source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p5-range.html @ 1522

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478</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
479      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
480      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
481      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
482      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
483      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Range Units" href="#rfc.section.2">
484      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
485      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Combining Ranges" href="#rfc.section.4">
486      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.5">
487      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
488      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.7">
489      <link rel="Chapter" title="8 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.8">
490      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.9" title="9 References">
491      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges" href="#rfc.section.A">
492      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Compatibility with Previous Versions" href="#rfc.section.B">
493      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.C">
494      <link rel="Appendix" title="D Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.D">
495      <link href="p4-conditional.html" rel="prev">
496      <link href="p6-cache.html" rel="next">
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498      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
499      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
500      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Gettys, J.">
501      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Mogul, J.">
502      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Frystyk, H.">
503      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Masinter, L.">
504      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Leach, P.">
505      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Berners-Lee, T.">
506      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
507      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
508      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">
509      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-02-01">
510      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
511      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 5 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 5 defines range-specific requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
512      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 5 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 5 defines range-specific requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
513   </head>
514   <body onload="init();">
515      <table class="header">
516         <tbody>
517            <tr>
518               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
519               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
520            </tr>
521            <tr>
522               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
523               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
524            </tr>
525            <tr>
526               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
527               </td>
528               <td class="right">J. Gettys</td>
529            </tr>
530            <tr>
531               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
532               <td class="right">Alcatel-Lucent</td>
533            </tr>
534            <tr>
535               <td class="left">Expires: August 4, 2012</td>
536               <td class="right">J. Mogul</td>
537            </tr>
538            <tr>
539               <td class="left"></td>
540               <td class="right">HP</td>
541            </tr>
542            <tr>
543               <td class="left"></td>
544               <td class="right">H. Frystyk</td>
545            </tr>
546            <tr>
547               <td class="left"></td>
548               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
549            </tr>
550            <tr>
551               <td class="left"></td>
552               <td class="right">L. Masinter</td>
553            </tr>
554            <tr>
555               <td class="left"></td>
556               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
557            </tr>
558            <tr>
559               <td class="left"></td>
560               <td class="right">P. Leach</td>
561            </tr>
562            <tr>
563               <td class="left"></td>
564               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
565            </tr>
566            <tr>
567               <td class="left"></td>
568               <td class="right">T. Berners-Lee</td>
569            </tr>
570            <tr>
571               <td class="left"></td>
572               <td class="right">W3C/MIT</td>
573            </tr>
574            <tr>
575               <td class="left"></td>
576               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
577            </tr>
578            <tr>
579               <td class="left"></td>
580               <td class="right">W3C</td>
581            </tr>
582            <tr>
583               <td class="left"></td>
584               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
585            </tr>
586            <tr>
587               <td class="left"></td>
588               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
589            </tr>
590            <tr>
591               <td class="left"></td>
592               <td class="right">February 1, 2012</td>
593            </tr>
594         </tbody>
595      </table>
596      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest</span></p>
597      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1> 
598      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
599         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 5 of the
600         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
601      </p> 
602      <p>Part 5 defines range-specific requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.</p> 
603      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1> 
604      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived
605         at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
606      </p> 
607      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
608      </p> 
609      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.18" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-18">Appendix&nbsp;D.20</a>.
610      </p> 
611      <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
612      <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
613      <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
614         working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
615      </p>
616      <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
617         documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
618         in progress”.
619      </p>
620      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on August 4, 2012.</p>
621      <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
622      <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
623      <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
624         and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
625         text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
626         BSD License.
627      </p>
628      <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
629         10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
630         allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
631         controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
632         works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
633         it into languages other than English.
634      </p>
635      <hr class="noprint">
636      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
637      <ul class="toc">
638         <li>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
639               <li>1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.conformance.and.error.handling">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
640               <li>1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a><ul>
641                     <li>1.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></li>
642                     <li>1.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abnf.dependencies">ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification</a></li>
643                  </ul>
644               </li>
645            </ul>
646         </li>
647         <li>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a><ul>
648               <li>2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registry">Range Specifier Registry</a></li>
649            </ul>
650         </li>
651         <li>3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
652               <li>3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
653               <li>3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
654            </ul>
655         </li>
656         <li>4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></li>
657         <li>5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
658               <li>5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
659               <li>5.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
660               <li>5.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
661               <li>5.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a><ul>
662                     <li>5.4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
663                     <li>5.4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></li>
664                  </ul>
665               </li>
666            </ul>
667         </li>
668         <li>6.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
669               <li>6.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
670               <li>6.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
671               <li>6.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registration">Range Specifier Registration</a></li>
672            </ul>
673         </li>
674         <li>7.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
675               <li>7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Overlapping Ranges</a></li>
676            </ul>
677         </li>
678         <li>8.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
679         <li>9.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
680               <li>9.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
681               <li>9.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
682            </ul>
683         </li>
684         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
685         <li>A.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
686         <li>B.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a><ul>
687               <li>B.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
688            </ul>
689         </li>
690         <li>C.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
691         <li>D.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
692               <li>D.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.D.1">Since RFC 2616</a></li>
693               <li>D.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.D.2">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-00</a></li>
694               <li>D.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.D.3">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-01</a></li>
695               <li>D.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-02</a></li>
696               <li>D.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-03</a></li>
697               <li>D.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-04</a></li>
698               <li>D.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-05</a></li>
699               <li>D.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-06</a></li>
700               <li>D.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-07</a></li>
701               <li>D.10&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-08</a></li>
702               <li>D.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-09</a></li>
703               <li>D.12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.10">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-10</a></li>
704               <li>D.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.11">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-11</a></li>
705               <li>D.14&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.12">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-12</a></li>
706               <li>D.15&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.13">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-13</a></li>
707               <li>D.16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.14">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-14</a></li>
708               <li>D.17&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.15">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-15</a></li>
709               <li>D.18&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.16">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-16</a></li>
710               <li>D.19&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.17">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-17</a></li>
711               <li>D.20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.18">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-18</a></li>
712            </ul>
713         </li>
714         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
715      </ul>
716      <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a id="introduction" href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
717      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result of cancelled requests or dropped connections. When a client
718         has stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder of that representation in a subsequent request
719         rather than transfer the entire representation. There are also a number of Web applications that benefit from being able to
720         request only a subset of a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large document or only part of an image
721         to be rendered by a device with limited local storage.
