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445       content: "HTTP/1.1 Range Requests"; 
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469</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
470      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
471      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
472      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
473      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
474      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Range Units" href="#rfc.section.2">
475      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
476      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Responses to a Range Request" href="#rfc.section.4">
477      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.5">
478      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
479      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.7">
480      <link rel="Chapter" title="8 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.8">
481      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.9" title="9 References">
482      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges" href="#rfc.section.A">
483      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Changes from RFC 2616" href="#rfc.section.B">
484      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Imported ABNF" href="#rfc.section.C">
485      <link rel="Appendix" title="D Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.D">
486      <link rel="Appendix" title="E Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.E">
487      <link href="p4-conditional.html" rel="prev">
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490      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
491      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
492      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
493      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
494      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">
495      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-12-07">
496      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
497      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
498      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
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501      <table class="header">
502         <tbody>
503            <tr>
504               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
505               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
506            </tr>
507            <tr>
508               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
509               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
510            </tr>
511            <tr>
512               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
513               </td>
514               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
515            </tr>
516            <tr>
517               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
518               <td class="right">W3C</td>
519            </tr>
520            <tr>
521               <td class="left">Expires: June 10, 2013</td>
522               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
523            </tr>
524            <tr>
525               <td class="left"></td>
526               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
527            </tr>
528            <tr>
529               <td class="left"></td>
530               <td class="right">December 7, 2012</td>
531            </tr>
532         </tbody>
533      </table>
534      <p class="title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest</span></p>
535      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1> 
536      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
537         systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.
538      </p> 
539      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1> 
540      <p>Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
541      </p> 
542      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
543      </p> 
544      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.21" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21">Appendix&nbsp;E.3</a>.
545      </p> 
546      <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
547      <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
548      <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
549         working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
550      </p>
551      <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
552         documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
553         in progress”.
554      </p>
555      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on June 10, 2013.</p>
556      <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
557      <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
558      <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
559         and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
560         text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
561         BSD License.
562      </p>
563      <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
564         10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
565         allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
566         controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
567         works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
568         it into languages other than English.
569      </p>
570      <hr class="noprint">
571      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
572      <ul class="toc">
573         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
574               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
575               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></li>
576            </ul>
577         </li>
578         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a><ul>
579               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registry">Range Specifier Registry</a></li>
580            </ul>
581         </li>
582         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
583               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
584               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
585            </ul>
586         </li>
587         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.4">Responses to a Range Request</a><ul>
588               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.4.1">Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request</a></li>
589               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></li>
590            </ul>
591         </li>
592         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
593               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
594               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
595               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
596               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a><ul>
597                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
598                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.2">5.4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></li>
599                  </ul>
600               </li>
601            </ul>
602         </li>
603         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
604               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
605               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
606               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.3">6.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registration">Range Specifier Registration</a></li>
607            </ul>
608         </li>
609         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
610               <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Overlapping Ranges</a></li>
611            </ul>
612         </li>
613         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
614         <li><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
615               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
616               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
617            </ul>
618         </li>
619         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
620         <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
621         <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
622         <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></li>
623         <li><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
624         <li><a href="#rfc.section.E">E.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
625               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.1">E.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.19">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19</a></li>
626               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.2">E.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.20">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20</a></li>
627               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.3">E.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.21">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21</a></li>
628            </ul>
629         </li>
630         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
631      </ul>
632      <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a id="introduction" href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
633      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result of canceled requests or dropped connections. When a client
634         has stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder of that representation in a subsequent request
635         rather than transfer the entire representation. There are also a number of Web applications that benefit from being able to
636         request only a subset of a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large document or only part of an image
637         to be rendered by a device with limited local storage.
638      </p>
639      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges media type. The protocol for
640         range requests is an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, designed so resources or recipients that do not implement this feature can respond as if it is a normal GET
641         request without impacting interoperability. Partial responses are indicated by a distinct status code to not be mistaken for
642         full responses by intermediate caches that might not implement the feature.
643      </p>
644      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for extensible range types, this specification only defines
645         requests for byte ranges.
646      </p>
647      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="conformance" href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
648      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
649         in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
650      </p>
651      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#conformance" title="Conformance and Error Handling">Section 2.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
652      </p>
653      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation" href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
654      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;D</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
655      </p>
656      <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.units" href="#range.units">Range Units</a></h1>
657      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range) of the representation be included within the response. HTTP/1.1
658         uses range units in the <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>) and <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>) header fields. A representation can be broken down into subranges according to various structural units.
