source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p4-conditional.html @ 1663

Last change on this file since 1663 was 1663, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 7 years ago

Fix RFC2616-abnf list rule expansion problem in bap (abnfparser) (see #358)

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File size: 96.1 KB
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456       content: "HTTP/1.1, Part 4"; 
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459       content: "Fielding, et al."; 
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480</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
481      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
482      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
483      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
484      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
485      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Validators" href="#rfc.section.2">
486      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Precondition Header Fields" href="#rfc.section.3">
487      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.4">
488      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.5">
489      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
490      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.7">
491      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.8" title="8 References">
492      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Changes from RFC 2616" href="#rfc.section.A">
493      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.B">
494      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.C">
495      <link href="p3-payload.html" rel="prev">
496      <link href="p5-range.html" rel="next">
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498      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
499      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
500      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
501      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
502      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest">
503      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-05-23">
504      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
505      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 4 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 4 defines request header fields for indicating conditional requests and the rules for constructing responses to those requests.">
506      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 4 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 4 defines request header fields for indicating conditional requests and the rules for constructing responses to those requests.">
507   </head>
508   <body onload="init();">
509      <table class="header">
510         <tbody>
511            <tr>
512               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
513               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
514            </tr>
515            <tr>
516               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
517               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
518            </tr>
519            <tr>
520               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
521               </td>
522               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
523            </tr>
524            <tr>
525               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
526               <td class="right">W3C</td>
527            </tr>
528            <tr>
529               <td class="left">Expires: November 24, 2012</td>
530               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
531            </tr>
532            <tr>
533               <td class="left"></td>
534               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
535            </tr>
536            <tr>
537               <td class="left"></td>
538               <td class="right">May 23, 2012</td>
539            </tr>
540         </tbody>
541      </table>
542      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-latest</span></p>
543      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1> 
544      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
545         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 4 of the
546         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
547      </p> 
548      <p>Part 4 defines request header fields for indicating conditional requests and the rules for constructing responses to those
549         requests.
550      </p> 
551      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1> 
552      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived
553         at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
554      </p> 
555      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
556      </p> 
557      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.19" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-19">Appendix&nbsp;C.1</a>.
558      </p> 
559      <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
560      <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
561      <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
562         working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
563      </p>
564      <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
565         documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
566         in progress”.
567      </p>
568      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on November 24, 2012.</p>
569      <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
570      <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
571      <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
572         and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
573         text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
574         BSD License.
575      </p>
576      <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
577         10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
578         allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
579         controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
580         works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
581         it into languages other than English.
582      </p>
583      <hr class="noprint">
584      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
585      <ul class="toc">
586         <li>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
587               <li>1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.conformance.and.error.handling">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
588               <li>1.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></li>
589            </ul>
590         </li>
591         <li>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#validators">Validators</a><ul>
592               <li>2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#weak.and.strong.validators">Weak versus Strong</a></li>
593               <li>2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.last-modified">Last-Modified</a><ul>
594                     <li>2.2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#lastmod.generation">Generation</a></li>
595                     <li>2.2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#lastmod.comparison">Comparison</a></li>
596                  </ul>
597               </li>
598               <li>2.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.etag">ETag</a><ul>
599                     <li>2.3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tag.generation">Generation</a></li>
600                     <li>2.3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.tag.comparison">Comparison</a></li>
601                     <li>2.3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#example.entity.tag.vs.conneg">Example: Entity-tags varying on Content-Negotiated Resources</a></li>
602                  </ul>
603               </li>
604               <li>2.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates">Rules for When to Use Entity-tags and Last-Modified Dates</a></li>
605            </ul>
606         </li>
607         <li>3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Precondition Header Fields</a><ul>
608               <li>3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-match">If-Match</a></li>
609               <li>3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-none-match">If-None-Match</a></li>
610               <li>3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-modified-since">If-Modified-Since</a></li>
611               <li>3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-unmodified-since">If-Unmodified-Since</a></li>
612               <li>3.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
613            </ul>
614         </li>
615         <li>4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
616               <li>4.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.304">304 Not Modified</a></li>
617               <li>4.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.412">412 Precondition Failed</a></li>
618            </ul>
619         </li>
620         <li>5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
621               <li>5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
622               <li>5.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
623            </ul>
624         </li>
625         <li>6.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></li>
626         <li>7.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
627         <li>8.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
628               <li>8.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
629               <li>8.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
630            </ul>
631         </li>
632         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
633         <li>A.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
634         <li>B.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
635         <li>C.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
636               <li>C.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.19">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-19</a></li>
637            </ul>
638         </li>
639         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
640      </ul>
641      <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a id="introduction" href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
642      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">This document defines the HTTP/1.1 conditional request mechanisms, including both metadata for indicating/observing changes
643         in resource representations and request header fields that specify preconditions on that metadata be checked before performing
644         the request method. Conditional GET requests are the most efficient mechanism for HTTP cache updates <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>. Conditionals can also be applied to state-changing methods, such as PUT and DELETE, to prevent the "lost update" problem:
645         one client accidentally overwriting the work of another client that has been acting in parallel.
646      </p>
647      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">Conditional request preconditions are based on the state of the target resource as a whole (its current value set) or the
648         state as observed in a previously obtained representation (one value in that set). A resource might have multiple current
649         representations, each with its own observable state. The conditional request mechanisms assume that the mapping of requests
650         to corresponding representations will be consistent over time if the server intends to take advantage of conditionals. Regardless,
651         if the mapping is inconsistent and the server is unable to select the appropriate representation, then no harm will result
652         when the precondition evaluates to false.
653      </p>
654      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3"><span id="rfc.iref.s.1"></span> We use the term "<dfn>selected representation</dfn>" to refer to the current representation of the target resource that would have been selected in a successful response if
655         the same request had used the method GET and had excluded all of the conditional request header fields. The conditional request
656         preconditions are evaluated by comparing the values provided in the request header fields to the current metadata for the
657         selected representation.
658      </p>
659      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.conformance.and.error.handling" href="#intro.conformance.and.error.handling">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
660      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
661         in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
662      </p>
663      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients,
664         Servers, User-Agents, Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See <a href="p1-messaging.html#architecture" title="Architecture">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> for definitions of these terms.
