source: draft-ietf-httpbis/24/p7-auth.xml @ 2709

Last change on this file since 2709 was 2414, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 7 years ago

Prepare release of -24 on Sept 25

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 49.6 KB
[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[2414]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "24">
[2365]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "September">
[2080]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2013">
[1101]17  <!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">
[1692]18  <!ENTITY Note "<x:h xmlns:x=''>Note:</x:h>">
[2069]19  <!ENTITY messaging                    "<xref target='Part1' xmlns:x=''/>">
20  <!ENTITY semantics                    "<xref target='Part2' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1452]21  <!ENTITY architecture                 "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#architecture' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1875]22  <!ENTITY conformance                  "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#conformance' xmlns:x=''/>">
[424]23  <!ENTITY notation                     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]24  <!ENTITY abnf-extension               "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#abnf.extension' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1399]25  <!ENTITY acks                         "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#acks' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]26  <!ENTITY whitespace                   "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#whitespace' xmlns:x=''/>">
27  <!ENTITY field-components             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#field.components' xmlns:x=''/>">
[961]28  <!ENTITY effective-request-uri        "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#effective.request.uri' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1518]29  <!ENTITY msg-orient-and-buffering     "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#intermediaries' xmlns:x=''/>">
[998]30  <!ENTITY end-to-end.and-hop-by-hop    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#end-to-end.and.hop-by-hop.header-fields' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1693]31  <!ENTITY status.403                   "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#status.403' xmlns:x=''/>">
[1999]32  <!ENTITY caching-authenticated-responses "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.authenticated.responses' xmlns:x=''/>">
[2229]33  <!ENTITY caching-rqd-no-store         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='' xmlns:x=''/>">
34  <!ENTITY caching-rsd-private          "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#cache-response-directive.private' xmlns:x=''/>">
36<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]37<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
38<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]39<?rfc compact="yes"?>
40<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
41<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
42<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[205]43<?rfc comments="yes"?>
44<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[799]45<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
[8]46<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
47<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[1477]48<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" x:maturity-level="proposed"
[446]49     ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-&ID-VERSION;"
[153]50     xmlns:x=''>
[1472]51<x:link rel="prev" basename="p6-cache"/>
[1522]52<x:feedback template="{docname},%20%22{section}%22&amp;body=&lt;{ref}&gt;:"/>
[1864]55  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1 Authentication">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication</title>
[29]57  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]58    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[8]59    <address>
60      <postal>
[1106]61        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
62        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]63        <region>CA</region>
[1106]64        <code>95110</code>
[29]65        <country>USA</country>
[8]66      </postal>
[29]67      <email></email>
68      <uri></uri>
[8]69    </address>
70  </author>
[95]72  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
73    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
74    <address>
75      <postal>
76        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
77        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
78        <country>Germany</country>
79      </postal>
[609]80      <email></email>
81      <uri></uri>
[95]82    </address>
83  </author>
[2414]85  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" day="25"/>
[440]86  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
[1373]90   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
[1808]91   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This document
92   defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
96<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
97  <t>
[1764]98    Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
[1268]99    mailing list (, which is archived at
100    <eref target=""/>.
101  </t>
102  <t>
103    The current issues list is at
104    <eref target=""/> and related
105    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]106    <eref target=""/>.
[36]107  </t>
[153]108  <t>
[2304]109    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.23"/>.
[153]110  </t>
114<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[998]116   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
117   includes the relevant parts of <xref target="RFC2616" x:fmt="none">RFC 2616</xref>
[1636]118   with only minor changes (<xref target="RFC2616"/>), plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
[998]119   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
120   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
123   HTTP provides several &OPTIONAL; challenge-response authentication
[2211]124   schemes that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
[998]125   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
126   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
127   <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
[1875]130<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="conformance">
132   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
133   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
134   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
[1875]137   Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
138   are defined in &conformance;.
