source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p5-range.xml @ 1737

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "July">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>Note:</x:h>">
18  <!ENTITY architecture               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY notation                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY abnf-extension             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY acks                       "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY whitespace                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY field-components           "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY http-date                  "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#http.date' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY messaging                  "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY entity-tags                "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#header.etag' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY weak-and-strong-validators "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#weak.and.strong.validators' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY lastmod-comparison         "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#lastmod.comparison' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY p6-heuristic               "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#heuristic.freshness' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30]>
31<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
32<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
33<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
34<?rfc compact="yes"?>
35<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
36<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
37<?rfc editing="no" ?>
38<?rfc comments="yes"?>
39<?rfc inline="yes"?>
40<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
41<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
42<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
43<rfc obsoletes="2616" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
44     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;"
45     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
46<x:link rel="prev" basename="p4-conditional"/>
47<x:link rel="next" basename="p6-cache"/>
48<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
49<front>
50
51  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 5">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</title>
52
53  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
54    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
55    <address>
56      <postal>
57        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
58        <city>San Jose</city>
59        <region>CA</region>
60        <code>95110</code>
61        <country>USA</country>
62      </postal>
63      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
64      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
65    </address>
66  </author>
67
68  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
69    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
70    <address>
71      <postal>
72        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
73        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
74        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
75        <region>AM</region>
76        <code>06902</code>
77        <country>France</country>
78      </postal>
79      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
80      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
81    </address>
82  </author>
83
84  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
85    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
86    <address>
87      <postal>
88        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
89        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
90        <country>Germany</country>
91      </postal>
92      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
93      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
94    </address>
95  </author>
96
97  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
98  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
99
100<abstract>
101<t>
102   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
103   distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in
104   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
105   document is Part 5 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
106   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
107</t>
108<t>
109   Part 5 defines range requests and the rules for constructing and
110   combining responses to those requests.
111</t>
112</abstract>
113
114<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
115  <t>
116    Discussion of this draft ought to take place on the HTTPBIS working group
117    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
118    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
119  </t>
120  <t>
121    The current issues list is at
122    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
123    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
124    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
125  </t>
126  <t>
127    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.19"/>.
128  </t>
129</note>
130</front>
131<middle>
132<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
133<t>
134   HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result
135   of cancelled requests or dropped connections.  When a client has stored
136   a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder
137   of that representation in a subsequent request rather than transfer
138   the entire representation.
139   There are also a number of Web applications that benefit from being
140   able to request only a subset of a larger representation, such as a
141   single page of a very large document or only part of an image to be
142   rendered by a device with limited local storage.
143</t>
144<t>
145   This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests,
146   partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges media type.
147   The protocol for range requests is an &OPTIONAL; feature of HTTP,
148   designed so resources or recipients that do not implement this feature
149   can respond as if it is a normal GET request without impacting
150   interoperability.  Partial responses are indicated by a distinct status
151   code to not be mistaken for full responses by intermediate caches
152   that might not implement the feature.
153</t>
154<t>
155   Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for
156   extensible range types, this specification only defines requests for
157   byte ranges.
158</t>
159
160<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
161<t>
162   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
163   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
164   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
165</t>
166<t>
167   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
168   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
169   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
170   for definitions of these terms.
171</t>
172<t>
173   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
174   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
175   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
176</t>
177<t>
178   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
179   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
180   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
181</t>
182<t>
183   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MUST; be able to parse all protocol
184   elements matching the ABNF rules defined for them and &MAY; take steps to
185   recover a usable protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
186   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
187   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
188   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser might wish to
189   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
190   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
191   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
192</t>
193</section>
194
195<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
196  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
197  <x:anchor-alias value="CHAR"/>
198  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
199  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
200  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
201  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
202  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
203  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
204<t>
205   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
206   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
207   &notation;<xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
208   with the list rule expanded.
209</t>
210<t>
211  The following core rules are included by
212  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
213  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
214  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
215  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
216  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
217  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
218</t>
219
220<t>
221  Note that all rules derived from <x:ref>token</x:ref> are to
222  be compared case-insensitively, like <x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> and
223  <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref>.
224</t>
225
226<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
227  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
228  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
229  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-date"/>
230<t>
231  The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/> and
232  <xref target="Part2"/>:
233</t>
234<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
235  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>        = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
236  <x:ref>token</x:ref>      = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
237  <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>  = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in &http-date;&gt;
238</artwork></figure>
239</section>
240
241<section title="ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification" anchor="abnf.dependencies">
242  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-tag"/>
243<t>
244  The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
245</t>
246<figure><!--Part4--><artwork type="abnf2616">
247  <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in &entity-tags;&gt;
248</artwork></figure>
249</section>
250
251</section>
252
253</section>
254
255
256<section title="Range Units" anchor="range.units">
257  <x:anchor-alias value="bytes-unit"/>
258  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-unit"/>
259  <x:anchor-alias value="range-unit"/>
260<t>
261   HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range) of the
262   representation be included within the response. HTTP/1.1 uses range
263   units in the Range (<xref target="header.range"/>) and Content-Range (<xref target="header.content-range"/>)
264   header fields. A representation can be broken down into subranges according
265   to various structural units.
