source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p4-conditional.xml @ 601

Last change on this file since 601 was 601, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 10 years ago

List Mark Nottingham as author/editor of Part6.

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "July">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2009">
17  <!ENTITY notation                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
18  <!ENTITY notation-abnf              "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY basic-rules                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY header-date                "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.date' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY messaging                  "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY caching                    "<xref target='Part6' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY header-if-range            "<xref target='Part5' x:rel='#header.if-range' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY header-range               "<xref target='Part5' x:rel='#header.range' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY header-vary                "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#header.vary' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY clockless                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#clockless.origin.server.operation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY full-date                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#date.time.formats.full.date' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28]>
29<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
30<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
31<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
32<?rfc compact="yes"?>
33<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
34<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
35<?rfc editing="no" ?>
36<?rfc comments="yes"?>
37<?rfc inline="yes"?>
38<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
39<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
40<rfc obsoletes="2616" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
41     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-&ID-VERSION;"
42     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
43<front>
44
45  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 4">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</title>
46
47  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
48    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
49    <address>
50      <postal>
51        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
52        <city>Newport Beach</city>
53        <region>CA</region>
54        <code>92660</code>
55        <country>USA</country>
56      </postal>
57      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
58      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
59      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
60      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
61    </address>
62  </author>
63
64  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
65    <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
66    <address>
67      <postal>
68        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
69        <city>Carlisle</city>
70        <region>MA</region>
71        <code>01741</code>
72        <country>USA</country>
73      </postal>
74      <email>jg@laptop.org</email>
75      <uri>http://www.laptop.org/</uri>
76    </address>
77  </author>
78 
79  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
80    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
81    <address>
82      <postal>
83        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
84        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
85        <city>Palo Alto</city>
86        <region>CA</region>
87        <code>94304</code>
88        <country>USA</country>
89      </postal>
90      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
91    </address>
92  </author>
93
94  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
95    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
96    <address>
97      <postal>
98        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
99        <city>Redmond</city>
100        <region>WA</region>
101        <code>98052</code>
102        <country>USA</country>
103      </postal>
104      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
105    </address>
106  </author>
107
108  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
109    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
110    <address>
111      <postal>
112        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
113        <city>San Jose</city>
114        <region>CA</region>
115        <code>95110</code>
116        <country>USA</country>
117      </postal>
118      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
119      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
120    </address>
121  </author>
122 
123  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
124    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
125    <address>
126      <postal>
127        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
128        <city>Redmond</city>
129        <region>WA</region>
130        <code>98052</code>
131      </postal>
132      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
133    </address>
134  </author>
135   
136  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
137    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
138    <address>
139      <postal>
140        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
141        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
142        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
143        <city>Cambridge</city>
144        <region>MA</region>
145        <code>02139</code>
146        <country>USA</country>
147      </postal>
148      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
149      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
150    </address>
151  </author>
152
153  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
154    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
155    <address>
156      <postal>
157        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
158        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
159        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
160        <region>AM</region>
161        <code>06902</code>
162        <country>France</country>
163      </postal>
164      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
165      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
166    </address>
167  </author>
168
169  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
170    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
171    <address>
172      <postal>
173        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
174        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
175        <country>Germany</country>
176      </postal>
177      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>   
178      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>   
179      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>       
180      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>     
181    </address>
182  </author>
183
184  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
185  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
186
187<abstract>
188<t>
189   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
190   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
191   systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information
192   initiative since 1990. This document is Part 4 of the seven-part specification
193   that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together,
194   obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 4 defines request header fields for
195   indicating conditional requests and the rules for constructing responses
196   to those requests.
197</t>
198</abstract>
199
200<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
201  <t>
202    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
203    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues list is
204    at <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11"/>
205    and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
206    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
207  </t>
208  <t>
209    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.06"/>.
210  </t>
211</note>
212</front>
213<middle>
214<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
215<t>
216   This document defines HTTP/1.1 response metadata for indicating potential
217   changes to payload content, including modification time stamps and opaque
218   entity-tags, and the HTTP conditional request mechanisms that allow
219   preconditions to be placed on a request method.  Conditional GET requests
220   allow for efficient cache updates.  Other conditional request methods are
221   used to protect against overwriting or misunderstanding the state of a
222   resource that has been changed unbeknownst to the requesting client.
223</t>
224<t>
225   This document is currently disorganized in order to minimize the changes
226   between drafts and enable reviewers to see the smaller errata changes.
227   The next draft will reorganize the sections to better reflect the content.
228   In particular, the sections on resource metadata will be discussed first
229   and then followed by each conditional request-header, concluding with a
230   definition of precedence and the expectation of ordering strong validator
231   checks before weak validator checks.  It is likely that more content from
232   &caching; will migrate to this part, where appropriate.
233   The current mess reflects how widely dispersed these topics and associated
234   requirements had become in <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
235</t>
236
237<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
238<t>
239   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
240   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
241   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
242</t>
243<t>
244   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
245   of the &MUST; or &REQUIRED; level requirements for the protocols it
246   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the &MUST; or &REQUIRED;
247   level and all the &SHOULD; level requirements for its protocols is said
248   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the &MUST;
249   level requirements but not all the &SHOULD; level requirements for its
250   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant."
251</t>
252</section>
253
254<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
255  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
256  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
257  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
258  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
259  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
260  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
261  <x:anchor-alias value="WSP"/>
262<t>
263  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation; (which
264  extends the syntax defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/> with a list rule).
265  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list
266  rule expanded.
267</t>
268<t>
269  The following core rules are included by
270  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
271  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
272  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
273  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
274  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space),
275  VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
276  and WSP (whitespace).