[424]142<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
[1518]144   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
145   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
[2358]146   &abnf-extension;. <xref target="imported.abnf"/> describes rules imported from
[1805]147   other documents. <xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
[1518]148   with the list rule expanded.
[998]153<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
155<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
[998]156  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-scheme"/>
157  <x:anchor-alias value="auth-param"/>
[1815]158  <x:anchor-alias value="token68"/>
[229]159  <x:anchor-alias value="challenge"/>
160  <x:anchor-alias value="credentials"/>
[2211]162   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication framework
[998]163   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
[2229]164   client to provide authentication information. It uses a case-insensitive
165   token as a means to identify the authentication scheme, followed
[1394]166   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
[1473]167   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
168   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
[1394]169   information.
172   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
173   and each parameter name &MUST; only occur once per challenge.
[1902]175<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="token68"/>
[1386]176  auth-scheme    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[1386]178  auth-param     = <x:ref>token</x:ref> <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>BWS</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
[1815]180  token68        = 1*( <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref> / <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> /
[1394]181                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
[1815]184   The "token68" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
[1394]185   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
186   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
187   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
[1708]190   The <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response message is used by an origin server
[998]191   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response &MUST;
[1736]192   include a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least one
[1344]193   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[1736]196   The <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response message is
197   used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and &MUST;
198   include a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field containing at least
199   one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
[1902]201<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/>
[1815]202  <x:ref>challenge</x:ref>   = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
205  <t>
[1692]206     &Note; User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
[1736]207     <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>
208     header field values because they can contain more than one challenge, or
209     if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge
210     can itself contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
[998]211  </t>
214  <t>
[1692]215     &Note; Many clients fail to parse challenges containing unknown
[1343]216     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
[1344]217     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see -->
[1018]218  </t>
[1344]221   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
[1708]222   &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>
[1736]223   &mdash; can do so by including an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
[1344]224   request.
227   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy &mdash; usually,
[1708]228   but not necessarily, after receiving a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref>
[1736]229   &mdash; can do so by including a <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> header field with the
[1344]230   request.
[1736]233   Both the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> field value and the <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> field value
[1669]234   contain the client's credentials for the realm of the resource being
[2229]235   requested, based upon a challenge received in a response (possibly at
[1669]236   some point in the past). When creating their values, the user agent ought to
237   do so by selecting the challenge with what it considers to be the most
238   secure auth-scheme that it understands, obtaining credentials from the user
239   as appropriate.
[1902]241<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/>
[1815]242  <x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = <x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> [ 1*<x:ref>SP</x:ref> ( <x:ref>token68</x:ref> / #<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> ) ]
[1694]245   Upon a request for a protected resource that omits credentials, contains
246   invalid credentials (e.g., a bad password) or partial credentials (e.g.,
247   when the authentication scheme requires more than one round trip), an origin
[2066]248   server &SHOULD; send a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response that
249   contains a <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with at least one
250   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
[1694]253   Likewise, upon a request that requires authentication by proxies that omit
254   credentials or contain invalid or partial credentials, a proxy &SHOULD;
[2066]255   send a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response that
256   contains a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field with a (possibly
[1694]257   new) challenge applicable to the proxy.
[1681]260   A server receiving credentials that are valid, but not adequate to gain
[1713]261   access, ought to respond with the <x:ref>403 (Forbidden)</x:ref> status code (&status.403;).
[998]264   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
[2211]265   challenge-response framework for access authentication. Additional
[998]266   mechanisms &MAY; be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
267   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
[1107]268   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
[998]269   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
[2402]272   A proxy &MUST; forward the <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> and
[1736]273   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header fields unmodified and follow the rules
274   found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
[1344]278<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="">
[1354]279  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
280  <iref item="Realm"/>
[1672]281  <iref item="Canonical Root URI"/>
[1354]283   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
[1478]284   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
[1354]287   A <x:dfn>protection space</x:dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the
288   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
289   <xref target="Part1" x:fmt="of" x:rel="#effective.request.uri"/>) of the
290   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
[1344]291   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
292   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
293   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
[2393]294   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
[2229]295   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that a
296   response can have multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
[1344]297   different realms.