266</t>
267<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="range-unit"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="bytes-unit"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="other-range-unit"/>
268  <x:ref>range-unit</x:ref>       = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> / <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref>
269  <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref>       = "bytes"
270  <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
271</artwork></figure>
272<t>
273  HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications
274  that do not depend on knowledge of ranges. The only range unit defined
275  by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". Additional specifiers can be defined as described
276  in <xref target="range.specifier.registry"/>.
277</t>
278<t>
279  If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server &MUST; ignore
280  the whole Range header field (<xref target="header.range"/>).
281  If a range unit is not understood in a response, an intermediary
282  &SHOULD; pass the response to the client; a client &MUST; fail.
283</t>
284
285<section title="Range Specifier Registry" anchor="range.specifier.registry">
286<t>
287   The HTTP Range Specifier Registry defines the name space for the range
288   specifier names.
289</t>
290<t>
291   Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
292   <list style="symbols">
293     <t>Name</t>
294     <t>Description</t>
295     <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
296   </list>
297</t>
298<t>
299  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
300  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
301</t>
302<t>
303   The registry itself is maintained at
304   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers"/>.
305</t>
306</section>
307
308</section>
309
310<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
311<section title="206 Partial Content" anchor="status.206">
312  <iref primary="true" item="206 Partial Content (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
313  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="206 Partial Content" x:for-anchor=""/>
314  <x:anchor-alias value="206"/>
315  <x:anchor-alias value="206 (Partial Content)"/>
316<t>
317   The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource.
318   The request &MUST; have included a Range header field (<xref target="header.range"/>)
319   indicating the desired range, and &MAY; have included an If-Range
320   header field (<xref target="header.if-range"/>) to make the request conditional.
321</t>
322<t>
323   The response &MUST; include the following header fields:
324  <list style="symbols">
325    <t>
326        Either a Content-Range header field (<xref target="header.content-range"/>) indicating
327        the range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges
328        Content-Type including Content-Range fields for each part. If a
329        Content-Length header field is present in the response, its
330        value &MUST; match the actual number of octets transmitted in the
331        message body.
332    </t>
333    <t>
334        Date
335    </t>
336    <t>
337        Cache-Control, ETag, <x:ref>Expires</x:ref>, Content-Location and/or
338        Vary, if the header field would have been sent in a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>
339        response to the same request
340    </t>
341  </list>
342</t>
343<t>
344   If a 206 is sent in response to a request with an If-Range header field, it
345   &SHOULD-NOT; include other representation header fields. Otherwise, the response
346   &MUST; include all of the representation header fields that would have been returned
347   with a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response to the same request.
348</t>
349<t>
350   Caches &MAY; use a heuristic (see &p6-heuristic;) to determine
351   freshness for 206 responses.
352</t>
353</section>
354
355<section title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable" anchor="status.416">
356  <iref primary="true" item="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
357  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable" x:for-anchor=""/>
358  <x:anchor-alias value="416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)"/>
359<t>
360   A server &SHOULD; return a response with this status code if a request
361   included a Range header field (<xref target="header.range"/>), and none of
362   the ranges-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent
363   of the selected resource, and the request did not include an If-Range
364   header field (<xref target="header.if-range"/>). (For byte-ranges,
365   this means that the first-byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were
366   greater than the current length of the selected resource.)
367</t>
368<t>
369   When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the
370   response &SHOULD; include a Content-Range header field
371   specifying the current length of the representation (see <xref target="header.content-range"/>).
372   This response &MUST-NOT; use the multipart/byteranges content-type. For example,
373</t>
374<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
375HTTP/1.1 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
376Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
377Content-Range: bytes */47022
378Content-Type: image/gif
379</artwork></figure>
380<x:note>
381  <t>
382    &Note; Clients cannot depend on servers to send a <x:ref>416 (Requested
383    Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> response instead of a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>
384    response for an unsatisfiable Range header field, since not all servers
385    implement this header field.
386  </t>
387</x:note>
388</section>
389</section>
390
391<section title="Responses to a Range Request">
392<section title="Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request">
393<t>
394   When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for
395   example, a response to a request for a single range, or to a request
396   for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is
397   transmitted with a Content-Range header field, and a Content-Length header
398   field showing the number of bytes actually transferred. For example,
399</t>
400<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
401HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
402Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
403Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
404Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
405Content-Length: 26012
406Content-Type: image/gif
407</artwork></figure>
408<t>
409   When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for
410   example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
411   ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message. The multipart
412   media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges" as defined
413   in <xref target="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges"/>.
414</t>
415<t>
416   A server &MAY; combine requested ranges when those ranges are overlapping
417   (see <xref target="overlapping.ranges"/>).
418</t>
419<t>
420   A response to a request for a single range &MUST-NOT; be sent using the
421   multipart/byteranges media type.  A response to a request for
422   multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, &MAY; be sent as a
423   multipart/byteranges media type with one part. A client that cannot
424   decode a multipart/byteranges message &MUST-NOT; ask for multiple
425   ranges in a single request.
426</t>
427<t>
428   When a client asks for multiple ranges in one request, the
429   server &SHOULD; return them in the order that they appeared in the
430   request.
431</t>
432</section>
433
434<section title="Combining Ranges" anchor="combining.byte.ranges">
435<t>
436   A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the
437   connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or more Range
438   specifications.  After several such transfers, a client might have
439   received several ranges of the same representation.  These ranges can only
440   be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator,
441   where "strong validator" is defined to be either an entity-tag that is
442   not marked as weak (&entity-tags;) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a
443   Last-Modified value that is strong in the sense defined by
444   &lastmod-comparison;.