665      </p>
666      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the requirements associated with its role(s). Note that
667         SHOULD-level requirements are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
668      </p>
669      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.4">This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements (<a href="#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section&nbsp;1.2</a>). In addition to the prose requirements placed upon them, Senders <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate protocol elements that are invalid.
670      </p>
671      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.5">Unless noted otherwise, Recipients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> take steps to recover a usable protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define specific error handling
672         mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
673         different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to transparently recover from a response where the
674         Location header field doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol using HTTP, this type of
675         error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
676      </p>
677      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="notation" href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
678      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;B</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
679      </p>
680      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
681         (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
682         character).
683      </p>
684      <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.3">The ABNF rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> and <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>:
685      </p>
686      <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.1</a>&gt;
687  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">obs-text</a>      = &lt;obs-text, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
688  <a href="#notation" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 5.1</a>&gt;
689</pre><div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
690      <div id="rfc.iref.v.1"></div>
691      <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a id="validators" href="#validators">Validators</a></h1>
692      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">This specification defines two forms of metadata that are commonly used to observe resource state and test for preconditions:
693         modification dates and opaque entity tags. Additional metadata that reflects resource state has been defined by various extensions
694         of HTTP, such as WebDAV <a href="#RFC4918" id="rfc.xref.RFC4918.1"><cite title="HTTP Extensions for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)">[RFC4918]</cite></a>, that are beyond the scope of this specification. A resource metadata value is referred to as a "<dfn>validator</dfn>" when it is used within a precondition.
695      </p>
696      <div id="rfc.iref.v.2"></div>
697      <div id="rfc.iref.v.3"></div>
698      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="weak.and.strong.validators" href="#weak.and.strong.validators">Weak versus Strong</a></h2>
699      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">Validators come in two flavors: strong or weak. Weak validators are easy to generate but are far less useful for comparisons.
700         Strong validators are ideal for comparisons but can be very difficult (and occasionally impossible) to generate efficiently.
701         Rather than impose that all forms of resource adhere to the same strength of validator, HTTP exposes the type of validator
702         in use and imposes restrictions on when weak validators can be used as preconditions.
703      </p>
704      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">A "strong validator" is a representation metadata value that <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be changed to a new, previously unused or guaranteed unique, value whenever a change occurs to the representation data such
705         that a change would be observable in the payload body of a 200 response to GET. A strong validator <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be changed for other reasons, such as when a semantically significant part of the representation metadata is changed (e.g.,
706         Content-Type), but it is in the best interests of the origin server to only change the value when it is necessary to invalidate
707         the stored responses held by remote caches and authoring tools. A strong validator <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be unique across all representations of a given resource, such that no two representations of that resource share the same
708         validator unless their payload body would be identical.
709      </p>
710      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">Cache entries might persist for arbitrarily long periods, regardless of expiration times. Thus, a cache might attempt to validate
711         an entry using a validator that it obtained in the distant past. A strong validator <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be unique across all versions of all representations associated with a particular resource over time. However, there is no
712         implication of uniqueness across representations of different resources (i.e., the same strong validator might be in use for
713         representations of multiple resources at the same time and does not imply that those representations are equivalent).
714      </p>
715      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">There are a variety of strong validators used in practice. The best are based on strict revision control, wherein each change
716         to a representation always results in a unique node name and revision identifier being assigned before the representation
717         is made accessible to GET. A cryptographic hash function applied to the representation data is also sufficient if the data
718         is available prior to the response header fields being sent and the digest does not need to be recalculated every time a validation
719         request is received. However, if a resource has distinct representations that differ only in their metadata, such as might
720         occur with content negotiation over media types that happen to share the same data format, then a server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> incorporate additional information in the validator to distinguish those representations and avoid confusing cache behavior.
721      </p>
722      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">In contrast, a "weak validator" is a representation metadata value that might not be changed for every change to the representation
723         data. This weakness might be due to limitations in how the value is calculated, such as clock resolution or an inability to
724         ensure uniqueness for all possible representations of the resource, or due to a desire by the resource owner to group representations
725         by some self-determined set of equivalency rather than unique sequences of data. A weak entity-tag <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> change whenever the origin server considers prior representations to be unacceptable as a substitute for the current representation.
726         In other words, a weak entity-tag <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> change whenever the origin server wants caches to invalidate old responses.
727      </p>
728      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">For example, the representation of a weather report that changes in content every second, based on dynamic measurements, might
729         be grouped into sets of equivalent representations (from the origin server's perspective) with the same weak validator in
730         order to allow cached representations to be valid for a reasonable period of time (perhaps adjusted dynamically based on server
731         load or weather quality). Likewise, a representation's modification time, if defined with only one-second resolution, might
732         be a weak validator if it is possible for the representation to be modified twice during a single second and retrieved between
733         those modifications.
734      </p>
735      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">A "use" of a validator occurs when either a client generates a request and includes the validator in a precondition or when
736         a server compares two validators. Weak validators are only usable in contexts that do not depend on exact equality of a representation's
737         payload body. Strong validators are usable and preferred for all conditional requests, including cache validation, partial
738         content ranges, and "lost update" avoidance.
739      </p>
740      <div id="rfc.iref.l.1"></div>
741      <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
742      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.last-modified" href="#header.last-modified">Last-Modified</a></h2>
743      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">The "Last-Modified" header field indicates the date and time at which the origin server believes the selected representation
744         was last modified.
745      </p>
746      <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span>  <a href="#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> = <a href="#notation" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
747</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.3">An example of its use is</p>
748      <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="text">  Last-Modified: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT
749</pre><h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.1">2.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="lastmod.generation" href="#lastmod.generation">Generation</a></h3>
750      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.1">Origin servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send Last-Modified for any selected representation for which a last modification date can be reasonably and consistently determined,
751         since its use in conditional requests and evaluating cache freshness (<a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) results in a substantial reduction of HTTP traffic on the Internet and can be a significant factor in improving service
752         scalability and reliability.
753      </p>
754      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.2">A representation is typically the sum of many parts behind the resource interface. The last-modified time would usually be
755         the most recent time that any of those parts were changed. How that value is determined for any given resource is an implementation
756         detail beyond the scope of this specification. What matters to HTTP is how recipients of the Last-Modified header field can
757         use its value to make conditional requests and test the validity of locally cached responses.
758      </p>
759      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.3">An origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> obtain the Last-Modified value of the representation as close as possible to the time that it generates the Date field-value
760         for its response. This allows a recipient to make an accurate assessment of the representation's modification time, especially
761         if the representation changes near the time that the response is generated.