300   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
301   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
[2402]302   user agent &MAY; reuse the same credentials for all other requests within
303   that protection space for a period of time determined by the
[1344]304   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
[2229]305   specifically allowed by the authentication scheme, a single protection
[1344]306   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
[2402]309   For historical reasons, a sender &MUST; only generate the quoted-string syntax.
[1478]310   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
311   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
312   notations for a long time.
[838]318<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
[39]319<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
320  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]321  <x:anchor-alias value="401 (Unauthorized)"/>
[2066]323   The <x:dfn>401 (Unauthorized)</x:dfn> status code indicates that the
324   request has not been applied because it lacks valid authentication
325   credentials for the target resource. The origin server &MUST; send a
[1736]326   <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>)
[2066]327   containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.
328   If the request included authentication credentials, then the 401 response
329   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
[2229]330   The user agent &MAY; repeat the request with a new or replaced
[2066]331   <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>).
332   If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and
333   the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the
334   user agent &SHOULD; present the enclosed representation to the user, since
335   it usually contains relevant diagnostic information.
338<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
339  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)" x:for-anchor=""/>
[1708]340  <x:anchor-alias value="407 (Proxy Authentication Required)"/>
[2066]342   The <x:dfn>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:dfn> status code is
343   similar to <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref>, but indicates that the client
344   needs to authenticate itself in order to use a proxy.
345   The proxy &MUST; send a <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> header field
346   (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
347   applicable to that proxy for the target resource. The client &MAY; repeat
348   the request with a new or replaced <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref>
[998]349   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
[1415]354<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
[117]356   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
357   related to authentication.
360<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
[1120]361  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]362  <x:anchor-alias value="Authorization"/>
[2398]364   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself
365   with an origin server &mdash; usually, but not necessarily, after receiving
366   a <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response. Its value consists of
367   credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for
368   the realm of the resource being requested.
[1230]370<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/>
371  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[2398]374   If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials
375   are presumed to be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming
376   that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
377   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized
378   clocks).
[1999]381   See &caching-authenticated-responses; for details of and requirements
382   pertaining to handling of the Authorization field by HTTP caches.
386<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
[1120]387  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]388  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
[1601]390   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
391   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
392   applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
[1708]393   It &MUST; be included as part of a <x:ref>407 (Proxy Authentication Required)</x:ref> response.
[1230]395<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
396  <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[1736]399   Unlike <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authenticate header field
[2326]400   applies only to the next outbound client on the response chain that chose
401   to direct its request to the responding proxy. If that recipient is also a
402   proxy, it will generally consume the Proxy-Authenticate header field (and
403   generate an appropriate <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> in a subsequent
404   request) rather than forward the header field to its own outbound clients.
405   However, if a recipient proxy needs to obtain its own credentials by
406   requesting them from a further outbound client, it will generate its own
407   407 response, which might have the appearance of forwarding the
408   Proxy-Authenticate header field if both proxies use the same challenge set.
[1736]411   Note that the parsing considerations for <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>
412   apply to this header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
413   for details.
417<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
[1120]418  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]419  <x:anchor-alias value="Proxy-Authorization"/>
[1163]421   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
[2074]422   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy that requires
[2229]423   authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
424   authentication information of the client for the proxy and/or realm of the
425   resource being requested.
[1230]427<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
428  <x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = <x:ref>credentials</x:ref>
[2326]431   Unlike <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref>, the Proxy-Authorization header field
432   applies only to the next inbound proxy that demanded authentication using
433   the <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> field. When multiple proxies are used
434   in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
435   inbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy &MAY;
436   relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
[8]437   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
438   request.