445</t>
446<t>
447   When a client receives an incomplete <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> or <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref>
448   response and already has one or more stored responses for the same method
449   and effective request URI, all of the stored responses with the same
450   strong validator &MAY; be combined with the partial content in this new
451   response.  If none of the stored responses contain the same strong
452   validator, then this new response corresponds to a new representation
453   and &MUST-NOT; be combined with the existing stored responses.
454</t>
455<t>
456   If the new response is an incomplete <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response, then the header
457   fields of that new response are used for any combined response and replace
458   those of the matching stored responses.
459</t>
460<t>
461   If the new response is a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response and at least one
462   of the matching stored responses is a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>, then the combined response
463   header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's header fields.
464   If all of the matching stored responses are 206 responses, then the
465   stored response with the most header fields is used as the source of
466   header fields for the combined response, except that the client &MUST;
467   use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from
468   Content-Range, to replace all instances of the corresponding header
469   fields in the stored response.
470</t>
471<t>
472   The combined response message body consists of the union of partial
473   content ranges in the new response and each of the selected responses.
474   If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the
475   combined response &MUST; be recorded as a complete <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response
476   with a Content-Length header field that reflects the complete length.
477   Otherwise, the combined response(s) &MUST; include a Content-Range
478   header field describing the included range(s) and be recorded as
479   incomplete.  If the union consists of a discontinuous range of the
480   representation, then the client &MAY; store it as either a multipart range
481   response or as multiple <x:ref>206</x:ref> responses with one continuous range each.
482</t>
483</section>
484</section>
485
486<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
487<t>
488   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
489   related to range requests and partial responses.
490</t>
491
492<section title="Accept-Ranges" anchor="header.accept-ranges">
493  <iref primary="true" item="Accept-Ranges header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
494  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Accept-Ranges" x:for-anchor=""/>
495  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Ranges"/>
496  <x:anchor-alias value="acceptable-ranges"/>
497<t>
498   The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a resource to indicate
499   its acceptance of range requests.
500</t>
501<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Ranges"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="acceptable-ranges"/>
502  <x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref>     = <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref>
503  <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> / "none"
504</artwork></figure>
505<t>
506      Origin servers that accept byte-range requests &MAY; send
507</t>
508<figure><artwork type="example">
509  Accept-Ranges: bytes
510</artwork></figure>
511<t>
512      but are not required to do so. Clients &MAY; generate range
513      requests without having received this header field for the resource
514      involved. Range units are defined in <xref target="range.units"/>.
515</t>
516<t>
517      Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a
518      resource &MAY; send
519</t>
520<figure><artwork type="example">
521  Accept-Ranges: none
522</artwork></figure>
523<t>
524      to advise the client not to attempt a range request.
525</t>
526</section>
527
528<section title="Content-Range" anchor="header.content-range">
529  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
530  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Content-Range" x:for-anchor=""/>
531  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-content-range-spec"/>
532  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-resp-spec"/>
533  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Range"/>
534  <x:anchor-alias value="instance-length"/>
535  <x:anchor-alias value="other-content-range-spec"/>
536  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-resp-spec"/>
537<t>
538   The "Content-Range" header field is sent with a partial representation to
539   specify where in the full representation the payload body is intended to be
540   applied.
541</t>
542<t>   
543   Range units are defined in <xref target="range.units"/>.
544</t>
545<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-content-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-resp-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="instance-length"/>
546  <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>           = <x:ref>byte-content-range-spec</x:ref>
547                          / <x:ref>other-content-range-spec</x:ref>
548                         
549  <x:ref>byte-content-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref>
550                            <x:ref>byte-range-resp-spec</x:ref> "/"
551                            ( <x:ref>instance-length</x:ref> / "*" )
552 
553  <x:ref>byte-range-resp-spec</x:ref>    = (<x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> "-" <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>)
554                          / "*"
555                         
556  <x:ref>instance-length</x:ref>         = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
557 
558  <x:ref>other-content-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref>
559                             <x:ref>other-range-resp-spec</x:ref>
560  <x:ref>other-range-resp-spec</x:ref>    = *<x:ref>CHAR</x:ref>
561</artwork></figure>
562<t>
563   The header field &SHOULD; indicate the total length of the full representation,
564   unless this length is unknown or difficult to determine. The asterisk
565   "*" character means that the instance-length is unknown at the time
566   when the response was generated.
567</t>
568<t>
569   Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see <xref target="byte.ranges"/>), a byte-range-resp-spec
570   &MUST; only specify one range, and &MUST; contain
571   absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the
572   range.
573</t>
574<t>
575   A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-byte-pos
576   value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or whose
577   instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos
578   value, is invalid. The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-spec
579   &MUST; ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
580</t>
581<t>
582   In the case of a byte range request:
583   A server sending a response with status code <x:ref>416 (Requested Range Not
584   Satisfiable)</x:ref> &SHOULD; include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec
585   of "*". The instance-length specifies the current length of
586   the selected resource. A response with status code <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref>
587   &MUST-NOT; include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
588</t>
589<t>
590  The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that do not
591  explicitly describe its semantic. Currently, only status codes
592  <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> and <x:ref>416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> describe
593  the meaning of this header field.
