source: draft-ietf-httpbis/25/p7-auth.html @ 2709

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prepare publication of -25 drafts on 2013-11-17

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465</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
466      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
467      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
468      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
469      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
470      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Access Authentication Framework" href="#rfc.section.2">
471      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
472      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.4">
473      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.5">
474      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
475      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.7">
476      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.8" title="8 References">
477      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" href="#rfc.section.A">
478      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Imported ABNF" href="#rfc.section.B">
479      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.C">
480      <link rel="Appendix" title="D Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.D">
481      <link href="p6-cache.html" rel="prev">
482      <meta name="generator" content="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/rfc2629.xslt, Revision 1.607, 2013/10/15 13:23:22, XSLT vendor: SAXON 8.9 from Saxonica http://www.saxonica.com/">
483      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
484      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
485      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
486      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25">
487      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2013-11-17">
488      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
489      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document defines the HTTP Authentication framework.">
490      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document defines the HTTP Authentication framework.">
491   </head>
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493      <table class="header">
494         <tbody>
495            <tr>
496               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
497               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
498            </tr>
499            <tr>
500               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
501               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
502            </tr>
503            <tr>
504               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
505               </td>
506               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
507            </tr>
508            <tr>
509               <td class="left">Updates: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">2617</a> (if approved)
510               </td>
511               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
512            </tr>
513            <tr>
514               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
515               <td class="right">November 17, 2013</td>
516            </tr>
517            <tr>
518               <td class="left">Expires: May 21, 2014</td>
519               <td class="right"></td>
520            </tr>
521         </tbody>
522      </table>
523      <p class="title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-25</span></p>
524      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
525      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
526         systems. This document defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
527      </p>
528      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
529      <p>Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
530      </p>
531      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
532      </p>
533      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.24" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24">Appendix&nbsp;D.1</a>.
534      </p>
535      <div id="rfc.status">
536         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
537         <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
538         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
539            working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
540         </p>
541         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
542            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
543            in progress”.
544         </p>
545         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on May 21, 2014.</p>
546      </div>
547      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
548         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
549         <p>Copyright © 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
550         <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
551            and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
552            text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
553            BSD License.
554         </p>
555         <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
556            10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
557            allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
558            controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
559            works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
560            it into languages other than English.
561         </p>
562      </div>
563      <hr class="noprint">
564      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
565      <ul class="toc">
566         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
567               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
568               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></li>
569            </ul>
570         </li>
571         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#access.authentication.framework">Access Authentication Framework</a><ul>
572               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#challenge.and.response">Challenge and Response</a></li>
573               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protection.space">Protection Space (Realm)</a></li>
574            </ul>
575         </li>
576         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
577               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></li>
578               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></li>
579            </ul>
580         </li>
581         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
582               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></li>
583               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></li>
584               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></li>
585               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></li>
586            </ul>
587         </li>
588         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
589               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry">Authentication Scheme Registry</a><ul>
590                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">Procedure</a></li>
591                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">Considerations for New Authentication Schemes</a></li>
592                  </ul>
593               </li>
594               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
595               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
596            </ul>
597         </li>
598         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
599               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></li>
600               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protection.spaces">Protection Spaces</a></li>
601            </ul>
602         </li>
603         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
604         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
605               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
606               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
607            </ul>
608         </li>
609         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
610         <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617</a></li>
611         <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></li>
612         <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
613         <li><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
614               <li><a href="#rfc.section.D.1">D.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.24">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24</a></li>
615            </ul>
616         </li>
617         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
618      </ul>
619      <div id="introduction">
620         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
621         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It includes the relevant parts of <cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">RFC 2616</cite> with only minor changes (<a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication, as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
622            Authentication" (<a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.1"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>).
623         </p>
624         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">HTTP provides several <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> challenge-response authentication schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to provide
625            authentication information. The "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes continue to be specified in <cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.2">RFC 2617</cite>.
