source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p5-range.xml @ 1685

Last change on this file since 1685 was 1685, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 7 years ago

avoid the use of "may"/"should" when it could be confused with MAY/SHOULD

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 65.3 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "June">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2012">
17  <!ENTITY architecture               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
18  <!ENTITY notation                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY abnf-extension             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY acks                       "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY whitespace                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY field-components           "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY http-date                  "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#http.date' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY messaging                  "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY entity-tags                "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#header.etag' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY weak-and-strong-validators "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#weak.and.strong.validators' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY lastmod-comparison         "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#lastmod.comparison' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY p6-heuristic               "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#heuristic.freshness' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29]>
30<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
31<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
33<?rfc compact="yes"?>
34<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
35<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
36<?rfc editing="no" ?>
37<?rfc comments="yes"?>
38<?rfc inline="yes"?>
39<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
40<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
41<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
42<rfc obsoletes="2616" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
43     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;"
44     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
45<x:link rel="prev" basename="p4-conditional"/>
46<x:link rel="next" basename="p6-cache"/>
47<x:feedback template="mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org?subject={docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
48<front>
49
50  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 5">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</title>
51
52  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
53    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
54    <address>
55      <postal>
56        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
57        <city>San Jose</city>
58        <region>CA</region>
59        <code>95110</code>
60        <country>USA</country>
61      </postal>
62      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
63      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
64    </address>
65  </author>
66
67  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
68    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
69    <address>
70      <postal>
71        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
72        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
73        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
74        <region>AM</region>
75        <code>06902</code>
76        <country>France</country>
77      </postal>
78      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
79      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
80    </address>
81  </author>
82
83  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
84    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
85    <address>
86      <postal>
87        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
88        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
89        <country>Germany</country>
90      </postal>
91      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
92      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
93      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
94      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
95    </address>
96  </author>
97
98  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
99  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
100
101<abstract>
102<t>
103   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
104   distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in
105   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
106   document is Part 5 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
107   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
108</t>
109<t>
110   Part 5 defines range requests and the rules for constructing and
111   combining responses to those requests.
112</t>
113</abstract>
114
115<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
116  <t>
117    Discussion of this draft ought to take place on the HTTPBIS working group
118    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
119    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
120  </t>
121  <t>
122    The current issues list is at
123    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
124    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
125    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
126  </t>
127  <t>
128    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.19"/>.
129  </t>
130</note>
131</front>
132<middle>
133<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
134<t>
135   HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result
136   of cancelled requests or dropped connections.  When a client has stored
137   a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder
138   of that representation in a subsequent request rather than transfer
139   the entire representation.
140   There are also a number of Web applications that benefit from being
141   able to request only a subset of a larger representation, such as a
142   single page of a very large document or only part of an image to be
143   rendered by a device with limited local storage.
144</t>
145<t>
146   This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests,
147   partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges media type.
148   The protocol for range requests is an &OPTIONAL; feature of HTTP,
149   designed so resources or recipients that do not implement this feature
150   can respond as if it is a normal GET request without impacting
151   interoperability.  Partial responses are indicated by a distinct status
152   code to not be mistaken for full responses by intermediate caches
153   that might not implement the feature.
154</t>
155<t>
156   Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for
157   extensible range types, this specification only defines requests for
158   byte ranges.
159</t>
160
161<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
162<t>
163   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
164   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
165   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
166</t>
167<t>
168   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
169   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
170   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See &architecture;
171   for definitions of these terms.
172</t>
173<t>
174   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
175   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
176   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
177</t>
178<t>
179   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
180   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
181   upon them, Senders &MUST-NOT; generate protocol elements that are invalid.
182</t>
183<t>
184   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients &MUST; be able to parse all protocol
185   elements matching the ABNF rules defined for them and &MAY; take steps to
186   recover a usable protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
187   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
188   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
189   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser might wish to
190   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
191   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
192   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
193</t>
194</section>
195
196<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
197  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
198  <x:anchor-alias value="CHAR"/>
199  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
200  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
201  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
202  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
203  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
204  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
205<t>
206   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
207   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
208   &notation;<xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
209   with the list rule expanded.
210</t>
211<t>
212  The following core rules are included by
213  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
214  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
215  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
216  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
217  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
218  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
219</t>
220
221<t>
222  Note that all rules derived from <x:ref>token</x:ref> are to
223  be compared case-insensitively, like <x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> and
224  <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref>.
225</t>
226
227<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
228  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
229  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
230  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-date"/>
231<t>
232  The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/> and
233  <xref target="Part2"/>:
234</t>
235<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
236  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>        = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
237  <x:ref>token</x:ref>      = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
238  <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>  = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in &http-date;&gt;
239</artwork></figure>
240</section>
241
242<section title="ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification" anchor="abnf.dependencies">
243  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-tag"/>
244<t>
245  The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
246</t>
247<figure><!--Part4--><artwork type="abnf2616">
248  <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in &entity-tags;&gt;
249</artwork></figure>
250</section>
251
252</section>
253
254</section>
255
256
257<section title="Range Units" anchor="range.units">
258  <x:anchor-alias value="bytes-unit"/>
259  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-unit"/>
260  <x:anchor-alias value="range-unit"/>
261<t>
262   HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range) of the
263   representation be included within the response. HTTP/1.1 uses range
264   units in the Range (<xref target="header.range"/>) and Content-Range (<xref target="header.content-range"/>)
265   header fields. A representation can be broken down into subranges according
266   to various structural units.