594</t>
595<t>
596   Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the representation
597   contains a total of 1234 bytes:
598   <list style="symbols">
599      <t>
600        The first 500 bytes:
601<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
602  bytes 0-499/1234
603</artwork></figure>
604      </t>   
605      <t>
606        The second 500 bytes:
607<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
608  bytes 500-999/1234
609</artwork></figure>
610      </t>   
611      <t>
612        All except for the first 500 bytes:
613<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
614  bytes 500-1233/1234
615</artwork></figure>
616      </t>   
617      <t>
618        The last 500 bytes:
619<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
620  bytes 734-1233/1234
621</artwork></figure>
622      </t>   
623   </list>
624</t>
625<t>
626   If the server ignores a byte-range-spec (for example if it is
627   syntactically invalid, or if it might be seen as a denial-of-service
628   attack), the server &SHOULD; treat the request as if the invalid Range
629   header field did not exist. (Normally, this means return a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>
630   response containing the full representation).
631</t>
632</section>
633
634<section title="If-Range" anchor="header.if-range">
635  <iref primary="true" item="If-Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
636  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="If-Range" x:for-anchor=""/>
637  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Range"/>
638<t>
639   If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes
640   to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it
641   could use the Range header field with a conditional GET (using
642   either or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match.) However, if the
643   condition fails because the representation has been modified, the client
644   would then have to make a second request to obtain the entire current
645   representation.
646</t>
647<t>
648   The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second
649   request. Informally, its meaning is "if the representation is unchanged, send
650   me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me the entire new
651   representation".
652</t>
653<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Range"/>
654  <x:ref>If-Range</x:ref> = <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> / <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
655</artwork></figure>
656<t>
657   Clients &MUST-NOT; use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range
658   field value and &MUST-NOT; use a Last-Modified date in an If-Range
659   field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and
660   the Last-Modified date it does have for the representation is strong
661   in the sense defined by &lastmod-comparison;.
662</t>
663<t>
664   A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is applicable
665   to one of its representations &MUST; evaluate the condition as false if
666   the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, when an HTTP-date
667   is used as the validator, if the date value is not strong in the sense
668   defined by &lastmod-comparison;. (A server can distinguish between a
669   valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag by examining the first
670   two characters.)
671</t>
672<t>
673   The If-Range header field &SHOULD; only be sent by clients together with
674   a Range header field.  The If-Range header field &MUST; be ignored if it
675   is received in a request that does not include a Range header field.
676   The If-Range header field &MUST; be ignored by a server that does not
677   support the sub-range operation.
678</t>
679<t>
680   If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current
681   validator for the selected representation of the target resource, then
682   the server &SHOULD; send the specified sub-range of the representation
683   using a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response. If the validator does not match,
684   then the server &SHOULD; send the entire representation using a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>
685   response.
686</t>
687</section>
688
689<section title="Range" anchor="header.range">
690  <iref primary="true" item="Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
691  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Range" x:for-anchor=""/>
692
693<section title="Byte Ranges" anchor="byte.ranges">
694<t>
695   Since all HTTP representations are transferred as sequences
696   of bytes, the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP
697   representation. (However, not all clients and servers need to support byte-range
698   operations.)
699</t>
700<t>
701   Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in
702   the representation body (not necessarily the same as the message body).
703</t>
704<t anchor="rule.ranges-specifier">
705  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-set"/>
706  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-spec"/>
707  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-ranges-specifier"/>
708  <x:anchor-alias value="first-byte-pos"/>
709  <x:anchor-alias value="last-byte-pos"/>
710  <x:anchor-alias value="ranges-specifier"/>
711  <x:anchor-alias value="suffix-byte-range-spec"/>
712  <x:anchor-alias value="suffix-length"/>
713
714   A byte range operation &MAY; specify a single range of bytes, or a set
715   of ranges within a single representation.
716</t>
717<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ranges-specifier"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-ranges-specifier"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-set"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="first-byte-pos"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="last-byte-pos"/>
718  <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref>
719  <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref>  = 1#( <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> / <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> )
720  <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> "-" [ <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> ]
721  <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref>  = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
722  <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>   = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
723</artwork></figure>
724<t>
725   The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset
726   of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value gives the
727   byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte
728   positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start at zero.
729</t>
730<t>
731   If the last-byte-pos value is present, it &MUST; be greater than or
732   equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte-range-spec
733   is syntactically invalid. The recipient of a byte-range-set
734   that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec
735   values &MUST; ignore the header field that includes that byte-range-set.
736</t>
737<t>
738   If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than
739   or equal to the current length of the representation body, last-byte-pos is
740   taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the representation
741   in bytes.
742</t>
743<t>
744   By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of
745   bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the representation.
746</t>
747<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="suffix-byte-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="suffix-length"/>
748  <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> = "-" <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref>
749  <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
750</artwork></figure>
751<t>
752   A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the
753   representation body, of a length given by the suffix-length value. (That is,
754   this form specifies the last N bytes of a representation.) If the
755   representation is shorter than the specified suffix-length, the entire
756   representation is used.
757</t>
758<t>
759   If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-range-spec
760   whose first-byte-pos is less than the current length of
761   the representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-zero
762   suffix-length, then the byte-range-set is satisfiable.