626         </p>
627         <div id="conformance">
628            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
629            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
630               in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
631            </p>
632            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#conformance" title="Conformance and Error Handling">Section 2.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
633            </p>
634         </div>
635         <div id="notation">
636            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
637            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#abnf.extension" title="ABNF list extension: #rule">Section 7</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;B</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
638            </p>
639         </div>
640      </div>
641      <div id="access.authentication.framework">
642         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#access.authentication.framework">Access Authentication Framework</a></h1>
643         <div id="challenge.and.response">
644            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#challenge.and.response">Challenge and Response</a></h2>
645            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework that can be used by a server to challenge a client request
646               and by a client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive token as a means to identify the authentication
647               scheme, followed by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that scheme. The latter can either be
648               a comma-separated list of parameters or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded information.
649            </p>
650            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively, and each parameter name <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only occur once per challenge.
651            </p>
652            <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  auth-scheme    = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>
653 
654  auth-param     = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">BWS</a> "=" <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">BWS</a> ( <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> / <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> )
655
656  token68        = 1*( <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">ALPHA</a> / <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a> /
657                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
658</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>), plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding,
659               with or without padding, but excluding whitespace (<a href="#RFC4648" id="rfc.xref.RFC4648.1"><cite title="The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings">[RFC4648]</cite></a>).
660            </p>
661            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">The <a href="#status.401" class="smpl">401 (Unauthorized)</a> response message is used by an origin server to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> header field containing at least one challenge applicable to the requested resource.
662            </p>
663            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">The <a href="#status.407" class="smpl">407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</a> response message is used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> header field containing at least one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
664            </p>
665            <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>  <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a>   = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-scheme</a> [ 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a> ( <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">token68</a> / #<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-param</a> ) ]
666</pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">
667               <p><b>Note:</b> Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported
668                  schemes (such as "basic") first.
669               </p>
670            </div>
671            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9">A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server — usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <a href="#status.401" class="smpl">401 (Unauthorized)</a> — can do so by including an <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field with the request.
672            </p>
673            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.10">A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy — usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <a href="#status.407" class="smpl">407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</a> — can do so by including a <a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> header field with the request.
674            </p>
675            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.11">Both the <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> field value and the <a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> field value contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being requested, based upon a challenge received
676               in a response (possibly at some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to do so by selecting
677               the challenge with what it considers to be the most secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the
678               user as appropriate.
679            </p>
680            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a> = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-scheme</a> [ 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a> ( <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">token68</a> / #<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-param</a> ) ]
681</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.13">Upon receipt of a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password)
682               or partial credentials (e.g., when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a <a href="#status.401" class="smpl">401 (Unauthorized)</a> response that contains a <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> header field with at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
683            </p>
684            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.14">Likewise, upon receipt of a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit credentials or contain invalid or partial
685               credentials, a proxy <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a <a href="#status.407" class="smpl">407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</a> response that contains a <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> header field with a (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
686            </p>
687            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.15">A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain access, ought to respond with the <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.403" class="smpl">403 (Forbidden)</a> status code (<a href="p2-semantics.html#status.403" title="403 Forbidden">Section 6.5.3</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>).
688            </p>
689            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.16">HTTP does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response framework for access authentication. Additional mechanisms
690               can be used, such as authentication at the transport level or via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
691               specifying authentication information. However, such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
692            </p>
693            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.17">A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward the <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> and <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header fields unmodified and follow the rules found in <a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.1" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>.
694            </p>
695         </div>
696         <div id="protection.space">
697            <div id="rfc.iref.p.1"></div>
698            <div id="rfc.iref.r.1"></div>
699            <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
700            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#protection.space">Protection Space (Realm)</a></h2>
701            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.</p>
702            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">A <dfn>protection space</dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see <a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>) of the server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present. These realms allow the protected resources
703               on a server to be partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own authentication scheme and/or authorization
704               database. The realm value is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have additional semantics specific
705               to the authentication scheme. Note that a response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but different realms.
