source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p5-range.xml @ 2189

Last change on this file since 2189 was 2177, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 8 years ago

bump up document dates, update to latest version of rfc2629.xslt

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[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[29]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
[2177]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "February">
[2080]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2013">
[1692]17  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x=''>Note:</x:h>">
[1452]18  <!ENTITY architecture               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1875]19  <!ENTITY conformance                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x=''/>">
[424]20  <!ENTITY notation                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]21  <!ENTITY abnf-extension             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1364]22  <!ENTITY acks                       "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]23  <!ENTITY whitespace                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x=''/>">
24  <!ENTITY field-components           "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x=''/>">
[31]25  <!ENTITY messaging                  "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x=''/>">
[2069]26  <!ENTITY semantics                  "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x=''/>">
[2144]27  <!ENTITY http-date                  "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='' xmlns:x=''/>">
28  <!ENTITY representation             "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#representations' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1260]29  <!ENTITY entity-tags                "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#header.etag' xmlns:x=''/>">
[31]30  <!ENTITY weak-and-strong-validators "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#weak.and.strong.validators' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1260]31  <!ENTITY lastmod-comparison         "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#lastmod.comparison' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1524]32  <!ENTITY p6-heuristic               "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#heuristic.freshness' xmlns:x=''/>">
34<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]35<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
36<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]37<?rfc compact="yes"?>
38<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
39<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
40<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[203]41<?rfc comments="yes"?>
42<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[799]43<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
[8]44<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
45<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[1477]46<rfc obsoletes="2616" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
47     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;"
48     xmlns:x=''>
[1472]49<x:link rel="prev" basename="p4-conditional"/>
50<x:link rel="next" basename="p6-cache"/>
[1522]51<x:feedback template="{docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
[1864]54  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Range Requests">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests</title>
[29]56  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]57    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[8]58    <address>
59      <postal>
[1106]60        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
61        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]62        <region>CA</region>
[1106]63        <code>95110</code>
[29]64        <country>USA</country>
[8]65      </postal>
[29]66      <email></email>
67      <uri></uri>
[8]68    </address>
69  </author>
[95]71  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
[94]72    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
73    <address>
74      <postal>
75        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
76        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
77        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
78        <region>AM</region>
79        <code>06902</code>
80        <country>France</country>
81      </postal>
82      <email></email>
83      <uri></uri>
84    </address>
85  </author>
[95]87  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
88    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
89    <address>
90      <postal>
91        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
92        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
93        <country>Germany</country>
94      </postal>
[609]95      <email></email>
96      <uri></uri>
[95]97    </address>
98  </author>
[31]100  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
[440]101  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
[1373]105   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
[1808]106   distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document
107   defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining
108   responses to those requests.
112<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
113  <t>
[1764]114    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
[1268]115    mailing list (, which is archived at
116    <eref target=""/>.
117  </t>
118  <t>
119    The current issues list is at
120    <eref target=""/> and related
121    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]122    <eref target=""/>.
[36]123  </t>
[153]124  <t>
[1929]125    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.21"/>.
[153]126  </t>
130<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[2144]132   Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients often encounter interrupted data
133   transfers as a result of canceled requests or dropped connections. When a
134   client has stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the
135   remainder of that representation in a subsequent request rather than
136   transfer the entire representation. Likewise, devices with limited local
137   storage might benefit from being able to request only a subset of a larger
138   representation, such as a single page of a very large document, or the
139   dimensions of an embedded image.
[2144]142   This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and the
143   multipart/byteranges media type, obsoleting those parts previously defined
144   in <xref target="RFC2616"/>. Range requests are an &OPTIONAL; feature
145   of HTTP, designed so that recipients not implementing this feature (or not
146   supporting it for the target resource) can respond as if it is a normal
147   GET request without impacting interoperability. Partial responses are
148   indicated by a distinct status code to not be mistaken for full responses
149   by caches that might not implement the feature.
[2144]152   Although the range request mechanism is designed to allow for
[158]153   extensible range types, this specification only defines requests for
154   byte ranges.
[1875]157<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
159   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
160   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
161   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
[1875]164   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
165   are defined in &conformance;.
[424]169<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
[1518]171   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
172   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
[1805]173   &notation;. <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
174   other documents. <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
[1518]175   with the list rule expanded.
[8]181<section title="Range Units" anchor="range.units">
[229]182  <x:anchor-alias value="range-unit"/>
[2135]183  <x:anchor-alias value="range unit"/>
[2135]185   A representation can be partitioned into subranges according to various
186   structural units, depending on the structure inherent in the
[2144]187   representation's media type. This "<x:dfn>range unit</x:dfn>" is used
188   in the <x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref> (<xref target="header.accept-ranges"/>)
189   response header field to advertise support for range requests, the
190   <x:ref>Range</x:ref> (<xref target="header.range"/>) request header field
191   to delineate the parts of a representation that are requested, and the
[1738]192   <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> (<xref target="header.content-range"/>)
[2144]193   payload header field to describe which part of a representation is being
194   transferred.
[2144]196<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="range-unit"/><iref item="Grammar" subitem="bytes-unit"/><iref item="Grammar" subitem="other-range-unit"/>
[334]197  <x:ref>range-unit</x:ref>       = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> / <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref>
200<section title="Byte Ranges" anchor="byte.ranges">
[2144]201  <x:anchor-alias value="bytes-unit"/>
[2144]203   Since representation data is transferred in payloads as a sequence of
204   octets, a byte range is a meaningful substructure for any representation
205   transferable over HTTP (&representation;). We define the "bytes" range
206   unit for expressing subranges of the data's octet sequence.