267</t>
268<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="range-unit"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="bytes-unit"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="other-range-unit"/>
269  <x:ref>range-unit</x:ref>       = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> / <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref>
270  <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref>       = "bytes"
271  <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
272</artwork></figure>
273<t>
274  HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications
275  that do not depend on knowledge of ranges. The only range unit defined
276  by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". Additional specifiers can be defined as described
277  in <xref target="range.specifier.registry"/>.
278</t>
279<t>
280  If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server &MUST; ignore
281  the whole Range header field (<xref target="header.range"/>).
282  If a range unit is not understood in a response, an intermediary
283  &SHOULD; pass the response to the client; a client &MUST; fail.
284</t>
285
286<section title="Range Specifier Registry" anchor="range.specifier.registry">
287<t>
288   The HTTP Range Specifier Registry defines the name space for the range
289   specifier names.
290</t>
291<t>
292   Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
293   <list style="symbols">
294     <t>Name</t>
295     <t>Description</t>
296     <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
297   </list>
298</t>
299<t>
300  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
301  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
302</t>
303<t>
304   The registry itself is maintained at
305   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers"/>.
306</t>
307</section>
308
309</section>
310
311<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
312<section title="206 Partial Content" anchor="status.206">
313  <iref primary="true" item="206 Partial Content (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
314  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="206 Partial Content" x:for-anchor=""/>
315<t>
316   The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource.
317   The request &MUST; have included a Range header field (<xref target="header.range"/>)
318   indicating the desired range, and &MAY; have included an If-Range
319   header field (<xref target="header.if-range"/>) to make the request conditional.
320</t>
321<t>
322   The response &MUST; include the following header fields:
323  <list style="symbols">
324    <t>
325        Either a Content-Range header field (<xref target="header.content-range"/>) indicating
326        the range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges
327        Content-Type including Content-Range fields for each part. If a
328        Content-Length header field is present in the response, its
329        value &MUST; match the actual number of octets transmitted in the
330        message body.
331    </t>
332    <t>
333        Date
334    </t>
335    <t>
336        Cache-Control, ETag, Expires, Content-Location and/or Vary, if
337        the header field would have been sent in a 200 response to the
338        same request
339    </t>
340  </list>
341</t>
342<t>
343   If a 206 is sent in response to a request with an If-Range header field, it
344   &SHOULD-NOT; include other representation header fields. Otherwise, the response
345   &MUST; include all of the representation header fields that would have been returned
346   with a 200 (OK) response to the same request.
347</t>
348<t>
349   Caches &MAY; use a heuristic (see &p6-heuristic;) to determine
350   freshness for 206 responses.
351</t>
352</section>
353
354<section title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable" anchor="status.416">
355  <iref primary="true" item="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
356  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable" x:for-anchor=""/>
357<t>
358   A server &SHOULD; return a response with this status code if a request
359   included a Range header field (<xref target="header.range"/>), and none of
360   the ranges-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent
361   of the selected resource, and the request did not include an If-Range
362   header field (<xref target="header.if-range"/>). (For byte-ranges,
363   this means that the first-byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were
364   greater than the current length of the selected resource.)
365</t>
366<t>
367   When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the
368   response &SHOULD; include a Content-Range header field
369   specifying the current length of the representation (see <xref target="header.content-range"/>).
370   This response &MUST-NOT; use the multipart/byteranges content-type. For example,
371</t>
372<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
373HTTP/1.1 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
374Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
375Content-Range: bytes */47022
376Content-Type: image/gif
377</artwork></figure>
378<x:note>
379  <t>
380    <x:h>Note:</x:h> Clients cannot depend on servers to send a 416 (Requested
381    range not satisfiable) response instead of a 200 (OK) response for
382    an unsatisfiable Range header field, since not all servers
383    implement this header field.
384  </t>
385</x:note>
386</section>
387</section>
388
389<section title="Responses to a Range Request">
390<section title="Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request">
391<t>
392   When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for
393   example, a response to a request for a single range, or to a request
394   for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is
395   transmitted with a Content-Range header field, and a Content-Length header
396   field showing the number of bytes actually transferred. For example,
397</t>
398<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
399HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
400Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
401Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
402Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
403Content-Length: 26012
404Content-Type: image/gif
405</artwork></figure>
406<t>
407   When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for
408   example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
409   ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message. The multipart
410   media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges" as defined
411   in <xref target="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges"/>.
412</t>
413<t>
414   A server &MAY; combine requested ranges when those ranges are overlapping
415   (see <xref target="overlapping.ranges"/>).
416</t>
417<t>
418   A response to a request for a single range &MUST-NOT; be sent using the
419   multipart/byteranges media type.  A response to a request for
420   multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, &MAY; be sent as a
421   multipart/byteranges media type with one part. A client that cannot
422   decode a multipart/byteranges message &MUST-NOT; ask for multiple
423   ranges in a single request.
424</t>
425<t>
426   When a client asks for multiple ranges in one request, the
427   server &SHOULD; return them in the order that they appeared in the
428   request.