706            </p>
707            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.3">The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can be automatically applied. If a prior request has been
708               authorized, the user agent <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> reuse the same credentials for all other requests within that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication
709               scheme, parameters, and/or user preferences (such as a configurable inactivity timeout). Unless specifically allowed by the
710               authentication scheme, a single protection space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
711            </p>
712            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.4">For historical reasons, a sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only generate the quoted-string syntax. Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for maximum interoperability
713               with existing clients that have been accepting both notations for a long time.
714            </p>
715         </div>
716      </div>
717      <div id="status.code.definitions">
718         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a></h1>
719         <div id="status.401">
720            <div id="rfc.iref.8"></div>
721            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></h2>
722            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The <dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</dfn> status code indicates that the request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication credentials for the target
723               resource. The origin server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send a <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> header field (<a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>) containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource. If the request included authentication credentials,
724               then the 401 response indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials. The user agent <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a new or replaced <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field (<a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.2" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>). If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted authentication
725               at least once, then the user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> present the enclosed representation to the user, since it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
726            </p>
727         </div>
728         <div id="status.407">
729            <div id="rfc.iref.8"></div>
730            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></h2>
731            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">The <dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</dfn> status code is similar to <a href="#status.401" class="smpl">401 (Unauthorized)</a>, but indicates that the client needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy. The proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> send a <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1" title="Proxy-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>) containing a challenge applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a new or replaced <a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1" title="Proxy-Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>).
732            </p>
733         </div>
734      </div>
735      <div id="header.field.definitions">
736         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
737         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to authentication.</p>
738         <div id="header.authorization">
739            <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
740            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></h2>
741            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself with an origin server — usually, but not necessarily,
742               after receiving a <a href="#status.401" class="smpl">401 (Unauthorized)</a> response. Its value consists of credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for the realm of the
743               resource being requested.
744            </p>
745            <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span>  <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a>
746</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials are presumed to be valid for all other requests
747               within this realm (assuming that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as credentials that vary
748               according to a challenge value or using synchronized clocks).
749            </p>
750            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">See <a href="p6-cache.html#caching.authenticated.responses" title="Storing Responses to Authenticated Requests">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a> for details of and requirements pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
751            </p>
752         </div>
753         <div id="header.proxy-authenticate">
754            <div id="rfc.iref.p.2"></div>
755            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></h2>
756            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
757               applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>). It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included as part of a <a href="#status.407" class="smpl">407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</a> response.
758            </p>
759            <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span>  <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> = 1#<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a>
760</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">Unlike <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain that chose to direct
761               its request to the responding proxy. If that recipient is also a proxy, it will generally consume the Proxy-Authenticate header
762               field (and generate an appropriate <a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> in a subsequent request) rather than forward the header field to its own outbound clients. However, if a recipient proxy needs
763               to obtain its own credentials by requesting them from a further outbound client, it will generate its own 407 response, which
764               might have the appearance of forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate header field if both proxies use the same challenge set.
765            </p>
766            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">Note that the parsing considerations for <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> apply to this header field as well; see <a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.2" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.4</a> for details.
767            </p>
768         </div>
769         <div id="header.proxy-authorization">
770            <div id="rfc.iref.p.3"></div>
771            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></h2>
772            <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires authentication.
773               Its value consists of credentials containing the authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
774               resource being requested.
775            </p>
776            <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span>  <a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a>
777</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.3">Unlike <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a>, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using the <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first inbound proxy
778               that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively
779               authenticate a given request.
780            </p>
781         </div>
782         <div id="header.www-authenticate">
783            <div id="rfc.iref.w.1"></div>
784            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></h2>
785            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
786               applicable to the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 5.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>).
787            </p>
788            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2">It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included in <a href="#status.401" class="smpl">401 (Unauthorized)</a> response messages and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials (or different credentials) might affect the
789               response.
790            </p>
791            <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> = 1#<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a>
792</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.4">User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the field value, as it might contain more than one challenge, and
793               each challenge can contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters. Furthermore, the header field itself can occur
794               multiple times.