762      </p>
763      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.4">An origin server with a clock <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a Last-Modified date that is later than the server's time of message origination (Date). If the last modification time
764         is derived from implementation-specific metadata that evaluates to some time in the future, according to the origin server's
765         clock, then the origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> replace that value with the message origination date. This prevents a future modification date from having an adverse impact
766         on cache validation.
767      </p>
768      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.5">An origin server without a clock <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> assign Last-Modified values to a response unless these values were associated with the resource by some other system or user
769         with a reliable clock.
770      </p>
771      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.2">2.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="lastmod.comparison" href="#lastmod.comparison">Comparison</a></h3>
772      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.1">A Last-Modified time, when used as a validator in a request, is implicitly weak unless it is possible to deduce that it is
773         strong, using the following rules:
774      </p>
775      <ul>
776         <li>The validator is being compared by an origin server to the actual current validator for the representation and,</li>
777         <li>That origin server reliably knows that the associated representation did not change twice during the second covered by the
778            presented validator.
779         </li>
780      </ul>
781      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.2">or </p>
782      <ul>
783         <li>The validator is about to be used by a client in an If-Modified-Since, If-Unmodified-Since header field, because the client
784            has a cache entry, or If-Range for the associated representation, and
785         </li>
786         <li>That cache entry includes a Date value, which gives the time when the origin server sent the original response, and</li>
787         <li>The presented Last-Modified time is at least 60 seconds before the Date value.</li>
788      </ul>
789      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.3">or </p>
790      <ul>
791         <li>The validator is being compared by an intermediate cache to the validator stored in its cache entry for the representation,
792            and
793         </li>
794         <li>That cache entry includes a Date value, which gives the time when the origin server sent the original response, and</li>
795         <li>The presented Last-Modified time is at least 60 seconds before the Date value.</li>
796      </ul>
797      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.4">This method relies on the fact that if two different responses were sent by the origin server during the same second, but
798         both had the same Last-Modified time, then at least one of those responses would have a Date value equal to its Last-Modified
799         time. The arbitrary 60-second limit guards against the possibility that the Date and Last-Modified values are generated from
800         different clocks, or at somewhat different times during the preparation of the response. An implementation <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use a value larger than 60 seconds, if it is believed that 60 seconds is too short.
801      </p>
802      <div id="rfc.iref.e.1"></div>
803      <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
804      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.etag" href="#header.etag">ETag</a></h2>
805      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">The ETag header field provides the current entity-tag for the selected representation. An entity-tag is an opaque validator
806         for differentiating between multiple representations of the same resource, regardless of whether those multiple representations
807         are due to resource state changes over time, content negotiation resulting in multiple representations being valid at the
808         same time, or both. An entity-tag consists of an opaque quoted string, possibly prefixed by a weakness indicator.
809      </p>
810      <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span>  <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">ETag</a>       = <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">entity-tag</a>
811
812  <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = [ <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">weak</a> ] <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">opaque-tag</a>
813  <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">weak</a>       = %x57.2F ; "W/", case-sensitive
814  <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">opaque-tag</a> = <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a> *<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">etagc</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a>
815  <a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">etagc</a>      = %x21 / %x23-7E / <a href="#notation" class="smpl">obs-text</a>
816             ; <a href="#notation" class="smpl">VCHAR</a> except double quotes, plus obs-text
817</pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3"> 
818         <p> <b>Note:</b> Previously, opaque-tag was defined to be a quoted-string (<a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616#section-3.11">Section 3.11</a>), thus some recipients might perform backslash unescaping. Servers therefore ought to avoid backslash characters in entity
819            tags.
820         </p> 
821      </div>
822      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.4">An entity-tag can be more reliable for validation than a modification date in situations where it is inconvenient to store
823         modification dates, where the one-second resolution of HTTP date values is not sufficient, or where modification dates are
824         not consistently maintained.
825      </p>
826      <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div>
827      <p>Examples:</p>  <pre class="text">  ETag: "xyzzy"
828  ETag: W/"xyzzy"
829  ETag: ""
830</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.6">An entity-tag can be either a weak or strong validator, with strong being the default. If an origin server provides an entity-tag
831         for a representation and the generation of that entity-tag does not satisfy the requirements for a strong validator (<a href="#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>), then that entity-tag <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be marked as weak by prefixing its opaque value with "W/" (case-sensitive).
832      </p>
833      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity.tag.generation" href="#entity.tag.generation">Generation</a></h3>
834      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.1">The principle behind entity-tags is that only the service author knows the implementation of a resource well enough to select
835         the most accurate and efficient validation mechanism for that resource, and that any such mechanism can be mapped to a simple
836         sequence of octets for easy comparison. Since the value is opaque, there is no need for the client to be aware of how each
837         entity-tag is constructed.
838      </p>
839      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.2">For example, a resource that has implementation-specific versioning applied to all changes might use an internal revision
840         number, perhaps combined with a variance identifier for content negotiation, to accurately differentiate between representations.
841         Other implementations might use a stored hash of representation content, a combination of various filesystem attributes, or
842         a modification timestamp that has sub-second resolution.
843      </p>
844      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.3">Origin servers <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send ETag for any selected representation for which detection of changes can be reasonably and consistently determined, since
845         the entity-tag's use in conditional requests and evaluating cache freshness (<a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) can result in a substantial reduction of HTTP network traffic and can be a significant factor in improving service scalability
846         and reliability.
847      </p>
848      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.2">2.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="entity.tag.comparison" href="#entity.tag.comparison">Comparison</a></h3>
849      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.1">There are two entity-tag comparison functions, depending on whether the comparison context allows the use of weak validators
850         or not:
851      </p>
852      <ul>
853         <li>The strong comparison function: in order to be considered equal, both opaque-tags <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be identical character-by-character, and both <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be weak.
854         </li>
855         <li>The weak comparison function: in order to be considered equal, both opaque-tags <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be identical character-by-character, but either or both of them <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be tagged as "weak" without affecting the result.