442<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
[1120]443  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]444  <x:anchor-alias value="WWW-Authenticate"/>
[1163]446   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
[698]447   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
[1360]448   applicable to the effective request URI (&effective-request-uri;).
[1708]451   It &MUST; be included in <x:ref>401 (Unauthorized)</x:ref> response messages and &MAY; be
[1360]452   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
453   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
[1230]455<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
456  <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>challenge</x:ref>
[998]459   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
[8]460   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
461   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
462   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
463   authentication parameters.
466  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
467  <artwork type="example">
468  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
469                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
471  <postamble>
472  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
473  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
[1533]474  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
475  "simple".
478  <t>
[1692]479    &Note; The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
[1533]480    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
481    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
482    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
483    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
484    harmless.
485  </t>
[29]491<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
[2242]493<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
[2242]495   The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
[2245]496   authentication schemes in challenges and credentials. It will be created and
497   maintained at <eref target=""/>.
500<section title="Procedure" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry.procedure">
[2242]502  Registrations &MUST; include the following fields:
503  <list style="symbols">
504    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
505    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
506    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
507  </list>
510  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
511  (see <xref target="RFC5226" x:fmt="," x:sec="4.1"/>).
[2242]515<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="">
517  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
518  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
521  <list style="symbols">
522    <x:lt>
523    <t>
524      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
525      necessary to authenticate a request &MUST; be provided in the request,
526      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
527      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
528      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
529      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
530      party other than the authenticated user
531      (see &msg-orient-and-buffering;).
532    </t>
533    </x:lt>
534    <x:lt>
535    <t>
536      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
537      Spaces as defined in <xref target=""/>. New schemes
538      &MUST-NOT; use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
539    </t>
540    </x:lt>
541    <x:lt>
542    <t>
543      The "token68" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
544      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge or credential.
545      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
546      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
547    </t>
548    </x:lt>
549    <x:lt>
550    <t>
551      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
552      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
553      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
554      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
555      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
556      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
557      all authentication schemes.
558    </t>
559    <t>
560      &Note; The fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
561      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
562      for new parameters.
563    </t>
564    </x:lt>
565    <x:lt>
566    <t>
567      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
568      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
569      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
570      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
571      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
572      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
573    </t>
574    </x:lt>
575    <x:lt>
576    <t>
577      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
578      origin-server authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref>),
579      and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using <x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref>).
580    </t>
581    </x:lt>
582    <x:lt>
583    <t>
584      The credentials carried in an <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field are specific to
585      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
586      "private" Cache-Control response directive (&caching-rsd-private;),
587      within the scope of the request they appear in.
588    </t>
589    <t>
590      Therefore, new authentication schemes that choose not to carry
591      credentials in the <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> header field (e.g., using a newly defined
592      header field) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
593      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store",
594      &caching-rqd-no-store;) or response directives (e.g., "private").
595    </t>
596    </x:lt>
597  </list>
[700]602<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
604   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target=""/>
[969]605   shall be updated with the registrations below:
607<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
608<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
609<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
610   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
611   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
612   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
613   <c>401</c>
614   <c>Unauthorized</c>
615   <c>
616      <xref target="status.401"/>
617   </c>
618   <c>407</c>
619   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
620   <c>
621      <xref target="status.407"/>
622   </c>
625<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-status-codes ?>
[921]628<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
[2246]630   HTTP header fields are registered within the Message Header Field Registry
631   maintained at
632   <eref target=""/>.
635   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
636   associated registry entries shall be updated according to the permanent
637   registrations below (see <xref target="BCP90"/>):
[680]639<?BEGININC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[253]640<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]641<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]642   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
643   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
644   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
645   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
647   <c>Authorization</c>
648   <c>http</c>
649   <c>standard</c>
650   <c>
651      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
652   </c>
653   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
654   <c>http</c>
655   <c>standard</c>
656   <c>
657      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
658   </c>
659   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
660   <c>http</c>
661   <c>standard</c>
662   <c>
663      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
664   </c>
665   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
666   <c>http</c>
667   <c>standard</c>
668   <c>
669      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
670   </c>
[680]673<?ENDINC p7-auth.iana-headers ?>
[290]675   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
680<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
[2069]682   This section is meant to inform developers, information providers, and
683   users of known security concerns specific to HTTP/1.1 authentication.