429</t>
430</section>
431
432<section title="Combining Ranges" anchor="combining.byte.ranges">
433<t>
434   A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the
435   connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or more Range
436   specifications.  After several such transfers, a client might have
437   received several ranges of the same representation.  These ranges can only
438   be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator,
439   where "strong validator" is defined to be either an entity-tag that is
440   not marked as weak (&entity-tags;) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a
441   Last-Modified value that is strong in the sense defined by
442   &lastmod-comparison;.
443</t>
444<t>
445   When a client receives an incomplete 200 (OK) or 206 (Partial Content)
446   response and already has one or more stored responses for the same method
447   and effective request URI, all of the stored responses with the same
448   strong validator &MAY; be combined with the partial content in this new
449   response.  If none of the stored responses contain the same strong
450   validator, then this new response corresponds to a new representation
451   and &MUST-NOT; be combined with the existing stored responses.
452</t>
453<t>
454   If the new response is an incomplete 200 (OK) response, then the header
455   fields of that new response are used for any combined response and replace
456   those of the matching stored responses.
457</t>
458<t>
459   If the new response is a 206 (Partial Content) response and at least one
460   of the matching stored responses is a 200 (OK), then the combined response
461   header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's header fields.
462   If all of the matching stored responses are 206 responses, then the
463   stored response with the most header fields is used as the source of
464   header fields for the combined response, except that the client &MUST;
465   use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from
466   Content-Range, to replace all instances of the corresponding header
467   fields in the stored response.
468</t>
469<t>
470   The combined response message body consists of the union of partial
471   content ranges in the new response and each of the selected responses.
472   If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the
473   combined response &MUST; be recorded as a complete 200 (OK) response
474   with a Content-Length header field that reflects the complete length.
475   Otherwise, the combined response(s) &MUST; include a Content-Range
476   header field describing the included range(s) and be recorded as
477   incomplete.  If the union consists of a discontinuous range of the
478   representation, then the client &MAY; store it as either a multipart range
479   response or as multiple 206 responses with one continuous range each.
480</t>
481</section>
482</section>
483
484<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
485<t>
486   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
487   related to range requests and partial responses.
488</t>
489
490<section title="Accept-Ranges" anchor="header.accept-ranges">
491  <iref primary="true" item="Accept-Ranges header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
492  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Accept-Ranges" x:for-anchor=""/>
493  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Ranges"/>
494  <x:anchor-alias value="acceptable-ranges"/>
495<t>
496   The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a resource to indicate
497   its acceptance of range requests.
498</t>
499<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Ranges"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="acceptable-ranges"/>
500  <x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref>     = <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref>
501  <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> / "none"
502</artwork></figure>
503<t>
504      Origin servers that accept byte-range requests &MAY; send
505</t>
506<figure><artwork type="example">
507  Accept-Ranges: bytes
508</artwork></figure>
509<t>
510      but are not required to do so. Clients &MAY; generate range
511      requests without having received this header field for the resource
512      involved. Range units are defined in <xref target="range.units"/>.
513</t>
514<t>
515      Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a
516      resource &MAY; send
517</t>
518<figure><artwork type="example">
519  Accept-Ranges: none
520</artwork></figure>
521<t>
522      to advise the client not to attempt a range request.
523</t>
524</section>
525
526<section title="Content-Range" anchor="header.content-range">
527  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
528  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Content-Range" x:for-anchor=""/>
529  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-content-range-spec"/>
530  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-resp-spec"/>
531  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Range"/>
532  <x:anchor-alias value="instance-length"/>
533  <x:anchor-alias value="other-content-range-spec"/>
534  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-resp-spec"/>
535<t>
536   The "Content-Range" header field is sent with a partial representation to
537   specify where in the full representation the payload body is intended to be
538   applied.
539</t>
540<t>   
541   Range units are defined in <xref target="range.units"/>.
542</t>
543<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-content-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-resp-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="instance-length"/>
544  <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>           = <x:ref>byte-content-range-spec</x:ref>
545                          / <x:ref>other-content-range-spec</x:ref>
546                         
547  <x:ref>byte-content-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref>
548                            <x:ref>byte-range-resp-spec</x:ref> "/"
549                            ( <x:ref>instance-length</x:ref> / "*" )
550 
551  <x:ref>byte-range-resp-spec</x:ref>    = (<x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> "-" <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>)
552                          / "*"
553                         
554  <x:ref>instance-length</x:ref>         = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
555 
556  <x:ref>other-content-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref>
557                             <x:ref>other-range-resp-spec</x:ref>
558  <x:ref>other-range-resp-spec</x:ref>    = *<x:ref>CHAR</x:ref>
559</artwork></figure>
560<t>
561   The header field &SHOULD; indicate the total length of the full representation,
562   unless this length is unknown or difficult to determine. The asterisk
563   "*" character means that the instance-length is unknown at the time
564   when the response was generated.
565</t>
566<t>
567   Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see <xref target="byte.ranges"/>), a byte-range-resp-spec
568   &MUST; only specify one range, and &MUST; contain
569   absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the
570   range.
571</t>
572<t>
573   A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-byte-pos
574   value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or whose
575   instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos
576   value, is invalid. The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-spec
577   &MUST; ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
578</t>
579<t>
580   In the case of a byte range request:
581   A server sending a response with status code 416 (Requested range not
582   satisfiable) &SHOULD; include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec
583   of "*". The instance-length specifies the current length of
584   the selected resource. A response with status code 206 (Partial
585   Content) &MUST-NOT; include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
586</t>
587<t>
588  The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that do not
589  explicitly describe its semantic. Currently, only status codes
590  206 (Partial Content) and 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) describe
591  the meaning of this header field.