[2144]208<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="bytes-unit"/>
209  <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref>       = "bytes"
[2140]211<t anchor="rule.ranges-specifier">
212  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-set"/>
213  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-spec"/>
214  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-ranges-specifier"/>
215  <x:anchor-alias value="first-byte-pos"/>
216  <x:anchor-alias value="last-byte-pos"/>
217  <x:anchor-alias value="ranges-specifier"/>
218  <x:anchor-alias value="suffix-byte-range-spec"/>
219  <x:anchor-alias value="suffix-length"/>
220   A byte range operation &MAY; specify a single range of bytes, or a set
221   of ranges within a single representation.
223<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ranges-specifier"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-ranges-specifier"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-set"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="first-byte-pos"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="last-byte-pos"/>
224  <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref>
225  <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref>  = 1#( <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> / <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> )
226  <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> = <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> "-" [ <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> ]
227  <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref>  = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
228  <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>   = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
[2150]231   The <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> value in a <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref>
232   gives the byte-offset of the first byte in a range.
233   The <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> value gives the byte-offset of the last
234   byte in the range; that is, the byte positions specified are inclusive.
235   Byte offsets start at zero.
[2150]238   Examples of <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> values:
[2145]239  <list style="symbols">
240     <t>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
241<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
242  bytes=0-499
244    </t>
245     <t>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
246<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
247  bytes=500-999
249    </t>
250  </list>
[2150]253   A <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> is invalid if the
254   <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> value is present and less than the
255   <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref>.
[2150]258   A client can limit the number of bytes requested without knowing the size
259   of the selected representation.
260   If the <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> value is absent, or if the value is
261   greater than or equal to the current length of the representation data, the
262   byte range is interpreted as the remainder of the representation (i.e., the
263   server replaces the value of <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> with a value that
264   is one less than the current length of the selected representation).
[2150]267   A client can request the last N bytes of the selected representation using
268   a <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref>.
270<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="suffix-byte-range-spec"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="suffix-length"/>
271  <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> = "-" <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref>
272  <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
[2150]275   If the selected representation is shorter than the specified
276   <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref>, the entire representation is used.
277   For example (assuming a representation of length 10000):
[2140]278  <list style="symbols">
279     <t>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
280<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
281  bytes=-500
283    Or:
284<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
285  bytes=9500-
287    </t>
288     <t>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
289<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
290  bytes=0-0,-1
292     </t>
[2144]293     <t>Other valid (but not canonical) specifications of the second 500
[2140]294        bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
295<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
296  bytes=500-600,601-999
297  bytes=500-700,601-999
299     </t>
300  </list>
[2150]303   If a valid <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref> includes at least one
304   <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> with a <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> that is
305   less than the current length of the representation, or at least one
306   <x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> with a non-zero
307   <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref>, then the <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref> is
308   satisfiable. Otherwise, the <x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref> is unsatisfiable.
311   In the byte range syntax, <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref>,
312   <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>, and <x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> are
[2150]313   expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no predefined limit
314   to the length of a payload, recipients ought to anticipate potentially
315   large decimal numerals and prevent parsing errors due to integer conversion
316   overflows.
320<section title="Other Range Units" anchor="range.units.other">
[2144]321  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-unit"/>
[2144]323  Range units are intended to be extensible.  New range units ought to be
324  registered with IANA, as defined in <xref target="range.unit.registry"/>.
[2144]326<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="other-range-unit"/>
327  <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[2142]331<section title="Accept-Ranges" anchor="header.accept-ranges">
332  <iref primary="true" item="Accept-Ranges header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
333  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Ranges"/>
334  <x:anchor-alias value="acceptable-ranges"/>
[2150]336   The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a server to indicate that it
337   supports range requests for the target resource.
339<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Ranges"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="acceptable-ranges"/>
340  <x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref>     = <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref>
341  <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> / "none"
[2150]344   Origin servers that support byte-range requests &MAY; send
346<figure><artwork type="example">
347  Accept-Ranges: bytes
350   but are not required to do so. Clients &MAY; generate range
351   requests without having received this header field for the resource
352   involved. Range units are defined in <xref target="range.units"/>.
[2150]355   Servers that do not support any kind of range request for the target
356   resource resource &MAY; send
358<figure><artwork type="example">
359  Accept-Ranges: none
362   to advise the client not to attempt a range request.
368<section title="Range Requests" anchor="range.requests">
[2142]369<section title="Range" anchor="header.range">
370  <iref primary="true" item="Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
371  <x:anchor-alias value="Range"/>
372  <x:anchor-alias value="other-ranges-specifier"/>
373  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-set"/>
375   The "Range" header field on a GET request modifies the method semantics to
[2150]376   request transfer of only one or more subranges of the selected
377   representation data, rather than the entire selected representation data.
379<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Range"/>
380  <x:ref>Range</x:ref> = <x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> / <x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref>
381  <x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref>
382  <x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>CHAR</x:ref>
385   A server &MAY; ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers and
386   intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible, since Range
387   supports efficient recovery from partially failed transfers and partial
388   retrieval of large representations. A server &MUST; ignore a Range header
389   field received with a request method other than GET.
[2150]392   An origin server &MUST; ignore a Range header field that contains a range
393   unit it does not understand. A proxy &MAY; either discard a Range header
394   field that contains a range unit it does not understand or pass it to the
395   next inbound server when forwarding the request.