795            </p>
796            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div>
797            <p>For instance:</p><pre class="text">  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
798                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
799</pre><p>This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters
800               "type" and "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
801            </p>
802            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.4.4.p.6">
803               <p><b>Note:</b> The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
804                  considered either as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice,
805                  this ambiguity does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is harmless.
806               </p>
807            </div>
808         </div>
809      </div>
810      <div id="IANA.considerations">
811         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
812         <div id="authentication.scheme.registry">
813            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry">Authentication Scheme Registry</a></h2>
814            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
815               It will be created and maintained at (the suggested URI) &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes</a>&gt;.
816            </p>
817            <div id="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
818               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.1">5.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">Procedure</a></h3>
819               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.1">Registrations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
820               </p>
821               <ul>
822                  <li>Authentication Scheme Name</li>
823                  <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
824                  <li>Notes (optional)</li>
825               </ul>
826               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.1.p.2">Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review (see <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
827               </p>
828            </div>
829            <div id="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
830               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1.2">5.1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">Considerations for New Authentication Schemes</a></h3>
831               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.1">There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put constraints on how new authentication schemes can
832                  work:
833               </p>
834               <p id="rfc.section.5.1.2.p.2"></p>
835               <ul>
836                  <li>
837                     <p>HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information necessary to authenticate a request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be provided in the request, rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests. Authentication based on, or
838                        bound to, the underlying connection is outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless steps are taken
839                        to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any party other than the authenticated user (see <a href="p1-messaging.html#intermediaries" title="Intermediaries">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>).
840                     </p>
841                  </li>
842                  <li>
843                     <p>The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection Spaces as defined in <a href="#protection.space" title="Protection Space (Realm)">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>. New schemes <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
844                     </p>
845                  </li>
846                  <li>
847                     <p>The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing authentication schemes and can only be used once per
848                        challenge or credential. New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because otherwise future extensions
849                        will be impossible.
850                     </p>
851                  </li>
852                  <li>
853                     <p>The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification, and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes.
854                        When the auth-param syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints
855                        ought to be defined on the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is necessary so that recipients
856                        can use a generic parser that applies to all authentication schemes.
857                     </p>
858                     <p><b>Note:</b> The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be
859                        repeated for new parameters.
860                     </p>
861                  </li>
862                  <li>
863                     <p>Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule
864                        is preferable over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce new parameters in the presence of legacy
865                        recipients. Furthermore, it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such as "update the specification",
866                        or "use this registry").
867                     </p>
868                  </li>
869                  <li>
870                     <p>Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in origin-server authentication (i.e., using <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a>), and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a>).
871                     </p>
872                  </li>
873                  <li>
874                     <p>The credentials carried in an <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field are specific to the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the "private" Cache-Control
875                        response directive (<a href="p6-cache.html#cache-response-directive.private" title="private">Section 5.2.2.6</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>), within the scope of the request they appear in.
876                     </p>
877                     <p>Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry credentials in the <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> header field (e.g., using a newly defined header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
878                        either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store", <a href="p6-cache.html#cache-request-directive.no-store" title="no-store">Section 5.2.1.5</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) or response directives (e.g., "private").
879                     </p>
880                  </li>
881               </ul>
882            </div>
883         </div>
884         <div id="status.code.registration">
885            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
886            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The HTTP Status Code Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; shall be updated with the registrations below:
887            </p>
888            <div id="rfc.table.1">
889               <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
890               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
891                  <thead>
892                     <tr>
893                        <th>Value</th>
894                        <th>Description</th>
895                        <th>Reference</th>
896                     </tr>
897                  </thead>
898                  <tbody>
899                     <tr>
900                        <td class="left">401</td>
901                        <td class="left">Unauthorized</td>
902                        <td class="left"><a href="#status.401" id="rfc.xref.status.401.1" title="401 Unauthorized">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>
903                        </td>
904                     </tr>
905                     <tr>
906                        <td class="left">407</td>
907                        <td class="left">Proxy Authentication Required</td>
908                        <td class="left"><a href="#status.407" id="rfc.xref.status.407.1" title="407 Proxy Authentication Required">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>
909                        </td>
910                     </tr>
911                  </tbody>
912               </table>
913            </div>
914         </div>
915         <div id="header.field.registration">
916            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
917            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt;.
