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459       content: "HTTP/1.1 Range Requests";
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483</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
484      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
485      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
486      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
487      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
488      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Range Units" href="#rfc.section.2">
489      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
490      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Responses to a Range Request" href="#rfc.section.4">
491      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.5">
492      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
493      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.7">
494      <link rel="Chapter" title="8 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.8">
495      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.9" title="9 References">
496      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges" href="#rfc.section.A">
497      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Changes from RFC 2616" href="#rfc.section.B">
498      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Imported ABNF" href="#rfc.section.C">
499      <link rel="Appendix" title="D Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.D">
500      <link rel="Appendix" title="E Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.E">
501      <link href="p4-conditional.html" rel="prev">
502      <link href="p6-cache.html" rel="next">
503      <meta name="generator" content="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/rfc2629.xslt, Revision 1.640, 2014/06/13 12:42:58, XSLT vendor: SAXON 8.9 from Saxonica http://www.saxonica.com/">
504      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
505      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
506      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
507      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
508      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21">
509      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-10-04">
510      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
511      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
512      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.">
513   </head>
514   <body onload="initFeedback();">
515      <table class="header">
516         <tbody>
517            <tr>
518               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
519               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
520            </tr>
521            <tr>
522               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
523               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
524            </tr>
525            <tr>
526               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
527               </td>
528               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
529            </tr>
530            <tr>
531               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
532               <td class="right">W3C</td>
533            </tr>
534            <tr>
535               <td class="left">Expires: April 7, 2013</td>
536               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
537            </tr>
538            <tr>
539               <td class="left"></td>
540               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
541            </tr>
542            <tr>
543               <td class="left"></td>
544               <td class="right">October 4, 2012</td>
545            </tr>
546         </tbody>
547      </table>
548      <p class="title">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21</span></p>
549      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
550      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
551         systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for constructing and combining responses to those requests.
552      </p>
553      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
554      <p>Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
555      </p>
556      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
557      </p>
558      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.20" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20">Appendix&nbsp;E.2</a>.
559      </p>
560      <div id="rfc.status">
561         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
562         <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
563         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
564            working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
565         </p>
566         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
567            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
568            in progress”.
569         </p>
570         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on April 7, 2013.</p>
571      </div>
572      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
573         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
574         <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
575         <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
576            and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
577            text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
578            BSD License.
579         </p>
580         <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
581            10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
582            allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
583            controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
584            works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
585            it into languages other than English.
586         </p>
587      </div>
588      <hr class="noprint">
589      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
590      <ul class="toc">
591         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
592               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
593               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></li>
594            </ul>
595         </li>
596         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a><ul>
597               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registry">Range Specifier Registry</a></li>
598            </ul>
599         </li>
600         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
601               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></li>
602               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></li>
603            </ul>
604         </li>
605         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.4">Responses to a Range Request</a><ul>
606               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.4.1">Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request</a></li>
607               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></li>
608            </ul>
609         </li>
610         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
611               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></li>
612               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></li>
613               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></li>
614               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a><ul>
615                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></li>
616                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.2">5.4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></li>
617                  </ul>
618               </li>
619            </ul>
620         </li>
621         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
622               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
623               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
624               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.3">6.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registration">Range Specifier Registration</a></li>
625            </ul>
626         </li>
627         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
628               <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Overlapping Ranges</a></li>
629            </ul>
630         </li>
631         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
632         <li><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
633               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
634               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
635            </ul>
636         </li>
637         <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></li>
638         <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
639         <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></li>
640         <li><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
641         <li><a href="#rfc.section.E">E.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
642               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.1">E.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.19">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19</a></li>
643               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.2">E.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.20">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20</a></li>
644            </ul>
645         </li>
646         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
647         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
648      </ul>
649      <div id="introduction">
650         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
651         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result of canceled requests or dropped connections. When a client
652            has stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the remainder of that representation in a subsequent request
653            rather than transfer the entire representation. There are also a number of Web applications that benefit from being able to
654            request only a subset of a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large document or only part of an image
655            to be rendered by a device with limited local storage.
656         </p>
657         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and the multipart/byteranges media type. The protocol for
658            range requests is an <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, designed so resources or recipients that do not implement this feature can respond as if it is a normal GET
659            request without impacting interoperability. Partial responses are indicated by a distinct status code to not be mistaken for
660            full responses by intermediate caches that might not implement the feature.
661         </p>
662         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.3">Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for extensible range types, this specification only defines
663            requests for byte ranges.
664         </p>
665         <div id="conformance">
666            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#conformance">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
667            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
668               in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
669            </p>
670            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#conformance" title="Conformance and Error Handling">Section 2.5</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
671            </p>
672         </div>
673         <div id="notation">
674            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
675            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with the list rule extension defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>. <a href="#imported.abnf" title="Imported ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;C</a> describes rules imported from other documents. <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;D</a> shows the collected ABNF with the list rule expanded.