592</t>
593<t>
594   Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the representation
595   contains a total of 1234 bytes:
596   <list style="symbols">
597      <t>
598        The first 500 bytes:
599<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
600  bytes 0-499/1234
601</artwork></figure>
602      </t>   
603      <t>
604        The second 500 bytes:
605<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
606  bytes 500-999/1234
607</artwork></figure>
608      </t>   
609      <t>
610        All except for the first 500 bytes:
611<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
612  bytes 500-1233/1234
613</artwork></figure>
614      </t>   
615      <t>
616        The last 500 bytes:
617<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
618  bytes 734-1233/1234
619</artwork></figure>
620      </t>   
621   </list>
622</t>
623<t>
624   If the server ignores a byte-range-spec (for example if it is
625   syntactically invalid, or if it might be seen as a denial-of-service
626   attack), the server &SHOULD; treat the request as if the invalid Range
627   header field did not exist. (Normally, this means return a 200
628   response containing the full representation).
629</t>
630</section>
631
632<section title="If-Range" anchor="header.if-range">
633  <iref primary="true" item="If-Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
634  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="If-Range" x:for-anchor=""/>
635  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Range"/>
636<t>
637   If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes
638   to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it
639   could use the Range header field with a conditional GET (using
640   either or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match.) However, if the
641   condition fails because the representation has been modified, the client
642   would then have to make a second request to obtain the entire current
643   representation.
644</t>
645<t>
646   The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second
647   request. Informally, its meaning is "if the representation is unchanged, send
648   me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me the entire new
649   representation".
650</t>
651<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Range"/>
652  <x:ref>If-Range</x:ref> = <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> / <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
653</artwork></figure>
654<t>
655   Clients &MUST-NOT; use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range
656   field value and &MUST-NOT; use a Last-Modified date in an If-Range
657   field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and
658   the Last-Modified date it does have for the representation is strong
659   in the sense defined by &lastmod-comparison;.
660</t>
661<t>
662   A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is applicable
663   to one of its representations &MUST; evaluate the condition as false if
664   the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, when an HTTP-date
665   is used as the validator, if the date value is not strong in the sense
666   defined by &lastmod-comparison;. (A server can distinguish between a
667   valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag by examining the first
668   two characters.)
669</t>
670<t>
671   The If-Range header field &SHOULD; only be sent by clients together with
672   a Range header field.  The If-Range header field &MUST; be ignored if it
673   is received in a request that does not include a Range header field.
674   The If-Range header field &MUST; be ignored by a server that does not
675   support the sub-range operation.
676</t>
677<t>
678   If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current
679   validator for the selected representation of the target resource, then
680   the server &SHOULD; send the specified sub-range of the representation
681   using a 206 (Partial Content) response. If the validator does not match,
682   then the server &SHOULD; send the entire representation using a 200 (OK)
683   response.
684</t>
685</section>
686
687<section title="Range" anchor="header.range">
688  <iref primary="true" item="Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
689  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Range" x:for-anchor=""/>
690
691<section title="Byte Ranges" anchor="byte.ranges">
692<t>
693   Since all HTTP representations are transferred as sequences
694   of bytes, the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP
695   representation. (However, not all clients and servers need to support byte-range
696   operations.)
697</t>
698<t>
699   Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in
700   the representation body (not necessarily the same as the message body).
701</t>
702<t anchor="rule.ranges-specifier">
703  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-set"/>
704  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-spec"/>
705  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-ranges-specifier"/>
706  <x:anchor-alias value="first-byte-pos"/>
707  <x:anchor-alias value="last-byte-pos"/>
708  <x:anchor-alias value="ranges-specifier"/>
709  <x:anchor-alias value="suffix-byte-range-spec"/>
710  <x:anchor-alias value="suffix-length"/>
711
712   A byte range operation &MAY; specify a single range of bytes, or a set
713   of ranges within a single representation.
714</t>
715<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ranges-specifier"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-ranges-specifier"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-set"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="first-byte-pos"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="last-byte-pos"/>
716  <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref>
717  <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref>  = 1#( <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> / <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> )
718  <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> "-" [ <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> ]
719  <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref>  = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
720  <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>   = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
721</artwork></figure>
722<t>
723   The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset
724   of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value gives the
725   byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte
726   positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start at zero.
727</t>
728<t>
729   If the last-byte-pos value is present, it &MUST; be greater than or
730   equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte-range-spec
731   is syntactically invalid. The recipient of a byte-range-set
732   that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec
733   values &MUST; ignore the header field that includes that byte-range-set.
734</t>
735<t>
736   If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than
737   or equal to the current length of the representation body, last-byte-pos is
738   taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the representation
739   in bytes.
740</t>
741<t>
742   By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of
743   bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the representation.
744</t>
745<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="suffix-byte-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="suffix-length"/>
746  <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> = "-" <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref>
747  <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
748</artwork></figure>
749<t>
750   A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the
751   representation body, of a length given by the suffix-length value. (That is,
752   this form specifies the last N bytes of a representation.) If the
753   representation is shorter than the specified suffix-length, the entire
754   representation is used.