763   Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable. If the byte-range-set
764   is unsatisfiable, the server &SHOULD; return a response with a
765   <x:ref>416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> status code. Otherwise, the server
766   &SHOULD; return a response with a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> status code
767   containing the satisfiable ranges of the representation.
768</t>
769<t>
770   Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming a representation of
771   length 10000):
772  <list style="symbols">
773     <t>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
774<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
775  bytes=0-499
776</artwork></figure>
777    </t>
778     <t>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
779<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
780  bytes=500-999
781</artwork></figure>
782    </t>
783     <t>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
784<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
785  bytes=-500
786</artwork></figure>
787    Or:
788<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
789  bytes=9500-
790</artwork></figure>
791    </t>
792     <t>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
793<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
794  bytes=0-0,-1
795</artwork></figure>
796     </t>
797     <t>Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500
798        bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
799<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
800  bytes=500-600,601-999
801  bytes=500-700,601-999
802</artwork></figure>
803     </t>
804  </list>
805</t>
806</section>
807
808<section title="Range Retrieval Requests" anchor="range.retrieval.requests">
809  <x:anchor-alias value="Range"/>
810  <x:anchor-alias value="other-ranges-specifier"/>
811  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-set"/>
812<t>
813   The "Range" header field defines the GET method (conditional or
814   not) to request one or more sub-ranges of the response representation body, instead
815   of the entire representation body.
816</t>
817<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Range"/>
818  <x:ref>Range</x:ref> = <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> / <x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref>
819  <x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref>
820  <x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>CHAR</x:ref>
821</artwork></figure>
822<t>
823   A server &MAY; ignore the Range header field. However, origin
824   servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when
825   possible, since Range supports efficient recovery from partially
826   failed transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
827   representations.
828</t>
829<t>
830   If the server supports the Range header field and the specified range or
831   ranges are appropriate for the representation:
832  <list style="symbols">
833     <t>The presence of a Range header field in an unconditional GET modifies
834        what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful. In other
835        words, the response carries a status code of <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref>
836        instead of <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>.</t>
837
838     <t>The presence of a Range header field in a conditional GET (a request
839        using one or both of If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match, or
840        one or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match) modifies what
841        is returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the
842        condition is true. It does not affect the <x:ref>304 (Not Modified)</x:ref>
843        response returned if the conditional is false.</t>
844  </list>
845</t>
846<t>
847   In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range
848   header field (see <xref target="header.if-range"/>) in addition to the Range
849   header field.
850</t>
851<t>
852   If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards
853   the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire representation in
854   reply, it &MAY; only return the requested range to its client.
855</t>
856</section>
857</section>
858</section>
859
860<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
861
862<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
863<t>
864   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
865   shall be updated with the registrations below:
866</t>
867<?BEGININC p5-range.iana-status-codes ?>
868<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
869<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
870   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
871   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
872   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
873   <c>206</c>
874   <c>Partial Content</c>
875   <c>
876      <xref target="status.206"/>
877   </c>
878   <c>416</c>
879   <c>Requested Range Not Satisfiable</c>
880   <c>
881      <xref target="status.416"/>
882   </c>
883</texttable>
884<!--(END)-->
885<?ENDINC p5-range.iana-status-codes ?>
886</section>
887
888<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
889<t>
890   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
891   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
892</t>
893<?BEGININC p5-range.iana-headers ?>
894<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
895<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
896   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
897   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
898   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
899   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
900
901   <c>Accept-Ranges</c>
902   <c>http</c>
903   <c>standard</c>
904   <c>
905      <xref target="header.accept-ranges"/>
906   </c>
907   <c>Content-Range</c>
908   <c>http</c>
909   <c>standard</c>
910   <c>
911      <xref target="header.content-range"/>
912   </c>
913   <c>If-Range</c>
914   <c>http</c>
915   <c>standard</c>
916   <c>
917      <xref target="header.if-range"/>
918   </c>
919   <c>Range</c>
920   <c>http</c>
921   <c>standard</c>
922   <c>
923      <xref target="header.range"/>
924   </c>
925</texttable>
926<!--(END)-->
927<?ENDINC p5-range.iana-headers ?>
928<t>
929   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
930</t>
931</section>
932
933<section title="Range Specifier Registration" anchor="range.specifier.registration">
934<t>
935  The registration procedure for HTTP Range Specifiers is defined by
936  <xref target="range.specifier.registry"/> of this document.
937</t>
938<t>
939   The HTTP Range Specifier Registry shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers"/>
940   and be populated with the registrations below:
941</t>
942<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.range.specifiers.table">
943   <ttcol>Range Specifier Name</ttcol>
944   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
945   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
946
947   <c>bytes</c>
948   <c>a range of octets</c>
949   <c>(this specification)</c>
950</texttable>
951<t>
952   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
953</t>
954</section>
955</section>
956
957<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
958<t>
959   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
960   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
961   described by this document. The discussion does not include
962   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
963   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
964</t>
965<section title="Overlapping Ranges" anchor="overlapping.ranges">
966<t>
967   Range requests containing overlapping ranges can lead to the situation
968   where a server is sending far more data than the size of the complete
969   resource representation.