676            </p>
677         </div>
678      </div>
679      <div id="range.units">
680         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.units">Range Units</a></h1>
681         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range) of the representation be included within the response. HTTP/1.1
682            uses range units in the <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.1" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>) and <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.1" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>) header fields. A representation can be broken down into subranges according to various structural units.
683         </p>
684         <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a>       = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> / <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a>
685  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a>       = "bytes"
686  <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>
687</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.p.3">HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications that do not depend on knowledge of ranges. The only range
688            unit defined by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". Additional specifiers can be defined as described in <a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>.
689         </p>
690         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the whole <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.2" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>). If a range unit is not understood in a response, an intermediary <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> pass the response to the client; a client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> fail.
691         </p>
692         <div id="range.specifier.registry">
693            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registry">Range Specifier Registry</a></h2>
694            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">The HTTP Range Specifier Registry defines the name space for the range specifier names.</p>
695            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Registrations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
696            </p>
697            <ul>
698               <li>Name</li>
699               <li>Description</li>
700               <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
701            </ul>
702            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review (see <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
703            </p>
704            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">The registry itself is maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers</a>&gt;.
705            </p>
706         </div>
707      </div>
708      <div id="status.code.definitions">
709         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a></h1>
710         <div id="status.206">
711            <div id="rfc.iref.2.1"></div>
712            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.206">206 Partial Content</a></h2>
713            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource. The request <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have included a <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.3" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>) indicating the desired range, and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> have included an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.1" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) to make the request conditional.
714            </p>
715            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.2">The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following header fields:
716            </p>
717            <ul>
718               <li>Either a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.2" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>) indicating the range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> including Content-Range fields for each part. If a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field is present in the response, its value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> match the actual number of octets transmitted in the message body.
719               </li>
720               <li>Date</li>
721               <li><a href="p6-cache.html#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" class="smpl">ETag</a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> and/or <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a>, if the header field would have been sent in a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request
722               </li>
723            </ul>
724            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">If a 206 is sent in response to a request with an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include other representation header fields. Otherwise, the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include all of the representation header fields that would have been returned with a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response to the same request.
725            </p>
726            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">Caches <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use a heuristic (see <a href="p6-cache.html#heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">Section 4.1.2</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) to determine freshness for 206 responses.
727            </p>
728         </div>
729         <div id="status.416">
730            <div id="rfc.iref.4.1"></div>
731            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.416">416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable</a></h2>
732            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with this status code if a request included a <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.4" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>), and none of the ranges-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent of the selected resource, and the request
733               did not include an <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> header field (<a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.2" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>). (For byte-ranges, this means that the first-byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than the current
734               length of the selected resource.)
735            </p>
736            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the response <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field specifying the current length of the representation (see <a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.3" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>). This response <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the multipart/byteranges content-type. For example,
737            </p>
738            <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
739Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
740Content-Range: bytes */47022
741Content-Type: image/gif
742</pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">
743               <p><b>Note:</b> Clients cannot depend on servers to send a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested
744                     Range Not Satisfiable)</a> response instead of a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response for an unsatisfiable <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field, since not all servers implement this header field.
745               </p>
746            </div>
747         </div>
748      </div>
749      <div>
750         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;Responses to a Range Request
751         </h1>
752         <div>
753            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request
754            </h2>
755            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for example, a response to a request for a single range, or to
756               a request for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is transmitted with a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field, and a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field showing the number of bytes actually transferred. For example,
757            </p>
758            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="text">HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
759Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
760Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
761Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
762Content-Length: 26012
763Content-Type: image/gif
764</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
765               ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message. The multipart media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges"
766               as defined in <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>.
767            </p>
768            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine requested ranges when those ranges are overlapping (see <a href="#overlapping.ranges" title="Overlapping Ranges">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>).
769            </p>
770            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">A response to a request for a single range <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be sent using the multipart/byteranges media type. A response to a request for multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be sent as a multipart/byteranges media type with one part. A client that cannot decode a multipart/byteranges message <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> ask for multiple ranges in a single request.
771            </p>
772            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">When a client asks for multiple ranges in one request, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return them in the order that they appeared in the request.
773            </p>
774         </div>
775         <div id="combining.byte.ranges">
776            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#combining.byte.ranges">Combining Ranges</a></h2>
777            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the connection closed prematurely or if the request used
778               one or more Range specifications. After several such transfers, a client might have received several ranges of the same representation.
779               These ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the same strong validator, where "strong validator" is
780               defined to be either an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> value that is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
781            </p>
782            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.2">When a client receives an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> or <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response and already has one or more stored responses for the same method and effective request URI, all of the stored responses
783               with the same strong validator <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be combined with the partial content in this new response. If none of the stored responses contain the same strong validator,
784               then this new response corresponds to a new representation and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be combined with the existing stored responses.