755</t>
756<t>
757   If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-range-spec
758   whose first-byte-pos is less than the current length of
759   the representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-zero
760   suffix-length, then the byte-range-set is satisfiable.
761   Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable. If the byte-range-set
762   is unsatisfiable, the server &SHOULD; return a response with a
763   416 (Requested range not satisfiable) status code. Otherwise, the server
764   &SHOULD; return a response with a 206 (Partial Content) status code
765   containing the satisfiable ranges of the representation.
766</t>
767<t>
768   Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming a representation of
769   length 10000):
770  <list style="symbols">
771     <t>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
772<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
773  bytes=0-499
774</artwork></figure>
775    </t>
776     <t>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
777<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
778  bytes=500-999
779</artwork></figure>
780    </t>
781     <t>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
782<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
783  bytes=-500
784</artwork></figure>
785    Or:
786<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
787  bytes=9500-
788</artwork></figure>
789    </t>
790     <t>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
791<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
792  bytes=0-0,-1
793</artwork></figure>
794     </t>
795     <t>Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500
796        bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
797<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
798  bytes=500-600,601-999
799  bytes=500-700,601-999
800</artwork></figure>
801     </t>
802  </list>
803</t>
804</section>
805
806<section title="Range Retrieval Requests" anchor="range.retrieval.requests">
807  <x:anchor-alias value="Range"/>
808  <x:anchor-alias value="other-ranges-specifier"/>
809  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-set"/>
810<t>
811   The "Range" header field defines the GET method (conditional or
812   not) to request one or more sub-ranges of the response representation body, instead
813   of the entire representation body.
814</t>
815<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Range"/>
816  <x:ref>Range</x:ref> = <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> / <x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref>
817  <x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref>
818  <x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>CHAR</x:ref>
819</artwork></figure>
820<t>
821   A server &MAY; ignore the Range header field. However, origin
822   servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when
823   possible, since Range supports efficient recovery from partially
824   failed transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
825   representations.
826</t>
827<t>
828   If the server supports the Range header field and the specified range or
829   ranges are appropriate for the representation:
830  <list style="symbols">
831     <t>The presence of a Range header field in an unconditional GET modifies
832        what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful. In other
833        words, the response carries a status code of 206 (Partial
834        Content) instead of 200 (OK).</t>
835
836     <t>The presence of a Range header field in a conditional GET (a request
837        using one or both of If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match, or
838        one or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match) modifies what
839        is returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the
840        condition is true. It does not affect the 304 (Not Modified)
841        response returned if the conditional is false.</t>
842  </list>
843</t>
844<t>
845   In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range
846   header field (see <xref target="header.if-range"/>) in addition to the Range
847   header field.
848</t>
849<t>
850   If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards
851   the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire representation in
852   reply, it &MAY; only return the requested range to its client.
853</t>
854</section>
855</section>
856</section>
857
858<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
859
860<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
861<t>
862   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
863   shall be updated with the registrations below:
864</t>
865<?BEGININC p5-range.iana-status-codes ?>
866<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
867<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
868   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
869   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
870   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
871   <c>206</c>
872   <c>Partial Content</c>
873   <c>
874      <xref target="status.206"/>
875   </c>
876   <c>416</c>
877   <c>Requested Range Not Satisfiable</c>
878   <c>
879      <xref target="status.416"/>
880   </c>
881</texttable>
882<!--(END)-->
883<?ENDINC p5-range.iana-status-codes ?>
884</section>
885
886<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
887<t>
888   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
889   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
890</t>
891<?BEGININC p5-range.iana-headers ?>
892<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
893<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
894   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
895   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
896   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
897   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
898
899   <c>Accept-Ranges</c>
900   <c>http</c>
901   <c>standard</c>
902   <c>
903      <xref target="header.accept-ranges"/>
904   </c>
905   <c>Content-Range</c>
906   <c>http</c>
907   <c>standard</c>
908   <c>
909      <xref target="header.content-range"/>
910   </c>
911   <c>If-Range</c>
912   <c>http</c>
913   <c>standard</c>
914   <c>
915      <xref target="header.if-range"/>
916   </c>
917   <c>Range</c>
918   <c>http</c>
919   <c>standard</c>
920   <c>
921      <xref target="header.range"/>
922   </c>
923</texttable>
924<!--(END)-->
925<?ENDINC p5-range.iana-headers ?>
926<t>
927   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
928</t>
929</section>
930
931<section title="Range Specifier Registration" anchor="range.specifier.registration">
932<t>
933  The registration procedure for HTTP Range Specifiers is defined by
934  <xref target="range.specifier.registry"/> of this document.
935</t>
936<t>
937   The HTTP Range Specifier Registry shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers"/>
938   and be populated with the registrations below:
939</t>
940<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.range.specifiers.table">
941   <ttcol>Range Specifier Name</ttcol>
942   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
943   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
944
945   <c>bytes</c>
946   <c>a range of octets</c>
947   <c>(this specification)</c>
948</texttable>
949<t>
950   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
951</t>
952</section>
953</section>
954
955<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
956<t>
957   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
958   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
959   described by this document. The discussion does not include
960   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
961   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
962</t>
963<section title="Overlapping Ranges" anchor="overlapping.ranges">
964<t>
965   Range requests containing overlapping ranges can lead to the situation
966   where a server is sending far more data than the size of the complete
967   resource representation.