659      </p>
660      <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a>       = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> / <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a>
661  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a>       = "bytes"
662  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>
663</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.p.3">HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications that do not depend on knowledge of ranges. The only range
664         unit defined by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". Additional specifiers can be defined as described in <a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>.
665      </p>
666      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the whole <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.2" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>). If a range unit is not understood in a response, an intermediary <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> pass the response to the client; a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> fail.
667      </p>
668      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.specifier.registry" href="#range.specifier.registry">Range Specifier Registry</a></h2>
669      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">The HTTP Range Specifier Registry defines the name space for the range specifier names.</p>
670      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Registrations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
671      </p>
672      <ul>
673         <li>Name</li>
674         <li>Description</li>
675         <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
676      </ul>
677      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review (see <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
678      </p>
679      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">The registry itself is maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers</a>&gt;.
680      </p>
681      <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.definitions" href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a></h1>
682      <div id="rfc.iref.3"></div>
683      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.206" href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></h2>
684      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource. The request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have included a <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.3" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>) indicating the desired range, and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> have included an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) to make the request conditional.
685      </p>
686      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following header fields:
687      </p>
688      <ul>
689         <li>Either a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>) indicating the range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> including Content-Range fields for each part. If a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field is present in the response, its value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> match the actual number of octets transmitted in the message body.
690         </li>
691         <li>Date</li>
692         <li> <a href="p6-cache.html#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" class="smpl">ETag</a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> and/or <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a>, if the header field would have been sent in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request
693         </li>
694      </ul>
695      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">If a 206 is sent in response to a request with an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include other representation header fields. Otherwise, the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include all of the representation header fields that would have been returned with a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request.
696      </p>
697      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">Caches <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use a heuristic (see <a href="p6-cache.html#heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">Section 4.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) to determine freshness for 206 responses.
698      </p>
699      <div id="rfc.iref.3"></div>
700      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.416" href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></h2>
701      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with this status code if a request included a <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.4" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>), and none of the ranges-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent of the selected resource, and the request
702         did not include an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.2" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>). (For byte-ranges, this means that the first-byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than the current
703         length of the selected resource.)
704      </p>
705      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field specifying the current length of the representation (see <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.3" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>). This response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the multipart/byteranges content-type.
706      </p>
707      <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div> 
708      <p>For example:</p>  <pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
709Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
710Content-Range: bytes */47022
711Content-Type: image/gif
712</pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4"> 
713         <p> <b>Note:</b> Clients cannot depend on servers to send a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested
714               Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response instead of a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response for an unsatisfiable <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field, since not all servers implement this header field.
715         </p> 
716      </div>
717      <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;Responses to a Range Request
718      </h1>
719      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request
720      </h2>
721      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for example, a response to a request for a single range, or to
722         a request for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is transmitted with a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field, and a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field showing the number of bytes actually transferred. For example,
723      </p>
724      <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
725Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
726Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
727Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
728Content-Length: 26012
729Content-Type: image/gif
730</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
731         ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message. The multipart media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges"
732         as defined in <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>.
733      </p>
734      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine requested ranges when those ranges are overlapping (see <a href="#overlapping.ranges" title="Overlapping Ranges">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>).
735      </p>
736      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">A response to a request for a single range <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent using the multipart/byteranges media type. A response to a request for multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be sent as a multipart/byteranges media type with one part. A client that cannot decode a multipart/byteranges message <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> ask for multiple ranges in a single request.
737      </p>
738      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">When a client asks for multiple ranges in one request, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return them in the order that they appeared in the request.
739      </p>
740      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="combining.byte.ranges" href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></h2>
741      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the connection closed prematurely or if the request used
742         one or more Range specifications. After several such transfers, a client might have received several ranges of the same representation.
743         These ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator, where "strong validator" is
744         defined to be either an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> value that is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
745      </p>
746      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.2">When a client receives an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> or <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response and already has one or more stored responses for the same method and effective request URI, all of the stored responses
747         with the same strong validator <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be combined with the partial content in this new response. If none of the stored responses contain the same strong validator,
748         then this new response corresponds to a new representation and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be combined with the existing stored responses.