856         </li>
857      </ul>
858      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.2">The example below shows the results for a set of entity-tag pairs, and both the weak and strong comparison function results:</p>
859      <div id="rfc.table.u.1">
860         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
861            <thead>
862               <tr>
863                  <th>ETag 1</th>
864                  <th>ETag 2</th>
865                  <th>Strong Comparison</th>
866                  <th>Weak Comparison</th>
867               </tr>
868            </thead>
869            <tbody>
870               <tr>
871                  <td class="left">W/"1"</td>
872                  <td class="left">W/"1"</td>
873                  <td class="left">no match</td>
874                  <td class="left">match</td>
875               </tr>
876               <tr>
877                  <td class="left">W/"1"</td>
878                  <td class="left">W/"2"</td>
879                  <td class="left">no match</td>
880                  <td class="left">no match</td>
881               </tr>
882               <tr>
883                  <td class="left">W/"1"</td>
884                  <td class="left">"1"</td>
885                  <td class="left">no match</td>
886                  <td class="left">match</td>
887               </tr>
888               <tr>
889                  <td class="left">"1"</td>
890                  <td class="left">"1"</td>
891                  <td class="left">match</td>
892                  <td class="left">match</td>
893               </tr>
894            </tbody>
895         </table>
896      </div>
897      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.3">2.3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="example.entity.tag.vs.conneg" href="#example.entity.tag.vs.conneg">Example: Entity-tags varying on Content-Negotiated Resources</a></h3>
898      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.1">Consider a resource that is subject to content negotiation (<a href="p2-semantics.html#content.negotiation" title="Content Negotiation">Section 8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>), and where the representations returned upon a GET request vary based on the Accept-Encoding request header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.accept-encoding" title="Accept-Encoding">Section 9.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>):
899      </p>
900      <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div>
901      <p>&gt;&gt; Request:</p><pre class="text2">GET /index HTTP/1.1
902Host: www.example.com
903Accept-Encoding: gzip
904
905</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.3">In this case, the response might or might not use the gzip content coding. If it does not, the response might look like:</p>
906      <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div>
907      <p>&gt;&gt; Response:</p><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 200 OK
908Date: Thu, 26 Mar 2010 00:05:00 GMT
909ETag: "123-a"
910Content-Length: 70
911Vary: Accept-Encoding
912Content-Type: text/plain
913
914<span id="exbody">Hello World!
915Hello World!
916Hello World!
917Hello World!
918Hello World!
919</span></pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.5">An alternative representation that does use gzip content coding would be:</p>
920      <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div>
921      <p>&gt;&gt; Response:</p><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 200 OK
922Date: Thu, 26 Mar 2010 00:05:00 GMT
923ETag: "123-b"
924Content-Length: 43
925Vary: Accept-Encoding
926Content-Type: text/plain
927Content-Encoding: gzip
928
929<em>...binary data...</em></pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.7"> 
930         <p> <b>Note:</b> Content codings are a property of the representation, so therefore an entity-tag of an encoded representation has to be distinct
931            from an unencoded representation to prevent conflicts during cache updates and range requests. In contrast, transfer codings
932            (<a href="p1-messaging.html#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) apply only during message transfer and do not require distinct entity-tags.
933         </p> 
934      </div>
935      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates" href="#rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates">Rules for When to Use Entity-tags and Last-Modified Dates</a></h2>
936      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.1">We adopt a set of rules and recommendations for origin servers, clients, and caches regarding when various validator types
937         ought to be used, and for what purposes.
938      </p>
939      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.2">HTTP/1.1 origin servers: </p>
940      <ul>
941         <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send an entity-tag validator unless it is not feasible to generate one.
942         </li>
943         <li><em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send a weak entity-tag instead of a strong entity-tag, if performance considerations support the use of weak entity-tags,
944            or if it is unfeasible to send a strong entity-tag.
945         </li>
946         <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a Last-Modified value if it is feasible to send one.
947         </li>
948      </ul>
949      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.3">In other words, the preferred behavior for an HTTP/1.1 origin server is to send both a strong entity-tag and a Last-Modified
950         value.
951      </p>
952      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.4">HTTP/1.1 clients: </p>
953      <ul>
954         <li><em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use that entity-tag in any cache-conditional request (using If-Match or If-None-Match) if an entity-tag has been provided
955            by the origin server.
956         </li>
957         <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use the Last-Modified value in non-subrange cache-conditional requests (using If-Modified-Since) if only a Last-Modified value
958            has been provided by the origin server.
959         </li>
960         <li><em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use the Last-Modified value in subrange cache-conditional requests (using If-Unmodified-Since) if only a Last-Modified value
961            has been provided by an HTTP/1.0 origin server. The user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> provide a way to disable this, in case of difficulty.
962         </li>
963         <li><em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use both validators in cache-conditional requests if both an entity-tag and a Last-Modified value have been provided by the
964            origin server. This allows both HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1 caches to respond appropriately.
965         </li>
966      </ul>
967      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.5">An HTTP/1.1 origin server, upon receiving a conditional request that includes both a Last-Modified date (e.g., in an If-Modified-Since
968         or If-Unmodified-Since header field) and one or more entity-tags (e.g., in an If-Match, If-None-Match, or If-Range header
969         field) as cache validators, <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return a response status code of 304 (Not Modified) unless doing so is consistent with all of the conditional header fields
970         in the request.
971      </p>
972      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.6">An HTTP/1.1 caching proxy, upon receiving a conditional request that includes both a Last-Modified date and one or more entity-tags
973         as cache validators, <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return a locally cached response to the client unless that cached response is consistent with all of the conditional header
974         fields in the request.
975      </p>
976      <ul class="empty">
977         <li> <b>Note:</b> The general principle behind these rules is that HTTP/1.1 servers and clients ought to transmit as much non-redundant information
978            as is available in their responses and requests. HTTP/1.1 systems receiving this information will make the most conservative
979            assumptions about the validators they receive.
980         </li>
981         <li>HTTP/1.0 clients and caches might ignore entity-tags. Generally, last-modified values received or used by these systems will
982            support transparent and efficient caching, and so HTTP/1.1 origin servers should provide Last-Modified values. In those rare
983            cases where the use of a Last-Modified value as a validator by an HTTP/1.0 system could result in a serious problem, then
984            HTTP/1.1 origin servers should not provide one.
985         </li>
986      </ul>
987      <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.field.definitions" href="#header.field.definitions">Precondition Header Fields</a></h1>
988      <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields for applying preconditions on requests.</p>
989      <div id="rfc.iref.i.1"></div>
990      <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
991      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-match" href="#header.if-match">If-Match</a></h2>
992      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The "If-Match" header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to make a request method conditional on the current existence or value of an entity-tag for one or more representations
993         of the target resource. If-Match is generally useful for resource update requests, such as PUT requests, as a means for protecting
994         against accidental overwrites when multiple clients are acting in parallel on the same resource (i.e., the "lost update" problem).