968</t>
969</section>
970</section>
971
972<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
973<t>
974  See &acks;.
975</t>
976</section>
977</middle>
978<back>
979
980<references title="Normative References">
981
982<reference anchor="Part1">
983  <front>
984    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
985    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
986      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
987      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
988    </author>
989    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
990      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
991      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
992    </author>
993    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
994      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
995      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
996    </author>
997    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
998  </front>
999  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1000  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
1001</reference>
1002
1003<reference anchor="Part2">
1004  <front>
1005    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</title>
1006    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1007      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1008      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1009    </author>
1010    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1011      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1012      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1013    </author>
1014    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1015      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1016      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1017    </author>
1018    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1019  </front>
1020  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1021  <x:source href="p2-semantics.xml" basename="p2-semantics"/>
1022</reference>
1023
1024<reference anchor="Part4">
1025  <front>
1026    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</title>
1027    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1028      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1029      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1030    </author>
1031    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1032      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1033      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1034    </author>
1035    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1036      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1037      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1038    </author>
1039    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1040  </front>
1041  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1042  <x:source href="p4-conditional.xml" basename="p4-conditional"/>
1043</reference>
1044
1045<reference anchor="Part6">
1046  <front>
1047    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
1048    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1049      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1050      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1051    </author>
1052    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1053      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1054      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1055    </author>
1056    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
1057      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
1058      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
1059    </author>
1060    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1061      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1062      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1063    </author>
1064    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1065  </front>
1066  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1067  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
1068</reference>
1069
1070<reference anchor="RFC2046">
1071  <front>
1072    <title abbrev="Media Types">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</title>
1073    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
1074      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
1075      <address><email>ned@innosoft.com</email></address>
1076    </author>
1077    <author initials="N." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
1078      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
1079      <address><email>nsb@nsb.fv.com</email></address>
1080    </author>
1081    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
1082  </front>
1083  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2046"/>
1084</reference>
1085
1086<reference anchor="RFC2119">
1087  <front>
1088    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
1089    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
1090      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
1091      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
1092    </author>
1093    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
1094  </front>
1095  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
1096  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
1097</reference>
1098
1099<reference anchor="RFC5234">
1100  <front>
1101    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
1102    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
1103      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
1104      <address>
1105        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
1106      </address> 
1107    </author>
1108    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1109      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1110      <address>
1111        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
1112      </address>
1113    </author>
1114    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1115  </front>
1116  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1117  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1118</reference>
1119
1120</references>
1121
1122<references title="Informative References">
1123
1124<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1125  <front>
1126    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1127    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1128      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1129      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1130    </author>
1131    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1132      <organization>W3C</organization>
1133      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1134    </author>
1135    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1136      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1137      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1138    </author>
1139    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1140      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1141      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1142    </author>
1143    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1144      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1145      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1146    </author>
1147    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1148      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1149      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1150    </author>
1151    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1152      <organization>W3C</organization>
1153      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1154    </author>
1155    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1156  </front>
1157  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1158</reference>
1159
1160<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1161  <front>
1162    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1163    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1164      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1165      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1166    </author>
1167    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1168      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1169      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1170    </author>
1171    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1172      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1173      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1174    </author>
1175    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1176  </front>
1177  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1178  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1179</reference>
1180
1181<reference anchor="RFC4288">
1182  <front>
1183    <title>Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</title>
1184    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="N. Freed">
1185      <organization>Sun Microsystems</organization>
1186      <address>
1187        <email>ned.freed@mrochek.com</email>
1188      </address>
1189    </author>
1190    <author initials="J." surname="Klensin" fullname="J. Klensin">
1191      <address>
1192        <email>klensin+ietf@jck.com</email>
1193      </address>
1194    </author>
1195    <date year="2005" month="December"/>
1196  </front>
1197  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="13"/>
1198  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="4288"/>
1199</reference>
1200
1201<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1202  <front>
1203    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1204    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1205      <organization>IBM</organization>
1206      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1207    </author>
1208    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1209      <organization>Google</organization>
1210      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1211    </author>
1212    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1213  </front>
1214  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1215  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
1216</reference>
1217
1218</references>
1219
1220<section title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges" anchor="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">
1221<iref item="Media Type" subitem="multipart/byteranges" primary="true"/>
1222<iref item="multipart/byteranges Media Type" primary="true"/>
1223<t>
1224   When an HTTP 206 (Partial Content) response message includes the
1225   content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple
1226   non-overlapping ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart
1227   message body (<xref target="RFC2046" x:fmt="," x:sec="5.1"/>). The media type for this purpose is called
1228   "multipart/byteranges".  The following is to be registered with IANA <xref target="RFC4288"/>.
1229</t>
1230<x:note>
1231  <t>
1232    <x:h>Note:</x:h> Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to the byte ranges only.
1233  </t>
1234</x:note>
1235<t>
1236   The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each
1237   with its own Content-Type and Content-Range fields. The required
1238   boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate
1239   each body-part.