[2157]398   A server that supports range requests ought to ignore or reject a
399   <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field that consists of more than two
400   overlapping ranges, or a set of many small ranges that are not listed
401   in ascending order, since both are indications of either a broken client or
402   a deliberate denial of service attack (<xref target="overlapping.ranges"/>).
403   A client &SHOULD-NOT; request multiple ranges that are inherently less
404   efficient to process and transfer than a single range that encompasses the
405   same data.
408   A client that is requesting multiple ranges &SHOULD; list those ranges in
409   ascending order (the order in which they would typically be received in a
410   complete representation) unless there is a specific need to request a later
411   part earlier. For example, a user agent processing a large representation
412   with an internal catalog of parts might need to request later parts first,
413   particularly if the representation consists of pages stored in reverse
414   order and the user agent wishes to transfer one page at a time.
[2142]417   The Range header field is evaluated after evaluating the preconditions of
418   <xref target="Part4"/> and only if the result of their evaluation is
419   leading toward a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response. In other words, Range
420   is ignored when a conditional GET would result in a
421   <x:ref>304 (Not Modified)</x:ref> response.
424   The If-Range header field (<xref target="header.if-range"/>) can be used as
425   a precondition to applying the Range header field.
428   If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range header
[2150]429   field for the target resource, and the specified range(s) are valid and
430   satisfiable (as defined in <xref target="byte.ranges"/>), the
431   server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response with a
432   payload containing one or more partial representations that correspond to
433   the satisfiable ranges requested, as defined in
[2142]434   <xref target="range.response"/>.
437   If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range header
438   field for the target resource, and the specified range(s) are invalid or
439   unsatisfiable, the server &SHOULD; send a
440   <x:ref>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> response.
[2142]444<section title="If-Range" anchor="header.if-range">
445  <iref primary="true" item="If-Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
446  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Range"/>
448   If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes
449   to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it could use the
450   <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field with a conditional GET (using
451   either or both of <x:ref>If-Unmodified-Since</x:ref> and
452   <x:ref>If-Match</x:ref>.) However, if the condition fails because the
453   representation has been modified, the client would then have to make a
454   second request to obtain the entire current representation.
457   The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second
458   request. Informally, its meaning is: if the representation is unchanged,
459   send me the part(s) that I am requesting in Range; otherwise, send me the
460   entire representation.
462<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Range"/>
463  <x:ref>If-Range</x:ref> = <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> / <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
466   Clients &MUST-NOT; use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range
467   field value and &MUST-NOT; use a <x:ref>Last-Modified</x:ref> date in an
468   If-Range field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and
469   the Last-Modified date it does have for the representation is strong
470   in the sense defined by &lastmod-comparison;.
473   A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is applicable
474   to one of its representations &MUST; evaluate the condition as false if
475   the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, when an HTTP-date
476   is used as the validator, if the date value is not strong in the sense
477   defined by &lastmod-comparison;. (A server can distinguish between a
478   valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag by examining the first
479   two characters.)
[2150]482   A client &MUST-NOT; generate an If-Range header field in a request that
483   does not contain a <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field.
484   A server &MUST; ignore an If-Range header field received in a request that
485   does not contain a <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field.
486   An origin server &MUST; ignore an If-Range header field received in a
487   request for a target resource that does not support Range requests.
490   If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current
491   validator for the selected representation of the target resource, then
[2150]492   the server &SHOULD; process the Range header field as requested.
493   If the validator does not match, then the server &MUST; ignore the
494   <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field.
[2143]500<section title="Responses to a Range Request" anchor="range.response">
502<section title="206 Partial Content" anchor="status.206">
503  <iref primary="true" item="206 Partial Content (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
504  <x:anchor-alias value="206"/>
505  <x:anchor-alias value="206 (Partial Content)"/>
[2152]507   The <x:dfn>206 (Partial Content)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
[2153]508   server is successfully fulfilling a range request for the target resource
509   by transferring one or more parts of the selected representation that
510   correspond to the satisfiable ranges found in the requests's
511   <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.range"/>).
[2153]514   If a single part is being transferred, the server generating the 206
515   response &MUST; generate a <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header field,
516   describing what range of the selected representation is enclosed, and a
517   payload consisting of the range. For example:
519<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
520HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
521Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
522Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
523Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
524Content-Length: 26012
525Content-Type: image/gif
[2157]527... 26012 bytes of partial image data ...
[2153]530   If multiple parts are being transferred, the server generating the 206
531   response &MUST; generate a "multipart/byteranges" payload, as defined
[2158]532   in <xref target=""/>, and a
[2153]533   <x:ref>Content-Type</x:ref> header field containing the
[2157]534   multipart/byteranges media type and its required boundary parameter.
[2158]535   To avoid confusion with single part responses, a server &MUST-NOT; generate
536   a <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header field in the HTTP header block of a
537   multiple part response (this field will be sent in each part instead).
[2157]540   Within the header area of each body part in the multipart payload, the
541   server &MUST; generate a <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header field
542   corresponding to the range being enclosed in that body part.
543   If the selected representation would have had a <x:ref>Content-Type</x:ref>
544   header field in a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response, the server &SHOULD;
545   generate that same <x:ref>Content-Type</x:ref> field in the header area of
546   each body part. For example:
[2157]548<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
[2153]549HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
550Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
551Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
552Content-Length: 1741
553Content-Type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
556Content-Type: application/pdf
557Content-Range: bytes 500-999/8000
559...the first range...