995         An If-Match field-value of "*" places the precondition on the existence of any current representation for the target resource.
996      </p>
997      <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span>  <a href="#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a> = "*" / 1#<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">entity-tag</a>
998</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">If any of the entity-tags listed in the If-Match field value match (as per <a href="#entity.tag.comparison" title="Comparison">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>) the entity-tag of the selected representation for the target resource, or if "*" is given and any current representation
999         exists for the target resource, then the server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> perform the request method as if the If-Match header field was not present.
1000      </p>
1001      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">If none of the entity-tags match, or if "*" is given and no current representation exists, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> perform the requested method. Instead, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respond with the 412 (Precondition Failed) status code.
1002      </p>
1003      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5">If the request would, without the If-Match header field, result in anything other than a 2xx or 412 status code, then the
1004         If-Match header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
1005      </p>
1006      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.6">Examples:</p>
1007      <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="text">  If-Match: "xyzzy"
1008  If-Match: "xyzzy", "r2d2xxxx", "c3piozzzz"
1009  If-Match: *
1010</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.8">The result of a request having both an If-Match header field and either an If-None-Match or an If-Modified-Since header field
1011         is undefined by this specification.
1012      </p>
1013      <div id="rfc.iref.i.2"></div>
1014      <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
1015      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-none-match" href="#header.if-none-match">If-None-Match</a></h2>
1016      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">The "If-None-Match" header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to make a request method conditional on not matching any of the current entity-tag values for representations of the
1017         target resource. If-None-Match is primarily used in conditional GET requests to enable efficient updates of cached information
1018         with a minimum amount of transaction overhead. A client that has one or more representations previously obtained from the
1019         target resource can send If-None-Match with a list of the associated entity-tags in the hope of receiving a 304 response if
1020         at least one of those representations matches the selected representation.
1021      </p>
1022      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">If-None-Match <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> also be used with a value of "*" to prevent an unsafe request method (e.g., PUT) from inadvertently modifying an existing
1023         representation of the target resource when the client believes that the resource does not have a current representation. This
1024         is a variation on the "lost update" problem that might arise if more than one client attempts to create an initial representation
1025         for the target resource.
1026      </p>
1027      <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span>  <a href="#header.if-none-match" class="smpl">If-None-Match</a> = "*" / 1#<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">entity-tag</a>
1028</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">If any of the entity-tags listed in the If-None-Match field-value match (as per <a href="#entity.tag.comparison" title="Comparison">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>) the entity-tag of the selected representation, or if "*" is given and any current representation exists for that resource,
1029         then the server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> perform the requested method. Instead, if the request method was GET or HEAD, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with a 304 (Not Modified) status code, including the cache-related header fields (particularly ETag) of the selected
1030         representation that has a matching entity-tag. For all other request methods, the server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respond with a 412 (Precondition Failed) status code.
1031      </p>
1032      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.5">If none of the entity-tags match, then the server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> perform the requested method as if the If-None-Match header field did not exist, but <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> also ignore any If-Modified-Since header field(s) in the request. That is, if no entity-tags match, then the server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return a 304 (Not Modified) response.
1033      </p>
1034      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.6">If the request would, without the If-None-Match header field, result in anything other than a 2xx or 304 status code, then
1035         the If-None-Match header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored. (See <a href="#rules.for.when.to.use.entity.tags.and.last-modified.dates" title="Rules for When to Use Entity-tags and Last-Modified Dates">Section&nbsp;2.4</a> for a discussion of server behavior when both If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match appear in the same request.)
1036      </p>
1037      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.7">Examples:</p>
1038      <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="text">  If-None-Match: "xyzzy"
1039  If-None-Match: W/"xyzzy"
1040  If-None-Match: "xyzzy", "r2d2xxxx", "c3piozzzz"
1041  If-None-Match: W/"xyzzy", W/"r2d2xxxx", W/"c3piozzzz"
1042  If-None-Match: *
1043</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.9">The result of a request having both an If-None-Match header field and either an If-Match or an If-Unmodified-Since header
1044         field is undefined by this specification.
1045      </p>
1046      <div id="rfc.iref.i.3"></div>
1047      <div id="rfc.iref.h.5"></div>
1048      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-modified-since" href="#header.if-modified-since">If-Modified-Since</a></h2>
1049      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.1">The "If-Modified-Since" header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to make a request method conditional by modification date: if the selected representation has not been modified since
1050         the time specified in this field, then do not perform the request method; instead, respond as detailed below.
1051      </p>
1052      <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#header.if-modified-since" class="smpl">If-Modified-Since</a> = <a href="#notation" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
1053</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.3">An example of the field is:</p>
1054      <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="text">  If-Modified-Since: Sat, 29 Oct 1994 19:43:31 GMT
1055</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.5">A GET method with an If-Modified-Since header field and no Range header field requests that the selected representation be
1056         transferred only if it has been modified since the date given by the If-Modified-Since header field. The algorithm for determining
1057         this includes the following cases:
1058      </p>
1059      <ol>
1060         <li>If the request would normally result in anything other than a 200 (OK) status code, or if the passed If-Modified-Since date
1061            is invalid, the response is exactly the same as for a normal GET. A date which is later than the server's current time is
1062            invalid.
1063         </li>
1064         <li>If the selected representation has been modified since the If-Modified-Since date, the response is exactly the same as for
1065            a normal GET.
1066         </li>
1067         <li>If the selected representation has not been modified since a valid If-Modified-Since date, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a 304 (Not Modified) response.
1068         </li>
1069      </ol>
1070      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.6">The purpose of this feature is to allow efficient updates of cached information with a minimum amount of transaction overhead. </p>
1071      <ul class="empty">
1072         <li> <b>Note:</b> The Range header field modifies the meaning of If-Modified-Since; see <a href="p5-range.html#header.range" title="Range">Section 5.4</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a> for full details.
1073         </li>
1074         <li> <b>Note:</b> If-Modified-Since times are interpreted by the server, whose clock might not be synchronized with the client.