277</t>
278
279<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
280  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
281  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
282<t>
283  The core rules below are defined in &basic-rules;:
284</t>
285<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
286  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
287  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
288</artwork></figure>
289</section>
290
291<section title="ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification" anchor="abnf.dependencies">
292  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-date"/>
293<t>
294  The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
295</t>
296<figure><!--Part1--><artwork type="abnf2616">
297  <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in &full-date;&gt;
298</artwork></figure>
299</section>
300
301</section>
302
303</section>
304
305<section title="Entity Tags" anchor="entity.tags">
306  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-tag"/>
307  <x:anchor-alias value="opaque-tag"/>
308  <x:anchor-alias value="weak"/>
309<t>
310   Entity tags are used for comparing two or more entities from the same
311   requested resource. HTTP/1.1 uses entity tags in the ETag (<xref target="header.etag"/>),
312   If-Match (<xref target="header.if-match"/>), If-None-Match (<xref target="header.if-none-match"/>), and
313   If-Range (&header-if-range;) header fields. The definition of how they
314   are used and compared as cache validators is in <xref target="weak.and.strong.validators"/>. An
315   entity tag consists of an opaque quoted string, possibly prefixed by
316   a weakness indicator.
317</t>
318<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="entity-tag"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="weak"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="opaque-tag"/>
319  <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = [ <x:ref>weak</x:ref> ] <x:ref>opaque-tag</x:ref>
320  <x:ref>weak</x:ref>       = <x:abnf-char-sequence>"W/"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "W/", case-sensitive
321  <x:ref>opaque-tag</x:ref> = <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>
322</artwork></figure>
323<t>
324   A "strong entity tag" &MAY; be shared by two entities of a resource
325   only if they are equivalent by octet equality.
326</t>
327<t>
328   A "weak entity tag," indicated by the "W/" prefix, &MAY; be shared by
329   two entities of a resource only if the entities are equivalent and
330   could be substituted for each other with no significant change in
331   semantics. A weak entity tag can only be used for weak comparison.
332</t>
333<t>
334   An entity tag &MUST; be unique across all versions of all entities
335   associated with a particular resource. A given entity tag value &MAY;
336   be used for entities obtained by requests on different URIs. The use
337   of the same entity tag value in conjunction with entities obtained by
338   requests on different URIs does not imply the equivalence of those
339   entities.
340</t>
341</section>
342
343<section title="Status Code Definitions">
344<section title="304 Not Modified" anchor="status.304">
345  <iref primary="true" item="304 Not Modified (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
346  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="304 Not Modified" x:for-anchor=""/>
347<t>
348   If the client has performed a conditional GET request and access is
349   allowed, but the document has not been modified, the server &SHOULD;
350   respond with this status code. The 304 response &MUST-NOT; contain a
351   message-body, and thus is always terminated by the first empty line
352   after the header fields.
353</t>
354<t>
355   The response &MUST; include the following header fields:
356  <list style="symbols">
357    <x:lt>
358      <t>Date, unless its omission is required by &clockless;.</t>
359      <t>
360         If a clockless origin server obeys these rules, and proxies and
361         clients add their own Date to any response received without one (as
362         already specified by &header-date;, caches will operate
363         correctly.</t>
364    </x:lt>
365    <x:lt>
366      <t>ETag and/or Content-Location, if the header would have been sent
367         in a 200 response to the same request.</t>
368    </x:lt>
369    <x:lt>
370      <t>Expires, Cache-Control, and/or Vary, if the field-value might
371         differ from that sent in any previous response for the same
372         variant.</t>
373    </x:lt>
374  </list>
375</t>
376<t>
377   If the conditional GET used a strong cache validator (see <xref target="weak.and.strong.validators"/>),
378   the response &SHOULD-NOT;  include other entity-headers.
379   Otherwise (i.e., the conditional GET used a weak validator), the
380   response &MUST-NOT; include other entity-headers; this prevents
381   inconsistencies between cached entity-bodies and updated headers.
382</t>
383<t>
384   If a 304 response indicates an entity not currently cached, then the
385   cache &MUST; disregard the response and repeat the request without the
386   conditional.
387</t>
388<t>
389   If a cache uses a received 304 response to update a cache entry, the
390   cache &MUST; update the entry to reflect any new field values given in
391   the response.
392</t>
393</section>
394
395<section title="412 Precondition Failed" anchor="status.412">
396  <iref primary="true" item="412 Precondition Failed (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
397  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="412 Precondition Failed" x:for-anchor=""/>
398<t>
399   The precondition given in one or more of the request-header fields
400   evaluated to false when it was tested on the server. This response
401   code allows the client to place preconditions on the current resource
402   metainformation (header field data) and thus prevent the requested
403   method from being applied to a resource other than the one intended.
404</t>
405</section>
406</section>
407
408<section title="Weak and Strong Validators" anchor="weak.and.strong.validators">
409<t>
410   Since both origin servers and caches will compare two validators to
411   decide if they represent the same or different entities, one normally
412   would expect that if the entity (the entity-body or any entity-headers)
413   changes in any way, then the associated validator would
414   change as well. If this is true, then we call this validator a
415   "strong validator."
416</t>
417<t>
418   However, there might be cases when a server prefers to change the
419   validator only on semantically significant changes, and not when
420   insignificant aspects of the entity change. A validator that does not
421   always change when the resource changes is a "weak validator."
422</t>
423<t>
424   Entity tags are normally "strong validators," but the protocol
425   provides a mechanism to tag an entity tag as "weak." One can think of
426   a strong validator as one that changes whenever the bits of an entity
427   changes, while a weak value changes whenever the meaning of an entity
428   changes. Alternatively, one can think of a strong validator as part
429   of an identifier for a specific entity, while a weak validator is
430   part of an identifier for a set of semantically equivalent entities.
431  <list><t>
432      <x:h>Note:</x:h> One example of a strong validator is an integer that is
433      incremented in stable storage every time an entity is changed.
434    </t><t>
435      An entity's modification time, if represented with one-second
436      resolution, could be a weak validator, since it is possible that
437      the resource might be modified twice during a single second.