749      </p>
750      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">If the new response is an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, then the header fields of that new response are used for any combined response and replace those of the matching
751         stored responses.
752      </p>
753      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">If the new response is a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response and at least one of the matching stored responses is a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>, then the combined response header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's header fields. If all of the matching
754         stored responses are 206 responses, then the stored response with the most recent header fields is used as the source of header
755         fields for the combined response, except that the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>, to replace all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored response.
756      </p>
757      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">The combined response message body consists of the union of partial content ranges in the new response and each of the selected
758         responses. If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the combined response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be recorded as a complete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response with a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field that reflects the complete length. Otherwise, the combined response(s) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field describing the included range(s) and be recorded as incomplete. If the union consists of a discontinuous range
759         of the representation, then the client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store it as either a multipart range response or as multiple <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206</a> responses with one continuous range each.
760      </p>
761      <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.field.definitions" href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
762      <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to range requests and partial responses.</p>
763      <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
764      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.accept-ranges" href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></h2>
765      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a resource to indicate its acceptance of range requests.</p>
766      <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a>     = <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>
767  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = 1#<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> / "none"
768</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.3">Origin servers that accept byte-range requests <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
769      </p>
770      <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: bytes
771</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.5">but are not required to do so. Clients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate range requests without having received this header field for the resource involved. Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
772      </p>
773      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.6">Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
774      </p>
775      <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: none
776</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.8">to advise the client not to attempt a range request.</p>
777      <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
778      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.content-range" href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></h2>
779      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The "Content-Range" header field is sent with a partial representation to specify where in the full representation the payload
780         body is intended to be applied.
781      </p>
782      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
783      </p>
784      <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>           = <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a>
785                          / <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a>
786                         
787  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a>
788                            <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a> "/"
789                            ( <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a> / "*" )
790 
791  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a>    = (<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>)
792                          / "*"
793                         
794  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a>         = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
795 
796  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a>
797                             <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a>
798  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a>    = *<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
799</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.4">The header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the total length of the full representation, unless this length is unknown or difficult to determine. The asterisk
800         "*" character means that the instance-length is unknown at the time when the response was generated.
801      </p>
802      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.5">Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see <a href="#byte.ranges" title="Byte Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.4.1</a>), a byte-range-resp-spec <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only specify one range, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> contain absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the range.
803      </p>
804      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.6">A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-byte-pos value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or
805         whose instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos value, is invalid. The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-spec <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
806      </p>
807      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.7">In the case of a byte range request: a server sending a response with status code <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested Range Not
808            Satisfiable)</a>  <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*". The instance-length specifies the current length of the
809         selected resource. A response with status code <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a>  <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
810      </p>
811      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.8">The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that do not explicitly describe its semantic. Currently,
812         only status codes <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> and <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)</a> describe the meaning of this header field.
813      </p>
814      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.9">Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the representation contains a total of 1234 bytes: </p>
815      <ul>
816         <li>The first 500 bytes:
817            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 0-499/1234
818</pre> </li>
819         <li>The second 500 bytes:
820            <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 500-999/1234
821</pre> </li>
822         <li>All except for the first 500 bytes:
823            <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 500-1233/1234
824</pre> </li>
825         <li>The last 500 bytes:
826            <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 734-1233/1234
827</pre> </li>
828      </ul>
829      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.10">If the server ignores a byte-range-spec (for example if it is syntactically invalid, or if it might be seen as a denial-of-service
830         attack), the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> treat the request as if the invalid <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field did not exist. (Normally, this means return a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response containing the full representation).
831      </p>
832      <div id="rfc.iref.i.1"></div>
833      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-range" href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></h2>
834      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it
835         could use the <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a>.) However, if the condition fails because the representation has been modified, the client would then have to make a second
836         request to obtain the entire current representation.
837      </p>
838      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second request. Informally, its meaning is "if the representation
839         is unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me the entire new representation".
840      </p>
841      <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> / <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
842</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.4">Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range field value and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> date in an If-Range field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and the Last-Modified date it does have
843         for the representation is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
844      </p>
845      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.5">A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is applicable to one of its representations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> evaluate the condition as false if the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, when an HTTP-date is used as the
846         validator, if the date value is not strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>. (A server can distinguish between a valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag by examining the first two characters.)