561Content-Type: application/pdf
562Content-Range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
564...the second range
[2157]568   When multiple ranges are requested, a server &MAY; coalesce any of the
569   ranges that overlap or that are separated by a gap that is smaller than the
570   overhead of sending multiple parts, regardless of the order in which the
571   corresponding byte-range-spec appeared in the received <x:ref>Range</x:ref>
572   header field. Since the typical overhead between parts of a
573   multipart/byteranges payload is around 80 bytes, depending on the selected
574   representation's media type and the chosen boundary parameter length, it
575   can be less efficient to transfer many small disjoint parts than it is to
576   transfer the entire selected representation.
[2157]579   A server &MUST-NOT; generate a multipart response to a request for a single
580   range, since a client that does not request multiple parts might not
581   support multipart responses. However, a server &MAY; generate a
582   multipart/byteranges payload with only a single body part if multiple
583   ranges were requested and only one range was found to be satisfiable or
584   only one range remained after coalescing.
585   A client that cannot process a multipart/byteranges response &MUST-NOT; ask
586   for multiple ranges in a single request.
[2157]589   When a multipart response payload is generated, the server &SHOULD; send
590   the parts in the same order that the corresponding byte-range-spec appeared
591   in the received <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field, excluding those ranges
592   that were deemed unsatisfiable or that were coalesced into other ranges.
593   A client that receives a multipart response &MUST; inspect the
594   <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header field present in each body part in
595   order to determine which range is contained in that body part; a client
596   cannot rely on receiving the same ranges that it requested, nor the same
597   order that it requested.
[2157]600   When a 206 response is generated, the server &MUST; generate the following
[2158]601   header fields, in addition to those required above, if the field would
[2157]602   have been sent in a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response to the same request:
603   <x:ref>Date</x:ref>, <x:ref>Cache-Control</x:ref>, <x:ref>ETag</x:ref>,
604   <x:ref>Expires</x:ref>, <x:ref>Content-Location</x:ref>, and
605   <x:ref>Vary</x:ref>.
[2066]608   If a 206 is generated in response to a request with an <x:ref>If-Range</x:ref>
609   header field, the sender &SHOULD-NOT; generate other representation header
[2158]610   fields beyond those required above, because the client is understood to
[2157]611   already have a prior response containing those header fields.
612   Otherwise, the sender &MUST; generate all of the representation header
[2066]613   fields that would have been sent in a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response
[1738]614   to the same request.
[2166]617   A 206 response is cacheable unless otherwise indicated by
618   explicit cache controls (see &p6-heuristic;).
622<section title="Content-Range" anchor="header.content-range">
[1120]623  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Range header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]624  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Range"/>
[2135]625  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-content-range"/>
626  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range-resp"/>
627  <x:anchor-alias value="byte-range"/>
628  <x:anchor-alias value="unsatisfied-range"/>
629  <x:anchor-alias value="complete-length"/>
630  <x:anchor-alias value="other-content-range"/>
631  <x:anchor-alias value="other-range-resp"/>
[2158]633   The "Content-Range" header field is sent in a single part
634   <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response to indicate the partial range
635   of the selected representation enclosed as the message payload, sent in
636   each part of a multipart 206 response to indicate the range enclosed within
637   each body part, and sent in <x:ref>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref>
638   responses to provide information about the selected representation.
[2135]640<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-content-range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range-resp"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="byte-range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="unsatisfied-range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="other-content-range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="other-range-resp"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="complete-length"/>
641  <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>       = <x:ref>byte-content-range</x:ref>
642                      / <x:ref>other-content-range</x:ref>
[2135]644  <x:ref>byte-content-range</x:ref>  = <x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref>
[2138]645                        ( <x:ref>byte-range-resp</x:ref> / <x:ref>unsatisfied-range</x:ref> )
647  <x:ref>byte-range-resp</x:ref>     = <x:ref>byte-range</x:ref> "/" ( <x:ref>complete-length</x:ref> / "*" )
648  <x:ref>byte-range</x:ref>          = <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> "-" <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>
649  <x:ref>unsatisfied-range</x:ref>   = "*/" <x:ref>complete-length</x:ref>
[2135]651  <x:ref>complete-length</x:ref>     = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
[2135]653  <x:ref>other-content-range</x:ref> = <x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>other-range-resp</x:ref>
654  <x:ref>other-range-resp</x:ref>    = *<x:ref>CHAR</x:ref>
[2158]657   If a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response contains a
[2135]658   <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header field with a <x:ref>range unit</x:ref>
[2158]659   (<xref target="range.units"/>) that the recipient does not understand, the
660   recipient &MUST-NOT; attempt to recombine it with a stored representation.
661   A proxy that receives such a message &SHOULD; forward it downstream.
[2135]664   For byte ranges, a sender &SHOULD; indicate the complete length of the
[2158]665   representation from which the range has been extracted, unless the complete
[2135]666   length is unknown or difficult to determine. An asterisk character ("*") in
667   place of the complete-length indicates that the representation length was
668   unknown when the header field was generated.
[2158]671   The following example illustrates when the complete length of the selected
672   representation is known by the sender to be 1234 bytes:
[2135]674<figure><artwork type="example">
675  Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/1234
[2158]678   and this second example illustrates when the complete length is unknown:
[2135]680<figure><artwork type="example">
681  Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/*
[2158]684   A Content-Range field value is invalid if it contains a
685   <x:ref>byte-range-resp</x:ref> that has a <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref>
686   value less than its <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> value, or a
687   <x:ref>complete-length</x:ref> value less than or equal to its
688   <x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> value. The recipient of an invalid
689   <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> &MUST-NOT; attempt to recombine the received
690   content with a stored representation.