970</t>
971</section>
972</section>
973
974<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
975<t>
976  See &acks;.
977</t>
978</section>
979</middle>
980<back>
981
982<references title="Normative References">
983
984<reference anchor="Part1">
985  <front>
986    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
987    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
988      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
989      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
990    </author>
991    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
992      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
993      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
994    </author>
995    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
996      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
997      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
998    </author>
999    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1000  </front>
1001  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1002  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
1003</reference>
1004
1005<reference anchor="Part2">
1006  <front>
1007    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics, Payload and Content Negotiation</title>
1008    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1009      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1010      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1011    </author>
1012    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1013      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1014      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1015    </author>
1016    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1017      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1018      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1019    </author>
1020    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1021  </front>
1022  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1023  <x:source href="p2-semantics.xml" basename="p2-semantics">
1024    <x:defines>200 (OK)</x:defines>
1025    <x:defines>410 (Gone)</x:defines>
1026  </x:source>
1027</reference>
1028
1029<reference anchor="Part4">
1030  <front>
1031    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</title>
1032    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1033      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1034      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1035    </author>
1036    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1037      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1038      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1039    </author>
1040    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1041      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1042      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1043    </author>
1044    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1045  </front>
1046  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1047  <x:source href="p4-conditional.xml" basename="p4-conditional">
1048    <x:defines>304 (Not Modified)</x:defines>
1049  </x:source>
1050</reference>
1051
1052<reference anchor="Part6">
1053  <front>
1054    <title>HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
1055    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1056      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1057      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1058    </author>
1059    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1060      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1061      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1062    </author>
1063    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
1064      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
1065      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
1066    </author>
1067    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1068      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1069      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1070    </author>
1071    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1072  </front>
1073  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1074  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache">
1075    <x:defines>Expires</x:defines>
1076  </x:source>
1077</reference>
1078
1079<reference anchor="RFC2046">
1080  <front>
1081    <title abbrev="Media Types">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</title>
1082    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
1083      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
1084      <address><email>ned@innosoft.com</email></address>
1085    </author>
1086    <author initials="N." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
1087      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
1088      <address><email>nsb@nsb.fv.com</email></address>
1089    </author>
1090    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
1091  </front>
1092  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2046"/>
1093</reference>
1094
1095<reference anchor="RFC2119">
1096  <front>
1097    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
1098    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
1099      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
1100      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
1101    </author>
1102    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
1103  </front>
1104  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
1105  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
1106</reference>
1107
1108<reference anchor="RFC5234">
1109  <front>
1110    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
1111    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
1112      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
1113      <address>
1114        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
1115      </address> 
1116    </author>
1117    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1118      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1119      <address>
1120        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
1121      </address>
1122    </author>
1123    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1124  </front>
1125  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1126  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1127</reference>
1128
1129</references>
1130
1131<references title="Informative References">
1132
1133<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1134  <front>
1135    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1136    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1137      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1138      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1139    </author>
1140    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1141      <organization>W3C</organization>
1142      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1143    </author>
1144    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1145      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1146      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1147    </author>
1148    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1149      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1150      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1151    </author>
1152    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1153      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1154      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1155    </author>
1156    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1157      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1158      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1159    </author>
1160    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1161      <organization>W3C</organization>
1162      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1163    </author>
1164    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1165  </front>
1166  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1167</reference>
1168
1169<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1170  <front>
1171    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1172    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1173      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1174      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1175    </author>
1176    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1177      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1178      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1179    </author>
1180    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1181      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1182      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1183    </author>
1184    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1185  </front>
1186  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1187  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1188</reference>
1189
1190<reference anchor="RFC4288">
1191  <front>
1192    <title>Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</title>
1193    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="N. Freed">
1194      <organization>Sun Microsystems</organization>
1195      <address>
1196        <email>ned.freed@mrochek.com</email>
1197      </address>
1198    </author>
1199    <author initials="J." surname="Klensin" fullname="J. Klensin">
1200      <address>
1201        <email>klensin+ietf@jck.com</email>
1202      </address>
1203    </author>
1204    <date year="2005" month="December"/>
1205  </front>
1206  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="13"/>
1207  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="4288"/>
1208</reference>
1209
1210<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1211  <front>
1212    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1213    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1214      <organization>IBM</organization>
1215      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1216    </author>
1217    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1218      <organization>Google</organization>
1219      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1220    </author>
1221    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1222  </front>
1223  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1224  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1225</reference>
1226
1227</references>
1228
1229<section title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges" anchor="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">
1230<iref item="Media Type" subitem="multipart/byteranges" primary="true"/>
1231<iref item="multipart/byteranges Media Type" primary="true"/>
1232<t>
1233   When an HTTP <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response message includes the
1234   content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple
1235   non-overlapping ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart
1236   message body (<xref target="RFC2046" x:fmt="," x:sec="5.1"/>). The media type for this purpose is called
1237   "multipart/byteranges".  The following is to be registered with IANA <xref target="RFC4288"/>.
1238</t>
1239<x:note>
1240  <t>
1241    &Note; Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to the byte ranges only.
1242  </t>
1243</x:note>
1244<t>
1245   The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each
1246   with its own Content-Type and Content-Range fields. The required
1247   boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate
1248   each body-part.