1075         </li>
1076         <li> <b>Note:</b> When handling an If-Modified-Since header field, some servers will use an exact date comparison function, rather than a less-than
1077            function, for deciding whether to send a 304 (Not Modified) response. To get best results when sending an If-Modified-Since
1078            header field for cache validation, clients are advised to use the exact date string received in a previous Last-Modified header
1079            field whenever possible.
1080         </li>
1081         <li> <b>Note:</b> If a client uses an arbitrary date in the If-Modified-Since header field instead of a date taken from the Last-Modified header
1082            field for the same request, the client needs to be aware that this date is interpreted in the server's understanding of time.
1083            Unsynchronized clocks and rounding problems, due to the different encodings of time between the client and server, are concerns.
1084            This includes the possibility of race conditions if the document has changed between the time it was first requested and the
1085            If-Modified-Since date of a subsequent request, and the possibility of clock-skew-related problems if the If-Modified-Since
1086            date is derived from the client's clock without correction to the server's clock. Corrections for different time bases between
1087            client and server are at best approximate due to network latency.
1088         </li>
1089      </ul>
1090      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.7">The result of a request having both an If-Modified-Since header field and either an If-Match or an If-Unmodified-Since header
1091         field is undefined by this specification.
1092      </p>
1093      <div id="rfc.iref.i.4"></div>
1094      <div id="rfc.iref.h.6"></div>
1095      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-unmodified-since" href="#header.if-unmodified-since">If-Unmodified-Since</a></h2>
1096      <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">The "If-Unmodified-Since" header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used to make a request method conditional by modification date: if the selected representation has been modified since
1097         the time specified in this field, then the server <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> perform the requested operation and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> instead respond with the 412 (Precondition Failed) status code. If the selected representation has not been modified since
1098         the time specified in this field, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> perform the request method as if the If-Unmodified-Since header field were not present.
1099      </p>
1100      <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> = <a href="#notation" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
1101</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.3">An example of the field is:</p>
1102      <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">  If-Unmodified-Since: Sat, 29 Oct 1994 19:43:31 GMT
1103</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.5">If the request normally (i.e., without the If-Unmodified-Since header field) would result in anything other than a 2xx or
1104         412 status code, the If-Unmodified-Since header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored.
1105      </p>
1106      <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.6">If the specified date is invalid, the header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored.
1107      </p>
1108      <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.7">The result of a request having both an If-Unmodified-Since header field and either an If-None-Match or an If-Modified-Since
1109         header field is undefined by this specification.
1110      </p>
1111      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.5"><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.if-range" href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></h2>
1112      <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.1">The If-Range header field provides a special conditional request mechanism that is similar to If-Match and If-Unmodified-Since
1113         but specific to HTTP range requests. If-Range is defined in <a href="p5-range.html#header.if-range" title="If-Range">Section 5.3</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>.
1114      </p>
1115      <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.definitions" href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a></h1>
1116      <div id="rfc.iref.27"></div>
1117      <div id="rfc.iref.s.2"></div>
1118      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.304" href="#status.304">304 Not Modified</a></h2>
1119      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">The 304 status code indicates that a conditional GET request has been received and would have resulted in a 200 (OK) response
1120         if it were not for the fact that the condition has evaluated to false. In other words, there is no need for the server to
1121         transfer a representation of the target resource because the client's request indicates that it already has a valid representation,
1122         as indicated by the 304 response header fields, and is therefore redirecting the client to make use of that stored representation
1123         as if it were the payload of a 200 response. The 304 response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> contain a message-body, and thus is always terminated by the first empty line after the header fields.
1124      </p>
1125      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.2">A 304 response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Date header field (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.date" title="Date">Section 9.10</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) unless the origin server does not have a clock that can provide a reasonable approximation of the current time. If a 200
1126         response to the same request would have included any of the header fields Cache-Control, Content-Location, ETag, Expires,
1127         or Vary, then those same header fields <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be sent in a 304 response.
1128      </p>
1129      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">Since the goal of a 304 response is to minimize information transfer when the recipient already has one or more cached representations,
1130         the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include representation metadata other than the above listed fields unless said metadata exists for the purpose of guiding
1131         cache updates (e.g., future HTTP extensions).
1132      </p>
1133      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">If the recipient of a 304 response does not have a cached representation corresponding to the entity-tag indicated by the
1134         304 response, then the recipient <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the 304 to update its own cache. If this conditional request originated with an outbound client, such as a user agent
1135         with its own cache sending a conditional GET to a shared proxy, then the 304 response <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be forwarded to the outbound client. Otherwise, the recipient <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> disregard the 304 response and repeat the request without any preconditions.
1136      </p>
1137      <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">If a cache uses a received 304 response to update a cache entry, the cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> update the entry to reflect any new field values given in the response.
1138      </p>
1139      <div id="rfc.iref.28"></div>
1140      <div id="rfc.iref.s.3"></div>
1141      <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.412" href="#status.412">412 Precondition Failed</a></h2>
1142      <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">The 412 status code indicates that one or more preconditions given in the request header fields evaluated to false when tested
1143         on the server. This response code allows the client to place preconditions on the current resource state (its current representations
1144         and metadata) and thus prevent the request method from being applied if the target resource is in an unexpected state.
