source: draft-ietf-httpbis/latest/p1-messaging.xml @ 809

Last change on this file since 809 was 809, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 10 years ago

add paragraph break for clarity (related to #196)

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
File size: 235.9 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "latest">
15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "April">
16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2010">
17  <!ENTITY caching-overview       "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.overview' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
18  <!ENTITY payload                "<xref target='Part3' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
19  <!ENTITY media-types            "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#media.types' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
20  <!ENTITY content-codings        "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#content.codings' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
21  <!ENTITY CONNECT                "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#CONNECT' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
22  <!ENTITY content.negotiation    "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#content.negotiation' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
23  <!ENTITY diff2045entity         "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
24  <!ENTITY entity                 "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#entity' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
25  <!ENTITY entity-body            "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#entity.body' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
26  <!ENTITY entity-header-fields   "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#entity.header.fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
27  <!ENTITY entity-length          "<xref target='Part3' x:rel='#entity.length' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
28  <!ENTITY header-cache-control   "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#header.cache-control' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
29  <!ENTITY header-expect          "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#header.expect' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
30  <!ENTITY header-pragma          "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#header.pragma' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
31  <!ENTITY header-warning         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#header.warning' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
32  <!ENTITY idempotent-methods     "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#idempotent.methods' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
33  <!ENTITY request-header-fields  "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#request.header.fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
34  <!ENTITY response-header-fields "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#response.header.fields' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
35  <!ENTITY status-codes           "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.codes' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
36  <!ENTITY status-100             "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.100' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
37  <!ENTITY status-1xx             "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.1xx' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
38  <!ENTITY status-414             "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.414' xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'/>">
39]>
40<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
41<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
42<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
43<?rfc compact="yes"?>
44<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
45<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
46<?rfc editing="no" ?>
47<?rfc comments="yes"?>
48<?rfc inline="yes"?>
49<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
50<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
51<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
52<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2817" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
53     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"
54     xmlns:x='http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext'>
55<front>
56
57  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
58
59  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
60    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
61    <address>
62      <postal>
63        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
64        <city>Newport Beach</city>
65        <region>CA</region>
66        <code>92660</code>
67        <country>USA</country>
68      </postal>
69      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
70      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
71      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
72      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
73    </address>
74  </author>
75
76  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
77    <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
78    <address>
79      <postal>
80        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
81        <city>Carlisle</city>
82        <region>MA</region>
83        <code>01741</code>
84        <country>USA</country>
85      </postal>
86      <email>jg@laptop.org</email>
87      <uri>http://www.laptop.org/</uri>
88    </address>
89  </author>
90 
91  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
92    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
93    <address>
94      <postal>
95        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
96        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
97        <city>Palo Alto</city>
98        <region>CA</region>
99        <code>94304</code>
100        <country>USA</country>
101      </postal>
102      <email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email>
103    </address>
104  </author>
105
106  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
107    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
108    <address>
109      <postal>
110        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
111        <city>Redmond</city>
112        <region>WA</region>
113        <code>98052</code>
114        <country>USA</country>
115      </postal>
116      <email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email>
117    </address>
118  </author>
119
120  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
121    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
122    <address>
123      <postal>
124        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
125        <city>San Jose</city>
126        <region>CA</region>
127        <code>95110</code>
128        <country>USA</country>
129      </postal>
130      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
131      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
132    </address>
133  </author>
134 
135  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
136    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
137    <address>
138      <postal>
139        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
140        <city>Redmond</city>
141        <region>WA</region>
142        <code>98052</code>
143      </postal>
144      <email>paulle@microsoft.com</email>
145    </address>
146  </author>
147   
148  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
149    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
150    <address>
151      <postal>
152        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
153        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
154        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
155        <city>Cambridge</city>
156        <region>MA</region>
157        <code>02139</code>
158        <country>USA</country>
159      </postal>
160      <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
161      <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
162    </address>
163  </author>
164
165  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
166    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
167    <address>
168      <postal>
169        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
170        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
171        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
172        <region>AM</region>
173        <code>06902</code>
174        <country>France</country>
175      </postal>
176      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
177      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
178    </address>
179  </author>
180
181  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
182    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
183    <address>
184      <postal>
185        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
186        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
187        <country>Germany</country>
188      </postal>
189      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
190      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
191      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
192      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
193    </address>
194  </author>
195
196  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
197  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
198
199<abstract>
200<t>
201   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
202   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
203   systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information
204   initiative since 1990. This document is Part 1 of the seven-part specification
205   that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together,
206   obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 1 provides an overview of HTTP and
207   its associated terminology, defines the "http" and "https" Uniform
208   Resource Identifier (URI) schemes, defines the generic message syntax
209   and parsing requirements for HTTP message frames, and describes
210   general security concerns for implementations.
211</t>
212</abstract>
213
214<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
215  <t>
216    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
217    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues list is
218    at <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11"/>
219    and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
220    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
221  </t>
222  <t>
223    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.09"/>.
224  </t>
225</note>
226</front>
227<middle>
228<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
229<t>
230   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
231   request/response protocol that uses extensible semantics and MIME-like
232   message payloads for flexible interaction with network-based hypertext
233   information systems. HTTP relies upon the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
234   standard <xref target="RFC3986"/> to indicate request targets and
235   relationships between resources.
236   Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by Internet mail
237   <xref target="RFC5322"/> and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
238   (MIME) <xref target="RFC2045"/> (see &diff2045entity; for the differences
239   between HTTP and MIME messages).
240</t>
241<t>
242   HTTP is a generic interface protocol for information systems. It is
243   designed to hide the details of how a service is implemented by presenting
244   a uniform interface to clients that is independent of the types of
245   resources provided. Likewise, servers do not need to be aware of each
246   client's purpose: an HTTP request can be considered in isolation rather
247   than being associated with a specific type of client or a predetermined
248   sequence of application steps. The result is a protocol that can be used
249   effectively in many different contexts and for which implementations can
250   evolve independently over time.
251</t>
252<t>
253   HTTP is also designed for use as a generic protocol for translating
254   communication to and from other Internet information systems.
255   HTTP proxies and gateways provide access to alternative information
256   services by translating their diverse protocols into a hypertext
257   format that can be viewed and manipulated by clients in the same way
258   as HTTP services.
259</t>
260<t>
261   One consequence of HTTP flexibility is that the protocol cannot be
262   defined in terms of what occurs behind the interface. Instead, we
263   are limited to defining the syntax of communication, the intent
264   of received communication, and the expected behavior of recipients.
265   If the communication is considered in isolation, then successful
266   actions should be reflected in corresponding changes to the
267   observable interface provided by servers. However, since multiple
268   clients may act in parallel and perhaps at cross-purposes, we
269   cannot require that such changes be observable beyond the scope
270   of a single response.
271</t>
272<t>
273   This document is Part 1 of the seven-part specification of HTTP,
274   defining the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and obsoleting
275   <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
276   Part 1 describes the architectural elements that are used or
277   referred to in HTTP, defines the "http" and "https" URI schemes,
278   describes overall network operation and connection management,
279   and defines HTTP message framing and forwarding requirements.
280   Our goal is to define all of the mechanisms necessary for HTTP message
281   handling that are independent of message semantics, thereby defining the
282   complete set of requirements for message parsers and
283   message-forwarding intermediaries.
284</t>
285
286<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
287<t>
288   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
289   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
290   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
291</t>
292<t>
293   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
294   of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
295   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED"
296   level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said
297   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST"
298   level requirements but not all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its
299   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant."
300</t>
301</section>
302
303<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
304<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ALPHA"/>
305<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="CR"/>
306<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="CRLF"/>
307<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="CTL"/>
308<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="DIGIT"/>
309<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="DQUOTE"/>
310<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="HEXDIG"/>
311<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="LF"/>
312<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="OCTET"/>
313<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="SP"/>
314<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="VCHAR"/>
315<iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WSP"/>
316<t>
317   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
318   of <xref target="RFC5234"/>.
319</t>
320<t anchor="core.rules">
321  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
322  <x:anchor-alias value="CTL"/>
323  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
324  <x:anchor-alias value="CRLF"/>
325  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
326  <x:anchor-alias value="DQUOTE"/>
327  <x:anchor-alias value="HEXDIG"/>
328  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
329  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
330  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
331  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
332  <x:anchor-alias value="WSP"/>
333   The following core rules are included by
334   reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="," x:sec="B.1"/>:
335   ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
336   DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
337   HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
338   OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space),
339   VCHAR (any visible <xref target="USASCII"/> character),
340   and WSP (whitespace).
341</t>
342<t>
343   As a syntactical convention, ABNF rule names prefixed with "obs-" denote
344   "obsolete" grammar rules that appear for historical reasons.
345</t>
346
347<section title="ABNF Extension: #rule" anchor="notation.abnf">
348<t>
349  The #rule extension to the ABNF rules of <xref target="RFC5234"/> is used to
350  improve readability.
351</t>
352<t>
353  A construct "#" is defined, similar to "*", for defining comma-delimited
354  lists of elements. The full form is "&lt;n&gt;#&lt;m&gt;element" indicating
355  at least &lt;n&gt; and at most &lt;m&gt; elements, each separated by a single
356  comma (",") and optional whitespace (OWS,
357  <xref target="basic.rules"/>).   
358</t>
359<figure><preamble>
360  Thus,
361</preamble><artwork type="example">
362  1#element =&gt; element *( OWS "," OWS element )
363</artwork></figure>
364<figure><preamble>
365  and:
366</preamble><artwork type="example">
367  #element =&gt; [ 1#element ]
368</artwork></figure>
369<figure><preamble>
370  and for n &gt;= 1 and m &gt; 1:
371</preamble><artwork type="example">
372  &lt;n&gt;#&lt;m&gt;element =&gt; element &lt;n-1&gt;*&lt;m-1&gt;( OWS "," OWS element )
373</artwork></figure>
374<t>
375  For compatibility with legacy list rules, recipients &SHOULD; accept empty
376  list elements. In other words, consumers would follow the list productions:
377</t>
378<figure><artwork type="example">
379  #element =&gt; [ ( "," / element ) *( OWS "," [ OWS element ] ) ]
380 
381  1#element =&gt; *( "," OWS ) element *( OWS "," [ OWS element ] )
382</artwork></figure>
383<t>
384  Note that empty elements do not contribute to the count of elements present,
385  though.
386</t>
387<t>
388  For example, given these ABNF productions:
389</t>
390<figure><artwork type="example">
391  example-list      = 1#example-list-elmt
392  example-list-elmt = token ; see <xref target="basic.rules"/> 
393</artwork></figure>
394<t>
395  Then these are valid values for example-list (not including the double
396  quotes, which are present for delimitation only):
397</t>
398<figure><artwork type="example">
399  "foo,bar"
400  " foo ,bar,"
401  "  foo , ,bar,charlie   "
402  "foo ,bar,   charlie "
403</artwork></figure>
404<t>
405  But these values would be invalid, as at least one non-empty element is
406  required:
407</t>
408<figure><artwork type="example">
409  ""
410  ","
411  ",   ,"
412</artwork></figure>
413<t>
414  <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF, with the list rules
415  expanded as explained above.
416</t>
417</section>
418
419<section title="Basic Rules" anchor="basic.rules">
420<t anchor="rule.CRLF">
421  <x:anchor-alias value="CRLF"/>
422   HTTP/1.1 defines the sequence CR LF as the end-of-line marker for all
423   protocol elements except the entity-body (see <xref target="tolerant.applications"/> for
424   tolerant applications). The end-of-line marker within an entity-body
425   is defined by its associated media type, as described in &media-types;.
426</t>
427<t anchor="rule.LWS">
428   This specification uses three rules to denote the use of linear
429   whitespace: OWS (optional whitespace), RWS (required whitespace), and
430   BWS ("bad" whitespace).
431</t>
432<t>
433   The OWS rule is used where zero or more linear whitespace characters may
434   appear. OWS &SHOULD; either not be produced or be produced as a single SP
435   character. Multiple OWS characters that occur within field-content &SHOULD;
436   be replaced with a single SP before interpreting the field value or
437   forwarding the message downstream.
438</t>
439<t>
440   RWS is used when at least one linear whitespace character is required to
441   separate field tokens. RWS &SHOULD; be produced as a single SP character.
442   Multiple RWS characters that occur within field-content &SHOULD; be
443   replaced with a single SP before interpreting the field value or
444   forwarding the message downstream.
445</t>
446<t>
447   BWS is used where the grammar allows optional whitespace for historical
448   reasons but senders &SHOULD-NOT; produce it in messages. HTTP/1.1
449   recipients &MUST; accept such bad optional whitespace and remove it before
450   interpreting the field value or forwarding the message downstream.
451</t>
452<t anchor="rule.whitespace">
453  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
454  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
455  <x:anchor-alias value="RWS"/>
456  <x:anchor-alias value="obs-fold"/>
457</t>
458<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="OWS"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="RWS"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="BWS"/>
459  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>            = *( [ obs-fold ] <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> )
460                 ; "optional" whitespace
461  <x:ref>RWS</x:ref>            = 1*( [ obs-fold ] <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> )
462                 ; "required" whitespace
463  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>            = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
464                 ; "bad" whitespace
465  <x:ref>obs-fold</x:ref>       = <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
466                 ; see <xref target="header.fields"/>
467</artwork></figure>
468<t anchor="rule.token.separators">
469  <x:anchor-alias value="tchar"/>
470  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
471  <x:anchor-alias value="special"/>
472   Many HTTP/1.1 header field values consist of words (token or quoted-string)
473   separated by whitespace or special characters. These special characters
474   &MUST; be in a quoted string to be used within a parameter value (as defined
475   in <xref target="transfer.codings"/>).
476</t>
477<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="tchar"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="special"/>
478  <x:ref>token</x:ref>          = 1*<x:ref>tchar</x:ref>
479<!--
480  IMPORTANT: when editing "tchar" make sure that "special" is updated accordingly!!!
481 -->
482  <x:ref>tchar</x:ref>          = "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&amp;" / "'" / "*"
483                 / "+" / "-" / "." / "^" / "_" / "`" / "|" / "~"
484                 / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> / <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref>
485                 ; any <x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref>, except <x:ref>special</x:ref>
486
487  <x:ref>special</x:ref>        = "(" / ")" / "&lt;" / ">" / "@" / ","
488                 / ";" / ":" / "\" / DQUOTE / "/" / "["
489                 / "]" / "?" / "=" / "{" / "}"
490</artwork></figure>
491<t anchor="rule.quoted-string">
492  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
493  <x:anchor-alias value="qdtext"/>
494  <x:anchor-alias value="obs-text"/>
495   A string of text is parsed as a single word if it is quoted using
496   double-quote marks.
497</t>
498<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="quoted-string"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="qdtext"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="obs-text"/>
499  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>  = <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> *( <x:ref>qdtext</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-pair</x:ref> ) <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref>
500  <x:ref>qdtext</x:ref>         = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> / %x21 / %x23-5B / %x5D-7E / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref>
501                 ; <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> / &lt;<x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> except <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> and "\"&gt; / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> 
502  <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref>       = %x80-FF
503</artwork></figure>
504<t anchor="rule.quoted-pair">
505  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-pair"/>
506   The backslash character ("\") can be used as a single-character
507   quoting mechanism within quoted-string constructs:
508</t>
509<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="quoted-pair"/>
510  <x:ref>quoted-pair</x:ref>    = "\" ( <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> / <x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> )
511</artwork></figure>
512<t>
513   Producers &SHOULD-NOT; escape characters that do not require escaping
514   (i.e., other than DQUOTE and the backslash character).
515</t>
516</section>
517
518<section title="ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification" anchor="abnf.dependencies">
519  <x:anchor-alias value="request-header"/>
520  <x:anchor-alias value="response-header"/>
521  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-body"/>
522  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-header"/>
523  <x:anchor-alias value="Cache-Control"/>
524  <x:anchor-alias value="Pragma"/>
525  <x:anchor-alias value="Warning"/>
526<t>
527  The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
528</t>
529<figure><!-- Part2--><artwork type="abnf2616">
530  <x:ref>request-header</x:ref>  = &lt;request-header, defined in &request-header-fields;&gt;
531  <x:ref>response-header</x:ref> = &lt;response-header, defined in &response-header-fields;&gt;
532</artwork></figure>
533<figure><!-- Part3--><artwork type="abnf2616">
534  <x:ref>entity-body</x:ref>     = &lt;entity-body, defined in &entity-body;&gt;
535  <x:ref>entity-header</x:ref>   = &lt;entity-header, defined in &entity-header-fields;&gt;
536</artwork></figure>
537<figure><!-- Part6--><artwork type="abnf2616">
538  <x:ref>Cache-Control</x:ref>   = &lt;Cache-Control, defined in &header-pragma;&gt;
539  <x:ref>Pragma</x:ref>          = &lt;Pragma, defined in &header-pragma;&gt;
540  <x:ref>Warning</x:ref>         = &lt;Warning, defined in &header-warning;&gt;
541</artwork></figure>
542</section>
543
544</section>
545</section>
546
547<section title="HTTP architecture" anchor="architecture">
548<t>
549   HTTP was created for the World Wide Web architecture
550   and has evolved over time to support the scalability needs of a worldwide
551   hypertext system. Much of that architecture is reflected in the terminology
552   and syntax productions used to define HTTP.
553</t>
554
555<section title="Client/Server Operation" anchor="operation">
556<iref item="client"/>
557<iref item="server"/>
558<iref item="connection"/>
559<t>
560   HTTP is a request/response protocol that operates by exchanging messages
561   across a reliable transport or session-layer connection. An HTTP client
562   is a program that establishes a connection to a server for the purpose
563   of sending one or more HTTP requests.  An HTTP server is a program that
564   accepts connections in order to service HTTP requests by sending HTTP
565   responses.
566</t>
567<iref item="user agent"/>
568<iref item="origin server"/>
569<t>
570   Note that the terms "client" and "server" refer only to the roles that
571   these programs perform for a particular connection.  The same program
572   may act as a client on some connections and a server on others.  We use
573   the term "user agent" to refer to the program that initiates a request,
574   such as a WWW browser, editor, or spider (web-traversing robot), and
575   the term "origin server" to refer to the program that can originate
576   authoritative responses to a request.
577</t>
578<t>
579   Most HTTP communication consists of a retrieval request (GET) for
580   a representation of some resource identified by a URI.  In the
581   simplest case, this may be accomplished via a single connection (v)
582   between the user agent (UA) and the origin server (O).
583</t>
584<figure><artwork type="drawing">
585       request chain ------------------------&gt;
586    UA -------------------v------------------- O
587       &lt;----------------------- response chain
588</artwork></figure>
589<iref item="message"/>
590<iref item="request"/>
591<iref item="response"/>
592<t>
593   A client sends an HTTP request to the server in the form of a request
594   message (<xref target="request"/>), beginning with a method, URI, and
595   protocol version, followed by MIME-like header fields containing
596   request modifiers, client information, and payload metadata, an empty
597   line to indicate the end of the header section, and finally the payload
598   body (if any).
599</t>
600<t>
601   A server responds to the client's request by sending an HTTP response
602   message (<xref target="response"/>), beginning with a status line that
603   includes the protocol version, a success or error code, and textual
604   reason phrase, followed by MIME-like header fields containing server
605   information, resource metadata, and payload metadata, an empty line to
606   indicate the end of the header section, and finally the payload body (if any).
607</t>
608<t>
609   The following example illustrates a typical message exchange for a
610   GET request on the URI "http://www.example.com/hello.txt":
611</t>
612<figure><preamble>
613client request:
614</preamble><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
615GET /hello.txt HTTP/1.1
616User-Agent: curl/7.16.3 libcurl/7.16.3 OpenSSL/0.9.7l zlib/1.2.3
617Host: www.example.com
618Accept: */*
619
620</artwork></figure>
621<figure><preamble>
622server response:
623</preamble><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;response&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
624HTTP/1.1 200 OK
625Date: Mon, 27 Jul 2009 12:28:53 GMT
626Server: Apache
627Last-Modified: Wed, 22 Jul 2009 19:15:56 GMT
628ETag: "34aa387-d-1568eb00"
629Accept-Ranges: bytes
630Content-Length: <x:length-of target="exbody"/>
631Vary: Accept-Encoding
632Content-Type: text/plain
633
634<x:span anchor="exbody">Hello World!
635</x:span></artwork></figure>
636</section>
637
638<section title="Intermediaries" anchor="intermediaries">
639<t>
640   A more complicated situation occurs when one or more intermediaries
641   are present in the request/response chain. There are three common
642   forms of intermediary: proxy, gateway, and tunnel.  In some cases,
643   a single intermediary may act as an origin server, proxy, gateway,
644   or tunnel, switching behavior based on the nature of each request.
645</t>
646<figure><artwork type="drawing">
647       request chain --------------------------------------&gt;
648    UA -----v----- A -----v----- B -----v----- C -----v----- O
649       &lt;------------------------------------- response chain
650</artwork></figure>
651<t>
652   The figure above shows three intermediaries (A, B, and C) between the
653   user agent and origin server. A request or response message that
654   travels the whole chain will pass through four separate connections.
655   Some HTTP communication options
656   may apply only to the connection with the nearest, non-tunnel
657   neighbor, only to the end-points of the chain, or to all connections
658   along the chain. Although the diagram is linear, each participant may
659   be engaged in multiple, simultaneous communications. For example, B
660   may be receiving requests from many clients other than A, and/or
661   forwarding requests to servers other than C, at the same time that it
662   is handling A's request.
663</t>
664<t>
665<iref item="upstream"/><iref item="downstream"/>
666<iref item="inbound"/><iref item="outbound"/>
667   We use the terms "upstream" and "downstream" to describe various
668   requirements in relation to the directional flow of a message:
669   all messages flow from upstream to downstream.
670   Likewise, we use the terms "inbound" and "outbound" to refer to
671   directions in relation to the request path: "inbound" means toward
672   the origin server and "outbound" means toward the user agent.
673</t>
674<t><iref item="proxy"/>
675   A proxy is a message forwarding agent that is selected by the
676   client, usually via local configuration rules, to receive requests
677   for some type(s) of absolute URI and attempt to satisfy those
678   requests via translation through the HTTP interface.  Some translations
679   are minimal, such as for proxy requests for "http" URIs, whereas
680   other requests may require translation to and from entirely different
681   application-layer protocols. Proxies are often used to group an
682   organization's HTTP requests through a common intermediary for the
683   sake of security, annotation services, or shared caching.
684</t>
685<t><iref item="gateway"/><iref item="reverse proxy"/>
686   A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) is a receiving agent that acts
687   as a layer above some other server(s) and translates the received
688   requests to the underlying server's protocol.  Gateways are often
689   used for load balancing or partitioning HTTP services across
690   multiple machines.
691   Unlike a proxy, a gateway receives requests as if it were the
692   origin server for the requested resource; the requesting client
693   will not be aware that it is communicating with a gateway.
694   A gateway communicates with the client as if the gateway is the
695   origin server and thus is subject to all of the requirements on
696   origin servers for that connection.  A gateway communicates
697   with inbound servers using any protocol it desires, including
698   private extensions to HTTP that are outside the scope of this
699   specification.
700</t>
701<t><iref item="tunnel"/>
702   A tunnel acts as a blind relay between two connections
703   without changing the messages. Once active, a tunnel is not
704   considered a party to the HTTP communication, though the tunnel may
705   have been initiated by an HTTP request. A tunnel ceases to exist when
706   both ends of the relayed connection are closed. Tunnels are used to
707   extend a virtual connection through an intermediary, such as when
708   transport-layer security is used to establish private communication
709   through a shared firewall proxy.
710</t>
711</section>
712
713<section title="Caches" anchor="caches">
714<iref item="cache"/>
715<t>
716   Any party to HTTP communication that is not acting as a tunnel may
717   employ an internal cache for handling requests.
718   A cache is a local store of previous response messages and the
719   subsystem that controls its message storage, retrieval, and deletion.
720   A cache stores cacheable responses in order to reduce the response
721   time and network bandwidth consumption on future, equivalent
722   requests. Any client or server may include a cache, though a cache
723   cannot be used by a server while it is acting as a tunnel.
724</t>
725<t>
726   The effect of a cache is that the request/response chain is shortened
727   if one of the participants along the chain has a cached response
728   applicable to that request. The following illustrates the resulting
729   chain if B has a cached copy of an earlier response from O (via C)
730   for a request which has not been cached by UA or A.
731</t>
732<figure><artwork type="drawing">
733          request chain ----------&gt;
734       UA -----v----- A -----v----- B - - - - - - C - - - - - - O
735          &lt;--------- response chain
736</artwork></figure>
737<t><iref item="cacheable"/>
738   A response is cacheable if a cache is allowed to store a copy of
739   the response message for use in answering subsequent requests.
740   Even when a response is cacheable, there may be additional
741   constraints placed by the client or by the origin server on when
742   that cached response can be used for a particular request. HTTP
743   requirements for cache behavior and cacheable responses are
744   defined in &caching-overview;
745</t>
746<t>
747   There are a wide variety of architectures and configurations
748   of caches and proxies deployed across the World Wide Web and
749   inside large organizations. These systems include national hierarchies
750   of proxy caches to save transoceanic bandwidth, systems that
751   broadcast or multicast cache entries, organizations that distribute
752   subsets of cached data via optical media, and so on.
753</t>
754</section>
755
756<section title="Transport Independence" anchor="transport-independence">
757<t>
758  HTTP systems are used in a wide variety of environments, from
759  corporate intranets with high-bandwidth links to long-distance
760  communication over low-power radio links and intermittent connectivity.
761</t>
762<t>
763   HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP/IP connections. The
764   default port is TCP 80 (<eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers"/>), but other ports can be used. This does
765   not preclude HTTP from being implemented on top of any other protocol
766   on the Internet, or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable
767   transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used;
768   the mapping of the HTTP/1.1 request and response structures onto the
769   transport data units of the protocol in question is outside the scope
770   of this specification.
771</t>
772<t>
773   In HTTP/1.0, most implementations used a new connection for each
774   request/response exchange. In HTTP/1.1, a connection may be used for
775   one or more request/response exchanges, although connections may be
776   closed for a variety of reasons (see <xref target="persistent.connections"/>).
777</t>
778</section>
779
780<section title="HTTP Version" anchor="http.version">
781  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-Version"/>
782  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-Prot-Name"/>
783<t>
784   HTTP uses a "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;" numbering scheme to indicate versions
785   of the protocol. The protocol versioning policy is intended to allow
786   the sender to indicate the format of a message and its capacity for
787   understanding further HTTP communication, rather than the features
788   obtained via that communication. No change is made to the version
789   number for the addition of message components which do not affect
790   communication behavior or which only add to extensible field values.