847      </p>
848      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.6">The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be sent by clients together with a Range header field. The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored if it is received in a request that does not include a Range header field. The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored by a server that does not support the sub-range operation.
849      </p>
850      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.7">If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current validator for the selected representation of the target
851         resource, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the specified sub-range of the representation using a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response. If the validator does not match, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the entire representation using a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response.
852      </p>
853      <div id="rfc.iref.r.1"></div>
854      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.4"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.range" href="#header.range">Range</a></h2>
855      <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="byte.ranges" href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></h3>
856      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.1">Since all HTTP representations are transferred as sequences of bytes, the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP
857         representation. (However, not all clients and servers need to support byte-range operations.)
858      </p>
859      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.2">Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in the representation data (not necessarily the same as the
860         message body).
861      </p>
862      <div id="rule.ranges-specifier">
863         <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.3">                A byte range operation <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> specify a single range of bytes, or a set of ranges within a single representation.
864         </p>
865      </div>
866      <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> "=" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>
867  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>  = 1#( <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> / <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> )
868  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" [ <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> ]
869  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>  = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
870  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>   = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
871</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.5">The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value
872         gives the byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start
873         at zero.
874      </p>
875      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.6">If the last-byte-pos value is present, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be greater than or equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte-range-spec is syntactically invalid. The
876         recipient of a byte-range-set that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec values <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the header field that includes that byte-range-set.
877      </p>
878      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.7">If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than or equal to the current length of the representation
879         data, last-byte-pos is taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the representation in bytes.
880      </p>
881      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.8">By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the representation.</p>
882      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>
883  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
884</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.10">A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the representation data, of a length given by the suffix-length
885         value. (That is, this form specifies the last N bytes of a representation.) If the representation is shorter than the specified
886         suffix-length, the entire representation is used.
887      </p>
888      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.11">If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-range-spec whose first-byte-pos is less than the current
889         length of the representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-zero suffix-length, then the byte-range-set
890         is satisfiable. Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable. If the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)</a> status code. Otherwise, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> status code containing the satisfiable ranges of the representation.
891      </p>
892      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.12">In the byte range syntax, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>, and <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> are expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no predefined limit to the length of an HTTP payload, recipients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> anticipate potentially large decimal numerals and prevent parsing errors due to integer conversion overflows.
893      </p>
894      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.13">Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming a representation of length 10000): </p>
895      <ul>
896         <li>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
897            <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=0-499
898</pre> </li>
899         <li>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
900            <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=500-999
901</pre> </li>
902         <li>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
903            <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=-500
904</pre> Or: <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=9500-
905</pre> </li>
906         <li>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
907            <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=0-0,-1
908</pre> </li>
909         <li>Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
910            <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=500-600,601-999
911  bytes=500-700,601-999
912</pre> </li>
913      </ul>
914      <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.2">5.4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.retrieval.requests" href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></h3>
915      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.1">The "Range" header field defines the GET method (conditional or not) to request one or more sub-ranges of the response representation
916         data, instead of the entire representation data.
917      </p>
918      <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span>  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> / <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a>
919  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> "=" <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a>
920  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
921</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.3">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible,
922         since Range supports efficient recovery from partially failed transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
923         representations.
924      </p>
925      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.4">If the server supports the Range header field and the specified range or ranges are appropriate for the representation: </p>
926      <ul>
927         <li>The presence of a Range header field in an unconditional GET modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful.
928            In other words, the response carries a status code of <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> instead of <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>.
929         </li>
930         <li>The presence of a Range header field in a conditional GET (a request using one or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-modified-since" class="smpl">If-Modified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-none-match" class="smpl">If-None-Match</a>, or one or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a>) modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the condition is true. It does not affect the <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> response returned if the conditional is false.
931         </li>
932      </ul>
933      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.5">In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range header field (see <a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.3" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) in addition to the Range header field.
934      </p>
935      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.6">If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire
936         representation in reply, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> only return the requested range to its client.