918            </p>
919            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their associated registry entries shall be updated according to
920               the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#BCP90" id="rfc.xref.BCP90.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[BCP90]</cite></a>):
921            </p>
922            <div id="rfc.table.2">
923               <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
924               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
925                  <thead>
926                     <tr>
927                        <th>Header Field Name</th>
928                        <th>Protocol</th>
929                        <th>Status</th>
930                        <th>Reference</th>
931                     </tr>
932                  </thead>
933                  <tbody>
934                     <tr>
935                        <td class="left">Authorization</td>
936                        <td class="left">http</td>
937                        <td class="left">standard</td>
938                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.3" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>
939                        </td>
940                     </tr>
941                     <tr>
942                        <td class="left">Proxy-Authenticate</td>
943                        <td class="left">http</td>
944                        <td class="left">standard</td>
945                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.2" title="Proxy-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>
946                        </td>
947                     </tr>
948                     <tr>
949                        <td class="left">Proxy-Authorization</td>
950                        <td class="left">http</td>
951                        <td class="left">standard</td>
952                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.proxy-authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.2" title="Proxy-Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>
953                        </td>
954                     </tr>
955                     <tr>
956                        <td class="left">WWW-Authenticate</td>
957                        <td class="left">http</td>
958                        <td class="left">standard</td>
959                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.3" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>
960                        </td>
961                     </tr>
962                  </tbody>
963               </table>
964            </div>
965            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.3">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
966         </div>
967      </div>
968      <div id="security.considerations">
969         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
970         <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and users of known security concerns specific to HTTP/1.1
971            authentication. More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a> and semantics <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>.
972         </p>
973         <div id="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
974            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></h2>
975            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism
976               for the origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since the protocol has no awareness of how credentials
977               are obtained or managed by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can be specified as part of
978               an authentication scheme definition.
979            </p>
980            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.2">Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the application's security model include but are not limited
981               to:
982            </p>
983            <ul>
984               <li>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt
985                  the user for credentials.
986               </li>
987               <li>Applications that include a session termination indication (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which the
988                  server side of the application "knows" that there is no further reason for the client to retain the credentials.
989               </li>
990            </ul>
991            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.3">User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials
992               under user control.
993            </p>
994         </div>
995         <div id="protection.spaces">
996            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#protection.spaces">Protection Spaces</a></h2>
997            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for establishing a protection space will expose credentials
998               to all resources on an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests with a resource can use the
999               same authentication credentials for other resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different resource
1000               to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
1001            </p>
1002            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.2">This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple parties under the same canonical root URI
1003               (<a href="#protection.space" title="Protection Space (Realm)">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>). Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content
1004               of the <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> request header field available), and separating protection spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each
1005               party.
1006            </p>
1007         </div>
1008      </div>
1009      <div id="acks">
1010         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1011         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication Framework, previously defined in <cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.3">RFC 2617</cite>. We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence, Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and
1012            Lawrence C. Stewart for their work on that specification. See <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617#section-6">Section 6</a> of <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.4"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a> for further acknowledgements.
1013         </p>
1014         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.2">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 10</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a> for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
1015         </p>
1016      </div>
1017      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.8" href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a> References
1018      </h1>
1019      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1" id="rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a> Normative References
1020      </h2>
1021      <table>
1022         <tr>
1023            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1024            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-25">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-25 (work in progress), November&nbsp;2013.
1025            </td>
1026         </tr>
1027         <tr>
1028            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1029            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-25">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-25 (work in progress), November&nbsp;2013.
1030            </td>
1031         </tr>
1032         <tr>
1033            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
1034            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net" title="Akamai">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-25">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-25 (work in progress), November&nbsp;2013.