791   The &lt;minor&gt; number is incremented when the changes made to the
792   protocol add features which do not change the general message parsing
793   algorithm, but which may add to the message semantics and imply
794   additional capabilities of the sender. The &lt;major&gt; number is
795   incremented when the format of a message within the protocol is
796   changed. See <xref target="RFC2145"/> for a fuller explanation.
797</t>
798<t>
799   The version of an HTTP message is indicated by an HTTP-Version field
800   in the first line of the message. HTTP-Version is case-sensitive.
801</t>
802<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="HTTP-Version"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="HTTP-Prot-Name"/>
803  <x:ref>HTTP-Version</x:ref>   = <x:ref>HTTP-Prot-Name</x:ref> "/" 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> "." 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
804  <x:ref>HTTP-Prot-Name</x:ref> = <x:abnf-char-sequence>"HTTP"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "HTTP", case-sensitive
805</artwork></figure>
806<t>
807   Note that the major and minor numbers &MUST; be treated as separate
808   integers and that each &MAY; be incremented higher than a single digit.
809   Thus, HTTP/2.4 is a lower version than HTTP/2.13, which in turn is
810   lower than HTTP/12.3. Leading zeros &MUST; be ignored by recipients and
811   &MUST-NOT; be sent.
812</t>
813<t>
814   An application that sends a request or response message that includes
815   HTTP-Version of "HTTP/1.1" &MUST; be at least conditionally compliant
816   with this specification. Applications that are at least conditionally
817   compliant with this specification &SHOULD; use an HTTP-Version of
818   "HTTP/1.1" in their messages, and &MUST; do so for any message that is
819   not compatible with HTTP/1.0. For more details on when to send
820   specific HTTP-Version values, see <xref target="RFC2145"/>.
821</t>
822<t>
823   The HTTP version of an application is the highest HTTP version for
824   which the application is at least conditionally compliant.
825</t>
826<t>
827   Proxy and gateway applications need to be careful when forwarding
828   messages in protocol versions different from that of the application.
829   Since the protocol version indicates the protocol capability of the
830   sender, a proxy/gateway &MUST-NOT; send a message with a version
831   indicator which is greater than its actual version. If a higher
832   version request is received, the proxy/gateway &MUST; either downgrade
833   the request version, or respond with an error, or switch to tunnel
834   behavior.
835</t>
836<t>
837   Due to interoperability problems with HTTP/1.0 proxies discovered
838   since the publication of <xref target="RFC2068"/>, caching proxies &MUST;, gateways
839   &MAY;, and tunnels &MUST-NOT; upgrade the request to the highest version
840   they support. The proxy/gateway's response to that request &MUST; be in
841   the same major version as the request.
842</t>
843<x:note>
844  <t>
845    <x:h>Note:</x:h> Converting between versions of HTTP may involve modification
846    of header fields required or forbidden by the versions involved.
847  </t>
848</x:note>
849</section>
850
851<section title="Uniform Resource Identifiers" anchor="uri">
852<iref primary="true" item="resource"/>
853<t>
854   Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) <xref target="RFC3986"/> are used
855   throughout HTTP as the means for identifying resources. URI references
856   are used to target requests, indicate redirects, and define relationships.
857   HTTP does not limit what a resource may be; it merely defines an interface
858   that can be used to interact with a resource via HTTP. More information on
859   the scope of URIs and resources can be found in <xref target="RFC3986"/>.
860</t>
861  <x:anchor-alias value="URI-reference"/>
862  <x:anchor-alias value="absolute-URI"/>
863  <x:anchor-alias value="relative-part"/>
864  <x:anchor-alias value="authority"/>
865  <x:anchor-alias value="path-abempty"/>
866  <x:anchor-alias value="path-absolute"/>
867  <x:anchor-alias value="port"/>
868  <x:anchor-alias value="query"/>
869  <x:anchor-alias value="uri-host"/>
870  <x:anchor-alias value="partial-URI"/>
871<t>
872   This specification adopts the definitions of "URI-reference",
873   "absolute-URI", "relative-part", "port", "host",
874   "path-abempty", "path-absolute", "query", and "authority" from
875   <xref target="RFC3986"/>. In addition, we define a partial-URI rule for
876   protocol elements that allow a relative URI without a fragment.
877</t>
878<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="URI-reference"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="absolute-URI"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="authority"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="path-absolute"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="port"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="query"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="uri-host"/>
879  <x:ref>URI-reference</x:ref> = &lt;URI-reference, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>&gt;
880  <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref>  = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.3"/>&gt;
881  <x:ref>relative-part</x:ref> = &lt;relative-part, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.2"/>&gt;
882  <x:ref>authority</x:ref>     = &lt;authority, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2"/>&gt;
883  <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref>  = &lt;path-abempty, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>&gt;
884  <x:ref>path-absolute</x:ref> = &lt;path-absolute, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>&gt;
885  <x:ref>port</x:ref>          = &lt;port, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.3"/>&gt;
886  <x:ref>query</x:ref>         = &lt;query, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.4"/>&gt;
887  <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref>      = &lt;host, defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.2"/>&gt;
888 
889  <x:ref>partial-URI</x:ref>   = relative-part [ "?" query ]
890</artwork></figure>
891<t>
892   Each protocol element in HTTP that allows a URI reference will indicate in
893   its ABNF production whether the element allows only a URI in absolute form
894   (absolute-URI), any relative reference (relative-ref), or some other subset
895   of the URI-reference grammar. Unless otherwise indicated, URI references
896   are parsed relative to the request target (the default base URI for both
897   the request and its corresponding response).
898</t>
899
900<section title="http URI scheme" anchor="http.uri">
901  <x:anchor-alias value="http-URI"/>
902  <iref item="http URI scheme" primary="true"/>
903  <iref item="URI scheme" subitem="http" primary="true"/>
904<t>
905   The "http" URI scheme is hereby defined for the purpose of minting
906   identifiers according to their association with the hierarchical
907   namespace governed by a potential HTTP origin server listening for
908   TCP connections on a given port.
909   The HTTP server is identified via the generic syntax's
910   <x:ref>authority</x:ref> component, which includes a host
911   identifier and optional TCP port, and the remainder of the URI is
912   considered to be identifying data corresponding to a resource for
913   which that server might provide an HTTP interface.
914</t>
915<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="http-URI"/>
916  <x:ref>http-URI</x:ref> = "http:" "//" <x:ref>authority</x:ref> <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ]
917</artwork></figure>
918<t>
919   The host identifier within an <x:ref>authority</x:ref> component is
920   defined in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.2.2"/>.  If host is
921   provided as an IP literal or IPv4 address, then the HTTP server is any
922   listener on the indicated TCP port at that IP address. If host is a
923   registered name, then that name is considered an indirect identifier
924   and the recipient might use a name resolution service, such as DNS,
925   to find the address of a listener for that host.
926   The host &MUST-NOT; be empty; if an "http" URI is received with an
927   empty host, then it &MUST; be rejected as invalid.
928   If the port subcomponent is empty or not given, then TCP port 80 is
929   assumed (the default reserved port for WWW services).
930</t>
931<t>
932   Regardless of the form of host identifier, access to that host is not
933   implied by the mere presence of its name or address. The host may or may
934   not exist and, even when it does exist, may or may not be running an
935   HTTP server or listening to the indicated port. The "http" URI scheme
936   makes use of the delegated nature of Internet names and addresses to
937   establish a naming authority (whatever entity has the ability to place
938   an HTTP server at that Internet name or address) and allows that
939   authority to determine which names are valid and how they might be used.
940</t>
941<t>
942   When an "http" URI is used within a context that calls for access to the
943   indicated resource, a client &MAY; attempt access by resolving
944   the host to an IP address, establishing a TCP connection to that address
945   on the indicated port, and sending an HTTP request message to the server
946   containing the URI's identifying data as described in <xref target="request"/>.
947   If the server responds to that request with a non-interim HTTP response
948   message, as described in <xref target="response"/>, then that response
949   is considered an authoritative answer to the client's request.
950</t>
951<t>
952   Although HTTP is independent of the transport protocol, the "http"
953   scheme is specific to TCP-based services because the name delegation
954   process depends on TCP for establishing authority.
955   An HTTP service based on some other underlying connection protocol
956   would presumably be identified using a different URI scheme, just as
957   the "https" scheme (below) is used for servers that require an SSL/TLS
958   transport layer on a connection. Other protocols may also be used to
959   provide access to "http" identified resources --- it is only the
960   authoritative interface used for mapping the namespace that is
961   specific to TCP.
962</t>
963</section>
964
965<section title="https URI scheme" anchor="https.uri">
966   <x:anchor-alias value="https-URI"/>
967   <iref item="https URI scheme"/>
968   <iref item="URI scheme" subitem="https"/>
969<t>
970   The "https" URI scheme is hereby defined for the purpose of minting
971   identifiers according to their association with the hierarchical
972   namespace governed by a potential HTTP origin server listening for
973   SSL/TLS-secured connections on a given TCP port.
974   The host and port are determined in the same way
975   as for the "http" scheme, except that a default TCP port of 443
976   is assumed if the port subcomponent is empty or not given.
977</t>
978<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="https-URI"/>
979  <x:ref>https-URI</x:ref> = "https:" "//" <x:ref>authority</x:ref> <x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ]
980</artwork></figure>
981<t>
982   The primary difference between the "http" and "https" schemes is
983   that interaction with the latter is required to be secured for
984   privacy through the use of strong encryption. The URI cannot be
985   sent in a request until the connection is secure. Likewise, the
986   default for caching is that each response that would be considered
987   "public" under the "http" scheme is instead treated as "private"
988   and thus not eligible for shared caching.
989</t>
990<t>
991   The process for authoritative access to an "https" identified
992   resource is defined in <xref target="RFC2818"/>.
993</t>
994</section>
995
996<section title="http and https URI Normalization and Comparison" anchor="uri.comparison">
997<t>
998   Since the "http" and "https" schemes conform to the URI generic syntax,
999   such URIs are normalized and compared according to the algorithm defined
1000   in <xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="6"/>, using the defaults
1001   described above for each scheme.
1002</t>
1003<t>
1004   If the port is equal to the default port for a scheme, the normal
1005   form is to elide the port subcomponent. Likewise, an empty path
1006   component is equivalent to an absolute path of "/", so the normal
1007   form is to provide a path of "/" instead. The scheme and host
1008   are case-insensitive and normally provided in lowercase; all
1009   other components are compared in a case-sensitive manner.
1010   Characters other than those in the "reserved" set are equivalent
1011   to their percent-encoded octets (see <xref target="RFC3986"
1012   x:fmt="," x:sec="2.1"/>): the normal form is to not encode them.
1013</t>
1014<t>
1015   For example, the following three URIs are equivalent:
1016</t>
1017<figure><artwork type="example">
1018   http://example.com:80/~smith/home.html
1019   http://EXAMPLE.com/%7Esmith/home.html
1020   http://EXAMPLE.com:/%7esmith/home.html
1021</artwork></figure>
1022<t>
1023   <cref anchor="TODO-not-here" source="roy">This paragraph does not belong here.</cref>
1024   If path-abempty is the empty string (i.e., there is no slash "/"
1025   path separator following the authority), then the "http" URI
1026   &MUST; be given as "/" when
1027   used as a request-target (<xref target="request-target"/>). If a proxy
1028   receives a host name which is not a fully qualified domain name, it
1029   &MAY; add its domain to the host name it received. If a proxy receives
1030   a fully qualified domain name, the proxy &MUST-NOT; change the host
1031   name.
1032</t>
1033</section>
1034</section>
1035</section>
1036
1037<section title="HTTP Message" anchor="http.message">
1038<x:anchor-alias value="generic-message"/>
1039<x:anchor-alias value="message.types"/>
1040<x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-message"/>
1041<x:anchor-alias value="start-line"/>
1042<iref item="header section"/>
1043<iref item="headers"/>
1044<iref item="header field"/>
1045<t>
1046   All HTTP/1.1 messages consist of a start-line followed by a sequence of
1047   characters in a format similar to the Internet Message Format
1048   <xref target="RFC5322"/>: zero or more header fields (collectively
1049   referred to as the "headers" or the "header section"), an empty line
1050   indicating the end of the header section, and an optional message-body.
1051</t>
1052<t>
1053   An HTTP message can either be a request from client to server or a
1054   response from server to client.  Syntactically, the two types of message
1055   differ only in the start-line, which is either a Request-Line (for requests)
1056   or a Status-Line (for responses), and in the algorithm for determining
1057   the length of the message-body (<xref target="message.length"/>).
1058   In theory, a client could receive requests and a server could receive
1059   responses, distinguishing them by their different start-line formats,
1060   but in practice servers are implemented to only expect a request
1061   (a response is interpreted as an unknown or invalid request method)
1062   and clients are implemented to only expect a response.
1063</t>
1064<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="HTTP-message"/>
1065  <x:ref>HTTP-message</x:ref>    = <x:ref>start-line</x:ref>
1066                    *( <x:ref>header-field</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref> )
1067                    <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1068                    [ <x:ref>message-body</x:ref> ]
1069  <x:ref>start-line</x:ref>      = <x:ref>Request-Line</x:ref> / <x:ref>Status-Line</x:ref>
1070</artwork></figure>
1071<t>
1072   Whitespace (WSP) &MUST-NOT; be sent between the start-line and the first
1073   header field. The presence of whitespace might be an attempt to trick a
1074   noncompliant implementation of HTTP into ignoring that field or processing
1075   the next line as a new request, either of which may result in security
1076   issues when implementations within the request chain interpret the
1077   same message differently. HTTP/1.1 servers &MUST; reject such a message
1078   with a 400 (Bad Request) response.
1079</t>
1080
1081<section title="Message Parsing Robustness" anchor="message.robustness">
1082<t>
1083   In the interest of robustness, servers &SHOULD; ignore at least one
1084   empty line received where a Request-Line is expected. In other words, if
1085   the server is reading the protocol stream at the beginning of a
1086   message and receives a CRLF first, it should ignore the CRLF.
1087</t>
1088<t>
1089   Some old HTTP/1.0 client implementations generate an extra CRLF
1090   after a POST request as a lame workaround for some early server
1091   applications that failed to read message-body content that was
1092   not terminated by a line-ending. An HTTP/1.1 client &MUST-NOT;
1093   preface or follow a request with an extra CRLF.  If terminating
1094   the request message-body with a line-ending is desired, then the
1095   client &MUST; include the terminating CRLF octets as part of the
1096   message-body length.
1097</t>
1098<t>
1099   The normal procedure for parsing an HTTP message is to read the
1100   start-line into a structure, read each header field into a hash
1101   table by field name until the empty line, and then use the parsed
1102   data to determine if a message-body is expected.  If a message-body
1103   has been indicated, then it is read as a stream until an amount
1104   of OCTETs equal to the message-length is read or the connection
1105   is closed.  Care must be taken to parse an HTTP message as a sequence
1106   of OCTETs in an encoding that is a superset of US-ASCII.  Attempting
1107   to parse HTTP as a stream of Unicode characters in a character encoding
1108   like UTF-16 may introduce security flaws due to the differing ways
1109   that such parsers interpret invalid characters.
1110</t>
1111</section>
1112
1113<section title="Header Fields" anchor="header.fields">
1114  <x:anchor-alias value="header-field"/>
1115  <x:anchor-alias value="field-content"/>
1116  <x:anchor-alias value="field-name"/>
1117  <x:anchor-alias value="field-value"/>
1118  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1119<t>
1120   Each HTTP header field consists of a case-insensitive field name
1121   followed by a colon (":"), optional whitespace, and the field value.
1122</t>
1123<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="header-field"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="field-name"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="field-value"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="field-content"/>
1124  <x:ref>header-field</x:ref>   = <x:ref>field-name</x:ref> ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> [ <x:ref>field-value</x:ref> ] <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
1125  <x:ref>field-name</x:ref>     = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
1126  <x:ref>field-value</x:ref>    = *( <x:ref>field-content</x:ref> / <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> )
1127  <x:ref>field-content</x:ref>  = *( <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> / <x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> )
1128</artwork></figure>
1129<t>
1130   No whitespace is allowed between the header field name and colon. For
1131   security reasons, any request message received containing such whitespace
1132   &MUST; be rejected with a response code of 400 (Bad Request). A proxy
1133   &MUST; remove any such whitespace from a response message before
1134   forwarding the message downstream.
1135</t>
1136<t>
1137   A field value &MAY; be preceded by optional whitespace (OWS); a single SP is
1138   preferred. The field value does not include any leading or trailing white
1139   space: OWS occurring before the first non-whitespace character of the
1140   field value or after the last non-whitespace character of the field value
1141   is ignored and &SHOULD; be removed before further processing (as this does
1142   not change the meaning of the header field).
1143</t>
1144<t>
1145   The order in which header fields with differing field names are
1146   received is not significant. However, it is "good practice" to send
1147   header fields that contain control data first, such as Host on
1148   requests and Date on responses, so that implementations can decide
1149   when not to handle a message as early as possible.  A server &MUST;
1150   wait until the entire header section is received before interpreting
1151   a request message, since later header fields might include conditionals,
1152   authentication credentials, or deliberately misleading duplicate
1153   header fields that would impact request processing.
1154</t>
1155<t>
1156   Multiple header fields with the same field name &MUST-NOT; be
1157   sent in a message unless the entire field value for that
1158   header field is defined as a comma-separated list [i.e., #(values)].
1159   Multiple header fields with the same field name can be combined into
1160   one "field-name: field-value" pair, without changing the semantics of the
1161   message, by appending each subsequent field value to the combined
1162   field value in order, separated by a comma. The order in which
1163   header fields with the same field name are received is therefore
1164   significant to the interpretation of the combined field value;
1165   a proxy &MUST-NOT; change the order of these field values when
1166   forwarding a message.
1167</t>
1168<x:note>
1169  <t>
1170   <x:h>Note:</x:h> The "Set-Cookie" header as implemented in
1171   practice (as opposed to how it is specified in <xref target="RFC2109"/>)
1172   can occur multiple times, but does not use the list syntax, and thus cannot
1173   be combined into a single line. (See Appendix A.2.3 of <xref target="Kri2001"/>
1174   for details.) Also note that the Set-Cookie2 header specified in
1175   <xref target="RFC2965"/> does not share this problem.
1176  </t>
1177</x:note>
1178<t>
1179   Historically, HTTP header field values could be extended over multiple
1180   lines by preceding each extra line with at least one space or horizontal
1181   tab character (line folding). This specification deprecates such line
1182   folding except within the message/http media type
1183   (<xref target="internet.media.type.message.http"/>).
1184   HTTP/1.1 senders &MUST-NOT; produce messages that include line folding
1185   (i.e., that contain any field-content that matches the obs-fold rule) unless
1186   the message is intended for packaging within the message/http media type.
1187   HTTP/1.1 recipients &SHOULD; accept line folding and replace any embedded
1188   obs-fold whitespace with a single SP prior to interpreting the field value
1189   or forwarding the message downstream.
1190</t>
1191<t>
1192   Historically, HTTP has allowed field content with text in the ISO-8859-1
1193   <xref target="ISO-8859-1"/> character encoding and supported other
1194   character sets only through use of <xref target="RFC2047"/> encoding.
1195   In practice, most HTTP header field values use only a subset of the
1196   US-ASCII character encoding <xref target="USASCII"/>. Newly defined
1197   header fields &SHOULD; limit their field values to US-ASCII characters.
1198   Recipients &SHOULD; treat other (obs-text) octets in field content as
1199   opaque data.
1200</t>
1201<t anchor="rule.comment">
1202  <x:anchor-alias value="comment"/>
1203  <x:anchor-alias value="ctext"/>
1204   Comments can be included in some HTTP header fields by surrounding
1205   the comment text with parentheses. Comments are only allowed in
1206   fields containing "comment" as part of their field value definition.
1207</t>
1208<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="comment"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="ctext"/>
1209  <x:ref>comment</x:ref>        = "(" *( <x:ref>ctext</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-cpair</x:ref> / <x:ref>comment</x:ref> ) ")"
1210  <x:ref>ctext</x:ref>          = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> / %x21-27 / %x2A-5B / %x5D-7E / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref>
1211                 ; <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> / &lt;<x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> except "(", ")", and "\"&gt; / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref>
1212</artwork></figure>
1213<t anchor="rule.quoted-cpair">
1214  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-cpair"/>
1215   The backslash character ("\") can be used as a single-character
1216   quoting mechanism within comment constructs:
1217</t>
1218<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="quoted-cpair"/>
1219  <x:ref>quoted-cpair</x:ref>    = "\" ( <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> / <x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> )
1220</artwork></figure>
1221<t>
1222   Producers &SHOULD-NOT; escape characters that do not require escaping
1223   (i.e., other than the backslash character "\" and the parentheses "(" and
1224   ")").
1225</t>
1226</section>
1227
1228<section title="Message Body" anchor="message.body">
1229  <x:anchor-alias value="message-body"/>
1230<t>
1231   The message-body (if any) of an HTTP message is used to carry the
1232   entity-body associated with the request or response. The message-body
1233   differs from the entity-body only when a transfer-coding has been
1234   applied, as indicated by the Transfer-Encoding header field (<xref target="header.transfer-encoding"/>).
1235</t>
1236<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="message-body"/>
1237  <x:ref>message-body</x:ref> = <x:ref>entity-body</x:ref>
1238               / &lt;entity-body encoded as per <x:ref>Transfer-Encoding</x:ref>&gt;
1239</artwork></figure>
1240<t>
1241   Transfer-Encoding &MUST; be used to indicate any transfer-codings
1242   applied by an application to ensure safe and proper transfer of the
1243   message. Transfer-Encoding is a property of the message, not of the
1244   entity, and thus &MAY; be added or removed by any application along the
1245   request/response chain. (However, <xref target="transfer.codings"/> places restrictions on
1246   when certain transfer-codings may be used.)
1247</t>
1248<t>
1249   The rules for when a message-body is allowed in a message differ for
1250   requests and responses.
1251</t>
1252<t>
1253   The presence of a message-body in a request is signaled by the
1254   inclusion of a Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding header field in
1255   the request's header fields.
1256   When a request message contains both a message-body of non-zero
1257   length and a method that does not define any semantics for that
1258   request message-body, then an origin server &SHOULD; either ignore
1259   the message-body or respond with an appropriate error message
1260   (e.g., 413).  A proxy or gateway, when presented the same request,
1261   &SHOULD; either forward the request inbound with the message-body or
1262   ignore the message-body when determining a response.
1263</t>
1264<t>
1265   For response messages, whether or not a message-body is included with
1266   a message is dependent on both the request method and the response
1267   status code (<xref target="status.code.and.reason.phrase"/>). All responses to the HEAD request method
1268   &MUST-NOT; include a message-body, even though the presence of entity-header
1269   fields might lead one to believe they do. All 1xx
1270   (Informational), 204 (No Content), and 304 (Not Modified) responses
1271   &MUST-NOT; include a message-body. All other responses do include a
1272   message-body, although it &MAY; be of zero length.
1273</t>
1274</section>
1275
1276<section title="Message Length" anchor="message.length">
1277<t>
1278   The transfer-length of a message is the length of the message-body as
1279   it appears in the message; that is, after any transfer-codings have
1280   been applied. When a message-body is included with a message, the
1281   transfer-length of that body is determined by one of the following
1282   (in order of precedence):
1283</t>
1284<t>
1285  <list style="numbers">
1286    <x:lt><t>
1287     Any response message which "&MUST-NOT;" include a message-body (such
1288     as the 1xx, 204, and 304 responses and any response to a HEAD
1289     request) is always terminated by the first empty line after the
1290     header fields, regardless of the entity-header fields present in
1291     the message.
1292    </t></x:lt>
1293    <x:lt><t>
1294     If a Transfer-Encoding header field (<xref target="header.transfer-encoding"/>)
1295     is present and the "chunked" transfer-coding (<xref target="transfer.codings"/>)
1296     is used, the transfer-length is defined by the use of this transfer-coding.
1297     If a Transfer-Encoding header field is present and the "chunked" transfer-coding
1298     is not present, the transfer-length is defined by the sender closing the connection.
1299    </t></x:lt>
1300    <x:lt><t>
1301     If a Content-Length header field (<xref target="header.content-length"/>) is present, its
1302     value in OCTETs represents both the entity-length and the
1303     transfer-length. The Content-Length header field &MUST-NOT; be sent
1304     if these two lengths are different (i.e., if a Transfer-Encoding
1305     header field is present). If a message is received with both a
1306     Transfer-Encoding header field and a Content-Length header field,
1307     the latter &MUST; be ignored.
1308    </t></x:lt>
1309    <x:lt><t>
1310     If the message uses the media type "multipart/byteranges", and the
1311     transfer-length is not otherwise specified, then this self-delimiting
1312     media type defines the transfer-length. This media type
1313     &MUST-NOT; be used unless the sender knows that the recipient can parse
1314     it; the presence in a request of a Range header with multiple byte-range
1315     specifiers from a HTTP/1.1 client implies that the client can parse
1316     multipart/byteranges responses.
1317    <list style="empty"><t>
1318       A range header might be forwarded by a HTTP/1.0 proxy that does not
1319       understand multipart/byteranges; in this case the server &MUST;
1320       delimit the message using methods defined in items 1, 3 or 5 of
1321       this section.
1322    </t></list>
1323    </t></x:lt>
1324    <x:lt><t>
1325     By the server closing the connection. (Closing the connection
1326     cannot be used to indicate the end of a request body, since that
1327     would leave no possibility for the server to send back a response.)
1328    </t></x:lt>
1329  </list>
1330</t>
1331<t>
1332   For compatibility with HTTP/1.0 applications, HTTP/1.1 requests
1333   containing a message-body &MUST; include a valid Content-Length header
1334   field unless the server is known to be HTTP/1.1 compliant. If a
1335   request contains a message-body and a Content-Length is not given,
1336   the server &SHOULD; respond with 400 (Bad Request) if it cannot
1337   determine the length of the message, or with 411 (Length Required) if
1338   it wishes to insist on receiving a valid Content-Length.
1339</t>
1340<t>
1341   All HTTP/1.1 applications that receive entities &MUST; accept the
1342   "chunked" transfer-coding (<xref target="transfer.codings"/>), thus allowing this mechanism
1343   to be used for messages when the message length cannot be determined
1344   in advance.
1345</t>
1346<t>
1347   Messages &MUST-NOT; include both a Content-Length header field and a
1348   transfer-coding. If the message does include a
1349   transfer-coding, the Content-Length &MUST; be ignored.
1350</t>
1351<t>
1352   When a Content-Length is given in a message where a message-body is
1353   allowed, its field value &MUST; exactly match the number of OCTETs in
1354   the message-body. HTTP/1.1 user agents &MUST; notify the user when an
1355   invalid length is received and detected.