[2135]693   A server generating a <x:ref>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> response
694   to a byte range request &SHOULD; send a Content-Range header field with an
695   <x:ref>unsatisfied-range</x:ref> value, as in the following example:
[2135]697<figure><artwork type="example">
698  Content-Range: bytes */1234
[2135]701   The complete-length in a 416 response indicates the current length of the
[2158]702   selected representation.
705   The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that do
706   not explicitly describe its semantic. For this specification, only the
707   <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> and
708   <x:ref>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> status codes describe a meaning
709   for Content-Range.
[2158]712   The following are examples of Content-Range values in which the
713   selected representation contains a total of 1234 bytes:
[8]714   <list style="symbols">
715      <t>
716        The first 500 bytes:
[565]717<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
[2135]718  Content-Range: bytes 0-499/1234
720      </t>   
721      <t>
722        The second 500 bytes:
[565]723<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
[2135]724  Content-Range: bytes 500-999/1234
726      </t>   
727      <t>
728        All except for the first 500 bytes:
[565]729<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
[2135]730  Content-Range: bytes 500-1233/1234
732      </t>   
733      <t>
734        The last 500 bytes:
[565]735<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="   ">
[2135]736  Content-Range: bytes 734-1233/1234
738      </t>   
739   </list>
[2142]743<section title="Combining Ranges" anchor="combining.byte.ranges">
[2142]745   A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the
746   connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or more Range
747   specifications.  After several such transfers, a client might have
748   received several ranges of the same representation.  These ranges can only
749   be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator,
750   where "strong validator" is defined to be either an entity-tag that is
751   not marked as weak (&entity-tags;) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a
752   <x:ref>Last-Modified</x:ref> value that is strong in the sense defined by
753   &lastmod-comparison;.
[2158]756   A client that has received multiple partial responses to GET requests on a
757   target resource &MAY; combine those responses into a larger continuous
758   range if they share the same strong validator.
[2158]761   If the most recent response is an incomplete <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>
762   response, then the header fields of that response are used for any
763   combined response and replace those of the matching stored responses.
[2158]766   If the most recent response is a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref>
767   response and at least one of the matching stored responses is a
768   <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref>, then the combined response header fields consist
769   of the most recent 200 response's header fields. If all of the matching
770   stored responses are 206 responses, then the stored response with the most
771   recent header fields is used as the source of header fields for the
772   combined response, except that the client &MUST; use other header fields
773   provided in the new response, aside from <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>, to
774   replace all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored
775   response.
[2142]778   The combined response message body consists of the union of partial
779   content ranges in the new response and each of the selected responses.
780   If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the
781   client &MUST; record the combined response as if it were a complete
782   <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response, including a <x:ref>Content-Length</x:ref>
783   header field that reflects the complete length.
784   Otherwise, the client &MUST; record the set of continuous ranges as one of
785   the following:
786   an incomplete <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> response if the combined response is
787   a prefix of the representation,
788   a single <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response containing a
789   multipart/byteranges body, or
790   multiple <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> responses, each with one
791   continuous range that is indicated by a <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header
792   field.
796<section title="416 Range Not Satisfiable" anchor="status.416">
797  <iref primary="true" item="416 Range Not Satisfiable (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
798  <x:anchor-alias value="416 (Range Not Satisfiable)"/>
[2158]800   The <x:dfn>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</x:dfn> status code indicates that
801   none of the ranges in the request's <x:ref>Range</x:ref> header field
802   (<xref target="header.range"/>) overlap the current extent of the selected
803   resource or that the set of ranges requested has been rejected due to
804   invalid ranges or an excessive request of small or overlapping ranges.
[2158]807   For byte ranges, failing to overlap the current extent means that the
808   <x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> of all of the <x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref>
809   values were greater than the current length of the selected representation.
810   When this status code is generated in response to a byte range request, the
[2152]811   sender &SHOULD; generate a <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> header field
812   specifying the current length of the selected representation
[2158]813   (<xref target="header.content-range"/>).
816<preamble>For example:</preamble>
817<artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
818HTTP/1.1 416 Range Not Satisfiable
819Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
820Content-Range: bytes */47022
823  <t>
[2158]824    &Note; Because servers are free to ignore <x:ref>Range</x:ref>, many
825    implementations will simply respond with <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> if the
826    requested ranges are invalid or not satisfiable. That is partly because
827    most clients are prepared to receive a <x:ref>200 (OK)</x:ref> to
828    complete the task (albeit less efficiently) and partly because clients
829    might not stop making an invalid partial request until they have received
830    a complete representation. Thus, clients cannot depend on receiving a
831    <x:ref>416 (Range Not Satisfiable)</x:ref> response even when it is most
832    appropriate.
[2152]833  </t>
[29]838<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
[2139]840<section title="Range Unit Registry" anchor="range.unit.registry">
842   The HTTP Range Unit Registry defines the name space for the range
843   unit names and refers to their corresponding specifications.
844   The registry is maintained at
[2151]845   <eref target=""/>.