785            </p>
786            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">If the new response is an incomplete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response, then the header fields of that new response are used for any combined response and replace those of the matching
787               stored responses.
788            </p>
789            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">If the new response is a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response and at least one of the matching stored responses is a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>, then the combined response header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's header fields. If all of the matching
790               stored responses are 206 responses, then the stored response with the most header fields is used as the source of header fields
791               for the combined response, except that the client <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>, to replace all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored response.
792            </p>
793            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.5">The combined response message body consists of the union of partial content ranges in the new response and each of the selected
794               responses. If the union consists of the entire range of the representation, then the combined response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be recorded as a complete <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response with a <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> header field that reflects the complete length. Otherwise, the combined response(s) <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> header field describing the included range(s) and be recorded as incomplete. If the union consists of a discontinuous range
795               of the representation, then the client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store it as either a multipart range response or as multiple <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206</a> responses with one continuous range each.
796            </p>
797         </div>
798      </div>
799      <div id="header.field.definitions">
800         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
801         <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to range requests and partial responses.</p>
802         <div id="header.accept-ranges">
803            <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
804            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-ranges">Accept-Ranges</a></h2>
805            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a resource to indicate its acceptance of range requests.</p>
806            <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a>     = <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>
807  <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = 1#<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> / "none"
808</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.3">Origin servers that accept byte-range requests <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
809            </p>
810            <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: bytes
811</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.5">but are not required to do so. Clients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate range requests without having received this header field for the resource involved. Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
812            </p>
813            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.6">Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a resource <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> send
814            </p>
815            <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Ranges: none
816</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.8">to advise the client not to attempt a range request.</p>
817         </div>
818         <div id="header.content-range">
819            <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
820            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-range">Content-Range</a></h2>
821            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The "Content-Range" header field is sent with a partial representation to specify where in the full representation the payload
822               body is intended to be applied.
823            </p>
824            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">Range units are defined in <a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a>.
825            </p>
826            <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>           = <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a>
827                          / <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a>
828                         
829  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a>
830                            <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a> "/"
831                            ( <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a> / "*" )
832 
833  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a>    = (<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>)
834                          / "*"
835                         
836  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a>         = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
837 
838  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">SP</a>
839                             <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a>
840  <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a>    = *<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
841</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.4">The header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> indicate the total length of the full representation, unless this length is unknown or difficult to determine. The asterisk
842               "*" character means that the instance-length is unknown at the time when the response was generated.
843            </p>
844            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.5">Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see <a href="#byte.ranges" title="Byte Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.4.1</a>), a byte-range-resp-spec <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only specify one range, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> contain absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the range.
845            </p>
846            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.6">A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-byte-pos value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or
847               whose instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos value, is invalid. The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-spec <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
848            </p>
849            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.7">In the case of a byte range request: A server sending a response with status code <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested Range Not
850                  Satisfiable)</a> <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*". The instance-length specifies the current length of the
851               selected resource. A response with status code <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
852            </p>
853            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.8">The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that do not explicitly describe its semantic. Currently,
854               only status codes <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> and <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)</a> describe the meaning of this header field.
855            </p>
856            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.9">Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the representation contains a total of 1234 bytes: </p>
857            <ul>
858               <li>The first 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.8"></span><pre class="text">  bytes 0-499/1234
859</pre> </li>
860               <li>The second 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.9"></span><pre class="text">  bytes 500-999/1234
861</pre> </li>
862               <li>All except for the first 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.10"></span><pre class="text">  bytes 500-1233/1234
863</pre> </li>
864               <li>The last 500 bytes: <span id="rfc.figure.u.11"></span><pre class="text">  bytes 734-1233/1234
865</pre> </li>
866            </ul>
867            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.10">If the server ignores a byte-range-spec (for example if it is syntactically invalid, or if it might be seen as a denial-of-service
868               attack), the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> treat the request as if the invalid <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field did not exist. (Normally, this means return a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response containing the full representation).
869            </p>
870         </div>
871         <div id="header.if-range">
872            <div id="rfc.iref.i.1"></div>
873            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.if-range">If-Range</a></h2>
874            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it
875               could use the <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a>.) However, if the condition fails because the representation has been modified, the client would then have to make a second
876               request to obtain the entire current representation.
877            </p>
878            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the second request. Informally, its meaning is "if the representation
879               is unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me the entire new representation".
880            </p>
881            <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> / <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
882</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.4">Clients <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range field value and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> date in an If-Range field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and the Last-Modified date it does have
883               for the representation is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
884            </p>
885            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.5">A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is applicable to one of its representations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> evaluate the condition as false if the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, when an HTTP-date is used as the
886               validator, if the date value is not strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>. (A server can distinguish between a valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag by examining the first two characters.)