1145      </p>
1146      <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="IANA.considerations" href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
1147      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.code.registration" href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
1148      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The HTTP Status Code Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; shall be updated with the registrations below:
1149      </p>
1150      <div id="rfc.table.1">
1151         <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
1152         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1153            <thead>
1154               <tr>
1155                  <th>Value</th>
1156                  <th>Description</th>
1157                  <th>Reference</th>
1158               </tr>
1159            </thead>
1160            <tbody>
1161               <tr>
1162                  <td class="left">304</td>
1163                  <td class="left">Not Modified</td>
1164                  <td class="left"> <a href="#status.304" id="rfc.xref.status.304.1" title="304 Not Modified">Section&nbsp;4.1</a> 
1165                  </td>
1166               </tr>
1167               <tr>
1168                  <td class="left">412</td>
1169                  <td class="left">Precondition Failed</td>
1170                  <td class="left"> <a href="#status.412" id="rfc.xref.status.412.1" title="412 Precondition Failed">Section&nbsp;4.2</a> 
1171                  </td>
1172               </tr>
1173            </tbody>
1174         </table>
1175      </div>
1176      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.field.registration" href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
1177      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The Message Header Field Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; shall be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
1178      </p>
1179      <div id="rfc.table.2">
1180         <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
1181         <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1182            <thead>
1183               <tr>
1184                  <th>Header Field Name</th>
1185                  <th>Protocol</th>
1186                  <th>Status</th>
1187                  <th>Reference</th>
1188               </tr>
1189            </thead>
1190            <tbody>
1191               <tr>
1192                  <td class="left">ETag</td>
1193                  <td class="left">http</td>
1194                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1195                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.etag" id="rfc.xref.header.etag.1" title="ETag">Section&nbsp;2.3</a> 
1196                  </td>
1197               </tr>
1198               <tr>
1199                  <td class="left">If-Match</td>
1200                  <td class="left">http</td>
1201                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1202                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.if-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-match.1" title="If-Match">Section&nbsp;3.1</a> 
1203                  </td>
1204               </tr>
1205               <tr>
1206                  <td class="left">If-Modified-Since</td>
1207                  <td class="left">http</td>
1208                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1209                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.if-modified-since" id="rfc.xref.header.if-modified-since.1" title="If-Modified-Since">Section&nbsp;3.3</a> 
1210                  </td>
1211               </tr>
1212               <tr>
1213                  <td class="left">If-None-Match</td>
1214                  <td class="left">http</td>
1215                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1216                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.if-none-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.1" title="If-None-Match">Section&nbsp;3.2</a> 
1217                  </td>
1218               </tr>
1219               <tr>
1220                  <td class="left">If-Unmodified-Since</td>
1221                  <td class="left">http</td>
1222                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1223                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.if-unmodified-since" id="rfc.xref.header.if-unmodified-since.1" title="If-Unmodified-Since">Section&nbsp;3.4</a> 
1224                  </td>
1225               </tr>
1226               <tr>
1227                  <td class="left">Last-Modified</td>
1228                  <td class="left">http</td>
1229                  <td class="left">standard</td>
1230                  <td class="left"> <a href="#header.last-modified" id="rfc.xref.header.last-modified.1" title="Last-Modified">Section&nbsp;2.2</a> 
1231                  </td>
1232               </tr>
1233            </tbody>
1234         </table>
1235      </div>
1236      <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1237      <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="security.considerations" href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
1238      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">No additional security considerations have been identified beyond those applicable to HTTP in general <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1239      </p>
1240      <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a id="acks" href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1241      <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 9</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1242      </p>
1243      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.8" href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a> References
1244      </h1>
1245      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1" id="rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a> Normative References
1246      </h2>
1247      <table>           
1248         <tr>
1249            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1250            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-latest (work in progress), May&nbsp;2012.
1251            </td>
1252         </tr>
1253         <tr>
1254            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1255            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-latest (work in progress), May&nbsp;2012.
1256            </td>
1257         </tr>
1258         <tr>
1259            <td class="reference"><b id="Part5">[Part5]</b></td>
1260            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-latest (work in progress), May&nbsp;2012.
1261            </td>
1262         </tr>
1263         <tr>
1264            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
1265            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net" title="Rackspace">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-latest (work in progress), May&nbsp;2012.
1266            </td>
1267         </tr>
1268         <tr>
1269            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1270            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1271            </td>
1272         </tr>
1273         <tr>
1274            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1275            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1276            </td>
1277         </tr>
1278      </table>
1279      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2" id="rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a> Informative References
1280      </h2>
1281      <table>     
1282         <tr>
1283            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1284            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1285            </td>
1286         </tr>
1287         <tr>
1288            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1289            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1290            </td>
1291         </tr>
1292         <tr>
1293            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4918">[RFC4918]</b></td>
1294            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ldusseault@commerce.net" title="CommerceNet">Dusseault, L., Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4918">HTTP Extensions for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)</a>”, RFC&nbsp;4918, June&nbsp;2007.
1295            </td>
1296         </tr>
1297      </table>
1298      <div class="avoidbreak">
1299         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
1300         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Roy T. Fielding</span>
1301               (editor)
1302               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Fielding</span><span class="given-name">Roy T.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Adobe Systems Incorporated</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">345 Park Ave</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">San Jose</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">95110</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com"><span class="email">fielding@gbiv.com</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/" class="url">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></span></address>
1303         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Yves Lafon</span>
1304               (editor)
1305               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Lafon</span><span class="given-name">Yves</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">World Wide Web Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">W3C / ERCIM</span><span class="street-address vcardline">2004, rte des Lucioles</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Sophia-Antipolis</span>, <span class="region">AM</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">06902</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">France</span></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org"><span class="email">ylafon@w3.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/" class="url">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></span></address>
1306         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Julian F. Reschke</span>
1307               (editor)
1308               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Reschke</span><span class="given-name">Julian F.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">greenbytes GmbH</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">Hafenweg 16</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Muenster</span>, <span class="region">NW</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">48155</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">Germany</span></span><span class="vcardline tel">Phone: <a href="tel:+492512807760"><span class="value">+49 251 2807760</span></a></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+492512807761"><span class="value">+49 251 2807761</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de"><span class="email">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/" class="url">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></span></address>
1309      </div>
1310      <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.from.rfc.2616" href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h1>
1311      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">Allow weak entity-tags in all requests except range requests (Sections <a href="#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">2.1</a> and <a href="#header.if-none-match" id="rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.2" title="If-None-Match">3.2</a>).
1312      </p>
1313      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">Change ETag header field ABNF not to use quoted-string, thus avoiding escaping issues. (<a href="#header.etag" id="rfc.xref.header.etag.2" title="ETag">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>)
1314      </p>
1315      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3">Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value. (<a href="#header.field.definitions" title="Precondition Header Fields">Section&nbsp;3</a>)
1316      </p>
1317      <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a id="collected.abnf" href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1318      <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div> <pre class="inline"><a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">ETag</a> = entity-tag
1319
1320<a href="#notation" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 5.1&gt;
1321
1322<a href="#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a> = "*" / ( *( "," OWS ) entity-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS
1323 entity-tag ] ) )
1324<a href="#header.if-modified-since" class="smpl">If-Modified-Since</a> = HTTP-date
1325<a href="#header.if-none-match" class="smpl">If-None-Match</a> = "*" / ( *( "," OWS ) entity-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS
1326 entity-tag ] ) )
1327<a href="#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> = HTTP-date
1328
1329<a href="#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> = HTTP-date
1330
1331<a href="#notation" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1332
1333<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = [ weak ] opaque-tag
1334<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">etagc</a> = "!" / %x23-7E ; '#'-'~'
1335 / obs-text
1336
1337<a href="#notation" class="smpl">obs-text</a> = &lt;obs-text, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1338<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">opaque-tag</a> = DQUOTE *etagc DQUOTE
1339
1340<a href="#header.etag" class="smpl">weak</a> = %x57.2F ; W/
1341</pre> <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div>
1342      <p>ABNF diagnostics:</p><pre class="inline">; ETag defined but not used
1343; If-Match defined but not used
1344; If-Modified-Since defined but not used
1345; If-None-Match defined but not used
1346; If-Unmodified-Since defined but not used
1347; Last-Modified defined but not used
1348</pre><h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a id="change.log" href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1349      <p id="rfc.section.C.p.1">Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized in &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-19#appendix-C">http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-19#appendix-C</a>&gt;.