937      </p>
938      <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="IANA.considerations" href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
939      <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.registration" href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
940      <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The HTTP Status Code Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; shall be updated with the registrations below:
941      </p>
942      <div id="rfc.table.1">
943         <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
944         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
945            <thead>
946               <tr>
947                  <th>Value</th>
948                  <th>Description</th>
949                  <th>Reference</th>
950               </tr>
951            </thead>
952            <tbody>
953               <tr>
954                  <td class="left">206</td>
955                  <td class="left">Partial Content</td>
956                  <td class="left"> <a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.1" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;3.1</a> 
957                  </td>
958               </tr>
959               <tr>
960                  <td class="left">416</td>
961                  <td class="left">Requested Range Not Satisfiable</td>
962                  <td class="left"> <a href="#status.416" id="rfc.xref.status.416.1" title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable">Section&nbsp;3.2</a> 
963                  </td>
964               </tr>
965            </tbody>
966         </table>
967      </div>
968      <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.field.registration" href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
969      <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">The Message Header Field Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; shall be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
970      </p>
971      <div id="rfc.table.2">
972         <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
973         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
974            <thead>
975               <tr>
976                  <th>Header Field Name</th>
977                  <th>Protocol</th>
978                  <th>Status</th>
979                  <th>Reference</th>
980               </tr>
981            </thead>
982            <tbody>
983               <tr>
984                  <td class="left">Accept-Ranges</td>
985                  <td class="left">http</td>
986                  <td class="left">standard</td>
987                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.1</a> 
988                  </td>
989               </tr>
990               <tr>
991                  <td class="left">Content-Range</td>
992                  <td class="left">http</td>
993                  <td class="left">standard</td>
994                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.4" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a> 
995                  </td>
996               </tr>
997               <tr>
998                  <td class="left">If-Range</td>
999                  <td class="left">http</td>
1000                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1001                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.4" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a> 
1002                  </td>
1003               </tr>
1004               <tr>
1005                  <td class="left">Range</td>
1006                  <td class="left">http</td>
1007                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1008                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.5" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a> 
1009                  </td>
1010               </tr>
1011            </tbody>
1012         </table>
1013      </div>
1014      <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1015      <h2 id="rfc.section.6.3"><a href="#rfc.section.6.3">6.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.specifier.registration" href="#range.specifier.registration">Range Specifier Registration</a></h2>
1016      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.1">The registration procedure for HTTP Range Specifiers is defined by <a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a> of this document.
1017      </p>
1018      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.2">The HTTP Range Specifier Registry shall be created at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers</a>&gt; and be populated with the registrations below:
1019      </p>
1020      <div id="rfc.table.3">
1021         <div id="iana.range.specifiers.table"></div>
1022         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1023            <thead>
1024               <tr>
1025                  <th>Range Specifier Name</th>
1026                  <th>Description</th>
1027                  <th>Reference</th>
1028               </tr>
1029            </thead>
1030            <tbody>
1031               <tr>
1032                  <td class="left">bytes</td>
1033                  <td class="left">a range of octets</td>
1034                  <td class="left"><a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a></td>
1035               </tr>
1036               <tr>
1037                  <td class="left">none</td>
1038                  <td class="left">reserved as keyword, indicating no ranges are supported</td>
1039                  <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.2" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.1</a></td>
1040               </tr>
1041            </tbody>
1042         </table>
1043      </div>
1044      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.3">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1045      <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a id="security.considerations" href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
1046      <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
1047         as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
1048         make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
1049      </p>
1050      <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="overlapping.ranges" href="#overlapping.ranges">Overlapping Ranges</a></h2>
1051      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">Range requests containing overlapping ranges can lead to the situation where a server is sending far more data than the size
1052         of the complete resource representation.
1053      </p>
1054      <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a id="acks" href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1055      <p id="rfc.section.8.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 9</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1056      </p>
1057      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.9" href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a> References
1058      </h1>
1059      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1" id="rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a> Normative References
1060      </h2>
1061      <table>             
1062         <tr>
1063            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1064            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), December&nbsp;2012.
1065            </td>
1066         </tr>
1067         <tr>
1068            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1069            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), December&nbsp;2012.
1070            </td>
1071         </tr>
1072         <tr>
1073            <td class="reference"><b id="Part4">[Part4]</b></td>
1074            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest (work in progress), December&nbsp;2012.
1075            </td>
1076         </tr>
1077         <tr>
1078            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
1079            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net" title="Akamai">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest (work in progress), December&nbsp;2012.