887            </p>
888            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.6">The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only be sent by clients together with a Range header field. The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored if it is received in a request that does not include a Range header field. The If-Range header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be ignored by a server that does not support the sub-range operation.
889            </p>
890            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.7">If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the current validator for the selected representation of the target
891               resource, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the specified sub-range of the representation using a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response. If the validator does not match, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the entire representation using a <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a> response.
892            </p>
893         </div>
894         <div id="header.range">
895            <div id="rfc.iref.r.1"></div>
896            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.4"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.range">Range</a></h2>
897            <div id="byte.ranges">
898               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.1">5.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#byte.ranges">Byte Ranges</a></h3>
899               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.1">Since all HTTP representations are transferred as sequences of bytes, the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP
900                  representation. (However, not all clients and servers need to support byte-range operations.)
901               </p>
902               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.2">Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in the representation data (not necessarily the same as the
903                  message body).
904               </p>
905               <div id="rule.ranges-specifier">
906                  <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.3">        A byte range operation <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> specify a single range of bytes, or a set of ranges within a single representation.
907                  </p>
908               </div>
909               <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> "=" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>
910  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a>  = 1#( <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> / <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> )
911  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> "-" [ <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> ]
912  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>  = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
913  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>   = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
914</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.5">The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value
915                  gives the byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start
916                  at zero.
917               </p>
918               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.6">If the last-byte-pos value is present, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be greater than or equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte-range-spec is syntactically invalid. The
919                  recipient of a byte-range-set that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec values <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore the header field that includes that byte-range-set.
920               </p>
921               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.7">If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than or equal to the current length of the representation
922                  data, last-byte-pos is taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the representation in bytes.
923               </p>
924               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.8">By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the representation.</p>
925               <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span>  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a>
926  <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
927</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.10">A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the representation data, of a length given by the suffix-length
928                  value. (That is, this form specifies the last N bytes of a representation.) If the representation is shorter than the specified
929                  suffix-length, the entire representation is used.
930               </p>
931               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.11">If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-range-spec whose first-byte-pos is less than the current
932                  length of the representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-zero suffix-length, then the byte-range-set
933                  is satisfiable. Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable. If the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with a <a href="#status.416" class="smpl">416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)</a> status code. Otherwise, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a response with a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> status code containing the satisfiable ranges of the representation.
934               </p>
935               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.12">In the byte range syntax, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a>, <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a>, and <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> are expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no predefined limit to the length of an HTTP payload, recipients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> anticipate potentially large decimal numerals and prevent parsing errors due to integer conversion overflows.
936               </p>
937               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.1.p.13">Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming a representation of length 10000): </p>
938               <ul>
939                  <li>The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.15"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=0-499
940</pre> </li>
941                  <li>The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.16"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=500-999
942</pre> </li>
943                  <li>The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.17"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=-500
944</pre> Or: <span id="rfc.figure.u.18"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=9500-
945</pre> </li>
946                  <li>The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999): <span id="rfc.figure.u.19"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=0-0,-1
947</pre> </li>
948                  <li>Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): <span id="rfc.figure.u.20"></span><pre class="text">  bytes=500-600,601-999
949  bytes=500-700,601-999
950</pre> </li>
951               </ul>
952            </div>
953            <div id="range.retrieval.requests">
954               <h3 id="rfc.section.5.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4.2">5.4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.retrieval.requests">Range Retrieval Requests</a></h3>
955               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.1">The "Range" header field defines the GET method (conditional or not) to request one or more sub-ranges of the response representation
956                  data, instead of the entire representation data.
957               </p>
958               <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span>  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> = <a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> / <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a>
959  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> "=" <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a>
960  <a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">CHAR</a>
961</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.3">A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible,
962                  since Range supports efficient recovery from partially failed transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
963                  representations.
964               </p>
965               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.4">If the server supports the Range header field and the specified range or ranges are appropriate for the representation: </p>
966               <ul>
967                  <li>The presence of a Range header field in an unconditional GET modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful.
968                     In other words, the response carries a status code of <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> instead of <a href="p2-semantics.html#status.200" class="smpl">200 (OK)</a>.
969                  </li>
970                  <li>The presence of a Range header field in a conditional GET (a request using one or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-modified-since" class="smpl">If-Modified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-none-match" class="smpl">If-None-Match</a>, or one or both of <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-unmodified-since" class="smpl">If-Unmodified-Since</a> and <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.if-match" class="smpl">If-Match</a>) modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the condition is true. It does not affect the <a href="p4-conditional.html#status.304" class="smpl">304 (Not Modified)</a> response returned if the conditional is false.
971                  </li>
972               </ul>
973               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.5">In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range header field (see <a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.3" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) in addition to the Range header field.