722      </p>
723      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges media type. The protocol for
724         range requests is an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, designed so resources or recipients that do not implement this feature can respond as if it is a normal GET
725         request without impacting interoperability. Partial responses are indicated by a distinct status code to not be mistaken for
726         full responses by intermediate caches that might not implement the feature.
727      </p>
728      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for extensible range types, this specification only defines
729         requests for byte ranges.
730      </p>
731      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.conformance.and.error.handling" href="#intro.conformance.and.error.handling">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
732      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
733         in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
734      </p>
735      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients,
736         Servers, User-Agents, Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See <a href="p1-messaging.html#architecture" title="Architecture">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> for definitions of these terms.
737      </p>
738      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the requirements associated with its role(s). Note that
739         SHOULD-level requirements are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
740      </p>
741      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.4">This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements (<a href="#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section&nbsp;1.2</a>). In addition to the prose requirements placed upon them, Senders <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate protocol elements that are invalid.
742      </p>
743      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.5">Unless noted otherwise, Recipients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> take steps to recover a usable protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define specific error handling
744         mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
745         different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to transparently recover from a response where the
746         Location header field doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol using HTTP, this type of
747         error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
748      </p>
749      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation" href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
750      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
751      </p>
752      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
753         (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
754         character).
755      </p>
756      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.3">Note that all rules derived from <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> are to be compared case-insensitively, like <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> and <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>.
757      </p>
758      <h3 id="rfc.section.1.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2.1">1.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="core.rules" href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></h3>
759      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.1.p.1">The core rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> and <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>:
760      </p>
761      <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>        = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.1</a>&gt;
762  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>      = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
763  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>  = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 8</a>&gt;
764</pre><h3 id="rfc.section.1.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2.2">1.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="abnf.dependencies" href="#abnf.dependencies">ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification</a></h3>
765      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.2.p.1">The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
766      <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a>&gt;
767</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.units" href="#range.units">Range Units</a></h1>
768      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range) of the representation be included within the response. HTTP/1.1
769         uses range units in the Range (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>) and Content-Range (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>) header fields. A representation can be broken down into subranges according to various structural units.
770      </p>
771      <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a>       = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> / <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a>
772  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a>       = "bytes"
773  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
774</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.p.3">HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications that do not depend on knowledge of ranges. The only range
775         unit defined by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". Additional specifiers can be defined as described in <a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>.
776      </p>
777      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the whole Range header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.2" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>). If a range unit is not understood in a response, an intermediary <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> pass the response to the client; a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> fail.
778      </p>
779      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.specifier.registry" href="#range.specifier.registry">Range Specifier Registry</a></h2>
780      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">The HTTP Range Specifier Registry defines the name space for the range specifier names.</p>
781      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Registrations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
782      </p>
783      <ul>
784         <li>Name</li>
785         <li>Description</li>
786         <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
787      </ul>
788      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review (<a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
789      </p>
790      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">The registry itself is maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers</a>&gt;.
791      </p>
792      <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.definitions" href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a></h1>
793      <div id="rfc.iref.3"></div>
794      <div id="rfc.iref.s.1"></div>
795      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.206" href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></h2>
796      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource. The request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have included a Range header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.3" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>) indicating the desired range, and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> have included an If-Range header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) to make the request conditional.
797      </p>
798      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following header fields:
799      </p>
800      <ul>
801         <li>Either a Content-Range header field (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>) indicating the range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges Content-Type including Content-Range fields
802            for each part. If a Content-Length header field is present in the response, its value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> match the actual number of octets transmitted in the message-body.
803         </li>
804         <li>Date</li>
805         <li>Cache-Control, ETag, Expires, Content-Location, Last-Modified, and/or Vary, if the header field would have been sent in a
806            200 response to the same request
807         </li>
808      </ul>
809      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">If the 206 response is the result of an If-Range request, the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include other representation header fields. Otherwise, the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include all of the representation header fields that would have been returned with a 200 (OK) response to the same request.
810      </p>
811      <div id="rfc.iref.4"></div>
812      <div id="rfc.iref.s.2"></div>
813      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.416" href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></h2>
814      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with this status code if a request included a Range header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.4" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>), and none of the ranges-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent of the selected resource, and the request
815         did not include an If-Range header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.2" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>). (For byte-ranges, this means that the first-byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than the current
816         length of the selected resource.)
817      </p>
818      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Content-Range header field specifying the current length of the representation (see <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.3" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>). This response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the multipart/byteranges content-type.
819      </p>
820      <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a id="combining.byte.ranges" href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></h1>
821      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the connection closed prematurely or if the request used
822         one or more Range specifications. After several such transfers, a client might have received several ranges of the same representation.
823         These ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator, where "strong validator" is
824         defined to be either an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a Last-Modified value that is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
825      </p>
826      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.2">When a client receives an incomplete 200 (OK) or 206 (Partial Content) response and already has one or more stored responses
827         for the same method and effective request URI, all of the stored responses with the same strong validator <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be combined with the partial content in this new response. If none of the stored responses contain the same strong validator,
828         then this new response corresponds to a new representation and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be combined with the existing stored responses.