1249</t>
1250<t>
1251  <list style="hanging" x:indent="12em">
1252    <t hangText="Type name:">
1253      multipart
1254    </t>
1255    <t hangText="Subtype name:">
1256      byteranges
1257    </t>
1258    <t hangText="Required parameters:">
1259      boundary
1260    </t>
1261    <t hangText="Optional parameters:">
1262      none
1263    </t>
1264    <t hangText="Encoding considerations:">
1265      only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted
1266    </t>
1267    <t hangText="Security considerations:">
1268      none
1269    </t>
1270    <t hangText="Interoperability considerations:">
1271      none
1272    </t>
1273    <t hangText="Published specification:">
1274      This specification (see <xref target="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges"/>).
1275    </t>
1276    <t hangText="Applications that use this media type:">
1277    </t>
1278    <t hangText="Additional information:">
1279      <list style="hanging">
1280        <t hangText="Magic number(s):">none</t>
1281        <t hangText="File extension(s):">none</t>
1282        <t hangText="Macintosh file type code(s):">none</t>
1283      </list>
1284    </t>
1285    <t hangText="Person and email address to contact for further information:">
1286      See Authors Section.
1287    </t>
1288    <t hangText="Intended usage:">
1289      COMMON
1290    </t>
1291    <t hangText="Restrictions on usage:">
1292      none
1293    </t>
1294    <t hangText="Author/Change controller:">
1295      IESG
1296    </t>
1297  </list>
1298</t>
1299<figure><preamble>
1300   For example:
1301</preamble><artwork type="example">
1302  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1303  Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1304  Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
1305  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1306 
1307  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1308  Content-type: application/pdf
1309  Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
1310 
1311  ...the first range...
1312  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1313  Content-type: application/pdf
1314  Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
1315 
1316  ...the second range
1317  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1318</artwork></figure>
1319<figure><preamble>
1320   Other example:
1321</preamble>
1322<artwork type="example">
1323  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1324  Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1325  Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
1326  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1327 
1328  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1329  Content-type: video/example
1330  Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
1331 
1332  ...the first range...
1333  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1334  Content-type: video/example
1335  Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
1336 
1337  ...the second range
1338  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1339</artwork>
1340</figure>
1341<t>
1342      Notes:
1343  <list style="numbers">
1344      <t>Additional CRLFs &MAY; precede the first boundary string in the body.</t>
1345
1346      <t>Although <xref target="RFC2046"/> permits the boundary string to be
1347         quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary
1348         string incorrectly.</t>
1349
1350      <t>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft
1351         of the byteranges specification to use a media type of
1352         multipart/x-byteranges<iref item="multipart/x-byteranges Media Type"/><iref item="Media Type" subitem="multipart/x-byteranges"/>, which is almost, but not quite
1353         compatible with the version documented in HTTP/1.1.</t>
1354  </list>
1355</t>
1356</section>
1357
1358<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1359<t>
1360  Clarify that it is not ok to use a weak validator in a <x:ref>206</x:ref> response.
1361  (<xref target="status.206"/>)
1362</t>
1363<t>
1364  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1365  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1366</t>
1367<t>
1368  Clarify that multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part.
1369  (<xref target="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges"/>)
1370</t>
1371</section>
1372
1373<?BEGININC p5-range.abnf-appendix ?>
1374<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1375<figure>
1376<artwork type="abnf" name="p5-range.parsed-abnf">
1377<x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref> = acceptable-ranges
1378
1379<x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> = byte-content-range-spec / other-content-range-spec
1380
1381<x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 5.1&gt;
1382
1383<x:ref>If-Range</x:ref> = entity-tag / HTTP-date
1384
1385<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1386
1387<x:ref>Range</x:ref> = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1388
1389<x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref> = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
1390 range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
1391
1392<x:ref>byte-content-range-spec</x:ref> = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" (
1393 instance-length / "*" )
1394<x:ref>byte-range-resp-spec</x:ref> = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*"
1395<x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec /
1396 suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec /
1397 suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
1398<x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1399<x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1400<x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> = "bytes"
1401
1402<x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3&gt;
1403
1404<x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1405
1406<x:ref>instance-length</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1407
1408<x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1409
1410<x:ref>other-content-range-spec</x:ref> = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec
1411<x:ref>other-range-resp-spec</x:ref> = *CHAR
1412<x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref> = 1*CHAR
1413<x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> = token
1414<x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1415
1416<x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1417
1418<x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> = "-" suffix-length
1419<x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1420
1421<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1422</artwork>
1423</figure>
1424<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1425; Accept-Ranges defined but not used
1426; Content-Range defined but not used
1427; If-Range defined but not used
1428; Range defined but not used
1429</artwork></figure></section>
1430<?ENDINC p5-range.abnf-appendix ?>
1431
1432
1433<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
1434
1435<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1436<t>
1437  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1438</t>
1439</section>
1440
1441<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-00">
1442<t>
1443  Closed issues:
1444  <list style="symbols"> 
1445    <t>
1446      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/18"/>:
1447      "Cache validators in 206 responses"
1448      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#ifrange206"/>)
1449    </t>
1450    <t>
1451      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1452      "Normative and Informative references"
1453    </t>
1454    <t>
1455      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86"/>:
1456      "Normative up-to-date references"
1457    </t>
1458  </list>
1459</t>
1460</section>
1461
1462<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-01">
1463<t>
1464  Closed issues:
1465  <list style="symbols"> 
1466    <t>
1467      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55"/>:
1468      "Updating to RFC4288"
1469    </t>
1470  </list>
1471</t>
1472<t>
1473  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1474  <list style="symbols"> 
1475    <t>
1476      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1477    </t>
1478  </list>
1479</t>
1480</section>
1481
1482<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1483<t>
1484  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1485  <list style="symbols"> 
1486    <t>
1487      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for headers defined
1488      in this document.