974               </p>
975               <p id="rfc.section.5.4.2.p.6">If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire
976                  representation in reply, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> only return the requested range to its client.
977               </p>
978            </div>
979         </div>
980      </div>
981      <div id="IANA.considerations">
982         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
983         <div id="status.code.registration">
984            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
985            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The HTTP Status Code Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; shall be updated with the registrations below:
986            </p>
987            <div id="rfc.table.1">
988               <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
989               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
990                  <thead>
991                     <tr>
992                        <th>Value</th>
993                        <th>Description</th>
994                        <th>Reference</th>
995                     </tr>
996                  </thead>
997                  <tbody>
998                     <tr>
999                        <td class="left">206</td>
1000                        <td class="left">Partial Content</td>
1001                        <td class="left"><a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.1" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>
1002                        </td>
1003                     </tr>
1004                     <tr>
1005                        <td class="left">416</td>
1006                        <td class="left">Requested Range Not Satisfiable</td>
1007                        <td class="left"><a href="#status.416" id="rfc.xref.status.416.1" title="416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>
1008                        </td>
1009                     </tr>
1010                  </tbody>
1011               </table>
1012            </div>
1013         </div>
1014         <div id="header.field.registration">
1015            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
1016            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">The Message Header Field Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; shall be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
1017            </p>
1018            <div id="rfc.table.2">
1019               <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
1020               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1021                  <thead>
1022                     <tr>
1023                        <th>Header Field Name</th>
1024                        <th>Protocol</th>
1025                        <th>Status</th>
1026                        <th>Reference</th>
1027                     </tr>
1028                  </thead>
1029                  <tbody>
1030                     <tr>
1031                        <td class="left">Accept-Ranges</td>
1032                        <td class="left">http</td>
1033                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1034                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>
1035                        </td>
1036                     </tr>
1037                     <tr>
1038                        <td class="left">Content-Range</td>
1039                        <td class="left">http</td>
1040                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1041                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.content-range" id="rfc.xref.header.content-range.4" title="Content-Range">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>
1042                        </td>
1043                     </tr>
1044                     <tr>
1045                        <td class="left">If-Range</td>
1046                        <td class="left">http</td>
1047                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1048                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.if-range" id="rfc.xref.header.if-range.4" title="If-Range">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>
1049                        </td>
1050                     </tr>
1051                     <tr>
1052                        <td class="left">Range</td>
1053                        <td class="left">http</td>
1054                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1055                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.range" id="rfc.xref.header.range.5" title="Range">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>
1056                        </td>
1057                     </tr>
1058                  </tbody>
1059               </table>
1060            </div>
1061            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1062         </div>
1063         <div id="range.specifier.registration">
1064            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.3"><a href="#rfc.section.6.3">6.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#range.specifier.registration">Range Specifier Registration</a></h2>
1065            <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.1">The registration procedure for HTTP Range Specifiers is defined by <a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a> of this document.
1066            </p>
1067            <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.2">The HTTP Range Specifier Registry shall be created at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers</a>&gt; and be populated with the registrations below:
1068            </p>
1069            <div id="rfc.table.3">
1070               <div id="iana.range.specifiers.table"></div>
1071               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1072                  <thead>
1073                     <tr>
1074                        <th>Range Specifier Name</th>
1075                        <th>Description</th>
1076                        <th>Reference</th>
1077                     </tr>
1078                  </thead>
1079                  <tbody>
1080                     <tr>
1081                        <td class="left">bytes</td>
1082                        <td class="left">a range of octets</td>
1083                        <td class="left"><a href="#range.units" title="Range Units">Section&nbsp;2</a></td>
1084                     </tr>
1085                     <tr>
1086                        <td class="left">none</td>
1087                        <td class="left">reserved as keyword, indicating no ranges are supported</td>
1088                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.2" title="Accept-Ranges">Section&nbsp;5.1</a></td>
1089                     </tr>
1090                  </tbody>
1091               </table>
1092            </div>
1093            <p id="rfc.section.6.3.p.3">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1094         </div>
1095      </div>
1096      <div id="security.considerations">
1097         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
1098         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
1099            as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
1100            make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
1101         </p>
1102         <div id="overlapping.ranges">
1103            <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#overlapping.ranges">Overlapping Ranges</a></h2>
1104            <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">Range requests containing overlapping ranges can lead to the situation where a server is sending far more data than the size
1105               of the complete resource representation.
1106            </p>
1107         </div>
1108      </div>
1109      <div id="acks">
1110         <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1111         <p id="rfc.section.8.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 9</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1112         </p>
1113      </div>
1114      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.9" href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a> References
1115      </h1>
1116      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1" id="rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a> Normative References
1117      </h2>
1118      <table>
1119         <tr>
1120            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1121            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-21">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-21 (work in progress), October&nbsp;2012.