1356</t>
1357</section>
1358
1359<section title="General Header Fields" anchor="general.header.fields">
1360  <x:anchor-alias value="general-header"/>
1361<t>
1362   There are a few header fields which have general applicability for
1363   both request and response messages, but which do not apply to the
1364   entity being transferred. These header fields apply only to the
1365   message being transmitted.
1366</t>
1367<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="general-header"/>
1368  <x:ref>general-header</x:ref> = <x:ref>Cache-Control</x:ref>            ; &header-cache-control;
1369                 / <x:ref>Connection</x:ref>               ; <xref target="header.connection"/>
1370                 / <x:ref>Date</x:ref>                     ; <xref target="header.date"/>
1371                 / <x:ref>Pragma</x:ref>                   ; &header-pragma;
1372                 / <x:ref>Trailer</x:ref>                  ; <xref target="header.trailer"/>
1373                 / <x:ref>Transfer-Encoding</x:ref>        ; <xref target="header.transfer-encoding"/>
1374                 / <x:ref>Upgrade</x:ref>                  ; <xref target="header.upgrade"/>
1375                 / <x:ref>Via</x:ref>                      ; <xref target="header.via"/>
1376                 / <x:ref>Warning</x:ref>                  ; &header-warning;
1377</artwork></figure>
1378<t>
1379   General-header field names can be extended reliably only in
1380   combination with a change in the protocol version. However, new or
1381   experimental header fields may be given the semantics of general
1382   header fields if all parties in the communication recognize them to
1383   be general-header fields. Unrecognized header fields are treated as
1384   entity-header fields.
1385</t>
1386</section>
1387</section>
1388
1389<section title="Request" anchor="request">
1390  <x:anchor-alias value="Request"/>
1391<t>
1392   A request message from a client to a server includes, within the
1393   first line of that message, the method to be applied to the resource,
1394   the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use.
1395</t>
1396<!--                 Host                      ; should be moved here eventually -->
1397<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Request"/>
1398  <x:ref>Request</x:ref>       = <x:ref>Request-Line</x:ref>              ; <xref target="request-line"/>
1399                  *(( <x:ref>general-header</x:ref>        ; <xref target="general.header.fields"/>
1400                   / <x:ref>request-header</x:ref>         ; &request-header-fields;
1401                   / <x:ref>entity-header</x:ref> ) <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref> ) ; &entity-header-fields;
1402                  <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1403                  [ <x:ref>message-body</x:ref> ]          ; <xref target="message.body"/>
1404</artwork></figure>
1405
1406<section title="Request-Line" anchor="request-line">
1407  <x:anchor-alias value="Request-Line"/>
1408<t>
1409   The Request-Line begins with a method token, followed by the
1410   request-target and the protocol version, and ending with CRLF. The
1411   elements are separated by SP characters. No CR or LF is allowed
1412   except in the final CRLF sequence.
1413</t>
1414<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Request-Line"/>
1415  <x:ref>Request-Line</x:ref>   = <x:ref>Method</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>request-target</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>HTTP-Version</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1416</artwork></figure>
1417
1418<section title="Method" anchor="method">
1419  <x:anchor-alias value="Method"/>
1420<t>
1421   The Method  token indicates the method to be performed on the
1422   resource identified by the request-target. The method is case-sensitive.
1423</t>
1424<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Method"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="extension-method"/>
1425  <x:ref>Method</x:ref>         = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
1426</artwork></figure>
1427</section>
1428
1429<section title="request-target" anchor="request-target">
1430  <x:anchor-alias value="request-target"/>
1431<t>
1432   The request-target
1433   identifies the resource upon which to apply the request.
1434</t>
1435<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="request-target"/>
1436  <x:ref>request-target</x:ref> = "*"
1437                 / <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref>
1438                 / ( <x:ref>path-absolute</x:ref> [ "?" <x:ref>query</x:ref> ] )
1439                 / <x:ref>authority</x:ref>
1440</artwork></figure>
1441<t>
1442   The four options for request-target are dependent on the nature of the
1443   request.
1444</t>   
1445<t>
1446   The asterisk "*" means that the request does not apply to a
1447   particular resource, but to the server itself, and is only allowed
1448   when the method used does not necessarily apply to a resource. One
1449   example would be
1450</t>
1451<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
1452OPTIONS * HTTP/1.1
1453</artwork></figure>
1454<t>
1455   The absolute-URI form is &REQUIRED; when the request is being made to a
1456   proxy. The proxy is requested to forward the request or service it
1457   from a valid cache, and return the response. Note that the proxy &MAY;
1458   forward the request on to another proxy or directly to the server
1459   specified by the absolute-URI. In order to avoid request loops, a
1460   proxy &MUST; be able to recognize all of its server names, including
1461   any aliases, local variations, and the numeric IP address. An example
1462   Request-Line would be:
1463</t>
1464<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
1465GET http://www.example.org/pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
1466</artwork></figure>
1467<t>
1468   To allow for transition to absolute-URIs in all requests in future
1469   versions of HTTP, all HTTP/1.1 servers &MUST; accept the absolute-URI
1470   form in requests, even though HTTP/1.1 clients will only generate
1471   them in requests to proxies.
1472</t>
1473<t>
1474   The authority form is only used by the CONNECT method (&CONNECT;).
1475</t>
1476<t>
1477   The most common form of request-target is that used to identify a
1478   resource on an origin server or gateway. In this case the absolute
1479   path of the URI &MUST; be transmitted (see <xref target="http.uri"/>, path-absolute) as
1480   the request-target, and the network location of the URI (authority) &MUST;
1481   be transmitted in a Host header field. For example, a client wishing
1482   to retrieve the resource above directly from the origin server would
1483   create a TCP connection to port 80 of the host "www.example.org" and send
1484   the lines:
1485</t>
1486<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
1487GET /pub/WWW/TheProject.html HTTP/1.1
1488Host: www.example.org
1489</artwork></figure>
1490<t>
1491   followed by the remainder of the Request. Note that the absolute path
1492   cannot be empty; if none is present in the original URI, it &MUST; be
1493   given as "/" (the server root).
1494</t>
1495<t>
1496   If a proxy receives a request without any path in the request-target and
1497   the method specified is capable of supporting the asterisk form of
1498   request-target, then the last proxy on the request chain &MUST; forward the
1499   request with "*" as the final request-target.
1500</t>
1501<figure><preamble>   
1502   For example, the request
1503</preamble><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
1504OPTIONS http://www.example.org:8001 HTTP/1.1
1505</artwork></figure>
1506<figure><preamble>   
1507  would be forwarded by the proxy as
1508</preamble><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
1509OPTIONS * HTTP/1.1
1510Host: www.example.org:8001
1511</artwork>
1512<postamble>
1513   after connecting to port 8001 of host "www.example.org".
1514</postamble>
1515</figure>
1516<t>
1517   The request-target is transmitted in the format specified in
1518   <xref target="http.uri"/>. If the request-target is percent-encoded
1519   (<xref target="RFC3986" x:fmt="," x:sec="2.1"/>), the origin server
1520   &MUST; decode the request-target in order to
1521   properly interpret the request. Servers &SHOULD; respond to invalid
1522   request-targets with an appropriate status code.
1523</t>
1524<t>
1525   A transparent proxy &MUST-NOT; rewrite the "path-absolute" part of the
1526   received request-target when forwarding it to the next inbound server,
1527   except as noted above to replace a null path-absolute with "/".
1528</t>
1529<x:note>
1530  <t>
1531    <x:h>Note:</x:h> The "no rewrite" rule prevents the proxy from changing the
1532    meaning of the request when the origin server is improperly using
1533    a non-reserved URI character for a reserved purpose.  Implementors
1534    should be aware that some pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies have been known to
1535    rewrite the request-target.
1536  </t>
1537</x:note>
1538<t>
1539   HTTP does not place a pre-defined limit on the length of a request-target.
1540   A server &MUST; be prepared to receive URIs of unbounded length and
1541   respond with the 414 (URI Too Long) status if the received
1542   request-target would be longer than the server wishes to handle
1543   (see &status-414;).
1544</t>
1545<t>
1546   Various ad-hoc limitations on request-target length are found in practice.
1547   It is &RECOMMENDED; that all HTTP senders and recipients support
1548   request-target lengths of 8000 or more OCTETs.
1549</t>
1550</section>
1551</section>
1552
1553<section title="The Resource Identified by a Request" anchor="the.resource.identified.by.a.request">
1554<t>
1555   The exact resource identified by an Internet request is determined by
1556   examining both the request-target and the Host header field.
1557</t>
1558<t>
1559   An origin server that does not allow resources to differ by the
1560   requested host &MAY; ignore the Host header field value when
1561   determining the resource identified by an HTTP/1.1 request. (But see
1562   <xref target="changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses"/>
1563   for other requirements on Host support in HTTP/1.1.)
1564</t>
1565<t>
1566   An origin server that does differentiate resources based on the host
1567   requested (sometimes referred to as virtual hosts or vanity host
1568   names) &MUST; use the following rules for determining the requested
1569   resource on an HTTP/1.1 request:
1570  <list style="numbers">
1571    <t>If request-target is an absolute-URI, the host is part of the
1572     request-target. Any Host header field value in the request &MUST; be
1573     ignored.</t>
1574    <t>If the request-target is not an absolute-URI, and the request includes
1575     a Host header field, the host is determined by the Host header
1576     field value.</t>
1577    <t>If the host as determined by rule 1 or 2 is not a valid host on
1578     the server, the response &MUST; be a 400 (Bad Request) error message.</t>
1579  </list>
1580</t>
1581<t>
1582   Recipients of an HTTP/1.0 request that lacks a Host header field &MAY;
1583   attempt to use heuristics (e.g., examination of the URI path for
1584   something unique to a particular host) in order to determine what
1585   exact resource is being requested.
1586</t>
1587</section>
1588
1589</section>
1590
1591
1592<section title="Response" anchor="response">
1593  <x:anchor-alias value="Response"/>
1594<t>
1595   After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds
1596   with an HTTP response message.
1597</t>
1598<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Response"/>
1599  <x:ref>Response</x:ref>      = <x:ref>Status-Line</x:ref>               ; <xref target="status-line"/>
1600                  *(( <x:ref>general-header</x:ref>        ; <xref target="general.header.fields"/>
1601                   / <x:ref>response-header</x:ref>        ; &response-header-fields;
1602                   / <x:ref>entity-header</x:ref> ) <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref> ) ; &entity-header-fields;
1603                  <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1604                  [ <x:ref>message-body</x:ref> ]          ; <xref target="message.body"/>
1605</artwork></figure>
1606
1607<section title="Status-Line" anchor="status-line">
1608  <x:anchor-alias value="Status-Line"/>
1609<t>
1610   The first line of a Response message is the Status-Line, consisting
1611   of the protocol version followed by a numeric status code and its
1612   associated textual phrase, with each element separated by SP
1613   characters. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final CRLF sequence.
1614</t>
1615<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Status-Line"/>
1616  <x:ref>Status-Line</x:ref> = <x:ref>HTTP-Version</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>Status-Code</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>Reason-Phrase</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1617</artwork></figure>
1618
1619<section title="Status Code and Reason Phrase" anchor="status.code.and.reason.phrase">
1620  <x:anchor-alias value="Reason-Phrase"/>
1621  <x:anchor-alias value="Status-Code"/>
1622<t>
1623   The Status-Code element is a 3-digit integer result code of the
1624   attempt to understand and satisfy the request. These codes are fully
1625   defined in &status-codes;.  The Reason Phrase exists for the sole
1626   purpose of providing a textual description associated with the numeric
1627   status code, out of deference to earlier Internet application protocols
1628   that were more frequently used with interactive text clients.
1629   A client &SHOULD; ignore the content of the Reason Phrase.
1630</t>
1631<t>
1632   The first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response. The
1633   last two digits do not have any categorization role. There are 5
1634   values for the first digit:
1635  <list style="symbols">
1636    <t>
1637      1xx: Informational - Request received, continuing process
1638    </t>
1639    <t>
1640      2xx: Success - The action was successfully received,
1641        understood, and accepted
1642    </t>
1643    <t>
1644      3xx: Redirection - Further action must be taken in order to
1645        complete the request
1646    </t>
1647    <t>
1648      4xx: Client Error - The request contains bad syntax or cannot
1649        be fulfilled
1650    </t>
1651    <t>
1652      5xx: Server Error - The server failed to fulfill an apparently
1653        valid request
1654    </t>
1655  </list>
1656</t>
1657<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Status-Code"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="extension-code"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Reason-Phrase"/>
1658  <x:ref>Status-Code</x:ref>    = 3<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
1659  <x:ref>Reason-Phrase</x:ref>  = *( <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> / <x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> )
1660</artwork></figure>
1661</section>
1662</section>
1663
1664</section>
1665
1666
1667<section title="Protocol Parameters" anchor="protocol.parameters">
1668
1669<section title="Date/Time Formats: Full Date" anchor="date.time.formats.full.date">
1670  <x:anchor-alias value="HTTP-date"/>
1671<t>
1672   HTTP applications have historically allowed three different formats
1673   for the representation of date/time stamps.
1674</t>
1675<t>
1676   The first format is preferred as an Internet standard and represents
1677   a fixed-length subset of that defined by <xref target="RFC1123"/>:
1678</t>
1679<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="  ">
1680Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT  ; RFC 1123
1681</artwork></figure>
1682<t>
1683   The other formats are described here only for compatibility with obsolete
1684   implementations.
1685</t>
1686<figure><artwork type="example" x:indent-with="  ">
1687Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT ; obsolete RFC 850 format
1688Sun Nov  6 08:49:37 1994       ; ANSI C's asctime() format
1689</artwork></figure>
1690<t>
1691   HTTP/1.1 clients and servers that parse the date value &MUST; accept
1692   all three formats (for compatibility with HTTP/1.0), though they &MUST;
1693   only generate the RFC 1123 format for representing HTTP-date values
1694   in header fields. See <xref target="tolerant.applications"/> for further information.
1695</t>
1696<t>
1697   All HTTP date/time stamps &MUST; be represented in Greenwich Mean Time
1698   (GMT), without exception. For the purposes of HTTP, GMT is exactly
1699   equal to UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). This is indicated in the
1700   first two formats by the inclusion of "GMT" as the three-letter
1701   abbreviation for time zone, and &MUST; be assumed when reading the
1702   asctime format. HTTP-date is case sensitive and &MUST-NOT; include
1703   additional whitespace beyond that specifically included as SP in the
1704   grammar.
1705</t>
1706<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="HTTP-date"/>
1707  <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>    = <x:ref>rfc1123-date</x:ref> / <x:ref>obs-date</x:ref>
1708</artwork></figure>
1709<t anchor="preferred.date.format">
1710  <x:anchor-alias value="rfc1123-date"/>
1711  <x:anchor-alias value="time-of-day"/>
1712  <x:anchor-alias value="hour"/>
1713  <x:anchor-alias value="minute"/>
1714  <x:anchor-alias value="second"/>
1715  <x:anchor-alias value="day-name"/>
1716  <x:anchor-alias value="day"/>
1717  <x:anchor-alias value="month"/>
1718  <x:anchor-alias value="year"/>
1719  <x:anchor-alias value="GMT"/>
1720  Preferred format:
1721</t>
1722<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="rfc1123-date"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="date1"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="time-of-day"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="hour"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="minute"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="second"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="day-name"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="day-name-l"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="day"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="month"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="year"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="GMT"/>
1723  <x:ref>rfc1123-date</x:ref> = <x:ref>day-name</x:ref> "," <x:ref>SP</x:ref> date1 <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>time-of-day</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>GMT</x:ref>
1724
1725  <x:ref>day-name</x:ref>     = <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Mon"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Mon", case-sensitive
1726               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Tue"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Tue", case-sensitive
1727               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Wed"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Wed", case-sensitive
1728               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Thu"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Thu", case-sensitive
1729               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Fri"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Fri", case-sensitive
1730               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Sat"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Sat", case-sensitive
1731               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Sun"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Sun", case-sensitive
1732               
1733  <x:ref>date1</x:ref>        = <x:ref>day</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>month</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>year</x:ref>
1734               ; e.g., 02 Jun 1982
1735
1736  <x:ref>day</x:ref>          = 2<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
1737  <x:ref>month</x:ref>        = <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Jan"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Jan", case-sensitive
1738               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Feb"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Feb", case-sensitive
1739               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Mar"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Mar", case-sensitive
1740               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Apr"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Apr", case-sensitive
1741               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"May"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "May", case-sensitive
1742               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Jun"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Jun", case-sensitive
1743               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Jul"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Jul", case-sensitive
1744               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Aug"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Aug", case-sensitive
1745               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Sep"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Sep", case-sensitive
1746               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Oct"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Oct", case-sensitive
1747               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Nov"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Nov", case-sensitive
1748               / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Dec"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Dec", case-sensitive
1749  <x:ref>year</x:ref>         = 4<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
1750
1751  <x:ref>GMT</x:ref>   = <x:abnf-char-sequence>"GMT"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "GMT", case-sensitive
1752
1753  <x:ref>time-of-day</x:ref>  = <x:ref>hour</x:ref> ":" <x:ref>minute</x:ref> ":" <x:ref>second</x:ref>
1754                 ; 00:00:00 - 23:59:59
1755                 
1756  <x:ref>hour</x:ref>         = 2<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>               
1757  <x:ref>minute</x:ref>       = 2<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>               
1758  <x:ref>second</x:ref>       = 2<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>               
1759</artwork></figure>
1760<t>
1761  The semantics of <x:ref>day-name</x:ref>, <x:ref>day</x:ref>,
1762  <x:ref>month</x:ref>, <x:ref>year</x:ref>, and <x:ref>time-of-day</x:ref> are the
1763  same as those defined for the RFC 5322 constructs
1764  with the corresponding name (<xref target="RFC5322" x:fmt="," x:sec="3.3"/>).
1765</t>
1766<t anchor="obsolete.date.formats">
1767  <x:anchor-alias value="obs-date"/>
1768  <x:anchor-alias value="rfc850-date"/>
1769  <x:anchor-alias value="asctime-date"/>
1770  <x:anchor-alias value="date1"/>
1771  <x:anchor-alias value="date2"/>
1772  <x:anchor-alias value="date3"/>
1773  <x:anchor-alias value="rfc1123-date"/>
1774  <x:anchor-alias value="day-name-l"/>
1775  Obsolete formats:
1776</t>
1777<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="obs-date"/>
1778  <x:ref>obs-date</x:ref>     = <x:ref>rfc850-date</x:ref> / <x:ref>asctime-date</x:ref> 
1779</artwork></figure>
1780<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="rfc850-date"/>
1781  <x:ref>rfc850-date</x:ref>  = <x:ref>day-name-l</x:ref> "," <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>date2</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>time-of-day</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>GMT</x:ref>
1782  <x:ref>date2</x:ref>        = <x:ref>day</x:ref> "-" <x:ref>month</x:ref> "-" 2<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
1783                 ; day-month-year (e.g., 02-Jun-82)
1784
1785  <x:ref>day-name-l</x:ref>   = <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Monday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Monday", case-sensitive
1786         / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Tuesday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Tuesday", case-sensitive
1787         / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Wednesday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Wednesday", case-sensitive
1788         / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Thursday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Thursday", case-sensitive
1789         / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Friday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Friday", case-sensitive
1790         / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Saturday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Saturday", case-sensitive
1791         / <x:abnf-char-sequence>"Sunday"</x:abnf-char-sequence> ; "Sunday", case-sensitive
1792</artwork></figure>
1793<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="asctime-date"/>
1794  <x:ref>asctime-date</x:ref> = <x:ref>day-name</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>date3</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>time-of-day</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> <x:ref>year</x:ref>
1795  <x:ref>date3</x:ref>        = <x:ref>month</x:ref> <x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( 2<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> / ( <x:ref>SP</x:ref> 1<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> ))
1796                 ; month day (e.g., Jun  2)
1797</artwork></figure>
1798<x:note>
1799  <t>
1800    <x:h>Note:</x:h> Recipients of date values are encouraged to be robust in
1801    accepting date values that may have been sent by non-HTTP
1802    applications, as is sometimes the case when retrieving or posting
1803    messages via proxies/gateways to SMTP or NNTP.
1804  </t>
1805</x:note>
1806<x:note>
1807  <t>
1808    <x:h>Note:</x:h> HTTP requirements for the date/time stamp format apply only
1809    to their usage within the protocol stream. Clients and servers are
1810    not required to use these formats for user presentation, request
1811    logging, etc.
1812  </t>
1813</x:note>
1814</section>
1815
1816<section title="Transfer Codings" anchor="transfer.codings">
1817  <x:anchor-alias value="transfer-coding"/>
1818  <x:anchor-alias value="transfer-extension"/>
1819<t>
1820   Transfer-coding values are used to indicate an encoding
1821   transformation that has been, can be, or may need to be applied to an
1822   entity-body in order to ensure "safe transport" through the network.
1823   This differs from a content coding in that the transfer-coding is a
1824   property of the message, not of the original entity.
1825</t>
1826<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="transfer-coding"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="transfer-extension"/>
1827  <x:ref>transfer-coding</x:ref>         = "chunked" ; <xref target="chunked.encoding"/>
1828                          / "compress" ; <xref target="compress.coding"/>
1829                          / "deflate" ; <xref target="deflate.coding"/>
1830                          / "gzip" ; <xref target="gzip.coding"/>
1831                          / <x:ref>transfer-extension</x:ref>
1832  <x:ref>transfer-extension</x:ref>      = <x:ref>token</x:ref> *( <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>transfer-parameter</x:ref> )
1833</artwork></figure>
1834<t anchor="rule.parameter">
1835  <x:anchor-alias value="attribute"/>
1836  <x:anchor-alias value="transfer-parameter"/>
1837  <x:anchor-alias value="value"/>
1838   Parameters are in  the form of attribute/value pairs.
1839</t>
1840<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="transfer-parameter"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="attribute"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="value"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="date2"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="date3"/>
1841  <x:ref>transfer-parameter</x:ref>      = <x:ref>attribute</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> <x:ref>value</x:ref>
1842  <x:ref>attribute</x:ref>               = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
1843  <x:ref>value</x:ref>                   = <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>
1844</artwork></figure>
1845<t>
1846   All transfer-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses
1847   transfer-coding values in the TE header field (<xref target="header.te"/>) and in
1848   the Transfer-Encoding header field (<xref target="header.transfer-encoding"/>).
1849</t>
1850<t>
1851   Whenever a transfer-coding is applied to a message-body, the set of
1852   transfer-codings &MUST; include "chunked", unless the message indicates it
1853   is terminated by closing the connection. When the "chunked" transfer-coding
1854   is used, it &MUST; be the last transfer-coding applied to the
1855   message-body. The "chunked" transfer-coding &MUST-NOT; be applied more
1856   than once to a message-body. These rules allow the recipient to
1857   determine the transfer-length of the message (<xref target="message.length"/>).
1858</t>
1859<t>
1860   Transfer-codings are analogous to the Content-Transfer-Encoding values of
1861   MIME, which were designed to enable safe transport of binary data over a
1862   7-bit transport service (<xref target="RFC2045" x:fmt="," x:sec="6"/>).
1863   However, safe transport
1864   has a different focus for an 8bit-clean transfer protocol. In HTTP,
1865   the only unsafe characteristic of message-bodies is the difficulty in
1866   determining the exact body length (<xref target="message.length"/>), or the desire to
1867   encrypt data over a shared transport.
1868</t>
1869<t>
1870   A server which receives an entity-body with a transfer-coding it does
1871   not understand &SHOULD; return 501 (Not Implemented), and close the
1872   connection. A server &MUST-NOT; send transfer-codings to an HTTP/1.0
1873   client.
1874</t>
1875
1876<section title="Chunked Transfer Coding" anchor="chunked.encoding">
1877  <iref item="chunked (Coding Format)"/>
1878  <iref item="Coding Format" subitem="chunked"/>
1879  <x:anchor-alias value="chunk"/>
1880  <x:anchor-alias value="Chunked-Body"/>
1881  <x:anchor-alias value="chunk-data"/>
1882  <x:anchor-alias value="chunk-ext"/>
1883  <x:anchor-alias value="chunk-ext-name"/>
1884  <x:anchor-alias value="chunk-ext-val"/>
1885  <x:anchor-alias value="chunk-size"/>
1886  <x:anchor-alias value="last-chunk"/>
1887  <x:anchor-alias value="trailer-part"/>
1888  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-str-nf"/>
1889  <x:anchor-alias value="qdtext-nf"/>
1890<t>
1891   The chunked encoding modifies the body of a message in order to
1892   transfer it as a series of chunks, each with its own size indicator,
1893   followed by an &OPTIONAL; trailer containing entity-header fields. This
1894   allows dynamically produced content to be transferred along with the
1895   information necessary for the recipient to verify that it has
1896   received the full message.
1897</t>
1898<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Chunked-Body"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="chunk"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="chunk-size"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="last-chunk"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="chunk-ext"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="chunk-ext-name"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="chunk-ext-val"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="chunk-data"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="trailer-part"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="quoted-str-nf"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="qdtext-nf"/>
1899  <x:ref>Chunked-Body</x:ref>   = *<x:ref>chunk</x:ref>
1900                   <x:ref>last-chunk</x:ref>
1901                   <x:ref>trailer-part</x:ref>
1902                   <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1903 
1904  <x:ref>chunk</x:ref>          = <x:ref>chunk-size</x:ref> *WSP [ <x:ref>chunk-ext</x:ref> ] <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1905                   <x:ref>chunk-data</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1906  <x:ref>chunk-size</x:ref>     = 1*<x:ref>HEXDIG</x:ref>
1907  <x:ref>last-chunk</x:ref>     = 1*("0") *WSP [ <x:ref>chunk-ext</x:ref> ] <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref>
1908 
1909  <x:ref>chunk-ext</x:ref>      = *( ";" *WSP <x:ref>chunk-ext-name</x:ref>
1910                      [ "=" <x:ref>chunk-ext-val</x:ref> ] *WSP )
1911  <x:ref>chunk-ext-name</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
1912  <x:ref>chunk-ext-val</x:ref>  = <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-str-nf</x:ref>
1913  <x:ref>chunk-data</x:ref>     = 1*<x:ref>OCTET</x:ref> ; a sequence of chunk-size octets
1914  <x:ref>trailer-part</x:ref>   = *( <x:ref>entity-header</x:ref> <x:ref>CRLF</x:ref> )
1915 
1916  <x:ref>quoted-str-nf</x:ref>  = <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> *( <x:ref>qdtext-nf</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-pair</x:ref> ) <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref>
1917                 ; like <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>, but disallowing line folding
1918  <x:ref>qdtext-nf</x:ref>      = <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> / %x21 / %x23-5B / %x5D-7E / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref>
1919                 ; <x:ref>WSP</x:ref> / &lt;<x:ref>VCHAR</x:ref> except <x:ref>DQUOTE</x:ref> and "\"&gt; / <x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> 
1920</artwork></figure>
1921<t>
1922   The chunk-size field is a string of hex digits indicating the size of
1923   the chunk-data in octets. The chunked encoding is ended by any chunk whose size is
1924   zero, followed by the trailer, which is terminated by an empty line.