438    </t><t>
439      Support for weak validators is optional. However, weak validators
440      allow for more efficient caching of equivalent objects; for
441      example, a hit counter on a site is probably good enough if it is
442      updated every few days or weeks, and any value during that period
443      is likely "good enough" to be equivalent.
444    </t></list>
445</t>
446<t>
447   A "use" of a validator is either when a client generates a request
448   and includes the validator in a validating header field, or when a
449   server compares two validators.
450</t>
451<t>
452   Strong validators are usable in any context. Weak validators are only
453   usable in contexts that do not depend on exact equality of an entity.
454   For example, either kind is usable for a conditional GET of a full
455   entity. However, only a strong validator is usable for a sub-range
456   retrieval, since otherwise the client might end up with an internally
457   inconsistent entity.
458</t>
459<t>
460   Clients &MUST-NOT; use weak validators in range requests (<xref target="Part5"/>).
461</t>
462<t>
463   The only function that HTTP/1.1 defines on validators is
464   comparison. There are two validator comparison functions, depending
465   on whether the comparison context allows the use of weak validators
466   or not:
467  <list style="symbols">
468     <t>The strong comparison function: in order to be considered equal,
469        both opaque-tags &MUST; be identical character-by-character, and both
470        &MUST-NOT; be weak.</t>
471     <t>The weak comparison function: in order to be considered equal, both
472        opaque-tags &MUST; be identical character-by-character.</t>
473  </list>
474</t>
475<t>
476   The example below shows the results for a set of entity tag pairs,
477   and both the weak and strong comparison function results:
478</t>
479<texttable align="left">
480  <ttcol>ETag 1</ttcol>
481  <ttcol>ETag 2</ttcol>
482  <ttcol>Strong Comparison</ttcol>
483  <ttcol>Weak Comparison</ttcol>
484
485  <c>W/"1"</c>
486  <c>W/"1"</c>
487  <c>no match</c>
488  <c>match</c>
489 
490  <c>W/"1"</c>
491  <c>W/"2"</c>
492  <c>no match</c>
493  <c>no match</c>
494
495  <c>W/"1"</c>
496  <c>"1"</c>
497  <c>no match</c>
498  <c>match</c>
499
500  <c>"1"</c>
501  <c>"1"</c>
502  <c>match</c>
503  <c>match</c>
504</texttable>
505<t>
506   An entity tag is strong unless it is explicitly tagged as weak.
507   <xref target="entity.tags"/> gives the syntax for entity tags.
508</t>
509<t>
510   A Last-Modified time, when used as a validator in a request, is
511   implicitly weak unless it is possible to deduce that it is strong,
512   using the following rules:
513  <list style="symbols">
514     <t>The validator is being compared by an origin server to the
515        actual current validator for the entity and,</t>
516     <t>That origin server reliably knows that the associated entity did
517        not change twice during the second covered by the presented
518        validator.</t>
519  </list>
520</t>
521<t>
522   or
523  <list style="symbols">
524     <t>The validator is about to be used by a client in an If-Modified-Since
525        or If-Unmodified-Since header, because the client
526        has a cache entry for the associated entity, and</t>
527     <t>That cache entry includes a Date value, which gives the time
528        when the origin server sent the original response, and</t>
529     <t>The presented Last-Modified time is at least 60 seconds before
530        the Date value.</t>
531  </list>
532</t>
533<t>
534   or
535  <list style="symbols">
536     <t>The validator is being compared by an intermediate cache to the
537        validator stored in its cache entry for the entity, and</t>
538     <t>That cache entry includes a Date value, which gives the time
539        when the origin server sent the original response, and</t>
540     <t>The presented Last-Modified time is at least 60 seconds before
541        the Date value.</t>
542  </list>
543</t>
544<t>
545   This method relies on the fact that if two different responses were
546   sent by the origin server during the same second, but both had the
547   same Last-Modified time, then at least one of those responses would
548   have a Date value equal to its Last-Modified time. The arbitrary 60-second
549   limit guards against the possibility that the Date and Last-Modified
550   values are generated from different clocks, or at somewhat
551   different times during the preparation of the response. An
552   implementation &MAY; use a value larger than 60 seconds, if it is
553   believed that 60 seconds is too short.
554</t>
555<t>
556   If a client wishes to perform a sub-range retrieval on a value for
557   which it has only a Last-Modified time and no opaque validator, it
558   &MAY; do this only if the Last-Modified time is strong in the sense
559   described here.
560</t>
561<t>
562   A cache or origin server receiving a conditional range request
563   (<xref target="Part5"/>) &MUST; use the strong comparison function to
564   evaluate the condition.
565</t>
566<t>
567   These rules allow HTTP/1.1 caches and clients to safely perform sub-range
568   retrievals on values that have been obtained from HTTP/1.0
569   servers.
570</t>
571</section>
572
573<section title="Rules for When to Use Entity Tags and Last-Modified Dates" anchor="rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates">
574<t>
575   We adopt a set of rules and recommendations for origin servers,
576   clients, and caches regarding when various validator types ought to
577   be used, and for what purposes.
578</t>
579<t>
580   HTTP/1.1 origin servers:
581  <list style="symbols">
582     <t>&SHOULD; send an entity tag validator unless it is not feasible to
583        generate one.</t>
584
585     <t>&MAY; send a weak entity tag instead of a strong entity tag, if
586        performance considerations support the use of weak entity tags,
587        or if it is unfeasible to send a strong entity tag.</t>
588
589     <t>&SHOULD; send a Last-Modified value if it is feasible to send one,
590        unless the risk of a breakdown in semantic transparency that
591        could result from using this date in an If-Modified-Since header
592        would lead to serious problems.</t>
593  </list>
594</t>
595<t>
596   In other words, the preferred behavior for an HTTP/1.1 origin server
597   is to send both a strong entity tag and a Last-Modified value.
598</t>
599<t>
600   In order to be legal, a strong entity tag &MUST; change whenever the
601   associated entity changes in any way. A weak entity tag &SHOULD;
602   change whenever the associated entity changes in a semantically
603   significant way.