1035            </td>
1036         </tr>
1037         <tr>
1038            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1039            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1040            </td>
1041         </tr>
1042         <tr>
1043            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1044            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1045            </td>
1046         </tr>
1047      </table>
1048      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2" id="rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a> Informative References
1049      </h2>
1050      <table>
1051         <tr>
1052            <td class="reference"><b id="BCP90">[BCP90]</b></td>
1053            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1054            </td>
1055         </tr>
1056         <tr>
1057            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1058            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1059            </td>
1060         </tr>
1061         <tr>
1062            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2617">[RFC2617]</b></td>
1063            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:john@math.nwu.edu" title="Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics">Franks, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:pbaker@verisign.com" title="Verisign Inc.">Hallam-Baker, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:jeff@AbiSource.com" title="AbiSource, Inc.">Hostetler, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:lawrence@agranat.com" title="Agranat Systems, Inc.">Lawrence, S.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, Luotonen, A., and <a href="mailto:stewart@OpenMarket.com" title="Open Market, Inc.">L. Stewart</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2617, June&nbsp;1999.
1064            </td>
1065         </tr>
1066         <tr>
1067            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3986">[RFC3986]</b></td>
1068            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R.</a>, and <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">L. Masinter</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a>”, STD&nbsp;66, RFC&nbsp;3986, January&nbsp;2005.
1069            </td>
1070         </tr>
1071         <tr>
1072            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4648">[RFC4648]</b></td>
1073            <td class="top">Josefsson, S., “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4648">The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</a>”, RFC&nbsp;4648, October&nbsp;2006.
1074            </td>
1075         </tr>
1076         <tr>
1077            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1078            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1079            </td>
1080         </tr>
1081      </table>
1082      <div class="avoidbreak">
1083         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
1084         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
1085            (editor)
1086            <br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com">fielding@gbiv.com</a><br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
1087         <p><b>Julian F. Reschke</b>
1088            (editor)
1089            <br>greenbytes GmbH<br>Hafenweg 16<br>Muenster, NW&nbsp;48155<br>Germany<br>Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</a><br>URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></p>
1090      </div>
1091      <div id="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1092         <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617</a></h1>
1093         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document, rather than RFC 2617.</p>
1094         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges; consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth
1095            parameters. (<a href="#access.authentication.framework" title="Access Authentication Framework">Section&nbsp;2</a>)
1096         </p>
1097         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3">The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1098            (<a href="#access.authentication.framework" title="Access Authentication Framework">Section&nbsp;2</a>)
1099         </p>
1100         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.4">This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with considerations for new authentication schemes.
1101            (<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry" title="Authentication Scheme Registry">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>)
1102         </p>
1103      </div>
1104      <div id="imported.abnf">
1105         <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></h1>
1106         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.1">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
1107            (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
1108            character).
1109         </p>
1110         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">The rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
1111         </p>
1112         <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">BWS</a>           = &lt;BWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
1113  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
1114  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.6</a>&gt;
1115  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.6</a>&gt;
1116</pre></div>
1117      <div id="collected.abnf">
1118         <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1119         <p id="rfc.section.C.p.1">In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1120         </p>
1121         <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> = credentials
1122
1123<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">BWS</a> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1124
1125<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1126
1127<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1128 challenge ] )
1129<a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> = credentials
1130
1131<a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1132 ] )
1133
1134<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-param</a> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1135<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-scheme</a> = token
1136
1137<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1138 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1139<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1140 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1141
1142<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1143
1144<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
1145<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">token68</a> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1146 *"="
1147</pre></div>
1148      <div id="change.log">
1149         <h1 id="rfc.section.D"><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1150         <p id="rfc.section.D.p.1">Changes up to the IETF Last Call draft are summarized in &lt;<a href="http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24#appendix-D">http://trac.tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24#appendix-D</a>&gt;.