1925</t>
1926<t>
1927   The trailer allows the sender to include additional HTTP header
1928   fields at the end of the message. The Trailer header field can be
1929   used to indicate which header fields are included in a trailer (see
1930   <xref target="header.trailer"/>).
1931</t>
1932<t>
1933   A server using chunked transfer-coding in a response &MUST-NOT; use the
1934   trailer for any header fields unless at least one of the following is
1935   true:
1936  <list style="numbers">
1937    <t>the request included a TE header field that indicates "trailers" is
1938     acceptable in the transfer-coding of the  response, as described in
1939     <xref target="header.te"/>; or,</t>
1940
1941    <t>the server is the origin server for the response, the trailer
1942     fields consist entirely of optional metadata, and the recipient
1943     could use the message (in a manner acceptable to the origin server)
1944     without receiving this metadata.  In other words, the origin server
1945     is willing to accept the possibility that the trailer fields might
1946     be silently discarded along the path to the client.</t>
1947  </list>
1948</t>
1949<t>
1950   This requirement prevents an interoperability failure when the
1951   message is being received by an HTTP/1.1 (or later) proxy and
1952   forwarded to an HTTP/1.0 recipient. It avoids a situation where
1953   compliance with the protocol would have necessitated a possibly
1954   infinite buffer on the proxy.
1955</t>
1956<t>
1957   A process for decoding the "chunked" transfer-coding
1958   can be represented in pseudo-code as:
1959</t>
1960<figure><artwork type="code">
1961  length := 0
1962  read chunk-size, chunk-ext (if any) and CRLF
1963  while (chunk-size &gt; 0) {
1964     read chunk-data and CRLF
1965     append chunk-data to entity-body
1966     length := length + chunk-size
1967     read chunk-size and CRLF
1968  }
1969  read entity-header
1970  while (entity-header not empty) {
1971     append entity-header to existing header fields
1972     read entity-header
1973  }
1974  Content-Length := length
1975  Remove "chunked" from Transfer-Encoding
1976</artwork></figure>
1977<t>
1978   All HTTP/1.1 applications &MUST; be able to receive and decode the
1979   "chunked" transfer-coding, and &MUST; ignore chunk-ext extensions
1980   they do not understand.
1981</t>
1982</section>
1983
1984<section title="Compression Codings" anchor="compression.codings">
1985<t>
1986   The codings defined below can be used to compress the payload of a
1987   message.
1988</t>
1989<x:note><t>
1990   <x:h>Note:</x:h> Use of program names for the identification of encoding formats
1991   is not desirable and is discouraged for future encodings. Their
1992   use here is representative of historical practice, not good
1993   design.
1994</t></x:note>
1995<x:note><t>
1996   <x:h>Note:</x:h> For compatibility with previous implementations of HTTP,
1997   applications &SHOULD; consider "x-gzip" and "x-compress" to be
1998   equivalent to "gzip" and "compress" respectively.
1999</t></x:note>
2000
2001<section title="Compress Coding" anchor="compress.coding">
2002<iref item="compress (Coding Format)"/>
2003<iref item="Coding Format" subitem="compress"/>
2004<t>
2005   The "compress" format is produced by the common UNIX file compression
2006   program "compress". This format is an adaptive Lempel-Ziv-Welch
2007   coding (LZW).
2008</t>
2009</section>
2010
2011<section title="Deflate Coding" anchor="deflate.coding">
2012<iref item="deflate (Coding Format)"/>
2013<iref item="Coding Format" subitem="deflate"/>
2014<t>
2015   The "deflate" format is defined as the "deflate" compression mechanism
2016   (described in <xref target="RFC1951"/>) used inside the "zlib"
2017   data format (<xref target="RFC1950"/>).
2018</t>
2019<x:note>
2020  <t>
2021    <x:h>Note:</x:h> Some incorrect implementations send the "deflate"
2022    compressed data without the zlib wrapper.
2023   </t>
2024</x:note>
2025</section>
2026
2027<section title="Gzip Coding" anchor="gzip.coding">
2028<iref item="gzip (Coding Format)"/>
2029<iref item="Coding Format" subitem="gzip"/>
2030<t>
2031   The "gzip" format is produced by the file compression program
2032   "gzip" (GNU zip), as described in <xref target="RFC1952"/>. This format is a
2033   Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77) with a 32 bit CRC.
2034</t>
2035</section>
2036
2037</section>
2038
2039<section title="Transfer Coding Registry" anchor="transfer.coding.registry">
2040<t>
2041   The HTTP Transfer Coding Registry defines the name space for the transfer
2042   coding names.
2043</t>
2044<t>
2045   Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
2046   <list style="symbols">
2047     <t>Name</t>
2048     <t>Description</t>
2049     <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
2050   </list>
2051</t>
2052<t>
2053   Names of transfer codings &MUST-NOT; overlap with names of content codings
2054   (&content-codings;), unless the encoding transformation is identical (as it
2055   is the case for the compression codings defined in
2056   <xref target="compression.codings"/>).
2057</t>
2058<t>
2059   Values to be added to this name space require expert review and a specification
2060   (see "Expert Review" and "Specification Required" in
2061   <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="of" x:sec="4.1"/>), and &MUST;
2062   conform to the purpose of transfer coding defined in this section.
2063</t>
2064<t>
2065   The registry itself is maintained at
2066   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters"/>.
2067</t>
2068</section>
2069</section>
2070
2071<section title="Product Tokens" anchor="product.tokens">
2072  <x:anchor-alias value="product"/>
2073  <x:anchor-alias value="product-version"/>
2074<t>
2075   Product tokens are used to allow communicating applications to
2076   identify themselves by software name and version. Most fields using
2077   product tokens also allow sub-products which form a significant part
2078   of the application to be listed, separated by whitespace. By
2079   convention, the products are listed in order of their significance
2080   for identifying the application.
2081</t>
2082<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="product"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="product-version"/>
2083  <x:ref>product</x:ref>         = <x:ref>token</x:ref> ["/" <x:ref>product-version</x:ref>]
2084  <x:ref>product-version</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
2085</artwork></figure>
2086<t>
2087   Examples:
2088</t>
2089<figure><artwork type="example">
2090  User-Agent: CERN-LineMode/2.15 libwww/2.17b3
2091  Server: Apache/0.8.4
2092</artwork></figure>
2093<t>
2094   Product tokens &SHOULD; be short and to the point. They &MUST-NOT; be
2095   used for advertising or other non-essential information. Although any
2096   token character &MAY; appear in a product-version, this token &SHOULD;
2097   only be used for a version identifier (i.e., successive versions of
2098   the same product &SHOULD; only differ in the product-version portion of
2099   the product value).
2100</t>
2101</section>
2102
2103<section title="Quality Values" anchor="quality.values">
2104  <x:anchor-alias value="qvalue"/>
2105<t>
2106   Both transfer codings (TE request header, <xref target="header.te"/>)
2107   and content negotiation (&content.negotiation;) use short "floating point"
2108   numbers to indicate the relative importance ("weight") of various
2109   negotiable parameters.  A weight is normalized to a real number in
2110   the range 0 through 1, where 0 is the minimum and 1 the maximum
2111   value. If a parameter has a quality value of 0, then content with
2112   this parameter is "not acceptable" for the client. HTTP/1.1
2113   applications &MUST-NOT; generate more than three digits after the
2114   decimal point. User configuration of these values &SHOULD; also be
2115   limited in this fashion.
2116</t>
2117<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="qvalue"/>
2118  <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref>         = ( "0" [ "." 0*3<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> ] )
2119                 / ( "1" [ "." 0*3("0") ] )
2120</artwork></figure>
2121<x:note>
2122  <t>
2123     <x:h>Note:</x:h> "Quality values" is a misnomer, since these values merely represent
2124     relative degradation in desired quality.
2125  </t>
2126</x:note>
2127</section>
2128
2129</section>
2130
2131<section title="Connections" anchor="connections">
2132
2133<section title="Persistent Connections" anchor="persistent.connections">
2134
2135<section title="Purpose" anchor="persistent.purpose">
2136<t>
2137   Prior to persistent connections, a separate TCP connection was
2138   established to fetch each URL, increasing the load on HTTP servers
2139   and causing congestion on the Internet. The use of inline images and
2140   other associated data often requires a client to make multiple
2141   requests of the same server in a short amount of time. Analysis of
2142   these performance problems and results from a prototype
2143   implementation are available <xref target="Pad1995"/> <xref target="Spe"/>. Implementation experience and
2144   measurements of actual HTTP/1.1 implementations show good
2145   results <xref target="Nie1997"/>. Alternatives have also been explored, for example,
2146   T/TCP <xref target="Tou1998"/>.
2147</t>
2148<t>
2149   Persistent HTTP connections have a number of advantages:
2150  <list style="symbols">
2151      <t>
2152        By opening and closing fewer TCP connections, CPU time is saved
2153        in routers and hosts (clients, servers, proxies, gateways,
2154        tunnels, or caches), and memory used for TCP protocol control
2155        blocks can be saved in hosts.
2156      </t>
2157      <t>
2158        HTTP requests and responses can be pipelined on a connection.
2159        Pipelining allows a client to make multiple requests without
2160        waiting for each response, allowing a single TCP connection to
2161        be used much more efficiently, with much lower elapsed time.
2162      </t>
2163      <t>
2164        Network congestion is reduced by reducing the number of packets
2165        caused by TCP opens, and by allowing TCP sufficient time to
2166        determine the congestion state of the network.
2167      </t>
2168      <t>
2169        Latency on subsequent requests is reduced since there is no time
2170        spent in TCP's connection opening handshake.
2171      </t>
2172      <t>
2173        HTTP can evolve more gracefully, since errors can be reported
2174        without the penalty of closing the TCP connection. Clients using
2175        future versions of HTTP might optimistically try a new feature,
2176        but if communicating with an older server, retry with old
2177        semantics after an error is reported.
2178      </t>
2179    </list>
2180</t>
2181<t>
2182   HTTP implementations &SHOULD; implement persistent connections.
2183</t>
2184</section>
2185
2186<section title="Overall Operation" anchor="persistent.overall">
2187<t>
2188   A significant difference between HTTP/1.1 and earlier versions of
2189   HTTP is that persistent connections are the default behavior of any
2190   HTTP connection. That is, unless otherwise indicated, the client
2191   &SHOULD; assume that the server will maintain a persistent connection,
2192   even after error responses from the server.
2193</t>
2194<t>
2195   Persistent connections provide a mechanism by which a client and a
2196   server can signal the close of a TCP connection. This signaling takes
2197   place using the Connection header field (<xref target="header.connection"/>). Once a close
2198   has been signaled, the client &MUST-NOT; send any more requests on that
2199   connection.
2200</t>
2201
2202<section title="Negotiation" anchor="persistent.negotiation">
2203<t>
2204   An HTTP/1.1 server &MAY; assume that a HTTP/1.1 client intends to
2205   maintain a persistent connection unless a Connection header including
2206   the connection-token "close" was sent in the request. If the server
2207   chooses to close the connection immediately after sending the
2208   response, it &SHOULD; send a Connection header including the
2209   connection-token "close".
2210</t>
2211<t>
2212   An HTTP/1.1 client &MAY; expect a connection to remain open, but would
2213   decide to keep it open based on whether the response from a server
2214   contains a Connection header with the connection-token close. In case
2215   the client does not want to maintain a connection for more than that
2216   request, it &SHOULD; send a Connection header including the
2217   connection-token close.
2218</t>
2219<t>
2220   If either the client or the server sends the close token in the
2221   Connection header, that request becomes the last one for the
2222   connection.
2223</t>
2224<t>
2225   Clients and servers &SHOULD-NOT;  assume that a persistent connection is
2226   maintained for HTTP versions less than 1.1 unless it is explicitly
2227   signaled. See <xref target="compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections"/> for more information on backward
2228   compatibility with HTTP/1.0 clients.
2229</t>
2230<t>
2231   In order to remain persistent, all messages on the connection &MUST;
2232   have a self-defined message length (i.e., one not defined by closure
2233   of the connection), as described in <xref target="message.length"/>.
2234</t>
2235</section>
2236
2237<section title="Pipelining" anchor="pipelining">
2238<t>
2239   A client that supports persistent connections &MAY; "pipeline" its
2240   requests (i.e., send multiple requests without waiting for each
2241   response). A server &MUST; send its responses to those requests in the
2242   same order that the requests were received.
2243</t>
2244<t>
2245   Clients which assume persistent connections and pipeline immediately
2246   after connection establishment &SHOULD; be prepared to retry their
2247   connection if the first pipelined attempt fails. If a client does
2248   such a retry, it &MUST-NOT; pipeline before it knows the connection is
2249   persistent. Clients &MUST; also be prepared to resend their requests if
2250   the server closes the connection before sending all of the
2251   corresponding responses.
2252</t>
2253<t>
2254   Clients &SHOULD-NOT;  pipeline requests using non-idempotent methods or
2255   non-idempotent sequences of methods (see &idempotent-methods;). Otherwise, a
2256   premature termination of the transport connection could lead to
2257   indeterminate results. A client wishing to send a non-idempotent
2258   request &SHOULD; wait to send that request until it has received the
2259   response status for the previous request.
2260</t>
2261</section>
2262</section>
2263
2264<section title="Proxy Servers" anchor="persistent.proxy">
2265<t>
2266   It is especially important that proxies correctly implement the
2267   properties of the Connection header field as specified in <xref target="header.connection"/>.
2268</t>
2269<t>
2270   The proxy server &MUST; signal persistent connections separately with
2271   its clients and the origin servers (or other proxy servers) that it
2272   connects to. Each persistent connection applies to only one transport
2273   link.
2274</t>
2275<t>
2276   A proxy server &MUST-NOT; establish a HTTP/1.1 persistent connection
2277   with an HTTP/1.0 client (but see <xref x:sec="19.7.1" x:fmt="of" target="RFC2068"/>
2278   for information and discussion of the problems with the Keep-Alive header
2279   implemented by many HTTP/1.0 clients).
2280</t>
2281
2282<section title="End-to-end and Hop-by-hop Headers" anchor="end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.headers">
2283<t>
2284  <cref anchor="TODO-end-to-end" source="jre">
2285    Restored from <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-05#section-7.1"/>.
2286    See also <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/60"/>.
2287  </cref>
2288</t>
2289<t>
2290   For the purpose of defining the behavior of caches and non-caching
2291   proxies, we divide HTTP headers into two categories:
2292  <list style="symbols">
2293      <t>End-to-end headers, which are  transmitted to the ultimate
2294        recipient of a request or response. End-to-end headers in
2295        responses MUST be stored as part of a cache entry and &MUST; be
2296        transmitted in any response formed from a cache entry.</t>
2297
2298      <t>Hop-by-hop headers, which are meaningful only for a single
2299        transport-level connection, and are not stored by caches or
2300        forwarded by proxies.</t>
2301  </list>
2302</t>
2303<t>
2304   The following HTTP/1.1 headers are hop-by-hop headers:
2305  <list style="symbols">
2306      <t>Connection</t>
2307      <t>Keep-Alive</t>
2308      <t>Proxy-Authenticate</t>
2309      <t>Proxy-Authorization</t>
2310      <t>TE</t>
2311      <t>Trailer</t>
2312      <t>Transfer-Encoding</t>
2313      <t>Upgrade</t>
2314  </list>
2315</t>
2316<t>
2317   All other headers defined by HTTP/1.1 are end-to-end headers.
2318</t>
2319<t>
2320   Other hop-by-hop headers &MUST; be listed in a Connection header
2321   (<xref target="header.connection"/>).
2322</t>
2323</section>
2324
2325<section title="Non-modifiable Headers" anchor="non-modifiable.headers">
2326<t>
2327  <cref anchor="TODO-non-mod-headers" source="jre">
2328    Restored from <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-05#section-7.2"/>.
2329    See also <eref target="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/60"/>.
2330  </cref>
2331</t>
2332<t>
2333   Some features of HTTP/1.1, such as Digest Authentication, depend on the
2334   value of certain end-to-end headers. A transparent proxy &SHOULD-NOT;
2335   modify an end-to-end header unless the definition of that header requires
2336   or specifically allows that.
2337</t>
2338<t>
2339   A transparent proxy &MUST-NOT; modify any of the following fields in a
2340   request or response, and it &MUST-NOT; add any of these fields if not
2341   already present:
2342  <list style="symbols">
2343      <t>Content-Location</t>
2344      <t>Content-MD5</t>
2345      <t>ETag</t>
2346      <t>Last-Modified</t>
2347  </list>
2348</t>
2349<t>
2350   A transparent proxy &MUST-NOT; modify any of the following fields in a
2351   response:
2352  <list style="symbols">
2353    <t>Expires</t>
2354  </list>
2355</t>
2356<t>
2357   but it &MAY; add any of these fields if not already present. If an
2358   Expires header is added, it &MUST; be given a field-value identical to
2359   that of the Date header in that response.
2360</t>
2361<t>
2362   A proxy &MUST-NOT; modify or add any of the following fields in a
2363   message that contains the no-transform cache-control directive, or in
2364   any request:
2365  <list style="symbols">
2366    <t>Content-Encoding</t>
2367    <t>Content-Range</t>
2368    <t>Content-Type</t>
2369  </list>
2370</t>
2371<t>
2372   A non-transparent proxy &MAY; modify or add these fields to a message
2373   that does not include no-transform, but if it does so, it &MUST; add a
2374   Warning 214 (Transformation applied) if one does not already appear
2375   in the message (see &header-warning;).
2376</t>
2377<x:note>
2378  <t>
2379    <x:h>Warning:</x:h> Unnecessary modification of end-to-end headers might
2380    cause authentication failures if stronger authentication
2381    mechanisms are introduced in later versions of HTTP. Such
2382    authentication mechanisms &MAY; rely on the values of header fields
2383    not listed here.
2384  </t>
2385</x:note>
2386<t>
2387   The Content-Length field of a request or response is added or deleted
2388   according to the rules in <xref target="message.length"/>. A transparent proxy &MUST;
2389   preserve the entity-length (&entity-length;) of the entity-body,
2390   although it &MAY; change the transfer-length (<xref target="message.length"/>).
2391</t>
2392</section>
2393
2394</section>
2395
2396<section title="Practical Considerations" anchor="persistent.practical">
2397<t>
2398   Servers will usually have some time-out value beyond which they will
2399   no longer maintain an inactive connection. Proxy servers might make
2400   this a higher value since it is likely that the client will be making
2401   more connections through the same server. The use of persistent
2402   connections places no requirements on the length (or existence) of
2403   this time-out for either the client or the server.
2404</t>
2405<t>
2406   When a client or server wishes to time-out it &SHOULD; issue a graceful
2407   close on the transport connection. Clients and servers &SHOULD; both
2408   constantly watch for the other side of the transport close, and
2409   respond to it as appropriate. If a client or server does not detect
2410   the other side's close promptly it could cause unnecessary resource
2411   drain on the network.
2412</t>
2413<t>
2414   A client, server, or proxy &MAY; close the transport connection at any
2415   time. For example, a client might have started to send a new request
2416   at the same time that the server has decided to close the "idle"
2417   connection. From the server's point of view, the connection is being
2418   closed while it was idle, but from the client's point of view, a
2419   request is in progress.
2420</t>
2421<t>
2422   This means that clients, servers, and proxies &MUST; be able to recover
2423   from asynchronous close events. Client software &SHOULD; reopen the
2424   transport connection and retransmit the aborted sequence of requests
2425   without user interaction so long as the request sequence is
2426   idempotent (see &idempotent-methods;). Non-idempotent methods or sequences
2427   &MUST-NOT; be automatically retried, although user agents &MAY; offer a
2428   human operator the choice of retrying the request(s). Confirmation by
2429   user-agent software with semantic understanding of the application
2430   &MAY; substitute for user confirmation. The automatic retry &SHOULD-NOT; 
2431   be repeated if the second sequence of requests fails.
2432</t>
2433<t>
2434   Servers &SHOULD; always respond to at least one request per connection,
2435   if at all possible. Servers &SHOULD-NOT;  close a connection in the
2436   middle of transmitting a response, unless a network or client failure
2437   is suspected.
2438</t>
2439<t>
2440   Clients (including proxies) &SHOULD; limit the number of simultaneous
2441   connections that they maintain to a given server (including proxies).
2442</t>
2443<t>
2444   Previous revisions of HTTP gave a specific number of connections as a
2445   ceiling, but this was found to be impractical for many applications. As a
2446   result, this specification does not mandate a particular maximum number of
2447   connections, but instead encourages clients to be conservative when opening
2448   multiple connections.
2449</t>
2450<t>
2451   In particular, while using multiple connections avoids the "head-of-line
2452   blocking" problem (whereby a request that takes significant server-side
2453   processing and/or has a large payload can block subsequent requests on the
2454   same connection), each connection used consumes server resources (sometimes
2455   significantly), and furthermore using multiple connections can cause
2456   undesirable side effects in congested networks.
2457</t>
2458<t>
2459   Note that servers might reject traffic that they deem abusive, including an
2460   excessive number of connections from a client.
2461</t>
2462</section>
2463</section>
2464
2465<section title="Message Transmission Requirements" anchor="message.transmission.requirements">
2466
2467<section title="Persistent Connections and Flow Control" anchor="persistent.flow">
2468<t>
2469   HTTP/1.1 servers &SHOULD; maintain persistent connections and use TCP's
2470   flow control mechanisms to resolve temporary overloads, rather than
2471   terminating connections with the expectation that clients will retry.
2472   The latter technique can exacerbate network congestion.
2473</t>
2474</section>
2475
2476<section title="Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages" anchor="persistent.monitor">
2477<t>
2478   An HTTP/1.1 (or later) client sending a message-body &SHOULD; monitor
2479   the network connection for an error status while it is transmitting
2480   the request. If the client sees an error status, it &SHOULD;
2481   immediately cease transmitting the body. If the body is being sent
2482   using a "chunked" encoding (<xref target="transfer.codings"/>), a zero length chunk and
2483   empty trailer &MAY; be used to prematurely mark the end of the message.
2484   If the body was preceded by a Content-Length header, the client &MUST;
2485   close the connection.
2486</t>
2487</section>
2488
2489<section title="Use of the 100 (Continue) Status" anchor="use.of.the.100.status">
2490<t>
2491   The purpose of the 100 (Continue) status (see &status-100;) is to
2492   allow a client that is sending a request message with a request body
2493   to determine if the origin server is willing to accept the request
2494   (based on the request headers) before the client sends the request
2495   body. In some cases, it might either be inappropriate or highly
2496   inefficient for the client to send the body if the server will reject
2497   the message without looking at the body.
2498</t>
2499<t>
2500   Requirements for HTTP/1.1 clients:
2501  <list style="symbols">
2502    <t>
2503        If a client will wait for a 100 (Continue) response before
2504        sending the request body, it &MUST; send an Expect request-header
2505        field (&header-expect;) with the "100-continue" expectation.
2506    </t>
2507    <t>
2508        A client &MUST-NOT; send an Expect request-header field (&header-expect;)
2509        with the "100-continue" expectation if it does not intend
2510        to send a request body.
2511    </t>
2512  </list>
2513</t>
2514<t>
2515   Because of the presence of older implementations, the protocol allows
2516   ambiguous situations in which a client may send "Expect: 100-continue"
2517   without receiving either a 417 (Expectation Failed) status
2518   or a 100 (Continue) status. Therefore, when a client sends this
2519   header field to an origin server (possibly via a proxy) from which it
2520   has never seen a 100 (Continue) status, the client &SHOULD-NOT;  wait
2521   for an indefinite period before sending the request body.
2522</t>
2523<t>
2524   Requirements for HTTP/1.1 origin servers:
2525  <list style="symbols">
2526    <t> Upon receiving a request which includes an Expect request-header
2527        field with the "100-continue" expectation, an origin server &MUST;
2528        either respond with 100 (Continue) status and continue to read
2529        from the input stream, or respond with a final status code. The
2530        origin server &MUST-NOT; wait for the request body before sending
2531        the 100 (Continue) response. If it responds with a final status
2532        code, it &MAY; close the transport connection or it &MAY; continue
2533        to read and discard the rest of the request.  It &MUST-NOT;
2534        perform the requested method if it returns a final status code.
2535    </t>
2536    <t> An origin server &SHOULD-NOT;  send a 100 (Continue) response if
2537        the request message does not include an Expect request-header
2538        field with the "100-continue" expectation, and &MUST-NOT; send a
2539        100 (Continue) response if such a request comes from an HTTP/1.0
2540        (or earlier) client. There is an exception to this rule: for
2541        compatibility with <xref target="RFC2068"/>, a server &MAY; send a 100 (Continue)
2542        status in response to an HTTP/1.1 PUT or POST request that does
2543        not include an Expect request-header field with the "100-continue"
2544        expectation. This exception, the purpose of which is
2545        to minimize any client processing delays associated with an
2546        undeclared wait for 100 (Continue) status, applies only to
2547        HTTP/1.1 requests, and not to requests with any other HTTP-version
2548        value.
2549    </t>
2550    <t> An origin server &MAY; omit a 100 (Continue) response if it has
2551        already received some or all of the request body for the
2552        corresponding request.
2553    </t>
2554    <t> An origin server that sends a 100 (Continue) response &MUST;
2555    ultimately send a final status code, once the request body is
2556        received and processed, unless it terminates the transport
2557        connection prematurely.
2558    </t>
2559    <t> If an origin server receives a request that does not include an
2560        Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation,
2561        the request includes a request body, and the server responds
2562        with a final status code before reading the entire request body
2563        from the transport connection, then the server &SHOULD-NOT;  close
2564        the transport connection until it has read the entire request,
2565        or until the client closes the connection. Otherwise, the client
2566        might not reliably receive the response message. However, this
2567        requirement is not be construed as preventing a server from
2568        defending itself against denial-of-service attacks, or from
2569        badly broken client implementations.
2570      </t>
2571    </list>
2572</t>
2573<t>
2574   Requirements for HTTP/1.1 proxies:
2575  <list style="symbols">
2576    <t> If a proxy receives a request that includes an Expect request-header
2577        field with the "100-continue" expectation, and the proxy
2578        either knows that the next-hop server complies with HTTP/1.1 or
2579        higher, or does not know the HTTP version of the next-hop
2580        server, it &MUST; forward the request, including the Expect header
2581        field.