604</t>
605<x:note>
606  <t>
607    <x:h>Note:</x:h> in order to provide semantically transparent caching, an
608    origin server must avoid reusing a specific strong entity tag
609    value for two different entities, or reusing a specific weak
610    entity tag value for two semantically different entities. Cache
611    entries might persist for arbitrarily long periods, regardless of
612    expiration times, so it might be inappropriate to expect that a
613    cache will never again attempt to validate an entry using a
614    validator that it obtained at some point in the past.
615  </t>
616</x:note>
617<t>
618   HTTP/1.1 clients:
619  <list style="symbols">
620     <t>If an entity tag has been provided by the origin server, &MUST;
621        use that entity tag in any cache-conditional request (using If-Match
622        or If-None-Match).</t>
623
624     <t>If only a Last-Modified value has been provided by the origin
625        server, &SHOULD; use that value in non-subrange cache-conditional
626        requests (using If-Modified-Since).</t>
627
628     <t>If only a Last-Modified value has been provided by an HTTP/1.0
629        origin server, &MAY; use that value in subrange cache-conditional
630        requests (using If-Unmodified-Since:). The user agent &SHOULD;
631        provide a way to disable this, in case of difficulty.</t>
632
633     <t>If both an entity tag and a Last-Modified value have been
634        provided by the origin server, &SHOULD; use both validators in
635        cache-conditional requests. This allows both HTTP/1.0 and
636        HTTP/1.1 caches to respond appropriately.</t>
637  </list>
638</t>
639<t>
640   An HTTP/1.1 origin server, upon receiving a conditional request that
641   includes both a Last-Modified date (e.g., in an If-Modified-Since or
642   If-Unmodified-Since header field) and one or more entity tags (e.g.,
643   in an If-Match, If-None-Match, or If-Range header field) as cache
644   validators, &MUST-NOT; return a response status of 304 (Not Modified)
645   unless doing so is consistent with all of the conditional header
646   fields in the request.
647</t>
648<t>
649   An HTTP/1.1 caching proxy, upon receiving a conditional request that
650   includes both a Last-Modified date and one or more entity tags as
651   cache validators, &MUST-NOT; return a locally cached response to the
652   client unless that cached response is consistent with all of the
653   conditional header fields in the request.
654  <list><t>
655      <x:h>Note:</x:h> The general principle behind these rules is that HTTP/1.1
656      servers and clients should transmit as much non-redundant
657      information as is available in their responses and requests.
658      HTTP/1.1 systems receiving this information will make the most
659      conservative assumptions about the validators they receive.
660  </t><t>
661      HTTP/1.0 clients and caches will ignore entity tags. Generally,
662      last-modified values received or used by these systems will
663      support transparent and efficient caching, and so HTTP/1.1 origin
664      servers should provide Last-Modified values. In those rare cases
665      where the use of a Last-Modified value as a validator by an
666      HTTP/1.0 system could result in a serious problem, then HTTP/1.1
667      origin servers should not provide one.
668  </t></list>
669</t>
670</section>
671
672<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
673<t>
674   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
675   related to conditional requests.
676</t>
677<t>
678   For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the
679   client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the entity.
680</t>
681
682<section title="ETag" anchor="header.etag">
683  <iref primary="true" item="ETag header" x:for-anchor=""/>
684  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="ETag" x:for-anchor=""/>
685  <x:anchor-alias value="ETag"/>
686  <x:anchor-alias value="ETag-v"/>
687<t>
688   The response-header field "ETag" provides the current value of the
689   entity tag (see <xref target="entity.tags"/>) for the requested variant.
690   The headers used with entity
691   tags are described in Sections <xref target="header.if-match" format="counter"/>
692   and <xref target="header.if-none-match" format="counter"/> of this document,
693   and in &header-if-range;. The entity tag
694   &MAY; be used for comparison with other entities from the same resource
695   (see <xref target="weak.and.strong.validators"/>).
696</t>
697<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ETag"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ETag-v"/>
698  <x:ref>ETag</x:ref>   = "ETag" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>ETag-v</x:ref>
699  <x:ref>ETag-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref>
700</artwork></figure>
701<figure><preamble>
702  Examples:
703</preamble>
704<artwork type="example">
705  ETag: "xyzzy"
706  ETag: W/"xyzzy"
707  ETag: ""
708</artwork></figure>
709<t>
710   The ETag response-header field value, an entity tag, provides for an
711   "opaque" cache validator. This might allow more reliable validation
712   in situations where it is inconvenient to store modification dates,
713   where the one-second resolution of HTTP date values is not
714   sufficient, or where the origin server wishes to avoid certain
715   paradoxes that might arise from the use of modification dates.
716</t>
717<t>
718   The principle behind entity tags is that only the service author
719   knows the semantics of a resource well enough to select an
720   appropriate cache validation mechanism, and the specification of any
721   validator comparison function more complex than byte-equality would
722   open up a can of worms. Thus, comparisons of any other headers
723   (except Last-Modified, for compatibility with HTTP/1.0) are never
724   used for purposes of validating a cache entry.
725</t>
726</section>
727
728<section title="If-Match" anchor="header.if-match">
729  <iref primary="true" item="If-Match header" x:for-anchor=""/>
730  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="If-Match" x:for-anchor=""/>
731  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Match"/>
732  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Match-v"/>
733<t>
734   The request-header field "If-Match" is used with a method to make it
735   conditional. A client that has one or more entities previously
736   obtained from the resource can verify that one of those entities is
737   current by including a list of their associated entity tags in the
738   If-Match header field. Entity tags are defined in <xref target="entity.tags"/>. The
739   purpose of this feature is to allow efficient updates of cached
740   information with a minimum amount of transaction overhead. It is also
741   used, on updating requests, to prevent inadvertent modification of
742   the wrong version of a resource. As a special case, the value "*"
743   matches any current entity of the resource.