1240</t>
1241<t>
1242  <list style="hanging" x:indent="12em">
1243    <t hangText="Type name:">
1244      multipart
1245    </t>
1246    <t hangText="Subtype name:">
1247      byteranges
1248    </t>
1249    <t hangText="Required parameters:">
1250      boundary
1251    </t>
1252    <t hangText="Optional parameters:">
1253      none
1254    </t>
1255    <t hangText="Encoding considerations:">
1256      only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted
1257    </t>
1258    <t hangText="Security considerations:">
1259      none
1260    </t>
1261    <t hangText="Interoperability considerations:">
1262      none
1263    </t>
1264    <t hangText="Published specification:">
1265      This specification (see <xref target="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges"/>).
1266    </t>
1267    <t hangText="Applications that use this media type:">
1268    </t>
1269    <t hangText="Additional information:">
1270      <list style="hanging">
1271        <t hangText="Magic number(s):">none</t>
1272        <t hangText="File extension(s):">none</t>
1273        <t hangText="Macintosh file type code(s):">none</t>
1274      </list>
1275    </t>
1276    <t hangText="Person and email address to contact for further information:">
1277      See Authors Section.
1278    </t>
1279    <t hangText="Intended usage:">
1280      COMMON
1281    </t>
1282    <t hangText="Restrictions on usage:">
1283      none
1284    </t>
1285    <t hangText="Author/Change controller:">
1286      IESG
1287    </t>
1288  </list>
1289</t>
1290<figure><preamble>
1291   For example:
1292</preamble><artwork type="example">
1293  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1294  Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1295  Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
1296  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1297 
1298  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1299  Content-type: application/pdf
1300  Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
1301 
1302  ...the first range...
1303  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1304  Content-type: application/pdf
1305  Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
1306 
1307  ...the second range
1308  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1309</artwork></figure>
1310<figure><preamble>
1311   Other example:
1312</preamble>
1313<artwork type="example">
1314  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1315  Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1316  Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
1317  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1318 
1319  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1320  Content-type: video/example
1321  Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
1322 
1323  ...the first range...
1324  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1325  Content-type: video/example
1326  Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
1327 
1328  ...the second range
1329  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1330</artwork>
1331</figure>
1332<t>
1333      Notes:
1334  <list style="numbers">
1335      <t>Additional CRLFs &MAY; precede the first boundary string in the body.</t>
1336
1337      <t>Although <xref target="RFC2046"/> permits the boundary string to be
1338         quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary
1339         string incorrectly.</t>
1340
1341      <t>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft
1342         of the byteranges specification to use a media type of
1343         multipart/x-byteranges<iref item="multipart/x-byteranges Media Type"/><iref item="Media Type" subitem="multipart/x-byteranges"/>, which is almost, but not quite
1344         compatible with the version documented in HTTP/1.1.</t>
1345  </list>
1346</t>
1347</section>
1348
1349<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1350<t>
1351  Clarify that it is not ok to use a weak validator in a 206 response.
1352  (<xref target="status.206"/>)
1353</t>
1354<t>
1355  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1356  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1357</t>
1358<t>
1359  Clarify that multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part.
1360  (<xref target="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges"/>)
1361</t>
1362</section>
1363
1364<?BEGININC p5-range.abnf-appendix ?>
1365<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1366<figure>
1367<artwork type="abnf" name="p5-range.parsed-abnf">
1368<x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref> = acceptable-ranges
1369
1370<x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> = byte-content-range-spec / other-content-range-spec
1371
1372<x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 5.1&gt;
1373
1374<x:ref>If-Range</x:ref> = entity-tag / HTTP-date
1375
1376<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1377
1378<x:ref>Range</x:ref> = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1379
1380<x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref> = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
1381 range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
1382
1383<x:ref>byte-content-range-spec</x:ref> = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" (
1384 instance-length / "*" )
1385<x:ref>byte-range-resp-spec</x:ref> = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*"
1386<x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec /
1387 suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec /
1388 suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
1389<x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1390<x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1391<x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> = "bytes"
1392
1393<x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3&gt;
1394
1395<x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1396
1397<x:ref>instance-length</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1398
1399<x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1400
1401<x:ref>other-content-range-spec</x:ref> = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec
1402<x:ref>other-range-resp-spec</x:ref> = *CHAR
1403<x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref> = 1*CHAR
1404<x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> = token
1405<x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1406
1407<x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1408
1409<x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> = "-" suffix-length
1410<x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1411
1412<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1413</artwork>
1414</figure>
1415<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1416; Accept-Ranges defined but not used
1417; Content-Range defined but not used
1418; If-Range defined but not used
1419; Range defined but not used
1420</artwork></figure></section>
1421<?ENDINC p5-range.abnf-appendix ?>
1422
1423
1424<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
1425
1426<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1427<t>
1428  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1429</t>
1430</section>
1431
1432<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-00">
1433<t>
1434  Closed issues:
1435  <list style="symbols"> 
1436    <t>
1437      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/18"/>:
1438      "Cache validators in 206 responses"
1439      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#ifrange206"/>)
1440    </t>
1441    <t>
1442      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1443      "Normative and Informative references"
1444    </t>
1445    <t>
1446      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86"/>:
1447      "Normative up-to-date references"
1448    </t>
1449  </list>
1450</t>
1451</section>
1452
1453<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-01">
1454<t>
1455  Closed issues:
1456  <list style="symbols"> 
1457    <t>
1458      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55"/>:
1459      "Updating to RFC4288"
1460    </t>
1461  </list>
1462</t>
1463<t>
1464  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1465  <list style="symbols"> 
1466    <t>
1467      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1468    </t>
1469  </list>
1470</t>
1471</section>
1472
1473<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1474<t>
1475  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1476  <list style="symbols"> 
1477    <t>
1478      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for headers defined
1479      in this document.