2582    </t>
2583    <t> If the proxy knows that the version of the next-hop server is
2584        HTTP/1.0 or lower, it &MUST-NOT; forward the request, and it &MUST;
2585        respond with a 417 (Expectation Failed) status.
2586    </t>
2587    <t> Proxies &SHOULD; maintain a cache recording the HTTP version
2588        numbers received from recently-referenced next-hop servers.
2589    </t>
2590    <t> A proxy &MUST-NOT; forward a 100 (Continue) response if the
2591        request message was received from an HTTP/1.0 (or earlier)
2592        client and did not include an Expect request-header field with
2593        the "100-continue" expectation. This requirement overrides the
2594        general rule for forwarding of 1xx responses (see &status-1xx;).
2595    </t>
2596  </list>
2597</t>
2598</section>
2599
2600<section title="Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection" anchor="connection.premature">
2601<t>
2602   If an HTTP/1.1 client sends a request which includes a request body,
2603   but which does not include an Expect request-header field with the
2604   "100-continue" expectation, and if the client is not directly
2605   connected to an HTTP/1.1 origin server, and if the client sees the
2606   connection close before receiving any status from the server, the
2607   client &SHOULD; retry the request.  If the client does retry this
2608   request, it &MAY; use the following "binary exponential backoff"
2609   algorithm to be assured of obtaining a reliable response:
2610  <list style="numbers">
2611    <t>
2612      Initiate a new connection to the server
2613    </t>
2614    <t>
2615      Transmit the request-headers
2616    </t>
2617    <t>
2618      Initialize a variable R to the estimated round-trip time to the
2619         server (e.g., based on the time it took to establish the
2620         connection), or to a constant value of 5 seconds if the round-trip
2621         time is not available.
2622    </t>
2623    <t>
2624       Compute T = R * (2**N), where N is the number of previous
2625         retries of this request.
2626    </t>
2627    <t>
2628       Wait either for an error response from the server, or for T
2629         seconds (whichever comes first)
2630    </t>
2631    <t>
2632       If no error response is received, after T seconds transmit the
2633         body of the request.
2634    </t>
2635    <t>
2636       If client sees that the connection is closed prematurely,
2637         repeat from step 1 until the request is accepted, an error
2638         response is received, or the user becomes impatient and
2639         terminates the retry process.
2640    </t>
2641  </list>
2642</t>
2643<t>
2644   If at any point an error status is received, the client
2645  <list style="symbols">
2646      <t>&SHOULD-NOT;  continue and</t>
2647
2648      <t>&SHOULD; close the connection if it has not completed sending the
2649        request message.</t>
2650    </list>
2651</t>
2652</section>
2653</section>
2654</section>
2655
2656
2657<section title="Miscellaneous notes that may disappear" anchor="misc">
2658<section title="Scheme aliases considered harmful" anchor="scheme.aliases">
2659<t>
2660   <cref anchor="TBD-aliases-harmful">describe why aliases like webcal are harmful.</cref>
2661</t>
2662</section>
2663
2664<section title="Use of HTTP for proxy communication" anchor="http.proxy">
2665<t>
2666   <cref anchor="TBD-proxy-other">Configured to use HTTP to proxy HTTP or other protocols.</cref>
2667</t>
2668</section>
2669
2670<section title="Interception of HTTP for access control" anchor="http.intercept">
2671<t>
2672   <cref anchor="TBD-intercept">Interception of HTTP traffic for initiating access control.</cref>
2673</t>
2674</section>
2675
2676<section title="Use of HTTP by other protocols" anchor="http.others">
2677<t>
2678   <cref anchor="TBD-profiles">Profiles of HTTP defined by other protocol.
2679   Extensions of HTTP like WebDAV.</cref>
2680</t>
2681
2682</section>
2683<section title="Use of HTTP by media type specification" anchor="http.media">
2684<t>
2685   <cref anchor="TBD-hypertext">Instructions on composing HTTP requests via hypertext formats.</cref>
2686</t>
2687</section>
2688</section>
2689
2690<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
2691<t>
2692   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
2693   related to message framing and transport protocols.
2694</t>
2695<t>
2696   For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the
2697   client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the entity.
2698</t>
2699
2700<section title="Connection" anchor="header.connection">
2701  <iref primary="true" item="Connection header" x:for-anchor=""/>
2702  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Connection" x:for-anchor=""/>
2703  <x:anchor-alias value="Connection"/>
2704  <x:anchor-alias value="connection-token"/>
2705  <x:anchor-alias value="Connection-v"/>
2706<t>
2707   The "Connection" general-header field allows the sender to specify
2708   options that are desired for that particular connection and &MUST-NOT;
2709   be communicated by proxies over further connections.
2710</t>
2711<t>
2712   The Connection header's value has the following grammar:
2713</t>
2714<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Connection"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Connection-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="connection-token"/>
2715  <x:ref>Connection</x:ref>       = "Connection" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Connection-v</x:ref>
2716  <x:ref>Connection-v</x:ref>     = 1#<x:ref>connection-token</x:ref>
2717  <x:ref>connection-token</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
2718</artwork></figure>
2719<t>
2720   HTTP/1.1 proxies &MUST; parse the Connection header field before a
2721   message is forwarded and, for each connection-token in this field,
2722   remove any header field(s) from the message with the same name as the
2723   connection-token. Connection options are signaled by the presence of
2724   a connection-token in the Connection header field, not by any
2725   corresponding additional header field(s), since the additional header
2726   field may not be sent if there are no parameters associated with that
2727   connection option.
2728</t>
2729<t>
2730   Message headers listed in the Connection header &MUST-NOT; include
2731   end-to-end headers, such as Cache-Control.
2732</t>
2733<t>
2734   HTTP/1.1 defines the "close" connection option for the sender to
2735   signal that the connection will be closed after completion of the
2736   response. For example,
2737</t>
2738<figure><artwork type="example">
2739  Connection: close
2740</artwork></figure>
2741<t>
2742   in either the request or the response header fields indicates that
2743   the connection &SHOULD-NOT;  be considered "persistent" (<xref target="persistent.connections"/>)
2744   after the current request/response is complete.
2745</t>
2746<t>
2747   An HTTP/1.1 client that does not support persistent connections &MUST;
2748   include the "close" connection option in every request message.
2749</t>
2750<t>
2751   An HTTP/1.1 server that does not support persistent connections &MUST;
2752   include the "close" connection option in every response message that
2753   does not have a 1xx (Informational) status code.
2754</t>
2755<t>
2756   A system receiving an HTTP/1.0 (or lower-version) message that
2757   includes a Connection header &MUST;, for each connection-token in this
2758   field, remove and ignore any header field(s) from the message with
2759   the same name as the connection-token. This protects against mistaken
2760   forwarding of such header fields by pre-HTTP/1.1 proxies. See <xref target="compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections"/>.
2761</t>
2762</section>
2763
2764<section title="Content-Length" anchor="header.content-length">
2765  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Length header" x:for-anchor=""/>
2766  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Content-Length" x:for-anchor=""/>
2767  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Length"/>
2768  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Length-v"/>
2769<t>
2770   The "Content-Length" entity-header field indicates the size of the
2771   entity-body, in number of OCTETs. In the case of responses to the HEAD
2772   method, it indicates the size of the entity-body that would have been sent
2773   had the request been a GET.
2774</t>
2775<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Length"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Length-v"/>
2776  <x:ref>Content-Length</x:ref>   = "Content-Length" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> 1*<x:ref>Content-Length-v</x:ref>
2777  <x:ref>Content-Length-v</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
2778</artwork></figure>
2779<t>
2780   An example is
2781</t>
2782<figure><artwork type="example">
2783  Content-Length: 3495
2784</artwork></figure>
2785<t>
2786   Applications &SHOULD; use this field to indicate the transfer-length of
2787   the message-body, unless this is prohibited by the rules in <xref target="message.length"/>.
2788</t>
2789<t>
2790   Any Content-Length greater than or equal to zero is a valid value.
2791   <xref target="message.length"/> describes how to determine the length of a message-body
2792   if a Content-Length is not given.
2793</t>
2794<t>
2795   Note that the meaning of this field is significantly different from
2796   the corresponding definition in MIME, where it is an optional field
2797   used within the "message/external-body" content-type. In HTTP, it
2798   &SHOULD; be sent whenever the message's length can be determined prior
2799   to being transferred, unless this is prohibited by the rules in
2800   <xref target="message.length"/>.
2801</t>
2802</section>
2803
2804<section title="Date" anchor="header.date">
2805  <iref primary="true" item="Date header" x:for-anchor=""/>
2806  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Date" x:for-anchor=""/>
2807  <x:anchor-alias value="Date"/>
2808  <x:anchor-alias value="Date-v"/>
2809<t>
2810   The "Date" general-header field represents the date and time at which
2811   the message was originated, having the same semantics as the Origination
2812   Date Field (orig-date) defined in <xref target="RFC5322" x:fmt="of" x:sec="3.6.1"/>.
2813   The field value is an HTTP-date, as described in <xref target="date.time.formats.full.date"/>;
2814   it &MUST; be sent in rfc1123-date format.
2815</t>
2816<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Date"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Date-v"/>
2817  <x:ref>Date</x:ref>   = "Date" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Date-v</x:ref>
2818  <x:ref>Date-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref>
2819</artwork></figure>
2820<t>
2821   An example is
2822</t>
2823<figure><artwork type="example">
2824  Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 08:12:31 GMT
2825</artwork></figure>
2826<t>
2827   Origin servers &MUST; include a Date header field in all responses,
2828   except in these cases:
2829  <list style="numbers">
2830      <t>If the response status code is 100 (Continue) or 101 (Switching
2831         Protocols), the response &MAY; include a Date header field, at
2832         the server's option.</t>
2833
2834      <t>If the response status code conveys a server error, e.g., 500
2835         (Internal Server Error) or 503 (Service Unavailable), and it is
2836         inconvenient or impossible to generate a valid Date.</t>
2837
2838      <t>If the server does not have a clock that can provide a
2839         reasonable approximation of the current time, its responses
2840         &MUST-NOT; include a Date header field. In this case, the rules
2841         in <xref target="clockless.origin.server.operation"/> &MUST; be followed.</t>
2842  </list>
2843</t>
2844<t>
2845   A received message that does not have a Date header field &MUST; be
2846   assigned one by the recipient if the message will be cached by that
2847   recipient or gatewayed via a protocol which requires a Date. An HTTP
2848   implementation without a clock &MUST-NOT; cache responses without
2849   revalidating them on every use. An HTTP cache, especially a shared
2850   cache, &SHOULD; use a mechanism, such as NTP <xref target="RFC1305"/>, to synchronize its
2851   clock with a reliable external standard.
2852</t>
2853<t>
2854   Clients &SHOULD; only send a Date header field in messages that include
2855   an entity-body, as in the case of the PUT and POST requests, and even
2856   then it is optional. A client without a clock &MUST-NOT; send a Date
2857   header field in a request.
2858</t>
2859<t>
2860   The HTTP-date sent in a Date header &SHOULD-NOT;  represent a date and
2861   time subsequent to the generation of the message. It &SHOULD; represent
2862   the best available approximation of the date and time of message
2863   generation, unless the implementation has no means of generating a
2864   reasonably accurate date and time. In theory, the date ought to
2865   represent the moment just before the entity is generated. In
2866   practice, the date can be generated at any time during the message
2867   origination without affecting its semantic value.
2868</t>
2869
2870<section title="Clockless Origin Server Operation" anchor="clockless.origin.server.operation">
2871<t>
2872   Some origin server implementations might not have a clock available.
2873   An origin server without a clock &MUST-NOT; assign Expires or Last-Modified
2874   values to a response, unless these values were associated
2875   with the resource by a system or user with a reliable clock. It &MAY;
2876   assign an Expires value that is known, at or before server
2877   configuration time, to be in the past (this allows "pre-expiration"
2878   of responses without storing separate Expires values for each
2879   resource).
2880</t>
2881</section>
2882</section>
2883
2884<section title="Host" anchor="header.host">
2885  <iref primary="true" item="Host header" x:for-anchor=""/>
2886  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Host" x:for-anchor=""/>
2887  <x:anchor-alias value="Host"/>
2888  <x:anchor-alias value="Host-v"/>
2889<t>
2890   The "Host" request-header field specifies the Internet host and port
2891   number of the resource being requested, allowing the origin server or
2892   gateway to differentiate between internally-ambiguous URLs, such as the root
2893   "/" URL of a server for multiple host names on a single IP address.
2894</t>
2895<t>   
2896   The Host field value &MUST; represent the naming authority of the origin
2897   server or gateway given by the original URL obtained from the user or
2898   referring resource (generally an http URI, as described in
2899   <xref target="http.uri"/>).
2900</t>
2901<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Host"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Host-v"/>
2902  <x:ref>Host</x:ref>   = "Host" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Host-v</x:ref>
2903  <x:ref>Host-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref> [ ":" <x:ref>port</x:ref> ] ; <xref target="http.uri"/>
2904</artwork></figure>
2905<t>
2906   A "host" without any trailing port information implies the default
2907   port for the service requested (e.g., "80" for an HTTP URL). For
2908   example, a request on the origin server for
2909   &lt;http://www.example.org/pub/WWW/&gt; would properly include:
2910</t>
2911<figure><artwork type="message/http; msgtype=&#34;request&#34;" x:indent-with="  ">
2912GET /pub/WWW/ HTTP/1.1
2913Host: www.example.org
2914</artwork></figure>
2915<t>
2916   A client &MUST; include a Host header field in all HTTP/1.1 request
2917   messages. If the requested URI does not include an Internet host
2918   name for the service being requested, then the Host header field &MUST;
2919   be given with an empty value. An HTTP/1.1 proxy &MUST; ensure that any
2920   request message it forwards does contain an appropriate Host header
2921   field that identifies the service being requested by the proxy. All
2922   Internet-based HTTP/1.1 servers &MUST; respond with a 400 (Bad Request)
2923   status code to any HTTP/1.1 request message which lacks a Host header
2924   field.
2925</t>
2926<t>
2927   See Sections <xref target="the.resource.identified.by.a.request" format="counter"/>
2928   and <xref target="changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses" format="counter"/>
2929   for other requirements relating to Host.
2930</t>
2931</section>
2932
2933<section title="TE" anchor="header.te">
2934  <iref primary="true" item="TE header" x:for-anchor=""/>
2935  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="TE" x:for-anchor=""/>
2936  <x:anchor-alias value="TE"/>
2937  <x:anchor-alias value="TE-v"/>
2938  <x:anchor-alias value="t-codings"/>
2939  <x:anchor-alias value="te-params"/>
2940  <x:anchor-alias value="te-ext"/>
2941<t>
2942   The "TE" request-header field indicates what extension transfer-codings
2943   it is willing to accept in the response, and whether or not it is
2944   willing to accept trailer fields in a chunked transfer-coding.
2945</t>
2946<t>
2947   Its value may consist of the keyword "trailers" and/or a comma-separated
2948   list of extension transfer-coding names with optional accept
2949   parameters (as described in <xref target="transfer.codings"/>).
2950</t>
2951<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="TE"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="TE-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="t-codings"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="te-params"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="te-ext"/>
2952  <x:ref>TE</x:ref>        = "TE" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>TE-v</x:ref>
2953  <x:ref>TE-v</x:ref>      = #<x:ref>t-codings</x:ref>
2954  <x:ref>t-codings</x:ref> = "trailers" / ( <x:ref>transfer-extension</x:ref> [ <x:ref>te-params</x:ref> ] )
2955  <x:ref>te-params</x:ref> = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> "q=" <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref> *( <x:ref>te-ext</x:ref> )
2956  <x:ref>te-ext</x:ref>    = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>token</x:ref> [ "=" ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> ) ]
2957</artwork></figure>
2958<t>
2959   The presence of the keyword "trailers" indicates that the client is
2960   willing to accept trailer fields in a chunked transfer-coding, as
2961   defined in <xref target="chunked.encoding"/>. This keyword is reserved for use with
2962   transfer-coding values even though it does not itself represent a
2963   transfer-coding.
2964</t>
2965<t>
2966   Examples of its use are:
2967</t>
2968<figure><artwork type="example">
2969  TE: deflate
2970  TE:
2971  TE: trailers, deflate;q=0.5
2972</artwork></figure>
2973<t>
2974   The TE header field only applies to the immediate connection.
2975   Therefore, the keyword &MUST; be supplied within a Connection header
2976   field (<xref target="header.connection"/>) whenever TE is present in an HTTP/1.1 message.
2977</t>
2978<t>
2979   A server tests whether a transfer-coding is acceptable, according to
2980   a TE field, using these rules:
2981  <list style="numbers">
2982    <x:lt>
2983      <t>The "chunked" transfer-coding is always acceptable. If the
2984         keyword "trailers" is listed, the client indicates that it is
2985         willing to accept trailer fields in the chunked response on
2986         behalf of itself and any downstream clients. The implication is
2987         that, if given, the client is stating that either all
2988         downstream clients are willing to accept trailer fields in the
2989         forwarded response, or that it will attempt to buffer the
2990         response on behalf of downstream recipients.
2991      </t><t>
2992         <x:h>Note:</x:h> HTTP/1.1 does not define any means to limit the size of a
2993         chunked response such that a client can be assured of buffering
2994         the entire response.</t>
2995    </x:lt>
2996    <x:lt>
2997      <t>If the transfer-coding being tested is one of the transfer-codings
2998         listed in the TE field, then it is acceptable unless it
2999         is accompanied by a qvalue of 0. (As defined in <xref target="quality.values"/>, a
3000         qvalue of 0 means "not acceptable.")</t>
3001    </x:lt>
3002    <x:lt>
3003      <t>If multiple transfer-codings are acceptable, then the
3004         acceptable transfer-coding with the highest non-zero qvalue is
3005         preferred.  The "chunked" transfer-coding always has a qvalue
3006         of 1.</t>
3007    </x:lt>
3008  </list>
3009</t>
3010<t>
3011   If the TE field-value is empty or if no TE field is present, the only
3012   transfer-coding is "chunked". A message with no transfer-coding is
3013   always acceptable.
3014</t>
3015</section>
3016
3017<section title="Trailer" anchor="header.trailer">
3018  <iref primary="true" item="Trailer header" x:for-anchor=""/>
3019  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Trailer" x:for-anchor=""/>
3020  <x:anchor-alias value="Trailer"/>
3021  <x:anchor-alias value="Trailer-v"/>
3022<t>
3023   The "Trailer" general-header field indicates that the given set of
3024   header fields is present in the trailer of a message encoded with
3025   chunked transfer-coding.
3026</t>
3027<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Trailer"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Trailer-v"/>
3028  <x:ref>Trailer</x:ref>   = "Trailer" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Trailer-v</x:ref>
3029  <x:ref>Trailer-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>field-name</x:ref>
3030</artwork></figure>
3031<t>
3032   An HTTP/1.1 message &SHOULD; include a Trailer header field in a
3033   message using chunked transfer-coding with a non-empty trailer. Doing
3034   so allows the recipient to know which header fields to expect in the
3035   trailer.
3036</t>
3037<t>
3038   If no Trailer header field is present, the trailer &SHOULD-NOT;  include
3039   any header fields. See <xref target="chunked.encoding"/> for restrictions on the use of
3040   trailer fields in a "chunked" transfer-coding.
3041</t>
3042<t>
3043   Message header fields listed in the Trailer header field &MUST-NOT;
3044   include the following header fields:
3045  <list style="symbols">
3046    <t>Transfer-Encoding</t>
3047    <t>Content-Length</t>
3048    <t>Trailer</t>
3049  </list>
3050</t>
3051</section>
3052
3053<section title="Transfer-Encoding" anchor="header.transfer-encoding">
3054  <iref primary="true" item="Transfer-Encoding header" x:for-anchor=""/>
3055  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Transfer-Encoding" x:for-anchor=""/>
3056  <x:anchor-alias value="Transfer-Encoding"/>
3057  <x:anchor-alias value="Transfer-Encoding-v"/>
3058<t>
3059   The "Transfer-Encoding" general-header field indicates what transfer-codings
3060   (if any) have been applied to the message body. It differs from
3061   Content-Encoding (&content-codings;) in that transfer-codings are a property
3062   of the message (and therefore are removed by intermediaries), whereas
3063   content-codings are not.
3064</t>
3065<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Transfer-Encoding"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Transfer-Encoding-v"/>
3066  <x:ref>Transfer-Encoding</x:ref>   = "Transfer-Encoding" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
3067                        <x:ref>Transfer-Encoding-v</x:ref>
3068  <x:ref>Transfer-Encoding-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>transfer-coding</x:ref>
3069</artwork></figure>
3070<t>
3071   Transfer-codings are defined in <xref target="transfer.codings"/>. An example is:
3072</t>
3073<figure><artwork type="example">
3074  Transfer-Encoding: chunked
3075</artwork></figure>
3076<t>
3077   If multiple encodings have been applied to an entity, the transfer-codings
3078   &MUST; be listed in the order in which they were applied.
3079   Additional information about the encoding parameters &MAY; be provided
3080   by other entity-header fields not defined by this specification.
3081</t>
3082<t>
3083   Many older HTTP/1.0 applications do not understand the Transfer-Encoding
3084   header.
3085</t>
3086</section>
3087
3088<section title="Upgrade" anchor="header.upgrade">
3089  <iref primary="true" item="Upgrade header" x:for-anchor=""/>
3090  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Upgrade" x:for-anchor=""/>
3091  <x:anchor-alias value="Upgrade"/>
3092  <x:anchor-alias value="Upgrade-v"/>
3093<t>
3094   The "Upgrade" general-header field allows the client to specify what
3095   additional communication protocols it would like to use, if the server
3096   chooses to switch protocols. Additionally, the server &MUST; use the Upgrade
3097   header field within a 101 (Switching Protocols) response to indicate which
3098   protocol(s) are being switched to.
3099</t>
3100<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Upgrade"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Upgrade-v"/>
3101  <x:ref>Upgrade</x:ref>   = "Upgrade" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Upgrade-v</x:ref>
3102  <x:ref>Upgrade-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>product</x:ref>
3103</artwork></figure>
3104<t>
3105   For example,
3106</t>
3107<figure><artwork type="example">
3108  Upgrade: HTTP/2.0, SHTTP/1.3, IRC/6.9, RTA/x11
3109</artwork></figure>
3110<t>
3111   The Upgrade header field is intended to provide a simple mechanism
3112   for transition from HTTP/1.1 to some other, incompatible protocol. It
3113   does so by allowing the client to advertise its desire to use another
3114   protocol, such as a later version of HTTP with a higher major version
3115   number, even though the current request has been made using HTTP/1.1.
3116   This eases the difficult transition between incompatible protocols by
3117   allowing the client to initiate a request in the more commonly
3118   supported protocol while indicating to the server that it would like
3119   to use a "better" protocol if available (where "better" is determined
3120   by the server, possibly according to the nature of the method and/or
3121   resource being requested).
3122</t>
3123<t>
3124   The Upgrade header field only applies to switching application-layer
3125   protocols upon the existing transport-layer connection. Upgrade
3126   cannot be used to insist on a protocol change; its acceptance and use
3127   by the server is optional. The capabilities and nature of the
3128   application-layer communication after the protocol change is entirely
3129   dependent upon the new protocol chosen, although the first action
3130   after changing the protocol &MUST; be a response to the initial HTTP
3131   request containing the Upgrade header field.
3132</t>
3133<t>
3134   The Upgrade header field only applies to the immediate connection.
3135   Therefore, the upgrade keyword &MUST; be supplied within a Connection
3136   header field (<xref target="header.connection"/>) whenever Upgrade is present in an
3137   HTTP/1.1 message.
3138</t>
3139<t>
3140   The Upgrade header field cannot be used to indicate a switch to a
3141   protocol on a different connection. For that purpose, it is more
3142   appropriate to use a 301, 302, 303, or 305 redirection response.
3143</t>
3144<t>
3145   This specification only defines the protocol name "HTTP" for use by
3146   the family of Hypertext Transfer Protocols, as defined by the HTTP
3147   version rules of <xref target="http.version"/> and future updates to this
3148   specification. Additional tokens can be registered with IANA using the
3149   registration procedure defined below. 
3150</t>
3151
3152<section title="Upgrade Token Registry" anchor="upgrade.token.registry">
3153<t>
3154   The HTTP Upgrade Token Registry defines the name space for product
3155   tokens used to identify protocols in the Upgrade header field.
3156   Each registered token should be associated with one or a set of
3157   specifications, and with contact information.
3158</t>
3159<t>
3160   Registrations should be allowed on a First Come First Served basis as
3161   described in <xref target="RFC5226" x:sec="4.1" x:fmt="of"/>. These
3162   specifications need not be IETF documents or be subject to IESG review, but
3163   should obey the following rules:
3164  <list style="numbers">
3165    <t>A token, once registered, stays registered forever.</t>
3166    <t>The registration &MUST; name a responsible party for the
3167       registration.</t>
3168    <t>The registration &MUST; name a point of contact.</t>
3169    <t>The registration &MAY; name the documentation required for the
3170       token.</t>
3171    <t>The responsible party &MAY; change the registration at any time.
3172       The IANA will keep a record of all such changes, and make them
3173       available upon request.</t>
3174    <t>The responsible party for the first registration of a "product"
3175       token &MUST; approve later registrations of a "version" token
3176       together with that "product" token before they can be registered.</t>
3177    <t>If absolutely required, the IESG &MAY; reassign the responsibility
3178       for a token. This will normally only be used in the case when a
3179       responsible party cannot be contacted.</t>
3180  </list>
3181</t>
3182<t>
3183   It is not required that specifications for upgrade tokens be made
3184   publicly available, but the contact information for the registration
3185   should be.
3186</t>
3187</section>
3188
3189
3190</section>
3191
3192<section title="Via" anchor="header.via">
3193  <iref primary="true" item="Via header" x:for-anchor=""/>
3194  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Via" x:for-anchor=""/>
3195  <x:anchor-alias value="protocol-name"/>
3196  <x:anchor-alias value="protocol-version"/>
3197  <x:anchor-alias value="pseudonym"/>
3198  <x:anchor-alias value="received-by"/>
3199  <x:anchor-alias value="received-protocol"/>
3200  <x:anchor-alias value="Via"/>
3201  <x:anchor-alias value="Via-v"/>
3202<t>
3203   The "Via" general-header field &MUST; be used by gateways and proxies to
3204   indicate the intermediate protocols and recipients between the user
3205   agent and the server on requests, and between the origin server and
3206   the client on responses. It is analogous to the "Received" field defined in
3207   <xref target="RFC5322" x:fmt="of" x:sec="3.6.7"/> and is intended to be used for tracking message forwards,
3208   avoiding request loops, and identifying the protocol capabilities of
3209   all senders along the request/response chain.