848<section title="Procedure" anchor="range.unit.registry.procedure">
850   Registration of an HTTP Range Unit &MUST; include the following fields:
851   <list style="symbols">
852     <t>Name</t>
853     <t>Description</t>
854     <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
855   </list>
858  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
859  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
863<section title="Registrations" anchor="range.unit.registration">
865   The initial HTTP Range Unit Registry shall contain the registrations
866   below:
868<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.range.units.table">
[2153]869   <ttcol>Range Unit Name</ttcol>
[2139]870   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
871   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
873   <c>bytes</c>
874   <c>a range of octets</c>
[2144]875   <c><xref target="byte.ranges"/></c>
877   <c>none</c>
878   <c>reserved as keyword, indicating no ranges are supported</c>
879   <c><xref target="header.accept-ranges"/></c>
882   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
[700]887<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
889   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target=""/>
[969]890   shall be updated with the registrations below:
892<?BEGININC p5-range.iana-status-codes ?>
893<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
894<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
895   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
896   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
897   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
898   <c>206</c>
899   <c>Partial Content</c>
900   <c>
901      <xref target="status.206"/>
902   </c>
903   <c>416</c>
[2121]904   <c>Range Not Satisfiable</c>
[700]905   <c>
906      <xref target="status.416"/>
907   </c>
910<?ENDINC p5-range.iana-status-codes ?>
[921]913<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
[969]915   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target=""/> shall be updated
[2046]916   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
[680]918<?BEGININC p5-range.iana-headers ?>
[253]919<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]920<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]921   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
922   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
923   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
924   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
926   <c>Accept-Ranges</c>
927   <c>http</c>
928   <c>standard</c>
929   <c>
930      <xref target="header.accept-ranges"/>
931   </c>
932   <c>Content-Range</c>
933   <c>http</c>
934   <c>standard</c>
935   <c>
936      <xref target="header.content-range"/>
937   </c>
938   <c>If-Range</c>
939   <c>http</c>
940   <c>standard</c>
941   <c>
942      <xref target="header.if-range"/>
943   </c>
944   <c>Range</c>
945   <c>http</c>
946   <c>standard</c>
947   <c>
948      <xref target="header.range"/>
949   </c>
[680]952<?ENDINC p5-range.iana-headers ?>
[290]954   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
960<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
[2069]962   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
963   users of known security concerns specific to the HTTP/1.1 range
964   request mechanisms. More general security considerations are addressed
965   in HTTP messaging &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
[2157]968<section title="Denial of Service Attacks using Range" anchor="overlapping.ranges">
[2157]970   Unconstrained multiple range requests are susceptible to denial of service
971   attacks because the effort required to request many overlapping ranges of
972   the same data is tiny compared to the time, memory, and bandwidth consumed
973   by attempting to serve the requested data in many parts.
974   Servers ought to ignore, coalesce, or reject egregious range requests, such
975   as requests for more than two overlapping ranges or for many small ranges
976   in a single set, particularly when the ranges are requested out of order
977   for no apparent reason. Multipart range requests are not designed to
978   support random access.
[1364]983<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
[1364]985  See &acks;.
[119]991<references title="Normative References">
[31]993<reference anchor="Part1">
[119]994  <front>
[1864]995    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
[119]996    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]997      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[119]998      <address><email></email></address>
999    </author>
1000    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1001      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1002      <address><email></email></address>
1003    </author>
1004    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1005  </front>
1006  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
[1740]1007  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging">
1008    <x:defines>Content-Length</x:defines>
1009  </x:source>
[1436]1012<reference anchor="Part2">
1013  <front>
[1864]1014    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
[1436]1015    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1016      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1017      <address><email></email></address>
1018    </author>
1019    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1020      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1021      <address><email></email></address>
1022    </author>
1023    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1024  </front>
1025  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;"/>
[1715]1026  <x:source href="p2-semantics.xml" basename="p2-semantics">
1027    <x:defines>200 (OK)</x:defines>
[1735]1028    <x:defines>410 (Gone)</x:defines>
[1740]1029    <x:defines>Content-Location</x:defines>
1030    <x:defines>Content-Type</x:defines>
[2152]1031    <x:defines>Date</x:defines>
[1740]1032    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
[1860]1033    <x:defines>Vary</x:defines>
[1715]1034  </x:source>
[31]1037<reference anchor="Part4">
[119]1038  <front>
[1864]1039    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests</title>
[119]1040    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]1041      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[119]1042      <address><email></email></address>
1043    </author>
1044    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1045      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1046      <address><email></email></address>
1047    </author>
1048    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1049  </front>
1050  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-&ID-VERSION;"/>
[1734]1051  <x:source href="p4-conditional.xml" basename="p4-conditional">
1052    <x:defines>304 (Not Modified)</x:defines>
[1739]1053    <x:defines>ETag</x:defines>
1054    <x:defines>If-Match</x:defines>
1055    <x:defines>If-Modified-Since</x:defines>
1056    <x:defines>If-None-Match</x:defines>
1057    <x:defines>If-Unmodified-Since</x:defines>
1058    <x:defines>Last-Modified</x:defines>
[1734]1059  </x:source>
[1524]1062<reference anchor="Part6">
1063  <front>
[1864]1064    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
[1524]1065    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1066      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
1067      <address><email></email></address>
1068    </author>
1069    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
[1915]1070      <organization>Akamai</organization>
[1524]1071      <address><email></email></address>
1072    </author>
1073    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1074      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1075      <address><email></email></address>
1076    </author>
1077    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1078  </front>
1079  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
[1737]1080  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache">
[1739]1081    <x:defines>Cache-Control</x:defines>
[1737]1082    <x:defines>Expires</x:defines>
1083  </x:source>
[131]1086<reference anchor="RFC2046">
1087  <front>
1088    <title abbrev="Media Types">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</title>
1089    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
1090      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
1091      <address><email></email></address>
1092    </author>
1093    <author initials="N." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
1094      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
1095      <address><email></email></address>
1096    </author>
1097    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
1098  </front>
1099  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2046"/>
[119]1102<reference anchor="RFC2119">
1103  <front>
1104    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