829      </p>
830      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.3">If the new response is an incomplete 200 (OK) response, then the header fields of that new response are used for any combined
831         response and replace those of the matching stored responses.
832      </p>
833      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.4">If the new response is a 206 (Partial Content) response and at least one of the matching stored responses is a 200 (OK), then
834         the combined response header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's header fields. If all of the matching stored
835         responses are 206 responses, then the stored response with the most header fields is used as the source of header fields for
836         the combined response, except that the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from Content-Range, to replace all instances of the corresponding
837         header fields in the stored response.
838      </p>
839      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.5">The combined response message-body consists of the union of partial content ranges in the new response and each of the selected
840         responses. If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the combined response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be recorded as a complete 200 (OK) response with a Content-Length header field that reflects the complete length. Otherwise,
841         the combined response(s) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Content-Range header field describing the included range(s) and be recorded as incomplete. If the union consists
842         of a discontinuous range of the representation, then the client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store it as either a multipart range response or as multiple 206 responses with one continuous range each.
843      </p>
844      <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.field.definitions" href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
845      <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to range requests and partial responses.</p>
846      <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
847      <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
848      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.accept-ranges" href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></h2>
849      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a resource to indicate its acceptance of range requests.</p>
850      <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a>     = <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>
851  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = 1#<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> / "none"
852</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.3">Origin servers that accept byte-range requests <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
853      </p>
854      <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: bytes
855</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.5">but are not required to do so. Clients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate range requests without having received this header field for the resource involved. Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
856      </p>
857      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.6">Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
858      </p>
859      <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: none
860</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.8">to advise the client not to attempt a range request.</p>
861      <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
862      <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
863      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.content-range" href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></h2>
864      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The "Content-Range" header field is sent with a partial representation to specify where in the full representation the payload
865         body is intended to be applied.
866      </p>
867      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
868      </p>
869      <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>           = <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a>
870                          / <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a>
871                         
872  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a>
873                            <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a> "/"
874                            ( <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a> / "*" )
875 
876  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a>    = (<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>)
877                          / "*"
878                         
879  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a>         = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
880 
881  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a>
882                             <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a>
883  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a>    = *<a href="#notation" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
884</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.4">The header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the total length of the full representation, unless this length is unknown or difficult to determine. The asterisk
885         "*" character means that the instance-length is unknown at the time when the response was generated.
886      </p>
887      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.5">Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see <a href="#byte.ranges" title="Byte Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.4.1</a>), a byte-range-resp-spec <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only specify one range, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> contain absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the range.
888      </p>
889      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.6">A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-byte-pos value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or
890         whose instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos value, is invalid. The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-spec <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
891      </p>
892      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.7">In the case of a byte range request: A server sending a response with status code 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*". The instance-length specifies the current length of the
893         selected resource. A response with status code 206 (Partial Content) <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
894      </p>
895      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.8">The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that do not explicitly describe its semantic. Currently,
896         only status codes 206 (Partial Content) and 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) describe the meaning of this header field.
897      </p>
898      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.9">Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the representation contains a total of 1234 bytes: </p>
899      <ul>
900         <li>The first 500 bytes:
901            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 0-499/1234
902</pre> </li>
903         <li>The second 500 bytes:
904            <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 500-999/1234
905</pre> </li>
906         <li>All except for the first 500 bytes:
907            <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 500-1233/1234
908</pre> </li>
909         <li>The last 500 bytes:
910            <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="text">  bytes 734-1233/1234
911</pre> </li>
912      </ul>
913      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.10">When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for example, a response to a request for a single range, or to
914         a request for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is transmitted with a Content-Range header field,
915         and a Content-Length header field showing the number of bytes actually transferred. For example,
916      </p>
917      <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
918  Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
919  Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
920  Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
921  Content-Length: 26012
922  Content-Type: image/gif
923</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.12">When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
924         ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message. The multipart media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges"
925         as defined in <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>.
926      </p>
927      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.13">A response to a request for a single range <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent using the multipart/byteranges media type. A response to a request for multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be sent as a multipart/byteranges media type with one part. A client that cannot decode a multipart/byteranges message <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> ask for multiple ranges in a single request.
928      </p>
929      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.14">When a client requests multiple ranges in one request, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return them in the order that they appeared in the request.
930      </p>
931      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.15">If the server ignores a byte-range-spec because it is syntactically invalid, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> treat the request as if the invalid Range header field did not exist. (Normally, this means return a 200 response containing
932         the full representation).
933      </p>
934      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.16">If the server receives a request (other than one including an If-Range header field) with an unsatisfiable Range header field
935         (that is, all of whose byte-range-spec values have a first-byte-pos value greater than the current length of the selected
936         resource), it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response code of 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) (<a href="#status.416" id="rfc.xref.status.416.1" title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>).
937      </p>
938      <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.2.p.17"> 
939         <p> <b>Note:</b> Clients cannot depend on servers to send a 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) response instead of a 200 (OK) response for
940            an unsatisfiable Range header field, since not all servers implement this header field.
941         </p> 
942      </div>
943      <div id="rfc.iref.i.1"></div>
944      <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
945      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-range" href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></h2>
946      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it
947         could use the Range header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match.) However,
948         if the condition fails because the representation has been modified, the client would then have to make a second request to
949         obtain the entire current representation.
950      </p>
951      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second request. Informally, its meaning is "if the representation
952         is unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me the entire new representation".
953      </p>
954      <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> / <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
955</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.4">Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range field value and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a Last-Modified date in an If-Range field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and the Last-Modified
956         date it does have for the representation is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
957      </p>
958      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.5">A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is applicable to one of its representations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> evaluate the condition as false if the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, when an HTTP-date is used as the
959         validator, if the date value is not strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>. (A server can distinguish between a valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag by examining the first two characters.)
