RFC2047 and warn-text"
2540    </t>
2541  </list>
2542</t>
2543</section>
2544
2545<section anchor="changes.since.08" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-08">
2546<t>
2547  Closed issues:
2548  <list style="symbols"> 
2549    <t>
2550      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/147" />:
2551      "serving negotiated responses from cache: header-specific canonicalization"
2552    </t>
2553    <t>
2554      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/197" />:
2555      "Effect of CC directives on history lists"
2556    </t>
2557  </list>
2558</t>
2559<t>
2560  Affected issues:
2561  <list style="symbols">
2562    <t>
2563      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/199"/>:
2564      Status codes and caching
2565    </t>
2566  </list>
2567</t>
2568<t>
2569  Partly resolved issues:
2570  <list style="symbols"> 
2571    <t>
2572      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/60"/>:
2573      "Placement of 13.5.1 and 13.5.2"
2574    </t>
2575  </list>
2576</t>
2577</section>
2578
2579<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
2580<t>
2581  Closed issues:
2582  <list style="symbols"> 
2583    <t>
2584      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/29" />:
2585      "Age calculation"
2586    </t>
2587    <t>
2588      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/168" />:
2589      "Clarify differences between / requirements for request and response CC directives"
2590    </t>
2591        <t>
2592                <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/174" />:
2593                "Caching authenticated responses"
2594        </t>
2595    <t>
2596      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/208" />:
2597      "IANA registry for cache-control directives"
2598    </t>
2599    <t>
2600      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/211" />:
2601      "Heuristic caching of URLs with query components"
2602    </t>
2603  </list>
2604</t>
2605<t>
2606  Partly resolved issues:
2607  <list style="symbols"> 
2608    <t>
2609      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
2610      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
2611    </t>
2612  </list>
2613</t>
2614</section>
2615
2616<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
2617<t>
2618  Closed issues:
2619  <list style="symbols"> 
2620    <t>
2621      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/220"/>:
2622      "consider removing the 'changes from 2068' sections"
2623    </t>
2624    <t>
2625      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/223"/>:
2626      "Allowing heuristic caching for new status codes"
2627    </t>
2628    <t>
2629      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/223"/>:
2630      "Allowing heuristic caching for new status codes"
2631    </t>
2632    <t>
2633      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/235"/>:
2634      "Cache Invalidation only happens upon successful responses"
2635    </t>
2636    <t>
2637      Clean up TODOs and prose in "Combining Responses."
2638    </t>
2639  </list>
2640</t>
2641</section>
2642
2643</section>
2644  </back>
2645</rfc>
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