744</t>
745<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Match"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Match-v"/>
746  <x:ref>If-Match</x:ref>   = "If-Match" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>If-Match-v</x:ref>
747  <x:ref>If-Match-v</x:ref> = "*" / 1#<x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref>
748</artwork></figure>
749<t>
750   If any of the entity tags match the entity tag of the entity that
751   would have been returned in the response to a similar GET request
752   (without the If-Match header) on that resource, or if "*" is given
753   and any current entity exists for that resource, then the server &MAY;
754   perform the requested method as if the If-Match header field did not
755   exist.
756</t>
757<t>
758   A server &MUST; use the strong comparison function (see <xref target="weak.and.strong.validators"/>)
759   to compare the entity tags in If-Match.
760</t>
761<t>
762   If none of the entity tags match, or if "*" is given and no current
763   entity exists, the server &MUST-NOT; perform the requested method, and
764   &MUST; return a 412 (Precondition Failed) response. This behavior is
765   most useful when the client wants to prevent an updating method, such
766   as PUT, from modifying a resource that has changed since the client
767   last retrieved it.
768</t>
769<t>
770   If the request would, without the If-Match header field, result in
771   anything other than a 2xx or 412 status, then the If-Match header
772   &MUST; be ignored.
773</t>
774<t>
775   The meaning of "If-Match: *" is that the method &SHOULD; be performed
776   if the representation selected by the origin server (or by a cache,
777   possibly using the Vary mechanism, see &header-vary;) exists, and
778   &MUST-NOT; be performed if the representation does not exist.
779</t>
780<t>
781   A request intended to update a resource (e.g., a PUT) &MAY; include an
782   If-Match header field to signal that the request method &MUST-NOT; be
783   applied if the entity corresponding to the If-Match value (a single
784   entity tag) is no longer a representation of that resource. This
785   allows the user to indicate that they do not wish the request to be
786   successful if the resource has been changed without their knowledge.
787   Examples:
788</t>
789<figure><artwork type="example">
790  If-Match: "xyzzy"
791  If-Match: "xyzzy", "r2d2xxxx", "c3piozzzz"
792  If-Match: *
793</artwork></figure>
794<t>
795   The result of a request having both an If-Match header field and
796   either an If-None-Match or an If-Modified-Since header fields is
797   undefined by this specification.
798</t>
799</section>
800
801<section title="If-Modified-Since" anchor="header.if-modified-since">
802  <iref primary="true" item="If-Modified-Since header" x:for-anchor=""/>
803  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="If-Modified-Since" x:for-anchor=""/>
804  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Modified-Since"/>
805  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Modified-Since-v"/>
806<t>
807   The request-header field "If-Modified-Since" is used with a method to
808   make it conditional: if the requested variant has not been modified
809   since the time specified in this field, an entity will not be
810   returned from the server; instead, a 304 (Not Modified) response will
811   be returned without any message-body.
812</t>
813<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Modified-Since"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Modified-Since-v"/>
814  <x:ref>If-Modified-Since</x:ref>   = "If-Modified-Since" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
815                        <x:ref>If-Modified-Since-v</x:ref>
816  <x:ref>If-Modified-Since-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
817</artwork></figure>
818<t>
819   An example of the field is:
820</t>
821<figure><artwork type="example">
822  If-Modified-Since: Sat, 29 Oct 1994 19:43:31 GMT
823</artwork></figure>
824<t>
825   A GET method with an If-Modified-Since header and no Range header
826   requests that the identified entity be transferred only if it has
827   been modified since the date given by the If-Modified-Since header.
828   The algorithm for determining this includes the following cases:
829  <list style="numbers">
830      <t>If the request would normally result in anything other than a
831         200 (OK) status, or if the passed If-Modified-Since date is
832         invalid, the response is exactly the same as for a normal GET.
833         A date which is later than the server's current time is
834         invalid.</t>
835
836      <t>If the variant has been modified since the If-Modified-Since
837         date, the response is exactly the same as for a normal GET.</t>
838
839      <t>If the variant has not been modified since a valid If-Modified-Since
840         date, the server &SHOULD; return a 304 (Not
841         Modified) response.</t>
842  </list>
843</t>
844<t>
845   The purpose of this feature is to allow efficient updates of cached
846   information with a minimum amount of transaction overhead.
847  <list><t>
848      <x:h>Note:</x:h> The Range request-header field modifies the meaning of If-Modified-Since;
849      see &header-range; for full details.
850    </t><t>
851      <x:h>Note:</x:h> If-Modified-Since times are interpreted by the server, whose
852      clock might not be synchronized with the client.
853    </t><t>
854      <x:h>Note:</x:h> When handling an If-Modified-Since header field, some
855      servers will use an exact date comparison function, rather than a
856      less-than function, for deciding whether to send a 304 (Not
857      Modified) response. To get best results when sending an If-Modified-Since
858      header field for cache validation, clients are
859      advised to use the exact date string received in a previous Last-Modified
860      header field whenever possible.
861    </t><t>
862      <x:h>Note:</x:h> If a client uses an arbitrary date in the If-Modified-Since
863      header instead of a date taken from the Last-Modified header for
864      the same request, the client should be aware of the fact that this
865      date is interpreted in the server's understanding of time. The
866      client should consider unsynchronized clocks and rounding problems
867      due to the different encodings of time between the client and
868      server. This includes the possibility of race conditions if the
869      document has changed between the time it was first requested and
870      the If-Modified-Since date of a subsequent request, and the
871      possibility of clock-skew-related problems if the If-Modified-Since
872      date is derived from the client's clock without correction
873      to the server's clock. Corrections for different time bases
874      between client and server are at best approximate due to network
875      latency.
876    </t>
877  </list>
878</t>
879<t>
880   The result of a request having both an If-Modified-Since header field
881   and either an If-Match or an If-Unmodified-Since header fields is
882   undefined by this specification.