1105    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
1106      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
1107      <address><email></email></address>
1108    </author>
1109    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
1110  </front>
1111  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
1112  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[425]1115<reference anchor="RFC5234">
1116  <front>
1117    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
1118    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
1119      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
1120      <address>
[728]1121        <email></email>
1122      </address> 
[425]1123    </author>
1124    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1125      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1126      <address>
[728]1127        <email></email>
1128      </address>
[425]1129    </author>
1130    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1131  </front>
1132  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1133  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1138<references title="Informative References">
[36]1140<reference anchor="RFC2616">
[119]1141  <front>
1142    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1143    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1144      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1145      <address><email></email></address>
1146    </author>
1147    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1148      <organization>W3C</organization>
1149      <address><email></email></address>
1150    </author>
1151    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1152      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1153      <address><email></email></address>
1154    </author>
1155    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1156      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1157      <address><email></email></address>
1158    </author>
1159    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1160      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1161      <address><email></email></address>
1162    </author>
1163    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1164      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1165      <address><email></email></address>
1166    </author>
1167    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1168      <organization>W3C</organization>
1169      <address><email></email></address>
1170    </author>
1171    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1172  </front>
1173  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[2046]1176<reference anchor='BCP90'>
[253]1177  <front>
1178    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1179    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1180      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1181      <address><email></email></address>
1182    </author>
1183    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1184      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1185      <address><email></email></address>
1186    </author>
1187    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1188      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1189      <address><email></email></address>
1190    </author>
1191    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1192  </front>
1193  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1194  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[2046]1197<reference anchor="BCP13">
[196]1198  <front>
1199    <title>Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</title>
[2170]1200    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
1201      <organization>Oracle</organization>
[196]1202      <address>
[2170]1203        <email></email>
[196]1204      </address>
1205    </author>
[2170]1206    <author initials="J." surname="Klensin" fullname="John C. Klensin">
[196]1207      <address>
[2170]1208        <email></email>
[196]1209      </address>
1210    </author>
[2170]1211    <author initials="T." surname="Hansen" fullname="Tony Hansen">
1212      <organization>AT&amp;T Laboratories</organization>
1213      <address>
1214        <email></email>
1215      </address>
1216    </author>
1217    <date year="2013" month="January"/>
[196]1218  </front>
1219  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="13"/>
[2170]1220  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="6838"/>
[930]1223<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
1224  <front>
1225    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1226    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
1227      <organization>IBM</organization>
1228      <address><email></email></address>
1229    </author>
1230    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
1231      <organization>Google</organization>
1232      <address><email></email></address>
1233    </author>
1234    <date year='2008' month='May' />
1235  </front>
1236  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
1237  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
[8]1242<section title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges" anchor="">
1243<iref item="Media Type" subitem="multipart/byteranges" primary="true"/>
1244<iref item="multipart/byteranges Media Type" primary="true"/>
[2153]1246   When a <x:ref>206 (Partial Content)</x:ref> response message includes the
[2157]1247   content of multiple ranges, they are transmitted as body parts in a
[2153]1248   multipart message body (<xref target="RFC2046" x:fmt="," x:sec="5.1"/>)
1249   with the media type of "multipart/byteranges".  The following definition is
1250   to be registered with IANA <xref target="BCP13"/>.
[2157]1253   The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more body parts, each
[1740]1254   with its own <x:ref>Content-Type</x:ref> and <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>
1255   fields. The required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used
[2157]1256   to separate each body part.
1259  <list style="hanging" x:indent="12em">
[196]1260    <t hangText="Type name:">
[8]1261      multipart
1262    </t>
[196]1263    <t hangText="Subtype name:">
[8]1264      byteranges
1265    </t>
1266    <t hangText="Required parameters:">
1267      boundary
1268    </t>
1269    <t hangText="Optional parameters:">
1270      none
1271    </t>
1272    <t hangText="Encoding considerations:">
1273      only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted
1274    </t>
1275    <t hangText="Security considerations:">
1276      none
1277    </t>
[196]1278    <t hangText="Interoperability considerations:">
1279      none
1280    </t>
1281    <t hangText="Published specification:">
1282      This specification (see <xref target=""/>).
1283    </t>
1284    <t hangText="Applications that use this media type:">
[1749]1285      HTTP components supporting multiple ranges in a single request.
[196]1286    </t>
1287    <t hangText="Additional information:">
1288      <list style="hanging">
1289        <t hangText="Magic number(s):">none</t>
1290        <t hangText="File extension(s):">none</t>
1291        <t hangText="Macintosh file type code(s):">none</t>
1292      </list>
1293    </t>
1294    <t hangText="Person and email address to contact for further information:">
1295      See Authors Section.
1296    </t>
[609]1297    <t hangText="Intended usage:">
1298      COMMON
[196]1299    </t>
[609]1300    <t hangText="Restrictions on usage:">
1301      none
[196]1302    </t>
1303    <t hangText="Author/Change controller:">
1304      IESG
1305    </t>
[8]1306  </list>
[2153]1309  Implementation Notes:
[8]1310  <list style="numbers">
[2153]1311      <t>Additional CRLFs might precede the first boundary string in the body.</t>
[97]1313      <t>Although <xref target="RFC2046"/> permits the boundary string to be
[8]1314         quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary
1315         string incorrectly.</t>
[1600]1317      <t>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft
[2153]1318         of the byteranges specification that used a media type of
1319         multipart/x-byteranges<iref item="multipart/x-byteranges Media Type"/><iref item="Media Type" subitem="multipart/x-byteranges"/>,
1320         which is almost (but not quite) compatible with this type.</t>
[8]1321  </list>
1324   Despite the name, the "multipart/byteranges" media type is not limited to
1325   byte ranges. The following example uses an "exampleunit" range unit:
1327<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
1328HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1329Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1330Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
1331Content-Length: 2331785
1332Content-Type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1335Content-Type: video/example
1336Content-Range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
1338...the first range...