1151         </p>
1152         <div id="changes.since.24">
1153            <h2 id="rfc.section.D.1"><a href="#rfc.section.D.1">D.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.24">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24</a></h2>
1154            <p id="rfc.section.D.1.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1155            <ul>
1156               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/510">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/510</a>&gt;: "SECDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1157               </li>
1158               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/513">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/513</a>&gt;: "APPSDIR review of draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-24"
1159               </li>
1160               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/516">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/516</a>&gt;: "note about WWW-A parsing potentially misleading"
1161               </li>
1162            </ul>
1163         </div>
1164      </div>
1165      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
1166      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.B">B</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.W">W</a>
1167      </p>
1168      <div class="print2col">
1169         <ul class="ind">
1170            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
1171                  <li>401 Unauthorized (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.8"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.401.1">5.2</a></li>
1172                  <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.8"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.407.1">5.2</a></li>
1173               </ul>
1174            </li>
1175            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
1176                  <li>Authorization header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.3">5.3</a></li>
1177               </ul>
1178            </li>
1179            <li><a id="rfc.index.B" href="#rfc.index.B"><b>B</b></a><ul>
1180                  <li><em>BCP90</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.BCP90.1">5.3</a>, <a href="#BCP90"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1181               </ul>
1182            </li>
1183            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
1184                  <li>Canonical Root URI&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.1">2.2</a></li>
1185               </ul>
1186            </li>
1187            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
1188                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1189                     <ul>
1190                        <li><tt>auth-param</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1191                        <li><tt>auth-scheme</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1192                        <li><tt>Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>4.1</b></a></li>
1193                        <li><tt>challenge</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1194                        <li><tt>credentials</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1195                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>4.2</b></a></li>
1196                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>4.3</b></a></li>
1197                        <li><tt>token68</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1198                        <li><tt>WWW-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>4.4</b></a></li>
1199                     </ul>
1200                  </li>
1201               </ul>
1202            </li>
1203            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
1204                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">4.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">5.1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">6</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">7</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>8.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">C</a><ul>
1205                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">C</a></li>
1206                        <li><em>Section 2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">5.1.2</a></li>
1207                        <li><em>Section 2.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a></li>
1208                        <li><em>Section 3.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">B</a></li>
1209                        <li><em>Section 3.2.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">B</a></li>
1210                        <li><em>Section 5.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">4.4</a></li>
1211                        <li><em>Section 7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a></li>
1212                        <li><em>Section 10</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">7</a></li>
1213                     </ul>
1214                  </li>
1215                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">6</a>, <a href="#Part2"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1216                        <li><em>Section 6.5.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">2.1</a></li>
1217                     </ul>
1218                  </li>
1219                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">5.1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">5.1.2</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1220                        <li><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">4.1</a></li>
1221                        <li><em>Section 5.2.1.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">5.1.2</a></li>
1222                        <li><em>Section 5.2.2.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">5.1.2</a></li>
1223                     </ul>
1224                  </li>
1225                  <li>Protection Space&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.1">2.2</a></li>
1226                  <li>Proxy-Authenticate header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.2"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.2">5.3</a></li>
1227                  <li>Proxy-Authorization header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.3"><b>4.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.2">5.3</a></li>
1228               </ul>
1229            </li>
1230            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
1231                  <li>Realm&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.r.1">2.2</a></li>
1232                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
1233                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">1</a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1234                  <li><em>RFC2617</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.2">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.3">7</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.4">7</a>, <a href="#RFC2617"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
1235                        <li><em>Section 6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.4">7</a></li>
1236                     </ul>
1237                  </li>
1238                  <li><em>RFC3986</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC3986"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1239                  <li><em>RFC4648</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4648.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC4648"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1240                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">5.1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
1241                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">5.1.1</a></li>
1242                     </ul>
1243                  </li>
1244                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>8.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">B</a><ul>
1245                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">B</a></li>
1246                     </ul>
1247                  </li>
1248               </ul>
1249            </li>
1250            <li><a id="rfc.index.W" href="#rfc.index.W"><b>W</b></a><ul>
1251                  <li>WWW-Authenticate header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.2">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.w.1"><b>4.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.3">5.3</a></li>
1252               </ul>
1253            </li>
1254         </ul>
1255      </div>
1256   </body>
1257</html>
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