960      </p>
961      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.6">The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be sent by clients together with a Range header field. The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored if it is received in a request that does not include a Range header field. The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored by a server that does not support the sub-range operation.
962      </p>
963      <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.7">If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current validator for the selected representation of the target
964         resource, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the specified sub-range of the representation using a 206 (Partial Content) response. If the validator does not match,
965         then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the entire representation using a 200 (OK) response.
966      </p>
967      <div id="rfc.iref.r.1"></div>
968      <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
969      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.4"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.range" href="#header.range">Range</a></h2>
970      <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="byte.ranges" href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></h3>
971      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.1">Since all HTTP representations are transferred as sequences of bytes, the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP
972         representation. (However, not all clients and servers need to support byte-range operations.)
973      </p>
974      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.2">Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in the representation body (not necessarily the same as the
975         message-body).
976      </p>
977      <div id="rule.ranges-specifier">
978         <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.3">                A byte range operation <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> specify a single range of bytes, or a set of ranges within a single representation.
979         </p>
980      </div>
981      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> "=" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>
982  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>  = 1#( <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> / <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> )
983  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" [ <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> ]
984  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>  = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
985  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>   = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
986</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.5">The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value
987         gives the byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start
988         at zero.
989      </p>
990      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.6">If the last-byte-pos value is present, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be greater than or equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte-range-spec is syntactically invalid. The
991         recipient of a byte-range-set that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec values <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the header field that includes that byte-range-set.
992      </p>
993      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.7">If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than or equal to the current length of the representation
994         body, last-byte-pos is taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the representation in bytes.
995      </p>
996      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.8">By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the representation.</p>
997      <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>
998  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
999</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.10">A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the representation body, of a length given by the suffix-length
1000         value. (That is, this form specifies the last N bytes of a representation.) If the representation is shorter than the specified
1001         suffix-length, the entire representation is used.
1002      </p>
1003      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.11">If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-range-spec whose first-byte-pos is less than the current
1004         length of the representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-zero suffix-length, then the byte-range-set
1005         is satisfiable. Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable. If the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with a 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) status code. Otherwise, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with a 206 (Partial Content) status code containing the satisfiable ranges of the representation.
1006      </p>
1007      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.12">Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming a representation of length 10000): </p>
1008      <ul>
1009         <li>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
1010            <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=0-499
1011</pre> </li>
1012         <li>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
1013            <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=500-999
1014</pre> </li>
1015         <li>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
1016            <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=-500
1017</pre> Or: <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=9500-
1018</pre> </li>
1019         <li>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
1020            <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=0-0,-1
1021</pre> </li>
1022         <li>Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
1023            <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="text">  bytes=500-600,601-999
1024  bytes=500-700,601-999
1025</pre> </li>
1026      </ul>
1027      <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.2">5.4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.retrieval.requests" href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></h3>
1028      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.1">The "Range" header field defines the GET method (conditional or not) to request one or more sub-ranges of the response representation
1029         body, instead of the entire representation body.
1030      </p>
1031      <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span>  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> / <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a>
1032  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> "=" <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a>
1033  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
1034</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.3">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible,
1035         since Range supports efficient recovery from partially failed transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
1036         representations.
1037      </p>
1038      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.4">If the server supports the Range header field and the specified range or ranges are appropriate for the representation: </p>
1039      <ul>
1040         <li>The presence of a Range header field in an unconditional GET modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful.
1041            In other words, the response carries a status code of 206 (Partial Content) instead of 200 (OK).
1042         </li>
1043         <li>The presence of a Range header field in a conditional GET (a request using one or both of If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match,
1044            or one or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match) modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the condition
1045            is true. It does not affect the 304 (Not Modified) response returned if the conditional is false.
1046         </li>
1047      </ul>
1048      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.5">In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range header field (see <a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.3" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) in addition to the Range header field.
1049      </p>
1050      <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.6">If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire
1051         representation in reply, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> only return the requested range to its client.
1052      </p>
1053      <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="IANA.considerations" href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
1054      <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.registration" href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
1055      <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The HTTP Status Code Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; shall be updated with the registrations below:
1056      </p>
1057      <div id="rfc.table.1">
1058         <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
1059         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1060            <thead>
1061               <tr>
1062                  <th>Value</th>
1063                  <th>Description</th>
1064                  <th>Reference</th>
1065               </tr>
1066            </thead>
1067            <tbody>
1068               <tr>
1069                  <td class="left">206</td>
1070                  <td class="left">Partial Content</td>
1071                  <td class="left"> <a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.1" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;3.1</a> 
1072                  </td>
1073               </tr>
1074               <tr>
1075                  <td class="left">416</td>
1076                  <td class="left">Requested Range Not Satisfiable</td>
1077                  <td class="left"> <a href="#status.416" id="rfc.xref.status.416.2" title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable">Section&nbsp;3.2</a> 
1078                  </td>
1079               </tr>
1080            </tbody>
1081         </table>
1082      </div>
1083      <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.field.registration" href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
1084      <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">The Message Header Field Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; shall be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
1085      </p>
1086      <div id="rfc.table.2">
1087         <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
1088         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1089            <thead>
1090               <tr>
1091                  <th>Header Field Name</th>
1092                  <th>Protocol</th>
1093                  <th>Status</th>
1094                  <th>Reference</th>
1095               </tr>
1096            </thead>
1097            <tbody>
1098               <tr>
1099                  <td class="left">Accept-Ranges</td>
1100                  <td class="left">http</td>
1101                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1102                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.1</a> 
1103                  </td>
1104               </tr>
1105               <tr>
1106                  <td class="left">Content-Range</td>
1107                  <td class="left">http</td>
1108                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1109                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.4" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a> 
1110                  </td>
1111               </tr>
1112               <tr>
1113                  <td class="left">If-Range</td>
1114                  <td class="left">http</td>
1115                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1116                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.4" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a> 
1117                  </td>
1118               </tr>
1119               <tr>
1120                  <td class="left">Range</td>
1121                  <td class="left">http</td>
1122                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1123                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.5" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a> 
1124                  </td>
1125               </tr>
1126            </tbody>
1127         </table>
1128      </div>
1129      <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1130      <h2 id="rfc.section.6.3"><a href="#rfc.section.6.3">6.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="range.specifier.registration" href="#range.specifier.registration">Range Specifier Registration</a></h2>
1131      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.1">The registration procedure for HTTP Range Specifiers is defined by <a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a> of this document.