1350      </p>
1351      <h2 id="rfc.section.C.1"><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.since.19" href="#changes.since.19">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-19</a></h2>
1352      <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.1">None yet.</p>
1353      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
1354      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.3">3</a> <a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.E">E</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.I">I</a> <a href="#rfc.index.L">L</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.S">S</a> <a href="#rfc.index.V">V</a> 
1355      </p>
1356      <div class="print2col">
1357         <ul class="ind">
1358            <li><a id="rfc.index.3" href="#rfc.index.3"><b>3</b></a><ul>
1359                  <li>304 Not Modified (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.27"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.304.1">5.1</a></li>
1360               </ul>
1361            </li>
1362            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
1363                  <li>412 Precondition Failed (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.28"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.412.1">5.1</a></li>
1364               </ul>
1365            </li>
1366            <li><a id="rfc.index.E" href="#rfc.index.E"><b>E</b></a><ul>
1367                  <li>ETag header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.e.1"><b>2.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.etag.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.etag.2">A</a></li>
1368               </ul>
1369            </li>
1370            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
1371                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1372                     <ul>
1373                        <li><tt>entity-tag</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
1374                        <li><tt>ETag</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
1375                        <li><tt>etagc</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
1376                        <li><tt>If-Match</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
1377                        <li><tt>If-Modified-Since</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
1378                        <li><tt>If-None-Match</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
1379                        <li><tt>If-Unmodified-Since</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
1380                        <li><tt>Last-Modified</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
1381                        <li><tt>opaque-tag</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
1382                        <li><tt>weak</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
1383                     </ul>
1384                  </li>
1385               </ul>
1386            </li>
1387            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
1388                  <li>Header Fields&nbsp;&nbsp;
1389                     <ul>
1390                        <li>ETag&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>2.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.etag.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.etag.2">A</a></li>
1391                        <li>If-Match&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-match.1">5.2</a></li>
1392                        <li>If-Modified-Since&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.5"><b>3.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-modified-since.1">5.2</a></li>
1393                        <li>If-None-Match&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.2">A</a></li>
1394                        <li>If-Unmodified-Since&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.6"><b>3.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-unmodified-since.1">5.2</a></li>
1395                        <li>Last-Modified&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>2.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.last-modified.1">5.2</a></li>
1396                     </ul>
1397                  </li>
1398               </ul>
1399            </li>
1400            <li><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul>
1401                  <li>If-Match header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.i.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-match.1">5.2</a></li>
1402                  <li>If-Modified-Since header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.i.3"><b>3.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-modified-since.1">5.2</a></li>
1403                  <li>If-None-Match header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.i.2"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-none-match.2">A</a></li>
1404                  <li>If-Unmodified-Since header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.i.4"><b>3.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-unmodified-since.1">5.2</a></li>
1405               </ul>
1406            </li>
1407            <li><a id="rfc.index.L" href="#rfc.index.L"><b>L</b></a><ul>
1408                  <li>Last-Modified header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.l.1"><b>2.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.last-modified.1">5.2</a></li>
1409               </ul>
1410            </li>
1411            <li><a id="rfc.index.M" href="#rfc.index.M"><b>M</b></a><ul>
1412                  <li>metadata&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>2</b></a></li>
1413               </ul>
1414            </li>
1415            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
1416                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">2.3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">6</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">7</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1417                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a></li>
1418                        <li><em>Section 2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a></li>
1419                        <li><em>Section 3.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.2</a></li>
1420                        <li><em>Section 3.2.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.2</a></li>
1421                        <li><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">2.3.3</a></li>
1422                        <li><em>Section 9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">7</a></li>
1423                     </ul>
1424                  </li>
1425                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">2.3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">2.3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">4.1</a>, <a href="#Part2"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1426                        <li><em>Section 5.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">1.2</a></li>
1427                        <li><em>Section 8</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3">2.3.3</a></li>
1428                        <li><em>Section 9.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">2.3.3</a></li>
1429                        <li><em>Section 9.10</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.5">4.1</a></li>
1430                     </ul>
1431                  </li>
1432                  <li><em>Part5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.2">3.5</a>, <a href="#Part5"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1433                        <li><em>Section 5.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.2">3.5</a></li>
1434                        <li><em>Section 5.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">3.3</a></li>
1435                     </ul>
1436                  </li>
1437                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">2.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">2.3.1</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
1438               </ul>
1439            </li>
1440            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
1441                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
1442                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
1443                        <li><em>Section 3.11</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">2.3</a></li>
1444                     </ul>
1445                  </li>
1446                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1447                  <li><em>RFC4918</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4918.1">2</a>, <a href="#RFC4918"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1448                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1449                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a></li>
1450                     </ul>
1451                  </li>
1452               </ul>
1453            </li>
1454            <li><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul>
1455                  <li>selected representation&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.1"><b>1</b></a></li>
1456                  <li>Status Codes&nbsp;&nbsp;
1457                     <ul>
1458                        <li>304 Not Modified&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.2"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.304.1">5.1</a></li>
1459                        <li>412 Precondition Failed&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.3"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.412.1">5.1</a></li>
1460                     </ul>
1461                  </li>
1462               </ul>
1463            </li>
1464            <li><a id="rfc.index.V" href="#rfc.index.V"><b>V</b></a><ul>
1465                  <li>validator&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.v.1"><b>2</b></a><ul>
1466                        <li>strong&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.v.3"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1467                        <li>weak&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.v.2"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1468                     </ul>
1469                  </li>
1470               </ul>
1471            </li>
1472         </ul>
1473      </div>
1474   </body>
1475</html>
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