1480    </t>
1481  </list>
1482</t>
1483</section>
1484
1485<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1486<t>
1487  None.
1488</t>
1489</section>
1490
1491<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1492<t>
1493  Closed issues:
1494  <list style="symbols"> 
1495    <t>
1496      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/133"/>:
1497      "multipart/byteranges minimum number of parts"
1498    </t>
1499  </list>
1500</t>
1501<t>
1502  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1503  <list style="symbols"> 
1504    <t>
1505      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1506    </t>
1507    <t>
1508      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1509      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1510    </t>
1511    <t>
1512      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1513      header field value format definitions.
1514    </t>
1515  </list>
1516</t>
1517</section>
1518
1519<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1520<t>
1521  Closed issues:
1522  <list style="symbols"> 
1523    <t>
1524      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/142"/>:
1525      "State base for *-byte-pos and suffix-length"
1526    </t>
1527  </list>
1528</t>
1529<t>
1530  Ongoing work on Custom Ranges (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85"/>):
1531  <list style="symbols"> 
1532    <t>
1533      Remove bias in favor of byte ranges; allow custom ranges in ABNF.
1534    </t>
1535  </list>
1536</t>
1537<t>
1538  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1539  <list style="symbols"> 
1540    <t>
1541      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1542    </t>
1543  </list>
1544</t>
1545</section>
1546
1547<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1548<t>
1549  Closed issues:
1550  <list style="symbols"> 
1551    <t>
1552      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161"/>:
1553      "base for numeric protocol elements"
1554    </t>
1555  </list>
1556</t>
1557</section>
1558
1559<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1560<t>
1561  Closed issues:
1562  <list style="symbols">
1563    <t>
1564      Fixed discrepancy in the If-Range definition about allowed validators.
1565    </t>
1566    <t>
1567      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/150" />: "multipart/byteranges for custom range units"
1568    </t>
1569    <t>
1570      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/151" />: "range unit missing from other-ranges-specifier in Range header"
1571    </t>
1572    <t>
1573      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1574      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1575    </t>
1576  </list>
1577</t>
1578</section>
1579
1580<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1581<t>
1582  No significant changes.
1583</t>
1584</section>
1585
1586<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1587<t>
1588 No significant changes.
1589</t>
1590</section>
1591
1592<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1593<t>
1594  Closed issues:
1595  <list style="symbols"> 
1596    <t>
1597      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/69"/>:
1598      "Clarify 'Requested Variant'"
1599    </t>
1600    <t>
1601      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/109"/>:
1602      "Clarify entity / representation / variant terminology"
1603    </t>
1604    <t>
1605      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/220"/>:
1606      "consider removing the 'changes from 2068' sections"
1607    </t>
1608  </list>
1609</t>
1610<t>
1611  Ongoing work on Custom Ranges (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85"/>):
1612  <list style="symbols"> 
1613    <t>
1614      Add IANA registry.
1615    </t>
1616  </list>
1617</t>
1618</section>
1619
1620<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1621<t>
1622  Closed issues:
1623  <list style="symbols"> 
1624    <t>
1625      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/217"/>:
1626      "Caches can't be required to serve ranges"
1627    </t>
1628  </list>
1629</t>
1630</section>
1631
1632<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1633<t>
1634  Closed issues:
1635  <list style="symbols"> 
1636    <t>
1637      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1638      "Header Classification"
1639    </t>
1640  </list>
1641</t>
1642</section>
1643
1644<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1645<t>
1646  Closed issues:
1647  <list style="symbols">
1648    <t>
1649      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1650      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1651    </t>
1652  </list>
1653</t>
1654</section>
1655
1656<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1657<t>
1658  None.
1659</t>
1660</section>
1661
1662<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1663<t>
1664  Closed issues:
1665  <list style="symbols">
1666    <t>
1667      <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/175"/>:
1668      "Security consideration: range flooding"
1669    </t>
1670  </list>
1671</t>
1672</section>
1673
1674<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1675<t>
1676  Closed issues:
1677  <list style="symbols"> 
1678    <t>
1679      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1680      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1681    </t>
1682    <t>
1683      <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/301"/>:
1684      "Content-Range on responses other than 206"
1685    </t>
1686    <t>
1687      <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/319"/>:
1688      "case sensitivity of ranges in p5"
1689    </t>
1690  </list>
1691</t>
1692</section>
1693
1694<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1695<t>
1696  None.
1697</t>
1698</section>
1699
1700<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-18" anchor="changes.since.18">
1701<t>
1702  Closed issues:
1703  <list style="symbols"> 
1704    <t>
1705      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/311"/>:
1706      "Add limitations to Range to reduce its use as a denial-of-service tool"
1707    </t>
1708  </list>
1709</t>
1710</section>
1711
1712<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
1713<t>
1714  Closed issues:
1715  <list style="symbols"> 
1716    <t>
1717      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/358"/>:
1718      "ABNF list expansion code problem"
1719    </t>
1720    <t>
1721      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361"/>:
1722      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1723    </t>
1724  </list>
1725</t>
1726</section>
1727
1728</section>
1729
1730</back>
1731</rfc>
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