1132      </p>
1133      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.2">The HTTP Range Specifier Registry shall be created at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers</a>&gt; and be populated with the registrations below:
1134      </p>
1135      <div id="rfc.table.3">
1136         <div id="iana.range.specifiers.table"></div>
1137         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1138            <thead>
1139               <tr>
1140                  <th>Range Specifier Name</th>
1141                  <th>Description</th>
1142                  <th>Reference</th>
1143               </tr>
1144            </thead>
1145            <tbody>
1146               <tr>
1147                  <td class="left">bytes</td>
1148                  <td class="left">a range of octets</td>
1149                  <td class="left">(this specification)</td>
1150               </tr>
1151            </tbody>
1152         </table>
1153      </div>
1154      <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.3">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1155      <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a id="security.considerations" href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
1156      <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
1157         as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
1158         make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
1159      </p>
1160      <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="overlapping.ranges" href="#overlapping.ranges">Overlapping Ranges</a></h2>
1161      <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">Range requests containing overlapping ranges may lead to the situation where a server is sending far more data than the size
1162         of the complete resource representation.
1163      </p>
1164      <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a id="acks" href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1165      <p id="rfc.section.8.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 11</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1166      </p>
1167      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.9" href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a> References
1168      </h1>
1169      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1" id="rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a> Normative References
1170      </h2>
1171      <table>           
1172         <tr>
1173            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1174            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), February&nbsp;2012.
1175            </td>
1176         </tr>
1177         <tr>
1178            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1179            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), February&nbsp;2012.
1180            </td>
1181         </tr>
1182         <tr>
1183            <td class="reference"><b id="Part4">[Part4]</b></td>
1184            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest (work in progress), February&nbsp;2012.
1185            </td>
1186         </tr>
1187         <tr>
1188            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2046">[RFC2046]</b></td>
1189            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2046, November&nbsp;1996.
1190            </td>
1191         </tr>
1192         <tr>
1193            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1194            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1195            </td>
1196         </tr>
1197         <tr>
1198            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1199            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1200            </td>
1201         </tr>
1202      </table>
1203      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2" id="rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a> Informative References
1204      </h2>
1205      <table>       
1206         <tr>
1207            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1208            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1209            </td>
1210         </tr>
1211         <tr>
1212            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1213            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1214            </td>
1215         </tr>
1216         <tr>
1217            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4288">[RFC4288]</b></td>
1218            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned.freed@mrochek.com" title="Sun Microsystems">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:klensin+ietf@jck.com">J. Klensin</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4288">Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</a>”, BCP&nbsp;13, RFC&nbsp;4288, December&nbsp;2005.
1219            </td>
1220         </tr>
1221         <tr>
1222            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1223            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1224            </td>
1225         </tr>
1226      </table>
1227      <div class="avoidbreak">
1228         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
1229         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Roy T. Fielding</span>
1230               (editor)
1231               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Fielding</span><span class="given-name">Roy T.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Adobe Systems Incorporated</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">345 Park Ave</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">San Jose</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">95110</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com"><span class="email">fielding@gbiv.com</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/" class="url">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></span></address>
1232         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Jim Gettys</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Gettys</span><span class="given-name">Jim</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">21 Oak Knoll Road</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Carlisle</span>, <span class="region">MA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">01741</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org"><span class="email">jg@freedesktop.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://gettys.wordpress.com/" class="url">http://gettys.wordpress.com/</a></span></address>
1233         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Jeffrey C. Mogul</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Mogul</span><span class="given-name">Jeffrey C.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Hewlett-Packard Company</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</span><span class="street-address vcardline">1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Palo Alto</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">94304</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org"><span class="email">JeffMogul@acm.org</span></a></span></address>
1234         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Frystyk</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Microsoft Corporation</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">1 Microsoft Way</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Redmond</span>, <span class="region">WA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">98052</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com"><span class="email">henrikn@microsoft.com</span></a></span></address>
1235         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Larry Masinter</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Masinter</span><span class="given-name">Larry</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Adobe Systems Incorporated</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">345 Park Ave</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">San Jose</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">95110</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org"><span class="email">LMM@acm.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://larry.masinter.net/" class="url">http://larry.masinter.net/</a></span></address>
1236         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Paul J. Leach</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Leach</span><span class="given-name">Paul J.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Microsoft Corporation</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">1 Microsoft Way</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Redmond</span>, <span class="region">WA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">98052</span></span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com"><span class="email">paulle@microsoft.com</span></a></span></address>
1237         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Tim Berners-Lee</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Berners-Lee</span><span class="given-name">Tim</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">World Wide Web Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</span><span class="street-address vcardline">The Stata Center, Building 32</span><span class="street-address vcardline">32 Vassar Street</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Cambridge</span>, <span class="region">MA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">02139</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org"><span class="email">timbl@w3.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/" class="url">http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</a></span></address>
1238         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Yves Lafon</span>
1239               (editor)
1240               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Lafon</span><span class="given-name">Yves</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">World Wide Web Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">W3C / ERCIM</span><span class="street-address vcardline">2004, rte des Lucioles</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Sophia-Antipolis</span>, <span class="region">AM</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">06902</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">France</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org"><span class="email">ylafon@w3.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/" class="url">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></span></address>
1241         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Julian F. Reschke</span>
1242               (editor)
1243               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Reschke</span><span class="given-name">Julian F.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">greenbytes GmbH</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">Hafenweg 16</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Muenster</span>, <span class="region">NW</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">48155</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">Germany</span></span><span class="vcardline tel">Phone: <a href="tel:+492512807760"><span class="value">+49 251 2807760</span></a></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+492512807761"><span class="value">+49 251 2807761</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de"><span class="email">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/" class="url">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></span></address>
1244      </div>
1245      <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
1246      <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
1247      <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a id="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></h1>
1248      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">When an HTTP 206 (Partial Content) response message includes the content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple
1249         non-overlapping ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message-body (<a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1">Section 5.1</a>). The media type for this purpose is called "multipart/byteranges". The following is to be registered with IANA <a href="#RFC4288" id="rfc.xref.RFC4288.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[RFC4288]</cite></a>.