684   More general security considerations are addressed in HTTP messaging
685   &messaging; and semantics &semantics;.
688<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
690   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
[2399]691   information indefinitely. HTTP does not provide a mechanism for the
692   origin server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials, since
693   the protocol has no awareness of how credentials are obtained or managed
694   by the user agent. The mechanisms for expiring or revoking credentials can
695   be specified as part of an authentication scheme definition.
[8]698   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
699   application's security model include but are not limited to:
700  <list style="symbols">
[2074]701     <t>Clients that have been idle for an extended period, following
702        which the server might wish to cause the client to re-prompt the
[8]703        user for credentials.</t>
[2074]705     <t>Applications that include a session termination indication
[746]706        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
707        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
[8]708        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
709  </list>
[2399]712   User agents that cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily
713   accessible mechanism for discarding cached credentials under user control.
717<section title="Protection Spaces" anchor="protection.spaces">
719  Authentication schemes that solely rely on the "realm" mechanism for
[2229]720  establishing a protection space will expose credentials to all resources on
721  an origin server. Clients that have successfully made authenticated requests
722  with a resource can use the same authentication credentials for other
723  resources on the same origin server. This makes it possible for a different
724  resource to harvest authentication credentials for other resources.
[2229]727  This is of particular concern when an origin server hosts resources for multiple
[1791]728  parties under the same canonical root URI (<xref target=""/>).
[1672]729  Possible mitigation strategies include restricting direct access to
730  authentication credentials (i.e., not making the content of the
[1736]731  <x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> request header field available), and separating protection
[2229]732  spaces by using a different host name (or port number) for each party.
[1364]737<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
[998]739  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
[1363]740  Framework, previously defined in <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="none">RFC 2617</xref>.
741  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
[998]742  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
[1389]743  on that specification. See <xref target="RFC2617" x:fmt="of" x:sec="6"/>
[1363]744  for further acknowledgements. 
747  See &acks; for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
[119]754<references title="Normative References">
[205]756<reference anchor="Part1">
757  <front>
[1864]758    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</title>
[205]759    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]760      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[205]761      <address><email></email></address>
762    </author>
763    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
764      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
765      <address><email></email></address>
766    </author>
767    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
768  </front>
769  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
770  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
[1693]773<reference anchor="Part2">
774  <front>
[1864]775    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</title>
[1693]776    <author fullname="Roy T. Fielding" initials="R." role="editor" surname="Fielding">
777      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
778      <address><email></email></address>
779    </author>
780    <author fullname="Julian F. Reschke" initials="J. F." role="editor" surname="Reschke">
781      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
782      <address><email></email></address>
783    </author>
784    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" />
785  </front>
786  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;" />
[1713]787  <x:source basename="p2-semantics" href="p2-semantics.xml">
788    <x:defines>403 (Forbidden)</x:defines>
[1740]789    <x:defines>Location</x:defines>
[1713]790  </x:source>
[31]793<reference anchor="Part6">
[119]794  <front>
[1864]795    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</title>
[119]796    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
[1106]797      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
[119]798      <address><email></email></address>
799    </author>
[601]800    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
[1915]801      <organization>Akamai</organization>
[601]802      <address><email></email></address>
803    </author>
[119]804    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
805      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
806      <address><email></email></address>
807    </author>
808    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
809  </front>
810  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
811  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
[96]814<reference anchor="RFC2119">
815  <front>
816    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
817    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
818      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
819      <address><email></email></address>
820    </author>
821    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
822  </front>
823  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
824  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[425]827<reference anchor="RFC5234">
828  <front>
829    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
830    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
831      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
832      <address>
[728]833        <email></email>
834      </address> 
[425]835    </author>
836    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
837      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
838      <address>
[728]839        <email></email>
840      </address>
[425]841    </author>
842    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