1489    </t>
1490  </list>
1491</t>
1492</section>
1493
1494<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1495<t>
1496  None.
1497</t>
1498</section>
1499
1500<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1501<t>
1502  Closed issues:
1503  <list style="symbols"> 
1504    <t>
1505      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/133"/>:
1506      "multipart/byteranges minimum number of parts"
1507    </t>
1508  </list>
1509</t>
1510<t>
1511  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1512  <list style="symbols"> 
1513    <t>
1514      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1515    </t>
1516    <t>
1517      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1518      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1519    </t>
1520    <t>
1521      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1522      header field value format definitions.
1523    </t>
1524  </list>
1525</t>
1526</section>
1527
1528<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1529<t>
1530  Closed issues:
1531  <list style="symbols"> 
1532    <t>
1533      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/142"/>:
1534      "State base for *-byte-pos and suffix-length"
1535    </t>
1536  </list>
1537</t>
1538<t>
1539  Ongoing work on Custom Ranges (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85"/>):
1540  <list style="symbols"> 
1541    <t>
1542      Remove bias in favor of byte ranges; allow custom ranges in ABNF.
1543    </t>
1544  </list>
1545</t>
1546<t>
1547  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1548  <list style="symbols"> 
1549    <t>
1550      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1551    </t>
1552  </list>
1553</t>
1554</section>
1555
1556<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1557<t>
1558  Closed issues:
1559  <list style="symbols"> 
1560    <t>
1561      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161"/>:
1562      "base for numeric protocol elements"
1563    </t>
1564  </list>
1565</t>
1566</section>
1567
1568<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1569<t>
1570  Closed issues:
1571  <list style="symbols">
1572    <t>
1573      Fixed discrepancy in the If-Range definition about allowed validators.
1574    </t>
1575    <t>
1576      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/150" />: "multipart/byteranges for custom range units"
1577    </t>
1578    <t>
1579      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/151" />: "range unit missing from other-ranges-specifier in Range header"
1580    </t>
1581    <t>
1582      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1583      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1584    </t>
1585  </list>
1586</t>
1587</section>
1588
1589<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1590<t>
1591  No significant changes.
1592</t>
1593</section>
1594
1595<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1596<t>
1597 No significant changes.
1598</t>
1599</section>
1600
1601<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1602<t>
1603  Closed issues:
1604  <list style="symbols"> 
1605    <t>
1606      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/69"/>:
1607      "Clarify 'Requested Variant'"
1608    </t>
1609    <t>
1610      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/109"/>:
1611      "Clarify entity / representation / variant terminology"
1612    </t>
1613    <t>
1614      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/220"/>:
1615      "consider removing the 'changes from 2068' sections"
1616    </t>
1617  </list>
1618</t>
1619<t>
1620  Ongoing work on Custom Ranges (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85"/>):
1621  <list style="symbols"> 
1622    <t>
1623      Add IANA registry.
1624    </t>
1625  </list>
1626</t>
1627</section>
1628
1629<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1630<t>
1631  Closed issues:
1632  <list style="symbols"> 
1633    <t>
1634      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/217"/>:
1635      "Caches can't be required to serve ranges"
1636    </t>
1637  </list>
1638</t>
1639</section>
1640
1641<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1642<t>
1643  Closed issues:
1644  <list style="symbols"> 
1645    <t>
1646      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1647      "Header Classification"
1648    </t>
1649  </list>
1650</t>
1651</section>
1652
1653<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1654<t>
1655  Closed issues:
1656  <list style="symbols">
1657    <t>
1658      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1659      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1660    </t>
1661  </list>
1662</t>
1663</section>
1664
1665<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1666<t>
1667  None.
1668</t>
1669</section>
1670
1671<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1672<t>
1673  Closed issues:
1674  <list style="symbols">
1675    <t>
1676      <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/175"/>:
1677      "Security consideration: range flooding"
1678    </t>
1679  </list>
1680</t>
1681</section>
1682
1683<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1684<t>
1685  Closed issues:
1686  <list style="symbols"> 
1687    <t>
1688      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1689      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1690    </t>
1691    <t>
1692      <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/301"/>:
1693      "Content-Range on responses other than 206"
1694    </t>
1695    <t>
1696      <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/319"/>:
1697      "case sensitivity of ranges in p5"
1698    </t>
1699  </list>
1700</t>
1701</section>
1702
1703<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1704<t>
1705  None.
1706</t>
1707</section>
1708
1709<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-18" anchor="changes.since.18">
1710<t>
1711  Closed issues:
1712  <list style="symbols"> 
1713    <t>
1714      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/311"/>:
1715      "Add limitations to Range to reduce its use as a denial-of-service tool"
1716    </t>
1717  </list>
1718</t>
1719</section>
1720
1721<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1722<t>
1723  Closed issues:
1724  <list style="symbols"> 
1725    <t>
1726      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/358"/>:
1727      "ABNF list expansion code problem"
1728    </t>
1729    <t>
1730      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1731      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1732    </t>
1733  </list>
1734</t>
1735</section>
1736
1737</section>
1738
1739</back>
1740</rfc>
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