1250      </p>
1251      <div class="note" id="rfc.section.A.p.2"> 
1252         <p> <b>Note:</b> Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to the byte ranges only.
1253         </p> 
1254      </div>
1255      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3">The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each with its own Content-Type and Content-Range fields. The
1256         required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate each body-part.
1257      </p>
1258      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.4"> </p>
1259      <dl>
1260         <dt>Type name:</dt>
1261         <dd>multipart</dd>
1262         <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
1263         <dd>byteranges</dd>
1264         <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
1265         <dd>boundary</dd>
1266         <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
1267         <dd>none</dd>
1268         <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
1269         <dd>only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted</dd>
1270         <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
1271         <dd>none</dd>
1272         <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
1273         <dd>none</dd>
1274         <dt>Published specification:</dt>
1275         <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>).
1276         </dd>
1277         <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
1278         <dt>Additional information:</dt>
1279         <dd> 
1280            <dl>
1281               <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
1282               <dd>none</dd>
1283               <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
1284               <dd>none</dd>
1285               <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
1286               <dd>none</dd>
1287            </dl> 
1288         </dd>
1289         <dt>Person and email address to contact for further information:</dt>
1290         <dd>See Authors Section.</dd>
1291         <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
1292         <dd>COMMON</dd>
1293         <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
1294         <dd>none</dd>
1295         <dt>Author/Change controller:</dt>
1296         <dd>IESG</dd>
1297      </dl>
1298      <div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div>
1299      <p>For example:</p><pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1300  Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1301  Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
1302  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1303 
1304  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1305  Content-type: application/pdf
1306  Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
1307 
1308  ...the first range...
1309  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1310  Content-type: application/pdf
1311  Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
1312 
1313  ...the second range
1314  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1315</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div>
1316      <p>Other example:</p>  <pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1317  Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1318  Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
1319  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1320 
1321  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1322  Content-type: video/example
1323  Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
1324 
1325  ...the first range...
1326  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1327  Content-type: video/example
1328  Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
1329 
1330  ...the second range
1331  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1332</pre> <p id="rfc.section.A.p.7">Notes: </p>
1333      <ol>
1334         <li>Additional CRLFs <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> precede the first boundary string in the body.
1335         </li>
1336         <li>Although <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> permits the boundary string to be quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string incorrectly.
1337         </li>
1338         <li>A number of browsers and servers were coded to an early draft of the byteranges specification to use a media type of multipart/x-byteranges<span id="rfc.iref.m.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.m.4"></span>, which is almost, but not quite compatible with the version documented in HTTP/1.1.
1339         </li>
1340      </ol>
1341      <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a id="compatibility" href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a></h1>
1342      <h2 id="rfc.section.B.1"><a href="#rfc.section.B.1">B.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.from.rfc.2616" href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h2>
1343      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.1">Clarify that it is not ok to use a weak validator in a 206 response. (<a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.2" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
1344      </p>
1345      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.2">Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value. (<a href="#header.field.definitions" title="Header Field Definitions">Section&nbsp;5</a>)
1346      </p>
1347      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.3">Clarify that multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>)
1348      </p>
1349      <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a id="collected.abnf" href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1350      <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div> <pre class="inline"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> = acceptable-ranges
1351
1352<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> = byte-content-range-spec / other-content-range-spec
1353
1354<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 8&gt;
1355
1356<a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = entity-tag / HTTP-date
1357
1358<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1359
1360<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1361
1362<a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
1363 range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
1364
1365<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a> = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" (
1366 instance-length / "*" )
1367<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a> = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*"
1368<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> = ( *( "," OWS ) byte-range-spec ) / (
1369 suffix-byte-range-spec *( OWS "," [ ( OWS byte-range-spec ) /
1370 suffix-byte-range-spec ] ) )
1371<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1372<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1373<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> = "bytes"
1374
1375<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3&gt;
1376
1377<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> = 1*DIGIT
1378
1379<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a> = 1*DIGIT
1380
1381<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> = 1*DIGIT
1382
1383<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a> = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec
1384<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a> = *CHAR
1385<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*CHAR
1386<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = token
1387<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1388
1389<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1390
1391<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" suffix-length
1392<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*DIGIT
1393
1394<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1395</pre> <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div>
1396      <p>ABNF diagnostics:</p><pre class="inline">; Accept-Ranges defined but not used
1397; Content-Range defined but not used
1398; If-Range defined but not used
1399; Range defined but not used
1400</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.D"><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;<a id="change.log" href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1401      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.1"><a href="#rfc.section.D.1">D.1</a>&nbsp;Since RFC 2616
1402      </h2>
1403      <p id="rfc.section.D.1.p.1">Extracted relevant partitions from <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
1404      </p>
1405      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.2"><a href="#rfc.section.D.2">D.2</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-00
1406      </h2>
1407      <p id="rfc.section.D.2.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1408      <ul>
1409         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/18">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/18</a>&gt;: "Cache validators in 206 responses" (&lt;<a href="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#ifrange206">http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#ifrange206</a>&gt;)
1410         </li>
1411         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35</a>&gt;: "Normative and Informative references"
1412         </li>
1413         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86</a>&gt;: "Normative up-to-date references"
1414         </li>
1415      </ul>
1416      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.3"><a href="#rfc.section.D.3">D.3</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-01
1417      </h2>
1418      <p id="rfc.section.D.3.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1419      <ul>
1420         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55</a>&gt;: "Updating to RFC4288"
1421         </li>
1422      </ul>
1423      <p id="rfc.section.D.3.p.2">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
1424      </p>
1425      <ul>
1426         <li>Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.</li>