843  </front>
844  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
845  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
850<references title="Informative References">
852<reference anchor="RFC2616">
853  <front>
854    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
855    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
856      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
857      <address><email></email></address>
858    </author>
859    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
860      <organization>W3C</organization>
861      <address><email></email></address>
862    </author>
863    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
864      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
865      <address><email></email></address>
866    </author>
867    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
868      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
869      <address><email></email></address>
870    </author>
871    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
872      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
873      <address><email></email></address>
874    </author>
875    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
876      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
877      <address><email></email></address>
878    </author>
879    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
880      <organization>W3C</organization>
881      <address><email></email></address>
882    </author>
883    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
884  </front>
885  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[998]888<reference anchor="RFC2617">
889  <front>
890    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
891    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
892      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
893      <address><email></email></address>
894    </author>
895    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
896      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
897      <address><email></email></address>
898    </author>
899    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
900      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
901      <address><email></email></address>
902    </author>
903    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
904      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
905      <address><email></email></address>
906    </author>
907    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
908      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
909      <address><email></email></address>
910    </author>
911    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
912      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
913    </author>
914    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
915      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
916      <address><email></email></address>
917    </author>
918    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
919  </front>
920  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
[2046]923<reference anchor='BCP90'>
[253]924  <front>
925    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
926    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
927      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
928      <address><email></email></address>
929    </author>
930    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
931      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
932      <address><email></email></address>
933    </author>
934    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
935      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
936      <address><email></email></address>
937    </author>
938    <date year='2004' month='September' />
939  </front>
940  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
941  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[1394]944<reference anchor="RFC3986">
945 <front>
946  <title abbrev='URI Generic Syntax'>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
947  <author initials='T.' surname='Berners-Lee' fullname='Tim Berners-Lee'>
948    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
949    <address>
950       <email></email>
951       <uri></uri>
952    </address>
953  </author>
954  <author initials='R.' surname='Fielding' fullname='Roy T. Fielding'>
955    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
956    <address>
957      <email></email>
958      <uri></uri>
959    </address>
960  </author>
961  <author initials='L.' surname='Masinter' fullname='Larry Masinter'>
962    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
963    <address>
964      <email></email>
965      <uri></uri>
966    </address>
967  </author>
968  <date month='January' year='2005'></date>
969 </front>
970 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
971 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
974<reference anchor="RFC4648">
975  <front>
976    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
977    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
978    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
979  </front>
980  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
[1026]983<reference anchor='RFC5226'>
984  <front>
985    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
986    <author initials='T.' surname='Narten' fullname='T. Narten'>
987      <organization>IBM</organization>
988      <address><email></email></address>
989    </author>
990    <author initials='H.' surname='Alvestrand' fullname='H. Alvestrand'>
991      <organization>Google</organization>
992      <address><email></email></address>
993    </author>
994    <date year='2008' month='May' />
995  </front>
996  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='26' />
997  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='5226' />
[1385]1002<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
[2019]1004  The framework for HTTP Authentication is now defined by this document,
1005  rather than RFC 2617.
1008  The "realm" parameter is no longer always required on challenges;
1009  consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
[1385]1010  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[1815]1013  The "token68" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
[1394]1014  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1015  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
[2019]1018  This specification introduces the Authentication Scheme Registry, along with
1019  considerations for new authentication schemes.