1080            </td>
1081         </tr>
1082         <tr>
1083            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2046">[RFC2046]</b></td>
1084            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2046, November&nbsp;1996.
1085            </td>
1086         </tr>
1087         <tr>
1088            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1089            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1090            </td>
1091         </tr>
1092         <tr>
1093            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1094            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1095            </td>
1096         </tr>
1097      </table>
1098      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2" id="rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a> Informative References
1099      </h2>
1100      <table>       
1101         <tr>
1102            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1103            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1104            </td>
1105         </tr>
1106         <tr>
1107            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1108            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1109            </td>
1110         </tr>
1111         <tr>
1112            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4288">[RFC4288]</b></td>
1113            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned.freed@mrochek.com" title="Sun Microsystems">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:klensin+ietf@jck.com">J. Klensin</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4288">Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</a>”, BCP&nbsp;13, RFC&nbsp;4288, December&nbsp;2005.
1114            </td>
1115         </tr>
1116         <tr>
1117            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1118            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1119            </td>
1120         </tr>
1121      </table>
1122      <div class="avoidbreak">
1123         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
1124         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Roy T. Fielding</span>
1125               (editor)
1126               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Fielding</span><span class="given-name">Roy T.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Adobe Systems Incorporated</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">345 Park Ave</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">San Jose</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">95110</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com"><span class="email">fielding@gbiv.com</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/" class="url">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></span></address>
1127         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Yves Lafon</span>
1128               (editor)
1129               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Lafon</span><span class="given-name">Yves</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">World Wide Web Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">W3C / ERCIM</span><span class="street-address vcardline">2004, rte des Lucioles</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Sophia-Antipolis</span>, <span class="region">AM</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">06902</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">France</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org"><span class="email">ylafon@w3.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/" class="url">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></span></address>
1130         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Julian F. Reschke</span>
1131               (editor)
1132               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Reschke</span><span class="given-name">Julian F.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">greenbytes GmbH</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">Hafenweg 16</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Muenster</span>, <span class="region">NW</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">48155</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">Germany</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de"><span class="email">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/" class="url">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></span></address>
1133      </div>
1134      <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
1135      <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
1136      <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></h1>
1137      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">When an HTTP <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response message includes the content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping ranges), these
1138         are transmitted as a multipart message body (<a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1">Section 5.1</a>). The media type for this purpose is called "multipart/byteranges". The following is to be registered with IANA <a href="#RFC4288" id="rfc.xref.RFC4288.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[RFC4288]</cite></a>.
1139      </p>
1140      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each with its own <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> and <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> fields. The required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate each body-part.
1141      </p>
1142      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3"> </p>
1143      <dl>
1144         <dt>Type name:</dt>
1145         <dd>multipart</dd>
1146         <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
1147         <dd>byteranges</dd>
1148         <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
1149         <dd>boundary</dd>
1150         <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
1151         <dd>none</dd>
1152         <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
1153         <dd>only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted</dd>
1154         <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
1155         <dd>none</dd>
1156         <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
1157         <dd>none</dd>
1158         <dt>Published specification:</dt>
1159         <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>).
1160         </dd>
1161         <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
1162         <dd>HTTP components supporting multiple ranges in a single request.</dd>
1163         <dt>Additional information:</dt>
1164         <dd> 
1165            <dl>
1166               <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
1167               <dd>none</dd>
1168               <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
1169               <dd>none</dd>
1170               <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
1171               <dd>none</dd>
1172            </dl> 
1173         </dd>
1174         <dt>Person and email address to contact for further information:</dt>
1175         <dd>See Authors Section.</dd>
1176         <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
1177         <dd>COMMON</dd>
1178         <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
1179         <dd>none</dd>
1180         <dt>Author/Change controller:</dt>
1181         <dd>IESG</dd>
1182      </dl>
1183      <div class="note" id="rfc.section.A.p.4"> 
1184         <p> <b>Note:</b> Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to the byte ranges only.
1185         </p> 
1186      </div>
1187      <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div>
1188      <p>For example:</p><pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1189  Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1190  Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
1191  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1192 
1193  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1194  Content-type: application/pdf
1195  Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
1196 
1197  ...the first range...
1198  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1199  Content-type: application/pdf
1200  Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
1201 
1202  ...the second range
1203  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1204</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div>
1205      <p>Another example, using the "exampleunit" range unit:</p>  <pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1206  Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1207  Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
1208  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1209 
1210  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1211  Content-type: video/example
1212  Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
1213 
1214  ...the first range...