1122            </td>
1123         </tr>
1124         <tr>
1125            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1126            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-21">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-21 (work in progress), October&nbsp;2012.
1127            </td>
1128         </tr>
1129         <tr>
1130            <td class="reference"><b id="Part4">[Part4]</b></td>
1131            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-21">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-21 (work in progress), October&nbsp;2012.
1132            </td>
1133         </tr>
1134         <tr>
1135            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
1136            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net" title="Akamai">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-21">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-21 (work in progress), October&nbsp;2012.
1137            </td>
1138         </tr>
1139         <tr>
1140            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2046">[RFC2046]</b></td>
1141            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2046, November&nbsp;1996.
1142            </td>
1143         </tr>
1144         <tr>
1145            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1146            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1147            </td>
1148         </tr>
1149         <tr>
1150            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1151            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1152            </td>
1153         </tr>
1154      </table>
1155      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2" id="rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a> Informative References
1156      </h2>
1157      <table>
1158         <tr>
1159            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1160            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1161            </td>
1162         </tr>
1163         <tr>
1164            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1165            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1166            </td>
1167         </tr>
1168         <tr>
1169            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4288">[RFC4288]</b></td>
1170            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned.freed@mrochek.com" title="Sun Microsystems">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:klensin+ietf@jck.com">J. Klensin</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4288">Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</a>”, BCP&nbsp;13, RFC&nbsp;4288, December&nbsp;2005.
1171            </td>
1172         </tr>
1173         <tr>
1174            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1175            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1176            </td>
1177         </tr>
1178      </table>
1179      <div id="internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">
1180         <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
1181         <div id="rfc.iref.m.2"></div>
1182         <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges">Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges</a></h1>
1183         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">When an HTTP <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206 (Partial Content)</a> response message includes the content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping ranges), these
1184            are transmitted as a multipart message body (<a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1">Section 5.1</a>). The media type for this purpose is called "multipart/byteranges". The following is to be registered with IANA <a href="#RFC4288" id="rfc.xref.RFC4288.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[RFC4288]</cite></a>.
1185         </p>
1186         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each with its own <a href="p2-semantics.html#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> and <a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> fields. The required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate each body-part.
1187         </p>
1188         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3"></p>
1189         <dl>
1190            <dt>Type name:</dt>
1191            <dd>multipart</dd>
1192            <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
1193            <dd>byteranges</dd>
1194            <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
1195            <dd>boundary</dd>
1196            <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
1197            <dd>none</dd>
1198            <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
1199            <dd>only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are permitted</dd>
1200            <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
1201            <dd>none</dd>
1202            <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
1203            <dd>none</dd>
1204            <dt>Published specification:</dt>
1205            <dd>This specification (see <a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>).
1206            </dd>
1207            <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
1208            <dd>HTTP components supporting multiple ranges in a single request.</dd>
1209            <dt>Additional information:</dt>
1210            <dd>
1211               <dl>
1212                  <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
1213                  <dd>none</dd>
1214                  <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
1215                  <dd>none</dd>
1216                  <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
1217                  <dd>none</dd>
1218               </dl>
1219            </dd>
1220            <dt>Person and email address to contact for further information:</dt>
1221            <dd>See Authors Section.</dd>
1222            <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
1223            <dd>COMMON</dd>
1224            <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
1225            <dd>none</dd>
1226            <dt>Author/Change controller:</dt>
1227            <dd>IESG</dd>
1228         </dl>
1229         <div class="note" id="rfc.section.A.p.4">
1230            <p><b>Note:</b> Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to the byte ranges only.
1231            </p>
1232         </div>
1233         <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div>
1234         <p>For example:</p><pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1235  Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1236  Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
1237  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1238 
1239  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1240  Content-type: application/pdf
1241  Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
1242 
1243  ...the first range...
1244  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1245  Content-type: application/pdf
1246  Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
1247 
1248  ...the second range
1249  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1250</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div>
1251         <p>Another example, using the "exampleunit" range unit:</p><pre class="text">  HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
1252  Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
1253  Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
1254  Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1255 
1256  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1257  Content-type: video/example
1258  Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
1259 
1260  ...the first range...
1261  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
1262  Content-type: video/example
1263  Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
1264 
1265  ...the second range
1266  --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
1267</pre><p id="rfc.section.A.p.7">Notes: </p>
1268         <ol>
1269            <li>Additional CRLFs <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> precede the first boundary string in the body.
1270            </li>
1271            <li>Although <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> permits the boundary string to be quoted, some existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string incorrectly.
1272            </li>
1273            <li>A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft of the byteranges specification to use a media type of multipart/x-byteranges<span id="rfc.iref.m.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.m.4"></span>, which is almost, but not quite compatible with the version documented in HTTP/1.1.