883</t>
884</section>
885
886<section title="If-None-Match" anchor="header.if-none-match">
887  <iref primary="true" item="If-None-Match header" x:for-anchor=""/>
888  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="If-None-Match" x:for-anchor=""/>
889  <x:anchor-alias value="If-None-Match"/>
890  <x:anchor-alias value="If-None-Match-v"/>
891<t>
892   The request-header field "If-None-Match" is used with a method to make
893   it conditional. A client that has one or more entities previously
894   obtained from the resource can verify that none of those entities is
895   current by including a list of their associated entity tags in the
896   If-None-Match header field. The purpose of this feature is to allow
897   efficient updates of cached information with a minimum amount of
898   transaction overhead. It is also used to prevent a method (e.g. PUT)
899   from inadvertently modifying an existing resource when the client
900   believes that the resource does not exist.
901</t>
902<t>
903   As a special case, the value "*" matches any current entity of the
904   resource.
905</t>
906<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-None-Match"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-None-Match-v"/>
907  <x:ref>If-None-Match</x:ref>   = "If-None-Match" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>If-None-Match-v</x:ref>
908  <x:ref>If-None-Match-v</x:ref> = "*" / 1#<x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref>
909</artwork></figure>
910<t>
911   If any of the entity tags match the entity tag of the entity that
912   would have been returned in the response to a similar GET request
913   (without the If-None-Match header) on that resource, or if "*" is
914   given and any current entity exists for that resource, then the
915   server &MUST-NOT; perform the requested method, unless required to do
916   so because the resource's modification date fails to match that
917   supplied in an If-Modified-Since header field in the request.
918   Instead, if the request method was GET or HEAD, the server &SHOULD;
919   respond with a 304 (Not Modified) response, including the cache-related
920   header fields (particularly ETag) of one of the entities that
921   matched. For all other request methods, the server &MUST; respond with
922   a status of 412 (Precondition Failed).
923</t>
924<t>
925   See <xref target="weak.and.strong.validators"/> for rules on how to
926   determine if two entity tags match.
927</t>
928<t>
929   If none of the entity tags match, then the server &MAY; perform the
930   requested method as if the If-None-Match header field did not exist,
931   but &MUST; also ignore any If-Modified-Since header field(s) in the
932   request. That is, if no entity tags match, then the server &MUST-NOT;
933   return a 304 (Not Modified) response.
934</t>
935<t>
936   If the request would, without the If-None-Match header field, result
937   in anything other than a 2xx or 304 status, then the If-None-Match
938   header &MUST; be ignored. (See <xref target="rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates"/> for a discussion of
939   server behavior when both If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match appear
940   in the same request.)
941</t>
942<t>
943   The meaning of "If-None-Match: *" is that the method &MUST-NOT; be
944   performed if the representation selected by the origin server (or by
945   a cache, possibly using the Vary mechanism, see &header-vary;)
946   exists, and &SHOULD; be performed if the representation does not exist.
947   This feature is intended to be useful in preventing races between PUT
948   operations.
949</t>
950<t>
951   Examples:
952</t>
953<figure><artwork type="example">
954  If-None-Match: "xyzzy"
955  If-None-Match: W/"xyzzy"
956  If-None-Match: "xyzzy", "r2d2xxxx", "c3piozzzz"
957  If-None-Match: W/"xyzzy", W/"r2d2xxxx", W/"c3piozzzz"
958  If-None-Match: *
959</artwork></figure>
960<t>
961   The result of a request having both an If-None-Match header field and
962   either an If-Match or an If-Unmodified-Since header fields is
963   undefined by this specification.
964</t>
965</section>
966
967<section title="If-Unmodified-Since" anchor="header.if-unmodified-since">
968  <iref primary="true" item="If-Unmodified-Since header" x:for-anchor=""/>
969  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="If-Unmodified-Since" x:for-anchor=""/>
970  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Unmodified-Since"/>
971  <x:anchor-alias value="If-Unmodified-Since-v"/>
972<t>
973   The request-header field "If-Unmodified-Since" is used with a method to
974   make it conditional. If the requested resource has not been modified
975   since the time specified in this field, the server &SHOULD; perform the
976   requested operation as if the If-Unmodified-Since header were not
977   present.
978</t>
979<t>
980   If the requested variant has been modified since the specified time,
981   the server &MUST-NOT; perform the requested operation, and &MUST; return
982   a 412 (Precondition Failed).
983</t>
984<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Unmodified-Since"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="If-Unmodified-Since-v"/>
985  <x:ref>If-Unmodified-Since</x:ref>   = "If-Unmodified-Since" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
986                          <x:ref>If-Unmodified-Since-v</x:ref>
987  <x:ref>If-Unmodified-Since-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
988</artwork></figure>
989<t>
990   An example of the field is:
991</t>
992<figure><artwork type="example">
993  If-Unmodified-Since: Sat, 29 Oct 1994 19:43:31 GMT
994</artwork></figure>
995<t>
996   If the request normally (i.e., without the If-Unmodified-Since
997   header) would result in anything other than a 2xx or 412 status, the
998   If-Unmodified-Since header &SHOULD; be ignored.
999</t>
1000<t>
1001   If the specified date is invalid, the header is ignored.
1002</t>
1003<t>
1004   The result of a request having both an If-Unmodified-Since header
1005   field and either an If-None-Match or an If-Modified-Since header
1006   fields is undefined by this specification.
1007</t>
1008</section>
1009
1010<section title="Last-Modified" anchor="header.last-modified">
1011  <iref primary="true" item="Last-Modified header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1012  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Last-Modified" x:for-anchor=""/>
1013  <x:anchor-alias value="Last-Modified"/>
1014  <x:anchor-alias value="Last-Modified-v"/>
1015<t>
1016   The entity-header field "Last-Modified" indicates the date and time at
1017   which the origin server believes the variant was last modified.