1215  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1216  Content-type: video/example
1217  Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
1218 
1219  ...the second range
1220  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1221</pre> <p id="rfc.section.A.p.7">Notes: </p>
1222      <ol>
1223         <li>Additional CRLFs <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> precede the first boundary string in the body.
1224         </li>
1225         <li>Although <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> permits the boundary string to be quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string incorrectly.
1226         </li>
1227         <li>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft of the byteranges specification to use a media type of multipart/x-byteranges<span id="rfc.iref.m.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.m.4"></span>, which is almost, but not quite compatible with the version documented in HTTP/1.1.
1228         </li>
1229      </ol>
1230      <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.from.rfc.2616" href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h1>
1231      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.1">A weak validator cannot be used in a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206</a> response. (<a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.2" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
1232      </p>
1233      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">The Content-Range header field only has meaning when the status code explicitly defines its use. (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.5" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>)
1234      </p>
1235      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.3">Servers are given more leeway in what they return to a range request, in order to mitigate malicious (or just greedy) clients.</p>
1236      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.4">multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>)
1237      </p>
1238      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.5">This specification introduces a Range Specifier Registry. (<a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>)
1239      </p>
1240      <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a id="imported.abnf" href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></h1>
1241      <p id="rfc.section.C.p.1">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
1242         (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
1243         character).
1244      </p>
1245      <p id="rfc.section.C.p.2">Note that all rules derived from <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> are to be compared case-insensitively, like <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> and <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>.
1246      </p>
1247      <p id="rfc.section.C.p.3">The rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
1248      </p>
1249      <div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>        = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
1250  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>      = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.6</a>&gt;
1251</pre><p id="rfc.section.C.p.5">The rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
1252      <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>  = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 8.1.1.1</a>&gt;
1253  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a>&gt;
1254</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.D"><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;<a id="collected.abnf" href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1255      <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div> <pre class="inline"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> = acceptable-ranges
1256
1257<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> = byte-content-range-spec / other-content-range-spec
1258
1259<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 8.1.1.1&gt;
1260
1261<a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = entity-tag / HTTP-date
1262
1263<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1264
1265<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1266
1267<a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
1268 range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
1269
1270<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a> = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" (
1271 instance-length / "*" )
1272<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a> = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*"
1273<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec /
1274 suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec /
1275 suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
1276<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1277<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1278<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> = "bytes"
1279
1280<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3&gt;
1281
1282<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> = 1*DIGIT
1283
1284<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a> = 1*DIGIT
1285
1286<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> = 1*DIGIT
1287
1288<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a> = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec
1289<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a> = *CHAR
1290<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*CHAR
1291<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = token
1292<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1293
1294<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1295
1296<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" suffix-length
1297<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*DIGIT
1298
1299<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1300</pre> <h1 id="rfc.section.E"><a href="#rfc.section.E">E.</a>&nbsp;<a id="change.log" href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1301      <p id="rfc.section.E.p.1">Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized in &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19#appendix-D">http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19#appendix-D</a>&gt;.