3210</t>
3211<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Via"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Via-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="received-protocol"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="protocol-name"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="protocol-version"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="received-by"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="pseudonym"/>
3212  <x:ref>Via</x:ref>               = "Via" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Via-v</x:ref>
3213  <x:ref>Via-v</x:ref>             = 1#( <x:ref>received-protocol</x:ref> <x:ref>RWS</x:ref> <x:ref>received-by</x:ref>
3214                          [ <x:ref>RWS</x:ref> <x:ref>comment</x:ref> ] )
3215  <x:ref>received-protocol</x:ref> = [ <x:ref>protocol-name</x:ref> "/" ] <x:ref>protocol-version</x:ref>
3216  <x:ref>protocol-name</x:ref>     = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
3217  <x:ref>protocol-version</x:ref>  = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
3218  <x:ref>received-by</x:ref>       = ( <x:ref>uri-host</x:ref> [ ":" <x:ref>port</x:ref> ] ) / <x:ref>pseudonym</x:ref>
3219  <x:ref>pseudonym</x:ref>         = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
3220</artwork></figure>
3221<t>
3222   The received-protocol indicates the protocol version of the message
3223   received by the server or client along each segment of the
3224   request/response chain. The received-protocol version is appended to
3225   the Via field value when the message is forwarded so that information
3226   about the protocol capabilities of upstream applications remains
3227   visible to all recipients.
3228</t>
3229<t>
3230   The protocol-name is optional if and only if it would be "HTTP". The
3231   received-by field is normally the host and optional port number of a
3232   recipient server or client that subsequently forwarded the message.
3233   However, if the real host is considered to be sensitive information,
3234   it &MAY; be replaced by a pseudonym. If the port is not given, it &MAY;
3235   be assumed to be the default port of the received-protocol.
3236</t>
3237<t>
3238   Multiple Via field values represent each proxy or gateway that has
3239   forwarded the message. Each recipient &MUST; append its information
3240   such that the end result is ordered according to the sequence of
3241   forwarding applications.
3242</t>
3243<t>
3244   Comments &MAY; be used in the Via header field to identify the software
3245   of the recipient proxy or gateway, analogous to the User-Agent and
3246   Server header fields. However, all comments in the Via field are
3247   optional and &MAY; be removed by any recipient prior to forwarding the
3248   message.
3249</t>
3250<t>
3251   For example, a request message could be sent from an HTTP/1.0 user
3252   agent to an internal proxy code-named "fred", which uses HTTP/1.1 to
3253   forward the request to a public proxy at p.example.net, which completes
3254   the request by forwarding it to the origin server at www.example.com.
3255   The request received by www.example.com would then have the following
3256   Via header field:
3257</t>
3258<figure><artwork type="example">
3259  Via: 1.0 fred, 1.1 p.example.net (Apache/1.1)
3260</artwork></figure>
3261<t>
3262   Proxies and gateways used as a portal through a network firewall
3263   &SHOULD-NOT;, by default, forward the names and ports of hosts within
3264   the firewall region. This information &SHOULD; only be propagated if
3265   explicitly enabled. If not enabled, the received-by host of any host
3266   behind the firewall &SHOULD; be replaced by an appropriate pseudonym
3267   for that host.
3268</t>
3269<t>
3270   For organizations that have strong privacy requirements for hiding
3271   internal structures, a proxy &MAY; combine an ordered subsequence of
3272   Via header field entries with identical received-protocol values into
3273   a single such entry. For example,
3274</t>
3275<figure><artwork type="example">
3276  Via: 1.0 ricky, 1.1 ethel, 1.1 fred, 1.0 lucy
3277</artwork></figure>
3278<t>
3279  could be collapsed to
3280</t>
3281<figure><artwork type="example">
3282  Via: 1.0 ricky, 1.1 mertz, 1.0 lucy
3283</artwork></figure>
3284<t>
3285   Applications &SHOULD-NOT;  combine multiple entries unless they are all
3286   under the same organizational control and the hosts have already been
3287   replaced by pseudonyms. Applications &MUST-NOT; combine entries which
3288   have different received-protocol values.
3289</t>
3290</section>
3291
3292</section>
3293
3294<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
3295
3296<section title="Message Header Registration" anchor="message.header.registration">
3297<t>
3298   The Message Header Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> should be updated
3299   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
3300</t>
3301<?BEGININC p1-messaging.iana-headers ?>
3302<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
3303<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
3304   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
3305   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
3306   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
3307   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
3308
3309   <c>Connection</c>
3310   <c>http</c>
3311   <c>standard</c>
3312   <c>
3313      <xref target="header.connection"/>
3314   </c>
3315   <c>Content-Length</c>
3316   <c>http</c>
3317   <c>standard</c>
3318   <c>
3319      <xref target="header.content-length"/>
3320   </c>
3321   <c>Date</c>
3322   <c>http</c>
3323   <c>standard</c>
3324   <c>
3325      <xref target="header.date"/>
3326   </c>
3327   <c>Host</c>
3328   <c>http</c>
3329   <c>standard</c>
3330   <c>
3331      <xref target="header.host"/>
3332   </c>
3333   <c>TE</c>
3334   <c>http</c>
3335   <c>standard</c>
3336   <c>
3337      <xref target="header.te"/>
3338   </c>
3339   <c>Trailer</c>
3340   <c>http</c>
3341   <c>standard</c>
3342   <c>
3343      <xref target="header.trailer"/>
3344   </c>
3345   <c>Transfer-Encoding</c>
3346   <c>http</c>
3347   <c>standard</c>
3348   <c>
3349      <xref target="header.transfer-encoding"/>
3350   </c>
3351   <c>Upgrade</c>
3352   <c>http</c>
3353   <c>standard</c>
3354   <c>
3355      <xref target="header.upgrade"/>
3356   </c>
3357   <c>Via</c>
3358   <c>http</c>
3359   <c>standard</c>
3360   <c>
3361      <xref target="header.via"/>
3362   </c>
3363</texttable>
3364<!--(END)-->
3365<?ENDINC p1-messaging.iana-headers ?>
3366<t>
3367   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
3368</t>
3369</section>
3370
3371<section title="URI Scheme Registration" anchor="uri.scheme.registration">
3372<t>
3373   The entries for the "http" and "https" URI Schemes in the registry located at
3374   <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes.html"/>
3375   should be updated to point to Sections <xref target="http.uri" format="counter"/>
3376   and <xref target="https.uri" format="counter"/> of this document
3377   (see <xref target="RFC4395"/>).
3378</t>
3379</section>
3380
3381<section title="Internet Media Type Registrations" anchor="internet.media.type.http">
3382<t>
3383   This document serves as the specification for the Internet media types
3384   "message/http" and "application/http". The following is to be registered with
3385   IANA (see <xref target="RFC4288"/>).
3386</t>
3387<section title="Internet Media Type message/http" anchor="internet.media.type.message.http">
3388<iref item="Media Type" subitem="message/http" primary="true"/>
3389<iref item="message/http Media Type" primary="true"/>
3390<t>
3391   The message/http type can be used to enclose a single HTTP request or
3392   response message, provided that it obeys the MIME restrictions for all
3393   "message" types regarding line length and encodings.
3394</t>
3395<t>
3396  <list style="hanging" x:indent="12em">
3397    <t hangText="Type name:">
3398      message
3399    </t>
3400    <t hangText="Subtype name:">
3401      http
3402    </t>
3403    <t hangText="Required parameters:">
3404      none
3405    </t>
3406    <t hangText="Optional parameters:">
3407      version, msgtype
3408      <list style="hanging">
3409        <t hangText="version:">
3410          The HTTP-Version number of the enclosed message
3411          (e.g., "1.1"). If not present, the version can be
3412          determined from the first line of the body.
3413        </t>
3414        <t hangText="msgtype:">
3415          The message type -- "request" or "response". If not
3416          present, the type can be determined from the first
3417          line of the body.
3418        </t>
3419      </list>
3420    </t>
3421    <t hangText="Encoding considerations:">
3422      only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted
3423    </t>
3424    <t hangText="Security considerations:">
3425      none
3426    </t>
3427    <t hangText="Interoperability considerations:">
3428      none
3429    </t>
3430    <t hangText="Published specification:">
3431      This specification (see <xref target="internet.media.type.message.http"/>).
3432    </t>
3433    <t hangText="Applications that use this media type:">
3434    </t>
3435    <t hangText="Additional information:">
3436      <list style="hanging">
3437        <t hangText="Magic number(s):">none</t>
3438        <t hangText="File extension(s):">none</t>
3439        <t hangText="Macintosh file type code(s):">none</t>
3440      </list>
3441    </t>
3442    <t hangText="Person and email address to contact for further information:">
3443      See Authors Section.
3444    </t>
3445    <t hangText="Intended usage:">
3446      COMMON
3447    </t>
3448    <t hangText="Restrictions on usage:">
3449      none
3450    </t>
3451    <t hangText="Author/Change controller:">
3452      IESG
3453    </t>
3454  </list>
3455</t>
3456</section>
3457<section title="Internet Media Type application/http" anchor="internet.media.type.application.http">
3458<iref item="Media Type" subitem="application/http" primary="true"/>
3459<iref item="application/http Media Type" primary="true"/>
3460<t>
3461   The application/http type can be used to enclose a pipeline of one or more
3462   HTTP request or response messages (not intermixed).
3463</t>
3464<t>
3465  <list style="hanging" x:indent="12em">
3466    <t hangText="Type name:">
3467      application
3468    </t>
3469    <t hangText="Subtype name:">
3470      http
3471    </t>
3472    <t hangText="Required parameters:">
3473      none
3474    </t>
3475    <t hangText="Optional parameters:">
3476      version, msgtype
3477      <list style="hanging">
3478        <t hangText="version:">
3479          The HTTP-Version number of the enclosed messages
3480          (e.g., "1.1"). If not present, the version can be
3481          determined from the first line of the body.
3482        </t>
3483        <t hangText="msgtype:">
3484          The message type -- "request" or "response". If not
3485          present, the type can be determined from the first
3486          line of the body.
3487        </t>
3488      </list>
3489    </t>
3490    <t hangText="Encoding considerations:">
3491      HTTP messages enclosed by this type
3492      are in "binary" format; use of an appropriate
3493      Content-Transfer-Encoding is required when
3494      transmitted via E-mail.
3495    </t>
3496    <t hangText="Security considerations:">
3497      none
3498    </t>
3499    <t hangText="Interoperability considerations:">
3500      none
3501    </t>
3502    <t hangText="Published specification:">
3503      This specification (see <xref target="internet.media.type.application.http"/>).
3504    </t>
3505    <t hangText="Applications that use this media type:">
3506    </t>
3507    <t hangText="Additional information:">
3508      <list style="hanging">
3509        <t hangText="Magic number(s):">none</t>
3510        <t hangText="File extension(s):">none</t>
3511        <t hangText="Macintosh file type code(s):">none</t>
3512      </list>
3513    </t>
3514    <t hangText="Person and email address to contact for further information:">
3515      See Authors Section.
3516    </t>
3517    <t hangText="Intended usage:">
3518      COMMON
3519    </t>
3520    <t hangText="Restrictions on usage:">
3521      none
3522    </t>
3523    <t hangText="Author/Change controller:">
3524      IESG
3525    </t>
3526  </list>
3527</t>
3528</section>
3529</section>
3530
3531<section title="Transfer Coding Registry" anchor="transfer.coding.registration">
3532<t>
3533   The registration procedure for HTTP Transfer Codings is now defined by
3534   <xref target="transfer.coding.registry"/> of this document.
3535</t>
3536<t>
3537   The HTTP Transfer Codings Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters"/>
3538   should be updated with the registrations below:
3539</t>
3540<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.transfer.coding.registration.table">
3541   <ttcol>Name</ttcol>
3542   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
3543   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
3544   <c>chunked</c>
3545   <c>Transfer in a series of chunks</c>
3546   <c>
3547      <xref target="chunked.encoding"/>
3548   </c>
3549   <c>compress</c>
3550   <c>UNIX "compress" program method</c>
3551   <c>
3552      <xref target="compress.coding"/>
3553   </c>
3554   <c>deflate</c>
3555   <c>"deflate" compression mechanism (<xref target="RFC1951"/>) used inside
3556   the "zlib" data format (<xref target="RFC1950"/>)
3557   </c>
3558   <c>
3559      <xref target="deflate.coding"/>
3560   </c>
3561   <c>gzip</c>
3562   <c>Same as GNU zip <xref target="RFC1952"/></c>
3563   <c>
3564      <xref target="gzip.coding"/>
3565   </c>
3566</texttable>
3567</section>
3568
3569<section title="Upgrade Token Registration" anchor="upgrade.token.registration">
3570<t>
3571   The registration procedure for HTTP Upgrade Tokens -- previously defined
3572   in <xref target="RFC2817" x:fmt="of" x:sec="7.2"/> -- is now defined
3573   by <xref target="upgrade.token.registry"/> of this document.
3574</t>
3575<t>
3576   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-upgrade-tokens/"/>
3577   should be updated with the registration below:
3578</t>
3579<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true">
3580   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
3581   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
3582   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
3583
3584   <c>HTTP</c>
3585   <c>Hypertext Transfer Protocol</c> 
3586   <c><xref target="http.version"/> of this specification</c>
3587<!-- IANA should add this without our instructions; emailed on June 05, 2009
3588   <c>TLS/1.0</c>
3589   <c>Transport Layer Security</c>
3590   <c><xref target="RFC2817"/></c> -->
3591
3592</texttable>
3593</section>
3594
3595</section>
3596
3597<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
3598<t>
3599   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
3600   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
3601   described by this document. The discussion does not include
3602   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
3603   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
3604</t>
3605
3606<section title="Personal Information" anchor="personal.information">
3607<t>
3608   HTTP clients are often privy to large amounts of personal information
3609   (e.g., the user's name, location, mail address, passwords, encryption
3610   keys, etc.), and &SHOULD; be very careful to prevent unintentional
3611   leakage of this information.
3612   We very strongly recommend that a convenient interface be provided
3613   for the user to control dissemination of such information, and that
3614   designers and implementors be particularly careful in this area.
3615   History shows that errors in this area often create serious security
3616   and/or privacy problems and generate highly adverse publicity for the
3617   implementor's company.
3618</t>
3619</section>
3620
3621<section title="Abuse of Server Log Information" anchor="abuse.of.server.log.information">
3622<t>
3623   A server is in the position to save personal data about a user's
3624   requests which might identify their reading patterns or subjects of
3625   interest. This information is clearly confidential in nature and its
3626   handling can be constrained by law in certain countries. People using
3627   HTTP to provide data are responsible for ensuring that
3628   such material is not distributed without the permission of any
3629   individuals that are identifiable by the published results.
3630</t>
3631</section>
3632
3633<section title="Attacks Based On File and Path Names" anchor="attack.pathname">
3634<t>
3635   Implementations of HTTP origin servers &SHOULD; be careful to restrict
3636   the documents returned by HTTP requests to be only those that were
3637   intended by the server administrators. If an HTTP server translates
3638   HTTP URIs directly into file system calls, the server &MUST; take
3639   special care not to serve files that were not intended to be
3640   delivered to HTTP clients. For example, UNIX, Microsoft Windows, and
3641   other operating systems use ".." as a path component to indicate a
3642   directory level above the current one. On such a system, an HTTP
3643   server &MUST; disallow any such construct in the request-target if it
3644   would otherwise allow access to a resource outside those intended to
3645   be accessible via the HTTP server. Similarly, files intended for
3646   reference only internally to the server (such as access control
3647   files, configuration files, and script code) &MUST; be protected from
3648   inappropriate retrieval, since they might contain sensitive
3649   information. Experience has shown that minor bugs in such HTTP server
3650   implementations have turned into security risks.
3651</t>
3652</section>
3653
3654<section title="DNS Spoofing" anchor="dns.spoofing">
3655<t>
3656   Clients using HTTP rely heavily on the Domain Name Service, and are
3657   thus generally prone to security attacks based on the deliberate
3658   mis-association of IP addresses and DNS names. Clients need to be
3659   cautious in assuming the continuing validity of an IP number/DNS name
3660   association.
3661</t>
3662<t>
3663   In particular, HTTP clients &SHOULD; rely on their name resolver for
3664   confirmation of an IP number/DNS name association, rather than
3665   caching the result of previous host name lookups. Many platforms
3666   already can cache host name lookups locally when appropriate, and
3667   they &SHOULD; be configured to do so. It is proper for these lookups to
3668   be cached, however, only when the TTL (Time To Live) information
3669   reported by the name server makes it likely that the cached
3670   information will remain useful.
3671</t>
3672<t>
3673   If HTTP clients cache the results of host name lookups in order to
3674   achieve a performance improvement, they &MUST; observe the TTL
3675   information reported by DNS.
3676</t>
3677<t>
3678   If HTTP clients do not observe this rule, they could be spoofed when
3679   a previously-accessed server's IP address changes. As network
3680   renumbering is expected to become increasingly common <xref target="RFC1900"/>, the
3681   possibility of this form of attack will grow. Observing this
3682   requirement thus reduces this potential security vulnerability.
3683</t>
3684<t>
3685   This requirement also improves the load-balancing behavior of clients
3686   for replicated servers using the same DNS name and reduces the
3687   likelihood of a user's experiencing failure in accessing sites which
3688   use that strategy.
3689</t>
3690</section>
3691
3692<section title="Proxies and Caching" anchor="attack.proxies">
3693<t>
3694   By their very nature, HTTP proxies are men-in-the-middle, and
3695   represent an opportunity for man-in-the-middle attacks. Compromise of
3696   the systems on which the proxies run can result in serious security
3697   and privacy problems. Proxies have access to security-related
3698   information, personal information about individual users and
3699   organizations, and proprietary information belonging to users and
3700   content providers. A compromised proxy, or a proxy implemented or
3701   configured without regard to security and privacy considerations,
3702   might be used in the commission of a wide range of potential attacks.
3703</t>
3704<t>
3705   Proxy operators should protect the systems on which proxies run as
3706   they would protect any system that contains or transports sensitive
3707   information. In particular, log information gathered at proxies often
3708   contains highly sensitive personal information, and/or information
3709   about organizations. Log information should be carefully guarded, and
3710   appropriate guidelines for use should be developed and followed.
3711   (<xref target="abuse.of.server.log.information"/>).
3712</t>
3713<t>
3714   Proxy implementors should consider the privacy and security
3715   implications of their design and coding decisions, and of the
3716   configuration options they provide to proxy operators (especially the
3717   default configuration).
3718</t>
3719<t>
3720   Users of a proxy need to be aware that proxies are no trustworthier than
3721   the people who run them; HTTP itself cannot solve this problem.
3722</t>
3723<t>
3724   The judicious use of cryptography, when appropriate, may suffice to
3725   protect against a broad range of security and privacy attacks. Such
3726   cryptography is beyond the scope of the HTTP/1.1 specification.
3727</t>
3728</section>
3729
3730<section title="Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies" anchor="attack.DoS">
3731<t>
3732   They exist. They are hard to defend against. Research continues.
3733   Beware.
3734</t>
3735</section>
3736</section>
3737
3738<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="ack">
3739<t>
3740   HTTP has evolved considerably over the years. It has
3741   benefited from a large and active developer community--the many
3742   people who have participated on the www-talk mailing list--and it is
3743   that community which has been most responsible for the success of
3744   HTTP and of the World-Wide Web in general. Marc Andreessen, Robert
3745   Cailliau, Daniel W. Connolly, Bob Denny, John Franks, Jean-Francois
3746   Groff, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Hakon W. Lie, Ari Luotonen, Rob
3747   McCool, Lou Montulli, Dave Raggett, Tony Sanders, and Marc
3748   VanHeyningen deserve special recognition for their efforts in
3749   defining early aspects of the protocol.
3750</t>
3751<t>
3752   This document has benefited greatly from the comments of all those
3753   participating in the HTTP-WG. In addition to those already mentioned,
3754   the following individuals have contributed to this specification:
3755</t>
3756<t>
3757   Gary Adams, Harald Tveit Alvestrand, Keith Ball, Brian Behlendorf,
3758   Paul Burchard, Maurizio Codogno, Mike Cowlishaw, Roman Czyborra,
3759   Michael A. Dolan, Daniel DuBois, David J. Fiander, Alan Freier, Marc Hedlund, Greg Herlihy,
3760   Koen Holtman, Alex Hopmann, Bob Jernigan, Shel Kaphan, Rohit Khare,
3761   John Klensin, Martijn Koster, Alexei Kosut, David M. Kristol,
3762   Daniel LaLiberte, Ben Laurie, Paul J. Leach, Albert Lunde,
3763   John C. Mallery, Jean-Philippe Martin-Flatin, Mitra, David Morris,
3764   Gavin Nicol, Ross Patterson, Bill Perry, Jeffrey Perry, Scott Powers, Owen Rees,
3765   Luigi Rizzo, David Robinson, Marc Salomon, Rich Salz,
3766   Allan M. Schiffman, Jim Seidman, Chuck Shotton, Eric W. Sink,
3767   Simon E. Spero, Richard N. Taylor, Robert S. Thau,
3768   Bill (BearHeart) Weinman, Francois Yergeau, Mary Ellen Zurko,
3769   Josh Cohen.
3770</t>
3771<t>
3772   Thanks to the "cave men" of Palo Alto. You know who you are.
3773</t>
3774<t>
3775   Jim Gettys (the editor of <xref target="RFC2616"/>) wishes particularly
3776   to thank Roy Fielding, the editor of <xref target="RFC2068"/>, along
3777   with John Klensin, Jeff Mogul, Paul Leach, Dave Kristol, Koen
3778   Holtman, John Franks, Josh Cohen, Alex Hopmann, Scott Lawrence, and
3779   Larry Masinter for their help. And thanks go particularly to Jeff
3780   Mogul and Scott Lawrence for performing the "MUST/MAY/SHOULD" audit.
3781</t>
3782<t>
3783   The Apache Group, Anselm Baird-Smith, author of Jigsaw, and Henrik
3784   Frystyk implemented RFC 2068 early, and we wish to thank them for the
3785   discovery of many of the problems that this document attempts to
3786   rectify.
3787</t>
3788<t>
3789   This specification makes heavy use of the augmented BNF and generic
3790   constructs defined by David H. Crocker for <xref target="RFC5234"/>. Similarly, it
3791   reuses many of the definitions provided by Nathaniel Borenstein and
3792   Ned Freed for MIME <xref target="RFC2045"/>. We hope that their inclusion in this
3793   specification will help reduce past confusion over the relationship
3794   between HTTP and Internet mail message formats.
3795</t>
3796</section>
3797
3798</middle>
3799<back>
3800
3801<references title="Normative References">
3802
3803<reference anchor="ISO-8859-1">
3804  <front>
3805    <title>
3806     Information technology -- 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets -- Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1
3807    </title>
3808    <author>
3809      <organization>International Organization for Standardization</organization>
3810    </author>
3811    <date year="1998"/>
3812  </front>
3813  <seriesInfo name="ISO/IEC" value="8859-1:1998"/>
3814</reference>
3815
3816<reference anchor="Part2">
3817  <front>
3818    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</title>
3819    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
3820      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
3821      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
3822    </author>
3823    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
3824      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
3825      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
3826    </author>
3827    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
3828      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
3829      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
3830    </author>
3831    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
3832      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3833      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
3834    </author>
3835    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
3836      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
3837      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
3838    </author>
3839    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
3840      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3841      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
3842    </author>
3843    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
3844      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3845      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
3846    </author>
3847    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
3848      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3849      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
3850    </author>
3851    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
3852      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
3853      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
3854    </author>
3855    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
3856  </front>
3857  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;"/>
3858  <x:source href="p2-semantics.xml" basename="p2-semantics"/>
3859</reference>
3860
3861<reference anchor="Part3">
3862  <front>
3863    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation</title>
3864    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
3865      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
3866      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
3867    </author>
3868    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
3869      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
3870      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
3871    </author>
3872    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
3873      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
3874      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
3875    </author>
3876    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
3877      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3878      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
3879    </author>
3880    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
3881      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
3882      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
3883    </author>
3884    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
3885      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3886      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
3887    </author>
3888    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
3889      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3890      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
3891    </author>
3892    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
3893      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3894      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
3895    </author>
3896    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
3897      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
3898      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
3899    </author>
3900    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
3901  </front>
3902  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-&ID-VERSION;"/>
3903  <x:source href="p3-payload.xml" basename="p3-payload"/>
3904</reference>
3905
3906<reference anchor="Part5">
3907  <front>
3908    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</title>
3909    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
3910      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
3911      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
3912    </author>
3913    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
3914      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
3915      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
3916    </author>
3917    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
3918      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
3919      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
3920    </author>
3921    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
3922      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3923      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
3924    </author>
3925    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
3926      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
3927      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
3928    </author>
3929    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
3930      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3931      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
3932    </author>
3933    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
3934      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3935      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
3936    </author>
3937    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
3938      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3939      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
3940    </author>
3941    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
3942      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
3943      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
3944    </author>
3945    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
3946  </front>
3947  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;"/>
3948  <x:source href="p5-range.xml" basename="p5-range"/>
3949</reference>
3950
3951<reference anchor="Part6">
3952  <front>
3953    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
3954    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
3955      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
3956      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
3957    </author>
3958    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
3959      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
3960      <address><email>jg@laptop.org</email></address>
3961    </author>
3962    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
3963      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
3964      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
3965    </author>
3966    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
3967      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3968      <address><email>henrikn@microsoft.com</email></address>
3969    </author>
3970    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
3971      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
3972      <address><email>LMM@acm.org</email></address>
3973    </author>
3974    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
3975      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
3976      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
3977    </author>
3978    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
3979      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3980      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
3981    </author>
3982    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
3983      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
3984      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
3985    </author>
3986    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
3987      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
3988    </author>
3989    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
3990      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
3991      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
3992    </author>
3993    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
3994  </front>
3995  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
3996  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
3997</reference>
3998
3999<reference anchor="RFC5234">
4000  <front>
4001    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
4002    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
4003      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
4004      <address>
4005        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
4006      </address> 
4007    </author>
4008    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
4009      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
4010      <address>
4011        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
4012      </address>
4013    </author>
4014    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
4015  </front>
4016  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
4017  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
4018</reference>
4019
4020<reference anchor="RFC2119">
4021  <front>
4022    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
4023    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
4024      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
4025      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
4026    </author>
4027    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
4028  </front>
4029  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
4030  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
4031</reference>
4032
4033<reference anchor="RFC3986">
4034 <front>
4035  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
4036  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
4037    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
4038    <address>
4039       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
4040       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
4041    </address>
4042  </author>
4043  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
4044    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
4045    <address>
4046      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
4047      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
4048    </address>
4049  </author>
4050  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
4051    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
4052    <address>
4053      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
4054      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
4055    </address>
4056  </author>
4057  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
4058 </front>
4059 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
4060 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
4061</reference>
4062
4063<reference anchor="USASCII">
4064  <front>
4065    <title>Coded Character Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Interchange</title>
4066    <author>
4067      <organization>American National Standards Institute</organization>
4068    </author>
4069    <date year="1986"/>
4070  </front>
4071  <seriesInfo name="ANSI" value="X3.4"/>
4072</reference>
4073
4074<reference anchor="RFC1950">
4075  <front>
4076    <title>ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3</title>
4077    <author initials="L.P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
4078      <organization>Aladdin Enterprises</organization>
4079      <address><email>ghost@aladdin.com</email></address>
4080    </author>
4081    <author initials="J-L." surname="Gailly" fullname="Jean-Loup Gailly"/>
4082    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
4083  </front>
4084  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1950"/>
4085  <annotation>
4086    RFC 1950 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than
4087    this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference was
4088    present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<xref target="RFC2068"/>),
4089    therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also
4090    <xref target="BCP97"/>.