1340Content-Type: video/example
1341Content-Range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
1343...the second range
[99]1349<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
[2015]1352  A weak validator cannot be used in a <x:ref>206</x:ref> response.
[105]1353  (<xref target="status.206"/>)
[2021]1356  The Content-Range header field only has meaning when the status code
1357  explicitly defines its use.
1358  (<xref target="header.content-range" />)
[2053]1361  Servers are given more leeway in how they respond to a range request,
1362  in order to mitigate abuse by malicious (or just greedy) clients.
[2015]1365  multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part.
[332]1366  (<xref target=""/>)
[2153]1369  This specification introduces a Range Unit Registry.
[2135]1370  (<xref target="range.unit.registry"/>)
[1805]1374<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1375  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1376  <x:anchor-alias value="CHAR"/>
1377  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1378  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1379  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1380  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1381  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1382  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1383  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1384  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1385  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-date"/>
1386  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-tag"/>
1388  The following core rules are included by
[1806]1389  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
[1805]1390  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1391  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1392  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1393  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1394  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1397  Note that all rules derived from <x:ref>token</x:ref> are to
1398  be compared case-insensitively, like <x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> and
1399  <x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref>.
1402  The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1404<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1405  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>        = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1406  <x:ref>token</x:ref>      = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1409  The rules below are defined in other parts:
1411<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1412  <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>  = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in &http-date;&gt;
1413  <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in &entity-tags;&gt;
[680]1417<?BEGININC p5-range.abnf-appendix ?>
[427]1418<section xmlns:x="" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1420<artwork type="abnf" name="p5-range.parsed-abnf">
[1232]1421<x:ref>Accept-Ranges</x:ref> = acceptable-ranges
[2135]1423<x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref> = byte-content-range / other-content-range
[2052]1425<x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section;
[1232]1427<x:ref>If-Range</x:ref> = entity-tag / HTTP-date
[2045]1429<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[1232]1431<x:ref>Range</x:ref> = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1433<x:ref>acceptable-ranges</x:ref> = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]1434 range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
[2138]1436<x:ref>byte-content-range</x:ref> = bytes-unit SP ( byte-range-resp /
[2135]1437 unsatisfied-range )
1438<x:ref>byte-range</x:ref> = first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos
1439<x:ref>byte-range-resp</x:ref> = byte-range "/" ( complete-length / "*" )
[1663]1440<x:ref>byte-range-set</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec /
1441 suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec /
1442 suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
[427]1443<x:ref>byte-range-spec</x:ref> = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1444<x:ref>byte-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1445<x:ref>bytes-unit</x:ref> = "bytes"
[2135]1447<x:ref>complete-length</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
[1383]1449<x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3&gt;
1451<x:ref>first-byte-pos</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
1453<x:ref>last-byte-pos</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
[2135]1455<x:ref>other-content-range</x:ref> = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp
1456<x:ref>other-range-resp</x:ref> = *CHAR
[638]1457<x:ref>other-range-set</x:ref> = 1*CHAR
[427]1458<x:ref>other-range-unit</x:ref> = token
[638]1459<x:ref>other-ranges-specifier</x:ref> = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1461<x:ref>range-unit</x:ref> = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1463<x:ref>suffix-byte-range-spec</x:ref> = "-" suffix-length
1464<x:ref>suffix-length</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
[2045]1466<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1468<x:ref>unsatisfied-range</x:ref> = "*/" complete-length
[680]1472<?ENDINC p5-range.abnf-appendix ?>
[252]1475<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
[1804]1477  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1478  in <eref target=""/>.
[1592]1481<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
[1663]1483  Closed issues:
1484  <list style="symbols">
1485    <t>
1486      <eref target=""/>:
1487      "ABNF list expansion code problem"
1488    </t>
[1682]1489    <t>
1490      <eref target=""/>:
1491      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1492    </t>
[1748]1493    <t>
1494      <eref target=""/>:
1495      "reserve 'none' as byte range unit"
1496    </t>
[1760]1497    <t>
1498      <eref target=""/>:
1499      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1500    </t>
[1767]1501    <t>
1502      <eref target=""/>:
1503      "range units vs leading zeroes vs size"
1504    </t>
[1663]1505  </list>
[1807]1509<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20" anchor="changes.since.20">
[1889]1511  <list style="symbols">
1512    <t>
1513      Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are
1514      now defined in Part 1.
1515    </t>
1516  </list>
[1929]1520<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21" anchor="changes.since.21">
[2159]1522  Closed issues:
1523  <list style="symbols">
1524    <t>
1525      <eref target=""/>:
1526      "Security consideration: range flooding"
1527    </t>
1528    <t>
[2168]1529      <eref target=""/>:
1530      "Allowing heuristic caching for new status codes"
1531    </t>
1532    <t>
[2159]1533      <eref target=""/>:
1534      "Add limitations to Range to reduce its use as a denial-of-service tool"
1535    </t>
1536  </list>
[2173]1540<!--<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-22" anchor="changes.since.22">
1542  None yet.
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