1302      </p>
1303      <h2 id="rfc.section.E.1"><a href="#rfc.section.E.1">E.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.19" href="#changes.since.19">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19</a></h2>
1304      <p id="rfc.section.E.1.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1305      <ul>
1306         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/358">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/358</a>&gt;: "ABNF list expansion code problem"
1307         </li>
1308         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361</a>&gt;: "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1309         </li>
1310         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/367">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/367</a>&gt;: "reserve 'none' as byte range unit"
1311         </li>
1312         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368</a>&gt;: "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1313         </li>
1314         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/369">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/369</a>&gt;: "range units vs leading zeroes vs size"
1315         </li>
1316      </ul>
1317      <h2 id="rfc.section.E.2"><a href="#rfc.section.E.2">E.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.20" href="#changes.since.20">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20</a></h2>
1318      <p id="rfc.section.E.2.p.1"> </p>
1319      <ul>
1320         <li>Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are now defined in Part 1.</li>
1321      </ul>
1322      <h2 id="rfc.section.E.3"><a href="#rfc.section.E.3">E.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.21" href="#changes.since.21">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21</a></h2>
1323      <p id="rfc.section.E.3.p.1">None yet.</p>
1324      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
1325      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.2">2</a> <a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.I">I</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> 
1326      </p>
1327      <div class="print2col">
1328         <ul class="ind">
1329            <li><a id="rfc.index.2" href="#rfc.index.2"><b>2</b></a><ul>
1330                  <li>206 Partial Content (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.3"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.2">B</a></li>
1331               </ul>
1332            </li>
1333            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
1334                  <li>416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.3"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">6.1</a></li>
1335               </ul>
1336            </li>
1337            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
1338                  <li>Accept-Ranges header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>5.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.2">6.3</a></li>
1339               </ul>
1340            </li>
1341            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
1342                  <li>Content-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.3">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>5.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.4">6.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.5">B</a></li>
1343               </ul>
1344            </li>
1345            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
1346                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1347                     <ul>
1348                        <li><tt>Accept-Ranges</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
1349                        <li><tt>acceptable-ranges</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
1350                        <li><tt>byte-content-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1351                        <li><tt>byte-range-resp-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1352                        <li><tt>byte-range-set</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.13"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1353                        <li><tt>byte-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.14"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1354                        <li><tt>byte-ranges-specifier</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.12"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1355                        <li><tt>bytes-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2</b></a></li>
1356                        <li><tt>Content-Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1357                        <li><tt>first-byte-pos</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.15"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1358                        <li><tt>If-Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>5.3</b></a></li>
1359                        <li><tt>instance-length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1360                        <li><tt>last-byte-pos</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.16"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1361                        <li><tt>other-range-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>2</b></a></li>
1362                        <li><tt>Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.19"><b>5.4.2</b></a></li>
1363                        <li><tt>range-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2</b></a></li>
1364                        <li><tt>ranges-specifier</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.11"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1365                        <li><tt>suffix-byte-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.17"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1366                        <li><tt>suffix-length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.18"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1367                     </ul>
1368                  </li>
1369               </ul>
1370            </li>
1371            <li><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul>
1372                  <li>If-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.2">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.i.1"><b>5.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.3">5.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1373               </ul>
1374            </li>
1375            <li><a id="rfc.index.M" href="#rfc.index.M"><b>M</b></a><ul>
1376                  <li>Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;
1377                     <ul>
1378                        <li>multipart/byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>A</b></a></li>
1379                        <li>multipart/x-byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.4">A</a></li>
1380                     </ul>
1381                  </li>
1382                  <li>multipart/byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>A</b></a></li>
1383                  <li>multipart/x-byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.3">A</a></li>
1384               </ul>
1385            </li>
1386            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
1387                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">8</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">C</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">C</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">C</a><ul>
1388                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a></li>
1389                        <li><em>Section 2.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a></li>
1390                        <li><em>Section 3.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">C</a></li>
1391                        <li><em>Section 3.2.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">C</a></li>
1392                        <li><em>Section 9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">8</a></li>
1393                     </ul>
1394                  </li>
1395                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#Part2"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">C</a><ul>
1396                        <li><em>Section 8.1.1.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">C</a></li>
1397                     </ul>
1398                  </li>
1399                  <li><em>Part4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4">5.3</a>, <a href="#Part4"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">C</a><ul>
1400                        <li><em>Section 2.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4">5.3</a></li>
1401                        <li><em>Section 2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">C</a></li>
1402                     </ul>
1403                  </li>
1404                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
1405                        <li><em>Section 4.1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a></li>
1406                     </ul>
1407                  </li>
1408               </ul>
1409            </li>
1410            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
1411                  <li>Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.2">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.3">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.4">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.r.1"><b>5.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.5">6.2</a></li>
1412                  <li><em>RFC2046</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2046"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.2">A</a><ul>
1413                        <li><em>Section 5.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a></li>
1414                     </ul>
1415                  </li>
1416                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
1417                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2616"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
1418                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
1419                  <li><em>RFC4288</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC4288"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4288.1">A</a></li>
1420                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>9.2</b></a><ul>
1421                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.1</a></li>
1422                     </ul>
1423                  </li>
1424                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">C</a><ul>
1425                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">C</a></li>
1426                     </ul>
1427                  </li>
1428               </ul>
1429            </li>
1430         </ul>
1431      </div>
1432   </body>
1433</html>
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