4091  </annotation>
4092</reference>
4093
4094<reference anchor="RFC1951">
4095  <front>
4096    <title>DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3</title>
4097    <author initials="P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
4098      <organization>Aladdin Enterprises</organization>
4099      <address><email>ghost@aladdin.com</email></address>
4100    </author>
4101    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
4102  </front>
4103  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1951"/>
4104  <annotation>
4105    RFC 1951 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than
4106    this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference was
4107    present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<xref target="RFC2068"/>),
4108    therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also
4109    <xref target="BCP97"/>.
4110  </annotation>
4111</reference>
4112
4113<reference anchor="RFC1952">
4114  <front>
4115    <title>GZIP file format specification version 4.3</title>
4116    <author initials="P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
4117      <organization>Aladdin Enterprises</organization>
4118      <address><email>ghost@aladdin.com</email></address>
4119    </author>
4120    <author initials="J-L." surname="Gailly" fullname="Jean-Loup Gailly">
4121      <address><email>gzip@prep.ai.mit.edu</email></address>
4122    </author>
4123    <author initials="M." surname="Adler" fullname="Mark Adler">
4124      <address><email>madler@alumni.caltech.edu</email></address>
4125    </author>
4126    <author initials="L.P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
4127      <address><email>ghost@aladdin.com</email></address>
4128    </author>
4129    <author initials="G." surname="Randers-Pehrson" fullname="Glenn Randers-Pehrson">
4130      <address><email>randeg@alumni.rpi.edu</email></address>
4131    </author>
4132    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
4133  </front>
4134  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1952"/>
4135  <annotation>
4136    RFC 1952 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than
4137    this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference was
4138    present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<xref target="RFC2068"/>),
4139    therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also
4140    <xref target="BCP97"/>.
4141  </annotation>
4142</reference>
4143
4144</references>
4145
4146<references title="Informative References">
4147
4148<reference anchor="Nie1997" target="http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/263105.263157">
4149  <front>
4150    <title>Network Performance Effects of HTTP/1.1, CSS1, and PNG</title>
4151    <author initials="H.F.." surname="Nielsen" fullname="H.F. Nielsen"/>
4152    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys"/>
4153    <author initials="E." surname="Prud'hommeaux" fullname="E. Prud'hommeaux"/>
4154    <author initials="H." surname="Lie" fullname="H. Lie"/>
4155    <author initials="C." surname="Lilley" fullname="C. Lilley"/>
4156    <date year="1997" month="September"/>
4157  </front>
4158  <seriesInfo name="ACM" value="Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM '97 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication SIGCOMM '97"/>
4159</reference>
4160
4161<reference anchor="Pad1995" target="http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=219094">
4162  <front>
4163    <title>Improving HTTP Latency</title>
4164    <author initials="V.N." surname="Padmanabhan" fullname="Venkata N. Padmanabhan"/>
4165    <author initials="J.C." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul"/>
4166    <date year="1995" month="December"/>
4167  </front>
4168  <seriesInfo name="Computer Networks and ISDN Systems" value="v. 28, pp. 25-35"/>
4169</reference>
4170
4171<reference anchor="RFC1123">
4172  <front>
4173    <title>Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support</title>
4174    <author initials="R." surname="Braden" fullname="Robert Braden">
4175      <organization>University of Southern California (USC), Information Sciences Institute</organization>
4176      <address><email>Braden@ISI.EDU</email></address>
4177    </author>
4178    <date month="October" year="1989"/>
4179  </front>
4180  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="3"/>
4181  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1123"/>
4182</reference>
4183
4184<reference anchor="RFC1305">
4185  <front>
4186    <title>Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation</title>
4187    <author initials="D." surname="Mills" fullname="David L. Mills">
4188      <organization>University of Delaware, Electrical Engineering Department</organization>
4189      <address><email>mills@udel.edu</email></address>
4190    </author>
4191    <date month="March" year="1992"/>
4192  </front>
4193  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1305"/>
4194</reference>
4195
4196<reference anchor="RFC1900">
4197  <front>
4198    <title>Renumbering Needs Work</title>
4199    <author initials="B." surname="Carpenter" fullname="Brian E. Carpenter">
4200      <organization>CERN, Computing and Networks Division</organization>
4201      <address><email>brian@dxcoms.cern.ch</email></address>
4202    </author>
4203    <author initials="Y." surname="Rekhter" fullname="Yakov Rekhter">
4204      <organization>cisco Systems</organization>
4205      <address><email>yakov@cisco.com</email></address>
4206    </author>
4207    <date month="February" year="1996"/>
4208  </front>
4209  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1900"/>
4210</reference>
4211
4212<reference anchor="RFC1945">
4213  <front>
4214    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.0">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0</title>
4215    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
4216      <organization>MIT, Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4217      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
4218    </author>
4219    <author initials="R.T." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding">
4220      <organization>University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science</organization>
4221      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
4222    </author>
4223    <author initials="H.F." surname="Nielsen" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
4224      <organization>W3 Consortium, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4225      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
4226    </author>
4227    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
4228  </front>
4229  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1945"/>
4230</reference>
4231
4232<reference anchor="RFC2045">
4233  <front>
4234    <title abbrev="Internet Message Bodies">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</title>
4235    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
4236      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
4237      <address><email>ned@innosoft.com</email></address>
4238    </author>
4239    <author initials="N.S." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
4240      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
4241      <address><email>nsb@nsb.fv.com</email></address>
4242    </author>
4243    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
4244  </front>
4245  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2045"/>
4246</reference>
4247
4248<reference anchor="RFC2047">
4249  <front>
4250    <title abbrev="Message Header Extensions">MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text</title>
4251    <author initials="K." surname="Moore" fullname="Keith Moore">
4252      <organization>University of Tennessee</organization>
4253      <address><email>moore@cs.utk.edu</email></address>
4254    </author>
4255    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
4256  </front>
4257  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2047"/>
4258</reference>
4259
4260<reference anchor="RFC2068">
4261  <front>
4262    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
4263    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding">
4264      <organization>University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science</organization>
4265      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
4266    </author>
4267    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
4268      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4269      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
4270    </author>
4271    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
4272      <organization>Digital Equipment Corporation, Western Research Laboratory</organization>
4273      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
4274    </author>
4275    <author initials="H." surname="Nielsen" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
4276      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4277      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
4278    </author>
4279    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
4280      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4281      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
4282    </author>
4283    <date month="January" year="1997"/>
4284  </front>
4285  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2068"/>
4286</reference>
4287
4288<reference anchor='RFC2109'>
4289  <front>
4290    <title>HTTP State Management Mechanism</title>
4291    <author initials='D.M.' surname='Kristol' fullname='David M. Kristol'>
4292      <organization>Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies</organization>
4293      <address><email>dmk@bell-labs.com</email></address>
4294    </author>
4295    <author initials='L.' surname='Montulli' fullname='Lou Montulli'>
4296      <organization>Netscape Communications Corp.</organization>
4297      <address><email>montulli@netscape.com</email></address>
4298    </author>
4299    <date year='1997' month='February' />
4300  </front>
4301  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='2109' />
4302</reference>
4303
4304<reference anchor="RFC2145">
4305  <front>
4306    <title abbrev="HTTP Version Numbers">Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers</title>
4307    <author initials="J.C." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
4308      <organization>Western Research Laboratory</organization>
4309      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
4310    </author>
4311    <author initials="R.T." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding">
4312      <organization>Department of Information and Computer Science</organization>
4313      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
4314    </author>
4315    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
4316      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4317      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
4318    </author>
4319    <author initials="H.F." surname="Nielsen" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
4320      <organization>W3 Consortium</organization>
4321      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
4322    </author>
4323    <date month="May" year="1997"/>
4324  </front>
4325  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2145"/>
4326</reference>
4327
4328<reference anchor="RFC2616">
4329  <front>
4330    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
4331    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
4332      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
4333      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
4334    </author>
4335    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
4336      <organization>W3C</organization>
4337      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
4338    </author>
4339    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
4340      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
4341      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
4342    </author>
4343    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
4344      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
4345      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
4346    </author>
4347    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
4348      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
4349      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
4350    </author>
4351    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
4352      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
4353      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
4354    </author>
4355    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
4356      <organization>W3C</organization>
4357      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
4358    </author>
4359    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
4360  </front>
4361  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
4362</reference>
4363
4364<reference anchor='RFC2817'>
4365  <front>
4366    <title>Upgrading to TLS Within HTTP/1.1</title>
4367    <author initials='R.' surname='Khare' fullname='R. Khare'>
4368      <organization>4K Associates / UC Irvine</organization>
4369      <address><email>rohit@4K-associates.com</email></address>
4370    </author>
4371    <author initials='S.' surname='Lawrence' fullname='S. Lawrence'>
4372      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
4373      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
4374    </author>
4375    <date year='2000' month='May' />
4376  </front>
4377  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='2817' />
4378</reference>
4379
4380<reference anchor='RFC2818'>
4381  <front>
4382    <title>HTTP Over TLS</title>
4383    <author initials='E.' surname='Rescorla' fullname='Eric Rescorla'>
4384      <organization>RTFM, Inc.</organization>
4385      <address><email>ekr@rtfm.com</email></address>
4386    </author>
4387    <date year='2000' month='May' />
4388  </front>
4389  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='2818' />
4390</reference>
4391
4392<reference anchor='RFC2965'>
4393  <front>
4394    <title>HTTP State Management Mechanism</title>
4395    <author initials='D. M.' surname='Kristol' fullname='David M. Kristol'>
4396      <organization>Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies</organization>
4397      <address><email>dmk@bell-labs.com</email></address>
4398    </author>
4399    <author initials='L.' surname='Montulli' fullname='Lou Montulli'>
4400      <organization>Epinions.com, Inc.</organization>
4401      <address><email>lou@montulli.org</email></address>
4402    </author>
4403    <date year='2000' month='October' />
4404  </front>
4405  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='2965' />
4406</reference>
4407
4408<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
4409  <front>
4410    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
4411    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
4412      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
4413      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
4414    </author>
4415    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
4416      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
4417      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
4418    </author>
4419    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
4420      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
4421      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
4422    </author>
4423    <date year='2004' month='September' />
4424  </front>
4425  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
4426  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
4427</reference>
4428
4429<reference anchor="RFC4288">
4430  <front>
4431    <title>Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</title>
4432    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="N. Freed">
4433      <organization>Sun Microsystems</organization>
4434      <address>
4435        <email>ned.freed@mrochek.com</email>
4436      </address>
4437    </author>
4438    <author initials="J." surname="Klensin" fullname="J. Klensin">
4439      <address>
4440        <email>klensin+ietf@jck.com</email>
4441      </address>
4442    </author>
4443    <date year="2005" month="December"/>
4444  </front>
4445  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="13"/>
4446  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="4288"/>
4447</reference>
4448
4449<reference anchor='RFC4395'>
4450  <front>
4451    <title>Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes</title>
4452    <author initials='T.' surname='Hansen' fullname='T. Hansen'>
4453      <organization>AT&amp;T Laboratories</organization>
4454      <address>
4455        <email>tony+urireg@maillennium.att.com</email>
4456      </address>
4457    </author>
4458    <author initials='T.' surname='Hardie' fullname='T. Hardie'>
4459      <organization>Qualcomm, Inc.</organization>
4460      <address>
4461        <email>hardie@qualcomm.com</email>
4462      </address>
4463    </author>
4464    <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='L. Masinter'>
4465      <organization>Adobe Systems</organization>
4466      <address>
4467        <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
4468      </address>
4469    </author>
4470    <date year='2006' month='February' />
4471  </front>
4472  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='115' />
4473  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='4395' />
4474</reference>
4475
4476<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
4477  <front>
4478    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
4479    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
4480      <organization>IBM</organization>
4481      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
4482    </author>
4483    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
4484      <organization>Google</organization>
4485      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
4486    </author>
4487    <date year='2008' month='May' />
4488  </front>
4489  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
4490  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
4491</reference>
4492
4493<reference anchor="RFC5322">
4494  <front>
4495    <title>Internet Message Format</title>
4496    <author initials="P." surname="Resnick" fullname="P. Resnick">
4497      <organization>Qualcomm Incorporated</organization>
4498    </author>
4499    <date year="2008" month="October"/>
4500  </front> 
4501  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5322"/>
4502</reference>
4503
4504<reference anchor='BCP97'>
4505  <front>
4506    <title>Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents</title>
4507    <author initials='J.' surname='Klensin' fullname='J. Klensin'>
4508      <address>
4509        <email>klensin+ietf@jck.com</email>
4510      </address>
4511    </author>
4512    <author initials='S.' surname='Hartman' fullname='S. Hartman'>
4513      <organization>MIT</organization>
4514      <address>
4515        <email>hartmans-ietf@mit.edu</email>
4516      </address>
4517    </author>
4518    <date year='2007' month='June' />
4519  </front>
4520  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='97' />
4521  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='4897' />
4522</reference>
4523
4524<reference anchor="Kri2001" target="http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.SE/0105018">
4525  <front>
4526    <title>HTTP Cookies: Standards, Privacy, and Politics</title>
4527    <author initials="D." surname="Kristol" fullname="David M. Kristol"/>
4528    <date year="2001" month="November"/>
4529  </front>
4530  <seriesInfo name="ACM Transactions on Internet Technology" value="Vol. 1, #2"/>
4531</reference>
4532
4533<reference anchor="Spe" target="http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdma-release/http-prob.html">
4534  <front>
4535    <title>Analysis of HTTP Performance Problems</title>
4536    <author initials="S." surname="Spero" fullname="Simon E. Spero"/>
4537    <date/>
4538  </front>
4539</reference>
4540
4541<reference anchor="Tou1998" target="http://www.isi.edu/touch/pubs/http-perf96/">
4542  <front>
4543  <title>Analysis of HTTP Performance</title>
4544  <author initials="J." surname="Touch" fullname="Joe Touch">
4545    <organization>USC/Information Sciences Institute</organization>
4546    <address><email>touch@isi.edu</email></address>
4547  </author>
4548  <author initials="J." surname="Heidemann" fullname="John Heidemann">
4549    <organization>USC/Information Sciences Institute</organization>
4550    <address><email>johnh@isi.edu</email></address>
4551  </author>
4552  <author initials="K." surname="Obraczka" fullname="Katia Obraczka">
4553    <organization>USC/Information Sciences Institute</organization>
4554    <address><email>katia@isi.edu</email></address>
4555  </author>
4556  <date year="1998" month="Aug"/>
4557  </front>
4558  <seriesInfo name="ISI Research Report" value="ISI/RR-98-463"/>
4559  <annotation>(original report dated Aug. 1996)</annotation>
4560</reference>
4561
4562</references>
4563
4564
4565<section title="Tolerant Applications" anchor="tolerant.applications">
4566<t>
4567   Although this document specifies the requirements for the generation
4568   of HTTP/1.1 messages, not all applications will be correct in their
4569   implementation. We therefore recommend that operational applications
4570   be tolerant of deviations whenever those deviations can be
4571   interpreted unambiguously.
4572</t>
4573<t>
4574   Clients &SHOULD; be tolerant in parsing the Status-Line and servers
4575   &SHOULD; be tolerant when parsing the Request-Line. In particular, they
4576   &SHOULD; accept any amount of WSP characters between fields, even though
4577   only a single SP is required.
4578</t>
4579<t>
4580   The line terminator for header fields is the sequence CRLF.
4581   However, we recommend that applications, when parsing such headers,
4582   recognize a single LF as a line terminator and ignore the leading CR.
4583</t>
4584<t>
4585   The character set of an entity-body &SHOULD; be labeled as the lowest
4586   common denominator of the character codes used within that body, with
4587   the exception that not labeling the entity is preferred over labeling
4588   the entity with the labels US-ASCII or ISO-8859-1. See &payload;.
4589</t>
4590<t>
4591   Additional rules for requirements on parsing and encoding of dates
4592   and other potential problems with date encodings include:
4593</t>
4594<t>
4595  <list style="symbols">
4596     <t>HTTP/1.1 clients and caches &SHOULD; assume that an RFC-850 date
4597        which appears to be more than 50 years in the future is in fact
4598        in the past (this helps solve the "year 2000" problem).</t>
4599
4600     <t>Although all date formats are specified to be case-sensitive,
4601        recipients &SHOULD; match day, week and timezone names
4602        case-insensitively.</t>
4603             
4604     <t>An HTTP/1.1 implementation &MAY; internally represent a parsed
4605        Expires date as earlier than the proper value, but &MUST-NOT;
4606        internally represent a parsed Expires date as later than the
4607        proper value.</t>
4608
4609     <t>All expiration-related calculations &MUST; be done in GMT. The
4610        local time zone &MUST-NOT; influence the calculation or comparison
4611        of an age or expiration time.</t>
4612
4613     <t>If an HTTP header incorrectly carries a date value with a time
4614        zone other than GMT, it &MUST; be converted into GMT using the
4615        most conservative possible conversion.</t>
4616  </list>
4617</t>
4618</section>
4619
4620<section title="Compatibility with Previous Versions" anchor="compatibility">
4621<t>
4622   HTTP has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information initiative
4623   since 1990. The first version of HTTP, later referred to as HTTP/0.9,
4624   was a simple protocol for hypertext data transfer across the Internet
4625   with only a single method and no metadata.
4626   HTTP/1.0, as defined by <xref target="RFC1945"/>, added a range of request
4627   methods and MIME-like messaging that could include metadata about the data
4628   transferred and modifiers on the request/response semantics. However,
4629   HTTP/1.0 did not sufficiently take into consideration the effects of
4630   hierarchical proxies, caching, the need for persistent connections, or
4631   name-based virtual hosts. The proliferation of incompletely-implemented
4632   applications calling themselves "HTTP/1.0" further necessitated a
4633   protocol version change in order for two communicating applications
4634   to determine each other's true capabilities.
4635</t>
4636<t>
4637   HTTP/1.1 remains compatible with HTTP/1.0 by including more stringent
4638   requirements that enable reliable implementations, adding only
4639   those new features that will either be safely ignored by an HTTP/1.0
4640   recipient or only sent when communicating with a party advertising
4641   compliance with HTTP/1.1.
4642</t>
4643<t>
4644   It is beyond the scope of a protocol specification to mandate
4645   compliance with previous versions. HTTP/1.1 was deliberately
4646   designed, however, to make supporting previous versions easy. It is
4647   worth noting that, at the time of composing this specification, we would
4648   expect general-purpose HTTP/1.1 servers to:
4649  <list style="symbols">
4650     <t>understand any valid request in the format of HTTP/1.0 and
4651        1.1;</t>
4652
4653     <t>respond appropriately with a message in the same major version
4654        used by the client.</t>
4655  </list>
4656</t>
4657<t>
4658   And we would expect HTTP/1.1 clients to:
4659  <list style="symbols">
4660     <t>understand any valid response in the format of HTTP/1.0 or
4661        1.1.</t>
4662  </list>
4663</t>
4664<t>
4665   For most implementations of HTTP/1.0, each connection is established
4666   by the client prior to the request and closed by the server after
4667   sending the response. Some implementations implement the Keep-Alive
4668   version of persistent connections described in <xref x:sec="19.7.1" x:fmt="of" target="RFC2068"/>.
4669</t>
4670
4671<section title="Changes from HTTP/1.0" anchor="changes.from.1.0">
4672<t>
4673   This section summarizes major differences between versions HTTP/1.0
4674   and HTTP/1.1.
4675</t>
4676
4677<section title="Changes to Simplify Multi-homed Web Servers and Conserve IP Addresses" anchor="changes.to.simplify.multi-homed.web.servers.and.conserve.ip.addresses">
4678<t>
4679   The requirements that clients and servers support the Host request-header,
4680   report an error if the Host request-header (<xref target="header.host"/>) is
4681   missing from an HTTP/1.1 request, and accept absolute URIs (<xref target="request-target"/>)
4682   are among the most important changes defined by this
4683   specification.
4684</t>
4685<t>
4686   Older HTTP/1.0 clients assumed a one-to-one relationship of IP
4687   addresses and servers; there was no other established mechanism for
4688   distinguishing the intended server of a request than the IP address
4689   to which that request was directed. The changes outlined above will
4690   allow the Internet, once older HTTP clients are no longer common, to
4691   support multiple Web sites from a single IP address, greatly
4692   simplifying large operational Web servers, where allocation of many
4693   IP addresses to a single host has created serious problems. The
4694   Internet will also be able to recover the IP addresses that have been
4695   allocated for the sole purpose of allowing special-purpose domain
4696   names to be used in root-level HTTP URLs. Given the rate of growth of
4697   the Web, and the number of servers already deployed, it is extremely
4698   important that all implementations of HTTP (including updates to
4699   existing HTTP/1.0 applications) correctly implement these
4700   requirements:
4701  <list style="symbols">
4702     <t>Both clients and servers &MUST; support the Host request-header.</t>
4703
4704     <t>A client that sends an HTTP/1.1 request &MUST; send a Host header.</t>
4705
4706     <t>Servers &MUST; report a 400 (Bad Request) error if an HTTP/1.1
4707        request does not include a Host request-header.</t>
4708
4709     <t>Servers &MUST; accept absolute URIs.</t>
4710  </list>
4711</t>
4712</section>
4713</section>
4714
4715<section title="Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections" anchor="compatibility.with.http.1.0.persistent.connections">
4716<t>
4717   Some clients and servers might wish to be compatible with some
4718   previous implementations of persistent connections in HTTP/1.0
4719   clients and servers. Persistent connections in HTTP/1.0 are
4720   explicitly negotiated as they are not the default behavior. HTTP/1.0
4721   experimental implementations of persistent connections are faulty,
4722   and the new facilities in HTTP/1.1 are designed to rectify these
4723   problems. The problem was that some existing HTTP/1.0 clients may be
4724   sending Keep-Alive to a proxy server that doesn't understand
4725   Connection, which would then erroneously forward it to the next
4726   inbound server, which would establish the Keep-Alive connection and
4727   result in a hung HTTP/1.0 proxy waiting for the close on the
4728   response. The result is that HTTP/1.0 clients must be prevented from
4729   using Keep-Alive when talking to proxies.
4730</t>
4731<t>
4732   However, talking to proxies is the most important use of persistent
4733   connections, so that prohibition is clearly unacceptable. Therefore,
4734   we need some other mechanism for indicating a persistent connection
4735   is desired, which is safe to use even when talking to an old proxy
4736   that ignores Connection. Persistent connections are the default for
4737   HTTP/1.1 messages; we introduce a new keyword (Connection: close) for
4738   declaring non-persistence. See <xref target="header.connection"/>.
4739</t>
4740<t>
4741   The original HTTP/1.0 form of persistent connections (the Connection:
4742   Keep-Alive and Keep-Alive header) is documented in <xref x:sec="19.7.1" x:fmt="of" target="RFC2068"/>.
4743</t>
4744</section>
4745
4746<section title="Changes from RFC 2068" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2068">
4747<t>
4748   This specification has been carefully audited to correct and
4749   disambiguate key word usage; RFC 2068 had many problems in respect to
4750   the conventions laid out in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
4751</t>
4752<t>
4753   Transfer-coding and message lengths all interact in ways that
4754   required fixing exactly when chunked encoding is used (to allow for
4755   transfer encoding that may not be self delimiting); it was important
4756   to straighten out exactly how message lengths are computed. (Sections
4757   <xref target="transfer.codings" format="counter"/>, <xref target="message.length" format="counter"/>,
4758   <xref target="header.content-length" format="counter"/>,
4759   see also <xref target="Part3"/>, <xref target="Part5"/> and <xref target="Part6"/>)
4760</t>
4761<t>
4762   The use and interpretation of HTTP version numbers has been clarified
4763   by <xref target="RFC2145"/>. Require proxies to upgrade requests to highest protocol
4764   version they support to deal with problems discovered in HTTP/1.0
4765   implementations (<xref target="http.version"/>)
4766</t>
4767<t>
4768   Quality Values of zero should indicate that "I don't want something"
4769   to allow clients to refuse a representation. (<xref target="quality.values"/>)
4770</t>
4771<t>
4772   Transfer-coding had significant problems, particularly with
4773   interactions with chunked encoding. The solution is that transfer-codings
4774   become as full fledged as content-codings. This involves
4775   adding an IANA registry for transfer-codings (separate from content
4776   codings), a new header field (TE) and enabling trailer headers in the
4777   future. Transfer encoding is a major performance benefit, so it was
4778   worth fixing <xref target="Nie1997"/>. TE also solves another, obscure, downward
4779   interoperability problem that could have occurred due to interactions
4780   between authentication trailers, chunked encoding and HTTP/1.0
4781   clients.(Section
4782   <xref target="transfer.codings" format="counter"/>,
4783   <xref target="chunked.encoding" format="counter"/>,
4784   <xref target="non-modifiable.headers" format="counter"/>,
4785   and <xref target="header.te" format="counter"/>)
4786</t>
4787<t>
4788  Proxies should be able to add Content-Length when appropriate.
4789  (<xref target="non-modifiable.headers"/>)
4790</t>
4791</section>
4792
4793<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
4794<t>
4795  Empty list elements in list productions have been deprecated.
4796  (<xref target="notation.abnf"/>)
4797</t>
4798<t>
4799  Rules about implicit linear whitespace between certain grammar productions
4800  have been removed; now it's only allowed when specifically pointed out
4801  in the ABNF. The NUL character is no longer allowed in comment and quoted-string
4802  text. The quoted-pair rule no longer allows escaping control characters other than HTAB.