1018</t>
1019<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Last-Modified"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Last-Modified-v"/>
1020  <x:ref>Last-Modified</x:ref>   = "Last-Modified" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Last-Modified-v</x:ref>
1021  <x:ref>Last-Modified-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
1022</artwork></figure>
1023<t>
1024   An example of its use is
1025</t>
1026<figure><artwork type="example">
1027  Last-Modified: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT
1028</artwork></figure>
1029<t>
1030   The exact meaning of this header field depends on the implementation
1031   of the origin server and the nature of the original resource. For
1032   files, it may be just the file system last-modified time. For
1033   entities with dynamically included parts, it may be the most recent
1034   of the set of last-modify times for its component parts. For database
1035   gateways, it may be the last-update time stamp of the record. For
1036   virtual objects, it may be the last time the internal state changed.
1037</t>
1038<t>
1039   An origin server &MUST-NOT; send a Last-Modified date which is later
1040   than the server's time of message origination. In such cases, where
1041   the resource's last modification would indicate some time in the
1042   future, the server &MUST; replace that date with the message
1043   origination date.
1044</t>
1045<t>
1046   An origin server &SHOULD; obtain the Last-Modified value of the entity
1047   as close as possible to the time that it generates the Date value of
1048   its response. This allows a recipient to make an accurate assessment
1049   of the entity's modification time, especially if the entity changes
1050   near the time that the response is generated.
1051</t>
1052<t>
1053   HTTP/1.1 servers &SHOULD; send Last-Modified whenever feasible.
1054</t>
1055<t>
1056   The Last-Modified entity-header field value is often used as a cache
1057   validator. In simple terms, a cache entry is considered to be valid
1058   if the entity has not been modified since the Last-Modified value.
1059</t>
1060</section>
1061
1062</section>
1063
1064<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
1065<section title="Message Header Registration" anchor="message.header.registration">
1066<t>
1067   The Message Header Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> should be updated
1068   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
1069</t>
1070<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
1071<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
1072   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
1073   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
1074   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
1075   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
1076
1077   <c>ETag</c>
1078   <c>http</c>
1079   <c>standard</c>
1080   <c>
1081      <xref target="header.etag"/>
1082   </c>
1083   <c>If-Match</c>
1084   <c>http</c>
1085   <c>standard</c>
1086   <c>
1087      <xref target="header.if-match"/>
1088   </c>
1089   <c>If-Modified-Since</c>
1090   <c>http</c>
1091   <c>standard</c>
1092   <c>
1093      <xref target="header.if-modified-since"/>
1094   </c>
1095   <c>If-None-Match</c>
1096   <c>http</c>
1097   <c>standard</c>
1098   <c>
1099      <xref target="header.if-none-match"/>
1100   </c>
1101   <c>If-Unmodified-Since</c>
1102   <c>http</c>
1103   <c>standard</c>
1104   <c>
1105      <xref target="header.if-unmodified-since"/>
1106   </c>
1107   <c>Last-Modified</c>
1108   <c>http</c>
1109   <c>standard</c>
1110   <c>
1111      <xref target="header.last-modified"/>
1112   </c>
1113</texttable>
1114<!--(END)-->
1115<t>
1116   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
1117</t>
1118</section>
1119</section>
1120
1121<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
1122<t>
1123   No additional security considerations have been identified beyond
1124   those applicable to HTTP in general &messaging;.
1125</t>
1126</section>
1127
1128<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="ack">
1129</section>
1130</middle>
1131<back>
1132
1133<references title="Normative References">
1134
1135<reference anchor="Part1">
1136  <front>
1137    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
1138    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1139      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1140      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1141    </author>
1142    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1143      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1144      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
1145    </author>
1146    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1147      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1148      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1149    </author>
1150    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1151      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1152      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
1153    </author>
1154    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1155      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1156      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
1157    </author>
1158    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1159      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1160      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1161    </author>
1162    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1163      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1164      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1165    </author>
1166    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1167      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1168      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1169    </author>
1170    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1171      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1172      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1173    </author>
1174    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1175  </front>
1176  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1177  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
1178</reference>
1179
1180<reference anchor="Part5">
1181  <front>
1182    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</title>
1183    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1184      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1185      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1186    </author>
1187    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1188      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1189      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
1190    </author>
1191    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1192      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1193      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1194    </author>
1195    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1196      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1197      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
1198    </author>
1199    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1200      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1201      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
1202    </author>
1203    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1204      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1205      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1206    </author>
1207    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1208      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1209      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1210    </author>
1211    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1212      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1213      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1214    </author>
1215    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1216      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1217      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1218    </author>
1219    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1220  </front>
1221  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1222  <x:source href="p5-range.xml" basename="p5-range"/>
1223</reference>
1224
1225<reference anchor="Part6">
1226  <front>
1227    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
1228    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1229      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1230      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
1231    </author>
1232    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1233      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1234      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
1235    </author>
1236    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1237      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1238      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1239    </author>
1240    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1241      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1242      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
1243    </author>
1244    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1245      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1246      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
1247    </author>
1248    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1249      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1250      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1251    </author>
1252    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1253      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1254      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1255    </author>
1256    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1257      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1258      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
1259    </author>
1260    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
1261      <organization />
1262      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
1263    </author>
1264    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1265      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1266      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
1267    </author>
1268    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1269  </front>
1270  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1271  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
1272</reference>
1273
1274<reference anchor="RFC2119">
1275  <front>
1276    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
1277    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
1278      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
1279      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
1280    </author>
1281    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
1282  </front>
1283  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
1284  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
1285</reference>
1286
1287<reference anchor="RFC5234">
1288  <front>
1289    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
1290    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
1291      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
1292      <address>
1293      <postal>
1294      <street>675 Spruce Dr.</street>
1295      <city>Sunnyvale</city>
1296      <region>CA</region>
1297      <code>94086</code>
1298      <country>US</country></postal>
1299      <phone>+1.408.246.8253</phone>
1300      <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email></address> 
1301    </author>
1302    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
1303      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
1304      <address>
1305      <postal>
1306      <street>1/2 Berkeley Square</street>
1307      <street>99 Berkely Street</street>
1308      <city>Glasgow</city>
1309      <code>G3 7HR</code>
1310      <country>UK</country></postal>
1311      <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email></address>
1312    </author>
1313    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
1314  </front>
1315  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
1316  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
1317</reference>
1318
1319</references>
1320
1321<references title="Informative References">
1322
1323<reference anchor="RFC2616">
1324  <front>
1325    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
1326    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
1327      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
1328      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
1329    </author>
1330    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
1331      <organization>W3C</organization>
1332      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
1333    </author>
1334    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
1335      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
1336      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
1337    </author>
1338    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
1339      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
1340      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
1341    </author>
1342    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
1343      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
1344      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
1345    </author>
1346    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
1347      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1348      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
1349    </author>
1350    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
1351      <organization>W3C</organization>
1352      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
1353    </author>
1354    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
1355  </front>
1356  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
1357</reference>
1358
1359<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
1360  <front>
1361    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
1362    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
1363      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
1364      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
1365    </author>
1366    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
1367      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
1368      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
1369    </author>
1370    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
1371      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
1372      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
1373    </author>
1374    <date year='2004' month='September' />
1375  </front>
1376  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
1377  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
1378</reference>
1379
1380</references>
1381
1382<section title="Compatibility with Previous Versions" anchor="compatibility">
1383
1384<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1385<t>
1386  Allow weak entity tags in all requests except range requests (Sections
1387  <xref target="weak.and.strong.validators" format="counter"/> and
1388  <xref target="header.if-none-match" format="counter"/>).