1427      </ul>
1428      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.4"><a href="#rfc.section.D.4">D.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.02" href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-02</a></h2>
1429      <p id="rfc.section.D.4.p.1">Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40</a>&gt;):
1430      </p>
1431      <ul>
1432         <li>Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for headers defined in this document.</li>
1433      </ul>
1434      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.5"><a href="#rfc.section.D.5">D.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.03" href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-03</a></h2>
1435      <p id="rfc.section.D.5.p.1">None.</p>
1436      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.6"><a href="#rfc.section.D.6">D.6</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.04" href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-04</a></h2>
1437      <p id="rfc.section.D.6.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1438      <ul>
1439         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/133">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/133</a>&gt;: "multipart/byteranges minimum number of parts"
1440         </li>
1441      </ul>
1442      <p id="rfc.section.D.6.p.2">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
1443      </p>
1444      <ul>
1445         <li>Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.</li>
1446         <li>Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").</li>
1447         <li>Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header field value format definitions.</li>
1448      </ul>
1449      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.7"><a href="#rfc.section.D.7">D.7</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.05" href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-05</a></h2>
1450      <p id="rfc.section.D.7.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1451      <ul>
1452         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/142">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/142</a>&gt;: "State base for *-byte-pos and suffix-length"
1453         </li>
1454      </ul>
1455      <p id="rfc.section.D.7.p.2">Ongoing work on Custom Ranges (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85</a>&gt;):
1456      </p>
1457      <ul>
1458         <li>Remove bias in favor of byte ranges; allow custom ranges in ABNF.</li>
1459      </ul>
1460      <p id="rfc.section.D.7.p.3">Final work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
1461      </p>
1462      <ul>
1463         <li>Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.</li>
1464      </ul>
1465      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.8"><a href="#rfc.section.D.8">D.8</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.06" href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-06</a></h2>
1466      <p id="rfc.section.D.8.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1467      <ul>
1468         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161</a>&gt;: "base for numeric protocol elements"
1469         </li>
1470      </ul>
1471      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.9"><a href="#rfc.section.D.9">D.9</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.07" href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-07</a></h2>
1472      <p id="rfc.section.D.9.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1473      <ul>
1474         <li>Fixed discrepancy in the If-Range definition about allowed validators.</li>
1475         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/150">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/150</a>&gt;: "multipart/byteranges for custom range units"
1476         </li>
1477         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/151">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/151</a>&gt;: "range unit missing from other-ranges-specifier in Range header"
1478         </li>
1479         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198</a>&gt;: "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1480         </li>
1481      </ul>
1482      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.10"><a href="#rfc.section.D.10">D.10</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.08" href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-08</a></h2>
1483      <p id="rfc.section.D.10.p.1">No significant changes.</p>
1484      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.11"><a href="#rfc.section.D.11">D.11</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.09" href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-09</a></h2>
1485      <p id="rfc.section.D.11.p.1">No significant changes.</p>
1486      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.12"><a href="#rfc.section.D.12">D.12</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.10" href="#changes.since.10">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-10</a></h2>
1487      <p id="rfc.section.D.12.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1488      <ul>
1489         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/69">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/69</a>&gt;: "Clarify 'Requested Variant'"
1490         </li>
1491         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/109">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/109</a>&gt;: "Clarify entity / representation / variant terminology"
1492         </li>
1493         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/220">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/220</a>&gt;: "consider removing the 'changes from 2068' sections"
1494         </li>
1495      </ul>
1496      <p id="rfc.section.D.12.p.2">Ongoing work on Custom Ranges (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85</a>&gt;):
1497      </p>
1498      <ul>
1499         <li>Add IANA registry.</li>
1500      </ul>
1501      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.13"><a href="#rfc.section.D.13">D.13</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.11" href="#changes.since.11">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-11</a></h2>
1502      <p id="rfc.section.D.13.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1503      <ul>
1504         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/217">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/217</a>&gt;: "Caches can't be required to serve ranges"
1505         </li>
1506      </ul>
1507      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.14"><a href="#rfc.section.D.14">D.14</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.12" href="#changes.since.12">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-12</a></h2>
1508      <p id="rfc.section.D.14.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1509      <ul>
1510         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224</a>&gt;: "Header Classification"
1511         </li>
1512      </ul>
1513      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.15"><a href="#rfc.section.D.15">D.15</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.13" href="#changes.since.13">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-13</a></h2>
1514      <p id="rfc.section.D.15.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1515      <ul>
1516         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276</a>&gt;: "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1517         </li>
1518      </ul>
1519      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.16"><a href="#rfc.section.D.16">D.16</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.14" href="#changes.since.14">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-14</a></h2>
1520      <p id="rfc.section.D.16.p.1">None.</p>
1521      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.17"><a href="#rfc.section.D.17">D.17</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.15" href="#changes.since.15">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-15</a></h2>
1522      <p id="rfc.section.D.17.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1523      <ul>
1524         <li> &lt;<a href="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/175">http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/175</a>&gt;: "Security consideration: range flooding"
1525         </li>
1526      </ul>
1527      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.18"><a href="#rfc.section.D.18">D.18</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.16" href="#changes.since.16">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-16</a></h2>
1528      <p id="rfc.section.D.18.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1529      <ul>
1530         <li> &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186</a>&gt;: "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1531         </li>
1532         <li> &lt;<a href="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/301">http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/301</a>&gt;: "Content-Range on responses other than 206"
1533         </li>
1534         <li> &lt;<a href="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/319">http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/319</a>&gt;: "case sensitivity of ranges in p5"
1535         </li>
1536      </ul>
1537      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.19"><a href="#rfc.section.D.19">D.19</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.17" href="#changes.since.17">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-17</a></h2>
1538      <p id="rfc.section.D.19.p.1">None.</p>
1539      <h2 id="rfc.section.D.20"><a href="#rfc.section.D.20">D.20</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.18" href="#changes.since.18">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-18</a></h2>
1540      <p id="rfc.section.D.20.p.1">None yet.</p>
1541      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
1542      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.2">2</a> <a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.I">I</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.S">S</a> 
1543      </p>