4803  Non-ASCII content in header fields and reason phrase has been obsoleted and
4804  made opaque (the TEXT rule was removed)
4805  (<xref target="basic.rules"/>)
4806</t>
4807<t>
4808  Clarify that HTTP-Version is case sensitive.
4809  (<xref target="http.version"/>)
4810</t>
4811<t>
4812  Remove reference to non-existent identity transfer-coding value tokens.
4813  (Sections <xref format="counter" target="transfer.codings"/> and
4814  <xref format="counter" target="message.length"/>)
4815</t>
4816<t>
4817  Require that invalid whitespace around field-names be rejected.
4818  (<xref target="header.fields"/>)
4819</t>
4820<t>
4821  Update use of abs_path production from RFC1808 to the path-absolute + query
4822  components of RFC3986.
4823  (<xref target="request-target"/>)
4824</t>
4825<t>
4826  Clarification that the chunk length does not include the count of the octets
4827  in the chunk header and trailer. Furthermore disallowed line folding
4828  in chunk extensions.
4829  (<xref target="chunked.encoding"/>)
4830</t>
4831<t>
4832  Remove hard limit of two connections per server.
4833  (<xref target="persistent.practical"/>)
4834</t>
4835<t>
4836  Clarify exactly when close connection options must be sent.
4837  (<xref target="header.connection"/>)
4838</t>
4839</section>
4840</section>
4841
4842<?BEGININC p1-messaging.abnf-appendix ?>
4843<section xmlns:x="http://purl.org/net/xml2rfc/ext" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
4844<figure>
4845<artwork type="abnf" name="p1-messaging.parsed-abnf">
4846<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = OWS
4847
4848<x:ref>Cache-Control</x:ref> = &lt;Cache-Control, defined in [Part6], Section 3.4&gt;
4849<x:ref>Chunked-Body</x:ref> = *chunk last-chunk trailer-part CRLF
4850<x:ref>Connection</x:ref> = "Connection:" OWS Connection-v
4851<x:ref>Connection-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) connection-token *( OWS "," [ OWS
4852 connection-token ] )
4853<x:ref>Content-Length</x:ref> = "Content-Length:" OWS 1*Content-Length-v
4854<x:ref>Content-Length-v</x:ref> = 1*DIGIT
4855
4856<x:ref>Date</x:ref> = "Date:" OWS Date-v
4857<x:ref>Date-v</x:ref> = HTTP-date
4858
4859<x:ref>GMT</x:ref> = %x47.4D.54 ; GMT
4860
4861<x:ref>HTTP-Prot-Name</x:ref> = %x48.54.54.50 ; HTTP
4862<x:ref>HTTP-Version</x:ref> = HTTP-Prot-Name "/" 1*DIGIT "." 1*DIGIT
4863<x:ref>HTTP-date</x:ref> = rfc1123-date / obs-date
4864<x:ref>HTTP-message</x:ref> = start-line *( header-field CRLF ) CRLF [ message-body
4865 ]
4866<x:ref>Host</x:ref> = "Host:" OWS Host-v
4867<x:ref>Host-v</x:ref> = uri-host [ ":" port ]
4868
4869<x:ref>Method</x:ref> = token
4870
4871<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = *( [ obs-fold ] WSP )
4872
4873<x:ref>Pragma</x:ref> = &lt;Pragma, defined in [Part6], Section 3.4&gt;
4874
4875<x:ref>RWS</x:ref> = 1*( [ obs-fold ] WSP )
4876<x:ref>Reason-Phrase</x:ref> = *( WSP / VCHAR / obs-text )
4877<x:ref>Request</x:ref> = Request-Line *( ( general-header / request-header /
4878 entity-header ) CRLF ) CRLF [ message-body ]
4879<x:ref>Request-Line</x:ref> = Method SP request-target SP HTTP-Version CRLF
4880<x:ref>Response</x:ref> = Status-Line *( ( general-header / response-header /
4881 entity-header ) CRLF ) CRLF [ message-body ]
4882
4883<x:ref>Status-Code</x:ref> = 3DIGIT
4884<x:ref>Status-Line</x:ref> = HTTP-Version SP Status-Code SP Reason-Phrase CRLF
4885
4886<x:ref>TE</x:ref> = "TE:" OWS TE-v
4887<x:ref>TE-v</x:ref> = [ ( "," / t-codings ) *( OWS "," [ OWS t-codings ] ) ]
4888<x:ref>Trailer</x:ref> = "Trailer:" OWS Trailer-v
4889<x:ref>Trailer-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name ] )
4890<x:ref>Transfer-Encoding</x:ref> = "Transfer-Encoding:" OWS Transfer-Encoding-v
4891<x:ref>Transfer-Encoding-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) transfer-coding *( OWS "," [ OWS
4892 transfer-coding ] )
4893
4894<x:ref>URI-reference</x:ref> = &lt;URI-reference, defined in [RFC3986], Section 4.1&gt;
4895<x:ref>Upgrade</x:ref> = "Upgrade:" OWS Upgrade-v
4896<x:ref>Upgrade-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) product *( OWS "," [ OWS product ] )
4897
4898<x:ref>Via</x:ref> = "Via:" OWS Via-v
4899<x:ref>Via-v</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) received-protocol RWS received-by [ RWS comment
4900 ] *( OWS "," [ OWS received-protocol RWS received-by [ RWS comment ]
4901 ] )
4902
4903<x:ref>Warning</x:ref> = &lt;Warning, defined in [Part6], Section 3.6&gt;
4904
4905<x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref> = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in [RFC3986], Section 4.3&gt;
4906<x:ref>asctime-date</x:ref> = day-name SP date3 SP time-of-day SP year
4907<x:ref>attribute</x:ref> = token
4908<x:ref>authority</x:ref> = &lt;authority, defined in [RFC3986], Section 3.2&gt;
4909
4910<x:ref>chunk</x:ref> = chunk-size *WSP [ chunk-ext ] CRLF chunk-data CRLF
4911<x:ref>chunk-data</x:ref> = 1*OCTET
4912<x:ref>chunk-ext</x:ref> = *( ";" *WSP chunk-ext-name [ "=" chunk-ext-val ] *WSP )
4913<x:ref>chunk-ext-name</x:ref> = token
4914<x:ref>chunk-ext-val</x:ref> = token / quoted-str-nf
4915<x:ref>chunk-size</x:ref> = 1*HEXDIG
4916<x:ref>comment</x:ref> = "(" *( ctext / quoted-cpair / comment ) ")"
4917<x:ref>connection-token</x:ref> = token
4918<x:ref>ctext</x:ref> = OWS / %x21-27 ; '!'-'''
4919 / %x2A-5B ; '*'-'['
4920 / %x5D-7E ; ']'-'~'
4921 / obs-text
4922
4923<x:ref>date1</x:ref> = day SP month SP year
4924<x:ref>date2</x:ref> = day "-" month "-" 2DIGIT
4925<x:ref>date3</x:ref> = month SP ( 2DIGIT / ( SP DIGIT ) )
4926<x:ref>day</x:ref> = 2DIGIT
4927<x:ref>day-name</x:ref> = %x4D.6F.6E ; Mon
4928 / %x54.75.65 ; Tue
4929 / %x57.65.64 ; Wed
4930 / %x54.68.75 ; Thu
4931 / %x46.72.69 ; Fri
4932 / %x53.61.74 ; Sat
4933 / %x53.75.6E ; Sun
4934<x:ref>day-name-l</x:ref> = %x4D.6F.6E.64.61.79 ; Monday
4935 / %x54.75.65.73.64.61.79 ; Tuesday
4936 / %x57.65.64.6E.65.73.64.61.79 ; Wednesday
4937 / %x54.68.75.72.73.64.61.79 ; Thursday
4938 / %x46.72.69.64.61.79 ; Friday
4939 / %x53.61.74.75.72.64.61.79 ; Saturday
4940 / %x53.75.6E.64.61.79 ; Sunday
4941
4942<x:ref>entity-body</x:ref> = &lt;entity-body, defined in [Part3], Section 3.2&gt;
4943<x:ref>entity-header</x:ref> = &lt;entity-header, defined in [Part3], Section 3.1&gt;
4944
4945<x:ref>field-content</x:ref> = *( WSP / VCHAR / obs-text )
4946<x:ref>field-name</x:ref> = token
4947<x:ref>field-value</x:ref> = *( field-content / OWS )
4948
4949<x:ref>general-header</x:ref> = Cache-Control / Connection / Date / Pragma / Trailer
4950 / Transfer-Encoding / Upgrade / Via / Warning
4951
4952<x:ref>header-field</x:ref> = field-name ":" OWS [ field-value ] OWS
4953<x:ref>hour</x:ref> = 2DIGIT
4954<x:ref>http-URI</x:ref> = "http://" authority path-abempty [ "?" query ]
4955<x:ref>https-URI</x:ref> = "https://" authority path-abempty [ "?" query ]
4956
4957<x:ref>last-chunk</x:ref> = 1*"0" *WSP [ chunk-ext ] CRLF
4958
4959<x:ref>message-body</x:ref> = entity-body /
4960 &lt;entity-body encoded as per Transfer-Encoding&gt;
4961<x:ref>minute</x:ref> = 2DIGIT
4962<x:ref>month</x:ref> = %x4A.61.6E ; Jan
4963 / %x46.65.62 ; Feb
4964 / %x4D.61.72 ; Mar
4965 / %x41.70.72 ; Apr
4966 / %x4D.61.79 ; May
4967 / %x4A.75.6E ; Jun
4968 / %x4A.75.6C ; Jul
4969 / %x41.75.67 ; Aug
4970 / %x53.65.70 ; Sep
4971 / %x4F.63.74 ; Oct
4972 / %x4E.6F.76 ; Nov
4973 / %x44.65.63 ; Dec
4974
4975<x:ref>obs-date</x:ref> = rfc850-date / asctime-date
4976<x:ref>obs-fold</x:ref> = CRLF
4977<x:ref>obs-text</x:ref> = %x80-FF
4978
4979<x:ref>partial-URI</x:ref> = relative-part [ "?" query ]
4980<x:ref>path-abempty</x:ref> = &lt;path-abempty, defined in [RFC3986], Section 3.3&gt;
4981<x:ref>path-absolute</x:ref> = &lt;path-absolute, defined in [RFC3986], Section 3.3&gt;
4982<x:ref>port</x:ref> = &lt;port, defined in [RFC3986], Section 3.2.3&gt;
4983<x:ref>product</x:ref> = token [ "/" product-version ]
4984<x:ref>product-version</x:ref> = token
4985<x:ref>protocol-name</x:ref> = token
4986<x:ref>protocol-version</x:ref> = token
4987<x:ref>pseudonym</x:ref> = token
4988
4989<x:ref>qdtext</x:ref> = OWS / "!" / %x23-5B ; '#'-'['
4990 / %x5D-7E ; ']'-'~'
4991 / obs-text
4992<x:ref>qdtext-nf</x:ref> = WSP / "!" / %x23-5B ; '#'-'['
4993 / %x5D-7E ; ']'-'~'
4994 / obs-text
4995<x:ref>query</x:ref> = &lt;query, defined in [RFC3986], Section 3.4&gt;
4996<x:ref>quoted-cpair</x:ref> = "\" ( WSP / VCHAR / obs-text )
4997<x:ref>quoted-pair</x:ref> = "\" ( WSP / VCHAR / obs-text )
4998<x:ref>quoted-str-nf</x:ref> = DQUOTE *( qdtext-nf / quoted-pair ) DQUOTE
4999<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = DQUOTE *( qdtext / quoted-pair ) DQUOTE
5000<x:ref>qvalue</x:ref> = ( "0" [ "." *3DIGIT ] ) / ( "1" [ "." *3"0" ] )
5001
5002<x:ref>received-by</x:ref> = ( uri-host [ ":" port ] ) / pseudonym
5003<x:ref>received-protocol</x:ref> = [ protocol-name "/" ] protocol-version
5004<x:ref>relative-part</x:ref> = &lt;relative-part, defined in [RFC3986], Section 4.2&gt;
5005<x:ref>request-header</x:ref> = &lt;request-header, defined in [Part2], Section 3&gt;
5006<x:ref>request-target</x:ref> = "*" / absolute-URI / ( path-absolute [ "?" query ] )
5007 / authority
5008<x:ref>response-header</x:ref> = &lt;response-header, defined in [Part2], Section 5&gt;
5009<x:ref>rfc1123-date</x:ref> = day-name "," SP date1 SP time-of-day SP GMT
5010<x:ref>rfc850-date</x:ref> = day-name-l "," SP date2 SP time-of-day SP GMT
5011
5012<x:ref>second</x:ref> = 2DIGIT
5013<x:ref>special</x:ref> = "(" / ")" / "&lt;" / "&gt;" / "@" / "," / ";" / ":" / "\" /
5014 DQUOTE / "/" / "[" / "]" / "?" / "=" / "{" / "}"
5015<x:ref>start-line</x:ref> = Request-Line / Status-Line
5016
5017<x:ref>t-codings</x:ref> = "trailers" / ( transfer-extension [ te-params ] )
5018<x:ref>tchar</x:ref> = "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&amp;" / "'" / "*" / "+" / "-" / "." /
5019 "^" / "_" / "`" / "|" / "~" / DIGIT / ALPHA
5020<x:ref>te-ext</x:ref> = OWS ";" OWS token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]
5021<x:ref>te-params</x:ref> = OWS ";" OWS "q=" qvalue *te-ext
5022<x:ref>time-of-day</x:ref> = hour ":" minute ":" second
5023<x:ref>token</x:ref> = 1*tchar
5024<x:ref>trailer-part</x:ref> = *( entity-header CRLF )
5025<x:ref>transfer-coding</x:ref> = "chunked" / "compress" / "deflate" / "gzip" /
5026 transfer-extension
5027<x:ref>transfer-extension</x:ref> = token *( OWS ";" OWS transfer-parameter )
5028<x:ref>transfer-parameter</x:ref> = attribute BWS "=" BWS value
5029
5030<x:ref>uri-host</x:ref> = &lt;host, defined in [RFC3986], Section 3.2.2&gt;
5031
5032<x:ref>value</x:ref> = token / quoted-string
5033
5034<x:ref>year</x:ref> = 4DIGIT
5035</artwork>
5036</figure>
5037<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline">
5038; Chunked-Body defined but not used
5039; Content-Length defined but not used
5040; HTTP-message defined but not used
5041; Host defined but not used
5042; Request defined but not used
5043; Response defined but not used
5044; TE defined but not used
5045; URI-reference defined but not used
5046; http-URI defined but not used
5047; https-URI defined but not used
5048; partial-URI defined but not used
5049; special defined but not used
5050</artwork></figure></section>
5051<?ENDINC p1-messaging.abnf-appendix ?>
5052
5053<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
5054
5055<section title="Since RFC2616">
5056<t>
5057  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
5058</t>
5059</section>
5060
5061<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-00">
5062<t>
5063  Closed issues:
5064  <list style="symbols"> 
5065    <t>
5066      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/1"/>:
5067      "HTTP Version should be case sensitive"
5068      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#verscase"/>)
5069    </t>
5070    <t>
5071      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/2"/>:
5072      "'unsafe' characters"
5073      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#unsafe-uri"/>)
5074    </t>
5075    <t>
5076      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/3"/>:
5077      "Chunk Size Definition"
5078      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#chunk-size"/>)
5079    </t>
5080    <t>
5081      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/4"/>:
5082      "Message Length"
5083      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#msg-len-chars"/>)
5084    </t>
5085    <t>
5086      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/8"/>:
5087      "Media Type Registrations"
5088      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#media-reg"/>)
5089    </t>
5090    <t>
5091      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/11"/>:
5092      "URI includes query"
5093      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#uriquery"/>)
5094    </t>
5095    <t>
5096      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/15"/>:
5097      "No close on 1xx responses"
5098      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#noclose1xx"/>)
5099    </t>
5100    <t>
5101      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/16"/>:
5102      "Remove 'identity' token references"
5103      (<eref target="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#identity"/>)
5104    </t>
5105    <t>
5106      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/26"/>:
5107      "Import query BNF"
5108    </t>
5109    <t>
5110      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/31"/>:
5111      "qdtext BNF"
5112    </t>
5113    <t>
5114      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
5115      "Normative and Informative references"
5116    </t>
5117    <t>
5118      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/42"/>:
5119      "RFC2606 Compliance"
5120    </t>
5121    <t>
5122      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/45"/>:
5123      "RFC977 reference"
5124    </t>
5125    <t>
5126      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/46"/>:
5127      "RFC1700 references"
5128    </t>
5129    <t>
5130      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/47"/>:
5131      "inconsistency in date format explanation"
5132    </t>
5133    <t>
5134      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/48"/>:
5135      "Date reference typo"
5136    </t>
5137    <t>
5138      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/65"/>:
5139      "Informative references"
5140    </t>
5141    <t>
5142      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/66"/>:
5143      "ISO-8859-1 Reference"
5144    </t>
5145    <t>
5146      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86"/>:
5147      "Normative up-to-date references"
5148    </t>
5149  </list>
5150</t>
5151<t>
5152  Other changes:
5153  <list style="symbols"> 
5154    <t>
5155      Update media type registrations to use RFC4288 template.
5156    </t>
5157    <t>
5158      Use names of RFC4234 core rules DQUOTE and WSP,
5159      fix broken ABNF for chunk-data
5160      (work in progress on <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>)
5161    </t>
5162  </list>
5163</t>
5164</section>
5165
5166<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-01">
5167<t>
5168  Closed issues:
5169  <list style="symbols"> 
5170    <t>
5171      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/19"/>:
5172      "Bodies on GET (and other) requests"
5173    </t>
5174    <t>
5175      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55"/>:
5176      "Updating to RFC4288"
5177    </t>
5178    <t>
5179      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/57"/>:
5180      "Status Code and Reason Phrase"
5181    </t>
5182    <t>
5183      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/82"/>:
5184      "rel_path not used"
5185    </t>
5186  </list>
5187</t>
5188<t>
5189  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
5190  <list style="symbols"> 
5191    <t>
5192      Get rid of duplicate BNF rule names ("host" -> "uri-host", "trailer" ->
5193      "trailer-part").
5194    </t>
5195    <t>
5196      Avoid underscore character in rule names ("http_URL" ->
5197      "http-URL", "abs_path" -> "path-absolute").
5198    </t>
5199    <t>
5200      Add rules for terms imported from URI spec ("absoluteURI", "authority",
5201      "path-absolute", "port", "query", "relativeURI", "host) -- these will
5202      have to be updated when switching over to RFC3986.
5203    </t>
5204    <t>
5205      Synchronize core rules with RFC5234.
5206    </t>
5207    <t>
5208      Get rid of prose rules that span multiple lines.
5209    </t>
5210    <t>
5211      Get rid of unused rules LOALPHA and UPALPHA.
5212    </t>
5213    <t>
5214      Move "Product Tokens" section (back) into Part 1, as "token" is used
5215      in the definition of the Upgrade header.
5216    </t>
5217    <t>
5218      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
5219    </t>
5220    <t>
5221      Rewrite prose rule "token" in terms of "tchar", rewrite prose rule "TEXT".
5222    </t>
5223  </list>
5224</t>
5225</section>
5226
5227<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
5228<t>
5229  Closed issues:
5230  <list style="symbols"> 
5231    <t>
5232      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/51"/>:
5233      "HTTP-date vs. rfc1123-date"
5234    </t>
5235    <t>
5236      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/64"/>:
5237      "WS in quoted-pair"
5238    </t>
5239  </list>
5240</t>
5241<t>
5242  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
5243  <list style="symbols"> 
5244    <t>
5245      Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers defined
5246      in this document.
5247    </t>
5248  </list>
5249</t>
5250<t>
5251  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
5252  <list style="symbols"> 
5253    <t>
5254      Replace string literals when the string really is case-sensitive (HTTP-Version).
5255    </t>
5256  </list>
5257</t>
5258</section>
5259
5260<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
5261<t>
5262  Closed issues:
5263  <list style="symbols"> 
5264    <t>
5265      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/28"/>:
5266      "Connection closing"
5267    </t>
5268    <t>
5269      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/97"/>:
5270      "Move registrations and registry information to IANA Considerations"
5271    </t>
5272    <t>
5273      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/120"/>:
5274      "need new URL for PAD1995 reference"
5275    </t>
5276    <t>
5277      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/127"/>:
5278      "IANA Considerations: update HTTP URI scheme registration"
5279    </t>
5280    <t>
5281      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/128"/>:
5282      "Cite HTTPS URI scheme definition"
5283    </t>
5284    <t>
5285      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/129"/>:
5286      "List-type headers vs Set-Cookie"
5287    </t>
5288  </list>
5289</t>
5290<t>
5291  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
5292  <list style="symbols"> 
5293    <t>
5294      Replace string literals when the string really is case-sensitive (HTTP-Date).
5295    </t>
5296    <t>
5297      Replace HEX by HEXDIG for future consistence with RFC 5234's core rules.
5298    </t>
5299  </list>
5300</t>
5301</section>
5302
5303<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
5304<t>
5305  Closed issues:
5306  <list style="symbols"> 
5307    <t>
5308      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/34"/>:
5309      "Out-of-date reference for URIs"
5310    </t>
5311    <t>
5312      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/132"/>:
5313      "RFC 2822 is updated by RFC 5322"
5314    </t>
5315  </list>
5316</t>
5317<t>
5318  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
5319  <list style="symbols"> 
5320    <t>
5321      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
5322    </t>
5323    <t>
5324      Get rid of RFC822 dependency; use RFC5234 plus extensions instead.
5325    </t>
5326    <t>
5327      Only reference RFC 5234's core rules.
5328    </t>
5329    <t>
5330      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
5331      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
5332    </t>
5333    <t>
5334      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
5335      header value format definitions.
5336    </t>
5337  </list>
5338</t>
5339</section>
5340
5341<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
5342<t>
5343  Closed issues:
5344  <list style="symbols"> 
5345    <t>
5346      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/30"/>:
5347      "Header LWS"
5348    </t>
5349    <t>
5350      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/52"/>:
5351      "Sort 1.3 Terminology"
5352    </t>
5353    <t>
5354      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/63"/>:
5355      "RFC2047 encoded words"
5356    </t>
5357    <t>
5358      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/74"/>:
5359      "Character Encodings in TEXT"
5360    </t>
5361    <t>
5362      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/77"/>:
5363      "Line Folding"
5364    </t>
5365    <t>
5366      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/83"/>:
5367      "OPTIONS * and proxies"
5368    </t>
5369    <t>
5370      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/94"/>:
5371      "Reason-Phrase BNF"
5372    </t>
5373    <t>
5374      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/111"/>:
5375      "Use of TEXT"
5376    </t>
5377    <t>
5378      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/118"/>:
5379      "Join "Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities"?"
5380    </t>
5381    <t>
5382      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/134"/>:
5383      "RFC822 reference left in discussion of date formats"
5384    </t>
5385  </list>
5386</t>
5387<t>
5388  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
5389  <list style="symbols"> 
5390    <t>
5391      Rewrite definition of list rules, deprecate empty list elements.
5392    </t>
5393    <t>
5394      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF.
5395    </t>
5396  </list>
5397</t>
5398<t>
5399  Other changes:
5400  <list style="symbols"> 
5401    <t>
5402      Rewrite introduction; add mostly new Architecture Section.
5403    </t>
5404    <t>
5405      Move definition of quality values from Part 3 into Part 1;
5406      make TE request header grammar independent of accept-params (defined in Part 3).
5407    </t>
5408  </list>
5409</t>
5410</section>
5411
5412<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
5413<t>
5414  Closed issues:
5415  <list style="symbols"> 
5416    <t>
5417      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161"/>:
5418      "base for numeric protocol elements"
5419    </t>
5420    <t>
5421      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/162"/>:
5422      "comment ABNF"
5423    </t>
5424  </list>
5425</t>
5426<t>
5427  Partly resolved issues:
5428  <list style="symbols"> 
5429    <t>
5430      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/88"/>:
5431      "205 Bodies" (took out language that implied that there may be
5432      methods for which a request body MUST NOT be included)
5433    </t>
5434    <t>
5435      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/163"/>:
5436      "editorial improvements around HTTP-date"
5437    </t>
5438  </list>
5439</t>
5440</section>
5441
5442<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
5443<t>
5444  Closed issues:
5445  <list style="symbols"> 
5446    <t>
5447      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/93"/>:
5448      "Repeating single-value headers"
5449    </t>
5450    <t>
5451      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/131"/>:
5452      "increase connection limit"
5453    </t>
5454    <t>
5455      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/157"/>:
5456      "IP addresses in URLs"
5457    </t>
5458    <t>
5459      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/172"/>:
5460      "take over HTTP Upgrade Token Registry"
5461    </t>
5462    <t>
5463      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/173"/>:
5464      "CR and LF in chunk extension values"
5465    </t>
5466    <t>
5467      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/184"/>:
5468      "HTTP/0.9 support"
5469    </t>
5470    <t>
5471      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/188"/>:
5472      "pick IANA policy (RFC5226) for Transfer Coding / Content Coding"
5473    </t>
5474    <t>
5475      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/189"/>:
5476      "move definitions of gzip/deflate/compress to part 1"
5477    </t>
5478    <t>
5479      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/194"/>:
5480      "disallow control characters in quoted-pair"
5481    </t>
5482  </list>
5483</t>
5484<t>
5485  Partly resolved issues:
5486  <list style="symbols"> 
5487    <t>
5488      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/148"/>:
5489      "update IANA requirements wrt Transfer-Coding values" (add the
5490      IANA Considerations subsection)
5491    </t>
5492  </list>
5493</t>
5494</section>
5495
5496<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
5497<t>
5498  Closed issues:
5499  <list style="symbols"> 
5500    <t>
5501      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/201"/>:
5502      "header parsing, treatment of leading and trailing OWS"
5503    </t>
5504  </list>
5505</t>
5506<t>
5507  Partly resolved issues:
5508  <list style="symbols"> 
5509    <t>
5510      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/60"/>:
5511      "Placement of 13.5.1 and 13.5.2"
5512    </t>
5513    <t>
5514      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/200"/>:
5515      "use of term "word" when talking about header structure"
5516    </t>
5517  </list>
5518</t>
5519</section>
5520
5521<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
5522<t>
5523  Closed issues:
5524  <list style="symbols"> 
5525    <t>
5526      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/73"/>:
5527      "Clarification of the term 'deflate'"
5528    </t>
5529    <t>
5530      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/143"/>:
5531      "IANA registry for content/transfer encodings"
5532    </t>
5533    <t>
5534      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/165"/>:
5535      "Case-sensitivity of HTTP-date"
5536    </t>
5537  </list>
5538</t>
5539</section>
5540
5541</section>
5542
5543</back>
5544</rfc>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.