[1760]1020  (<xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/>)
[1805]1024<section title="Imported ABNF" anchor="imported.abnf">
1025  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
1026  <x:anchor-alias value="CR"/>
1027  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
1028  <x:anchor-alias value="LF"/>
1029  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
1030  <x:anchor-alias value="VCHAR"/>
1031  <x:anchor-alias value="SP"/>
1032  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
1033  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
1034  <x:anchor-alias value="BWS"/>
1035  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
1037  The following core rules are included by
1038  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234" x:fmt="of" x:sec="B.1"/>:
1039  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
1040  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
1041  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
1042  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
1043  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
1046   The rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
1048<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
1049  <x:ref>BWS</x:ref>           = &lt;BWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1050  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>           = &lt;OWS, defined in &whitespace;&gt;
1051  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &field-components;&gt;
1052  <x:ref>token</x:ref>         = &lt;token, defined in &field-components;&gt;
[680]1056<?BEGININC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[427]1057<section xmlns:x="" title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1059  In the collected ABNF below, list rules are expanded as per <xref target="Part1" x:rel="#notation"/>.
[427]1061<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf">
[1230]1062<x:ref>Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[2045]1064<x:ref>BWS</x:ref> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[2045]1066<x:ref>OWS</x:ref> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
[1230]1068<x:ref>Proxy-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
[425]1069 challenge ] )
[1230]1070<x:ref>Proxy-Authorization</x:ref> = credentials
[1230]1072<x:ref>WWW-Authenticate</x:ref> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1073 ] )
[1386]1075<x:ref>auth-param</x:ref> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
[998]1076<x:ref>auth-scheme</x:ref> = token
[1815]1078<x:ref>challenge</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
[1394]1079 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[1815]1080<x:ref>credentials</x:ref> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68 / [ ( "," / auth-param )
[1394]1081 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
[2045]1083<x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[2045]1085<x:ref>token</x:ref> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6&gt;
[1815]1086<x:ref>token68</x:ref> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1087 *"="
[680]1091<?ENDINC p7-auth.abnf-appendix ?>
[252]1093<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)"  anchor="change.log">
[1624]1095  Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
1096  in <eref target=""/>.
[1592]1099<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19" anchor="changes.since.19">
[1669]1101  Closed issues:
1102  <list style="symbols">
1103    <t>
[1672]1104      <eref target=""/>:
1105      "Realms and scope"
1106    </t>
1107    <t>
[1669]1108      <eref target=""/>:
1109      "Strength"
1110    </t>
[1681]1111    <t>
1112      <eref target=""/>:
1113      "Authentication exchanges"
1114    </t>
[1682]1115    <t>
1116      <eref target=""/>:
1117      "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1118    </t>
[1760]1119    <t>
1120      <eref target=""/>:
1121      "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1122    </t>
[1669]1123  </list>
[1807]1127<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-20" anchor="changes.since.20">
[1815]1129  Closed issues:
1130  <list style="symbols">
1131    <t>
1132      <eref target=""/>:
1133      "rename b64token for clarity"
1134    </t>
1135  </list>
1138  Other changes:
1139  <list style="symbols">
1140    <t>
1141      Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are
1142      now defined in Part 1.
1143    </t>
1144  </list>
1148<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-21" anchor="changes.since.21">
[2000]1150  Closed issues:
1151  <list style="symbols">
1152    <t>
1153      <eref target=""/>:
1154      "Authentication and caching - max-age"
1155    </t>
1156  </list>
[2190]1160<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-22" anchor="changes.since.22">
[2206]1162  Closed issues:
1163  <list style="symbols">
1164    <t>
1165      <eref target=""/>:
1166      "explain list expansion in ABNF appendices"
1167    </t>
[2211]1168    <t>
1169      <eref target=""/>:
1170      "terminology: mechanism vs framework vs scheme"
1171    </t>
[2229]1172    <t>
1173      <eref target=""/>:
1174      "Editorial suggestions"
1175    </t>
[2242]1176    <t>
1177      <eref target=""/>:
1178      "placement of extension point considerations"
1179    </t>
[2206]1180  </list>
1184<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-23" anchor="changes.since.23">
[2322]1186  Closed issues:
1187  <list style="symbols">
1188    <t>
1189      <eref target=""/>:
1190      "Forwarding Proxy-*"
1191    </t>
1192  </list>
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