1544      <div class="print2col">
1545         <ul class="ind">
1546            <li><a id="rfc.index.2" href="#rfc.index.2"><b>2</b></a><ul>
1547                  <li>206 Partial Content (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.3"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.2">B.1</a></li>
1548               </ul>
1549            </li>
1550            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
1551                  <li>416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.2">6.1</a></li>
1552               </ul>
1553            </li>
1554            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
1555                  <li>Accept-Ranges header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>5.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1">6.2</a></li>
1556               </ul>
1557            </li>
1558            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
1559                  <li>Content-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.3">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>5.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1560               </ul>
1561            </li>
1562            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
1563                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1564                     <ul>
1565                        <li><tt>Accept-Ranges</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
1566                        <li><tt>acceptable-ranges</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
1567                        <li><tt>byte-content-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1568                        <li><tt>byte-range-resp-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1569                        <li><tt>byte-range-set</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.13"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1570                        <li><tt>byte-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.14"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1571                        <li><tt>byte-ranges-specifier</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.12"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1572                        <li><tt>bytes-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2</b></a></li>
1573                        <li><tt>Content-Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1574                        <li><tt>first-byte-pos</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.15"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1575                        <li><tt>If-Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>5.3</b></a></li>
1576                        <li><tt>instance-length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1577                        <li><tt>last-byte-pos</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.16"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1578                        <li><tt>other-range-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>2</b></a></li>
1579                        <li><tt>Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.19"><b>5.4.2</b></a></li>
1580                        <li><tt>range-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2</b></a></li>
1581                        <li><tt>ranges-specifier</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.11"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1582                        <li><tt>suffix-byte-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.17"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1583                        <li><tt>suffix-length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.18"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1584                     </ul>
1585                  </li>
1586               </ul>
1587            </li>
1588            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
1589                  <li>Header Fields&nbsp;&nbsp;
1590                     <ul>
1591                        <li>Accept-Ranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>5.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1">6.2</a></li>
1592                        <li>Content-Range&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.3">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>5.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1593                        <li>If-Range&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.2">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>5.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.3">5.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1594                        <li>Range&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.2">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.3">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.4">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>5.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.5">6.2</a></li>
1595                     </ul>
1596                  </li>
1597               </ul>
1598            </li>
1599            <li><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul>
1600                  <li>If-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.2">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.i.1"><b>5.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.3">5.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1601               </ul>
1602            </li>
1603            <li><a id="rfc.index.M" href="#rfc.index.M"><b>M</b></a><ul>
1604                  <li>Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;
1605                     <ul>
1606                        <li>multipart/byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>A</b></a></li>
1607                        <li>multipart/x-byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.4">A</a></li>
1608                     </ul>
1609                  </li>
1610                  <li>multipart/byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>A</b></a></li>
1611                  <li>multipart/x-byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.3">A</a></li>
1612               </ul>
1613            </li>
1614            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
1615                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">8</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
1616                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a></li>
1617                        <li><em>Section 2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a></li>
1618                        <li><em>Section 3.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.2.1</a></li>
1619                        <li><em>Section 3.2.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.2.1</a></li>
1620                        <li><em>Section 11</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">8</a></li>
1621                     </ul>
1622                  </li>
1623                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#Part2"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
1624                        <li><em>Section 8</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2.1</a></li>
1625                     </ul>
1626                  </li>
1627                  <li><em>Part4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">1.2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">5.3</a>, <a href="#Part4"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
1628                        <li><em>Section 2.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">5.3</a></li>
1629                        <li><em>Section 2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">1.2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">4</a></li>
1630                     </ul>
1631                  </li>
1632               </ul>
1633            </li>
1634            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
1635                  <li>Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.2">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.3">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.4">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.r.1"><b>5.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.5">6.2</a></li>
1636                  <li><em>RFC2046</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2046"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.2">A</a><ul>
1637                        <li><em>Section 5.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a></li>
1638                     </ul>
1639                  </li>
1640                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
1641                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2616"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">D.1</a></li>
1642                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
1643                  <li><em>RFC4288</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC4288"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4288.1">A</a></li>
1644                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>9.2</b></a><ul>
1645                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.1</a></li>
1646                     </ul>
1647                  </li>
1648                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
1649                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a></li>
1650                     </ul>
1651                  </li>
1652               </ul>
1653            </li>
1654            <li><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul>
1655                  <li>Status Codes&nbsp;&nbsp;
1656                     <ul>
1657                        <li>206 Partial Content&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.2">B.1</a></li>
1658                        <li>416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.2"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.2">6.1</a></li>
1659                     </ul>
1660                  </li>
1661               </ul>
1662            </li>
1663         </ul>
1664      </div>
1665   </body>
1666</html>
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