1274            </li>
1275         </ol>
1276      </div>
1277      <div id="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1278         <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h1>
1279         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.1">Introduce Range Specifier Registry. (<a href="#range.specifier.registry" title="Range Specifier Registry">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>)
1280         </p>
1281         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">Clarify that it is not ok to use a weak validator in a <a href="#status.206" class="smpl">206</a> response. (<a href="#status.206" id="rfc.xref.status.206.2" title="206 Partial Content">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>)
1282         </p>
1283         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.3">Clarify that multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. (<a href="#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix&nbsp;A</a>)
1284         </p>
1285      </div>
1286      <div id="imported.abnf">
1287         <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#imported.abnf">Imported ABNF</a></h1>
1288         <p id="rfc.section.C.p.1">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
1289            (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
1290            character).
1291         </p>
1292         <p id="rfc.section.C.p.2">Note that all rules derived from <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> are to be compared case-insensitively, like <a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> and <a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a>.
1293         </p>
1294         <p id="rfc.section.C.p.3">The rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
1295         </p>
1296         <div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a>        = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#whitespace" title="Whitespace">Section 3.2.1</a>&gt;
1297  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a>      = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.components" title="Field value components">Section 3.2.4</a>&gt;
1298</pre><p id="rfc.section.C.p.5">The rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
1299         <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>  = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content">[Part2]</cite></a>, <a href="p2-semantics.html#http.date" title="Date/Time Formats">Section 8.1.1.1</a>&gt;
1300  <a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a>&gt;
1301</pre></div>
1302      <div id="collected.abnf">
1303         <h1 id="rfc.section.D"><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1304         <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">Accept-Ranges</a> = acceptable-ranges
1305
1306<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> = byte-content-range-spec / other-content-range-spec
1307
1308<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 8.1.1.1&gt;
1309
1310<a href="#header.if-range" class="smpl">If-Range</a> = entity-tag / HTTP-date
1311
1312<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1&gt;
1313
1314<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">Range</a> = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1315
1316<a href="#header.accept-ranges" class="smpl">acceptable-ranges</a> = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
1317 range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
1318
1319<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-content-range-spec</a> = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" (
1320 instance-length / "*" )
1321<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">byte-range-resp-spec</a> = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*"
1322<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-set</a> = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec /
1323 suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec /
1324 suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
1325<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-range-spec</a> = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1326<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">byte-ranges-specifier</a> = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1327<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">bytes-unit</a> = "bytes"
1328
1329<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">entity-tag</a> = &lt;entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3&gt;
1330
1331<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">first-byte-pos</a> = 1*DIGIT
1332
1333<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">instance-length</a> = 1*DIGIT
1334
1335<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">last-byte-pos</a> = 1*DIGIT
1336
1337<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-content-range-spec</a> = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec
1338<a href="#header.content-range" class="smpl">other-range-resp-spec</a> = *CHAR
1339<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-range-set</a> = 1*CHAR
1340<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">other-range-unit</a> = token
1341<a href="#range.retrieval.requests" class="smpl">other-ranges-specifier</a> = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1342
1343<a href="#range.units" class="smpl">range-unit</a> = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1344
1345<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-byte-range-spec</a> = "-" suffix-length
1346<a href="#rule.ranges-specifier" class="smpl">suffix-length</a> = 1*DIGIT
1347
1348<a href="#imported.abnf" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4&gt;
1349</pre></div>
1350      <div id="change.log">
1351         <h1 id="rfc.section.E"><a href="#rfc.section.E">E.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1352         <p id="rfc.section.E.p.1">Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized in &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19#appendix-D">http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19#appendix-D</a>&gt;.