1389</t>
1390</section>
1391
1392</section>
1393
1394<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1395<figure>
1396<artwork type="abnf" name="p4-conditional.parsed-abnf">
1397<x:ref>ETag</x:ref> = "ETag:" OWS ETag-v
1398<x:ref>ETag-v</x:ref> = entity-tag
1399
1400<x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2&gt;
1401
1402<x:ref>If-Match</x:ref> = "If-Match:" OWS If-Match-v
1403<x:ref>If-Match-v</x:ref> = "*" / ( *( "," OWS ) entity-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS
1404 entity-tag ] ) )
1405<x:ref>If-Modified-Since</x:ref> = "If-Modified-Since:" OWS If-Modified-Since-v
1406<x:ref>If-Modified-Since-v</x:ref> = HTTP-date
1407<x:ref>If-None-Match</x:ref> = "If-None-Match:" OWS If-None-Match-v
1408<x:ref>If-None-Match-v</x:ref> = "*" / ( *( "," OWS ) entity-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS
1409 entity-tag ] ) )
1410<x:ref>If-Unmodified-Since</x:ref> = "If-Unmodified-Since:" OWS
1411 If-Unmodified-Since-v
1412<x:ref>If-Unmodified-Since-v</x:ref> = HTTP-date
1413
1414<x:ref>Last-Modified</x:ref> = "Last-Modified:" OWS Last-Modified-v
1415<x:ref>Last-Modified-v</x:ref> = HTTP-date
1416
1417<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1418
1419<x:ref>entity-tag</x:ref> = [ weak ] opaque-tag
1420
1421<x:ref>opaque-tag</x:ref> = quoted-string
1422
1423<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1424
1425<x:ref>weak</x:ref> = %x57.2F ; W/
1426</artwork>
1427</figure>
1428<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
1429; ETag defined but not used
1430; If-Match defined but not used
1431; If-Modified-Since defined but not used
1432; If-None-Match defined but not used
1433; If-Unmodified-Since defined but not used
1434; Last-Modified defined but not used
1435</artwork></figure></section>
1436
1437<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
1438
1439<section title="Since RFC2616">
1440<t>
1441  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1442</t>
1443</section>
1444
1445<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-00">
1446<t>
1447  Closed issues:
1448  <list style="symbols"> 
1449    <t>
1450      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1451      "Normative and Informative references"
1452    </t>
1453  </list>
1454</t>
1455<t>
1456  Other changes:
1457  <list style="symbols"> 
1458    <t>
1459      Move definitions of 304 and 412 condition codes from Part2.
1460    </t>
1461  </list>
1462</t>
1463</section>
1464
1465<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-01">
1466<t>
1467  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1468  <list style="symbols"> 
1469    <t>
1470      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1471    </t>
1472  </list>
1473</t>
1474</section>
1475
1476<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1477<t>
1478  Closed issues:
1479  <list style="symbols"> 
1480    <t>
1481      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/116"/>:
1482      "Weak ETags on non-GET requests"
1483    </t>
1484  </list>
1485</t>
1486<t>
1487  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1488  <list style="symbols"> 
1489    <t>
1490      Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers defined
1491      in this document.
1492    </t>
1493  </list>
1494</t>
1495</section>
1496
1497<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1498<t>
1499  Closed issues:
1500  <list style="symbols"> 
1501    <t>
1502      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/71"/>:
1503      "Examples for ETag matching"
1504    </t>
1505    <t>
1506      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/124"/>:
1507      "'entity value' undefined"
1508    </t>
1509    <t>
1510      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/126"/>:
1511      "bogus 2068 Date header reference"
1512    </t>
1513  </list>
1514</t>
1515</section>
1516
1517<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1518<t>
1519  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1520  <list style="symbols"> 
1521    <t>
1522      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1523    </t>
1524    <t>
1525      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1526      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1527    </t>
1528    <t>
1529      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1530      header value format definitions.
1531    </t>
1532  </list>
1533</t>
1534</section>
1535
1536<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1537<t>
1538  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1539  <list style="symbols"> 
1540    <t>
1541      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1542    </t>
1543  </list>
1544</t>
1545</section>
1546
1547<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1548<t>
1549  Closed issues:
1550  <list style="symbols"> 
1551    <t>
1552      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/153"/>:
1553      "case-sensitivity of etag weakness indicator"
1554    </t>
1555  </list>
1556</t>
1557</section>
1558
1559</section>
1560
1561</back>
1562</rfc>
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