1353         </p>
1354         <div id="changes.since.19">
1355            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.1"><a href="#rfc.section.E.1">E.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.19">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19</a></h2>
1356            <p id="rfc.section.E.1.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1357            <ul>
1358               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/358">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/358</a>&gt;: "ABNF list expansion code problem"
1359               </li>
1360               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/361</a>&gt;: "ABNF requirements for recipients"
1361               </li>
1362               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/367">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/367</a>&gt;: "reserve 'none' as byte range unit"
1363               </li>
1364               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/368</a>&gt;: "note introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
1365               </li>
1366               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/369">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/369</a>&gt;: "range units vs leading zeroes vs size"
1367               </li>
1368            </ul>
1369         </div>
1370         <div id="changes.since.20">
1371            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.2"><a href="#rfc.section.E.2">E.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.20">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20</a></h2>
1372            <p id="rfc.section.E.2.p.1"></p>
1373            <ul>
1374               <li>Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are now defined in Part 1.</li>
1375            </ul>
1376         </div>
1377      </div>
1378      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
1379      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.2">2</a> <a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.I">I</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a>
1380      </p>
1381      <div class="print2col">
1382         <ul class="ind">
1383            <li><a id="rfc.index.2" href="#rfc.index.2"><b>2</b></a><ul>
1384                  <li>206 Partial Content (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.2.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.206.2">B</a></li>
1385               </ul>
1386            </li>
1387            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
1388                  <li>416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4.1"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.416.1">6.1</a></li>
1389               </ul>
1390            </li>
1391            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
1392                  <li>Accept-Ranges header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>5.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-ranges.2">6.3</a></li>
1393               </ul>
1394            </li>
1395            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
1396                  <li>Content-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.3">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>5.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1397               </ul>
1398            </li>
1399            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
1400                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1401                     <ul>
1402                        <li><tt>Accept-Ranges</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
1403                        <li><tt>acceptable-ranges</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
1404                        <li><tt>byte-content-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1405                        <li><tt>byte-range-resp-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1406                        <li><tt>byte-range-set</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.13"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1407                        <li><tt>byte-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.14"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1408                        <li><tt>byte-ranges-specifier</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.12"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1409                        <li><tt>bytes-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2</b></a></li>
1410                        <li><tt>Content-Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1411                        <li><tt>first-byte-pos</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.15"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1412                        <li><tt>If-Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>5.3</b></a></li>
1413                        <li><tt>instance-length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
1414                        <li><tt>last-byte-pos</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.16"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1415                        <li><tt>other-range-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>2</b></a></li>
1416                        <li><tt>Range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.19"><b>5.4.2</b></a></li>
1417                        <li><tt>range-unit</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2</b></a></li>
1418                        <li><tt>ranges-specifier</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.11"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1419                        <li><tt>suffix-byte-range-spec</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.17"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1420                        <li><tt>suffix-length</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.18"><b>5.4.1</b></a></li>
1421                     </ul>
1422                  </li>
1423               </ul>
1424            </li>
1425            <li><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul>
1426                  <li>If-Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.2">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.i.1"><b>5.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.3">5.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.if-range.4">6.2</a></li>
1427               </ul>
1428            </li>
1429            <li><a id="rfc.index.M" href="#rfc.index.M"><b>M</b></a><ul>
1430                  <li>Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;
1431                     <ul>
1432                        <li>multipart/byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>A</b></a></li>
1433                        <li>multipart/x-byteranges&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.4">A</a></li>
1434                     </ul>
1435                  </li>
1436                  <li>multipart/byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>A</b></a></li>
1437                  <li>multipart/x-byteranges Media Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.3">A</a></li>
1438               </ul>
1439            </li>
1440            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
1441                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">8</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">C</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">C</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">C</a><ul>
1442                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a></li>
1443                        <li><em>Section 2.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a></li>
1444                        <li><em>Section 3.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">C</a></li>
1445                        <li><em>Section 3.2.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">C</a></li>
1446                        <li><em>Section 9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">8</a></li>
1447                     </ul>
1448                  </li>
1449                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#Part2"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">C</a><ul>
1450                        <li><em>Section 8.1.1.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">C</a></li>
1451                     </ul>
1452                  </li>
1453                  <li><em>Part4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4">5.3</a>, <a href="#Part4"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">C</a><ul>
1454                        <li><em>Section 2.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4">5.3</a></li>
1455                        <li><em>Section 2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">C</a></li>
1456                     </ul>
1457                  </li>
1458                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
1459                        <li><em>Section 4.1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a></li>
1460                     </ul>
1461                  </li>
1462               </ul>
1463            </li>
1464            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
1465                  <li>Range header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.2">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.3">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.4">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.r.1"><b>5.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.range.5">6.2</a></li>
1466                  <li><em>RFC2046</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2046"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.2">A</a><ul>
1467                        <li><em>Section 5.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">A</a></li>
1468                     </ul>
1469                  </li>
1470                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
1471                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2616"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
1472                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
1473                  <li><em>RFC4288</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC4288"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4288.1">A</a></li>
1474                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>9.2</b></a><ul>
1475                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.1</a></li>
1476                     </ul>
1477                  </li>
1478                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">C</a><ul>
1479                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">C</a></li>
1480                     </ul>
1481                  </li>
1482               </ul>
1483            </li>
1484         </ul>
1485      </div>
1486      <div class="avoidbreak">
1487         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
1488         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
1489            (editor)
1490            <br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com">fielding@gbiv.com</a><br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
1491         <p><b>Yves Lafon</b>
1492            (editor)
1493            <br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>W3C / ERCIM<br>2004, rte des Lucioles<br>Sophia-Antipolis, AM&nbsp;06902<br>France<br>Email: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org">ylafon@w3.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></p>
1494         <p><b>Julian F. Reschke</b>
1495            (editor)
1496            <br>greenbytes GmbH<br>Hafenweg 16<br>Muenster, NW&nbsp;48155<br>Germany<br>Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</a><br>URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></p>
1497      </div>
1498   </body>
1499</html>
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