source: draft-ietf-httpbis/19/draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19.xml @ 1592

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!--
3    This XML document is the output of clean-for-DTD.xslt; a tool that strips
4    extensions to RFC2629(bis) from documents for processing with xml2rfc.
5-->
6<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
7<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
8<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
9<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
10<?rfc compact="yes"?>
11<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
12<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
13<?rfc editing="no" ?>
14<?rfc comments="yes"?>
15<?rfc inline="yes"?>
16<?rfc rfcedstyle="yes"?>
17<!DOCTYPE rfc
18  PUBLIC "" "rfc2629.dtd">
19<rfc obsoletes="2616" updates="2617" category="std" ipr="pre5378Trust200902" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-19">
20
21
22<front>
23
24  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 7">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</title>
25
26  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
27    <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
28    <address>
29      <postal>
30        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
31        <city>San Jose</city>
32        <region>CA</region>
33        <code>95110</code>
34        <country>USA</country>
35      </postal>
36      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
37      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
38    </address>
39  </author>
40
41  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
42    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
43    <address>
44      <postal>
45        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
46        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
47        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
48        <region>AM</region>
49        <code>06902</code>
50        <country>France</country>
51      </postal>
52      <email>ylafon@w3.org</email>
53      <uri>http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</uri>
54    </address>
55  </author>
56
57  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
58    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
59    <address>
60      <postal>
61        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
62        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
63        <country>Germany</country>
64      </postal>
65      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>
66      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>
67      <email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email>
68      <uri>http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</uri>
69    </address>
70  </author>
71
72  <date month="March" year="2012" day="12"/>
73  <workgroup>HTTPbis Working Group</workgroup>
74
75<abstract>
76<t>
77   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for
78   distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in
79   use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This
80   document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol
81   referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
82</t>
83<t>
84   Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.
85</t>
86</abstract>
87
88<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
89  <t>
90    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
91    mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
92    <eref target="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/"/>.
93  </t>
94  <t>
95    The current issues list is at
96    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3"/> and related
97    documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
98    <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/"/>.
99  </t>
100  <t>
101    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.18"/>.
102  </t>
103</note>
104</front>
105<middle>
106<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
107<t>
108   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
109   includes the relevant parts of RFC 2616
110   with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication,
111   as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
112   Authentication" (<xref target="RFC2617"/>).
113</t>
114<t>
115   HTTP provides several OPTIONAL challenge-response authentication
116   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and
117   by a client to provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest"
118   authentication schemes continue to be specified in
119   RFC 2617.
120</t>
121
122<section title="Conformance and Error Handling" anchor="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
123<t>
124   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
125   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
126   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
127</t>
128<t>
129   This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP
130   communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients, Servers, User-Agents,
131   Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See Section 2 of <xref target="Part1"/>
132   for definitions of these terms.
133</t>
134<t>
135   An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the
136   requirements associated with its role(s). Note that SHOULD-level requirements
137   are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
138</t>
139<t>
140   This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements
141   (<xref target="notation"/>). In addition to the prose requirements placed
142   upon them, Senders MUST NOT generate protocol elements that are invalid.
143</t>
144<t>
145   Unless noted otherwise, Recipients MAY take steps to recover a usable
146   protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define
147   specific error handling mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct
148   impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
149   different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to
150   transparently recover from a response where the Location header field
151   doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol
152   using HTTP, this type of error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
153</t>
154</section>
155
156<section title="Syntax Notation" anchor="notation">
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164<t>
165   This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation
166   of <xref target="RFC5234"/> with the list rule extension defined in
167   Section 1.2 of <xref target="Part1"/><xref target="collected.abnf"/> shows the collected ABNF
168   with the list rule expanded.
169</t>
170<t>
171  The following core rules are included by
172  reference, as defined in <xref target="RFC5234"/>, Appendix B.1:
173  ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls),
174  DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
175  HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed),
176  OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and
177  VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII character).
178</t>
179
180<section title="Core Rules" anchor="core.rules">
181   
182   
183   
184   
185<t>
186   The core rules below are defined in <xref target="Part1"/>:
187</t>
188<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
189  BWS           = <BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1>
190  OWS           = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1>
191  quoted-string = <quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4>
192  token         = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4>
193]]></artwork></figure>
194</section>
195</section>
196</section>
197
198<section title="Access Authentication Framework" anchor="access.authentication.framework">
199
200<section title="Challenge and Response" anchor="challenge.and.response">
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206<t>
207   HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
208   that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
209   client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
210   case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme, followed
211   by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that
212   scheme. The latter can either be a comma-separated list of parameters or a
213   single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded
214   information.
215</t>
216<t>
217   Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively,
218   and each parameter name MUST only occur once per challenge.
219</t>
220<figure><iref item="auth-scheme" primary="true"/><iref item="auth-param" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-scheme"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="auth-param"/><iref item="b64token" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="b64token"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
221  auth-scheme    = token
222 
223  auth-param     = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
224
225  b64token       = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT /
226                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
227]]></artwork></figure>
228<t>
229   The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<xref target="RFC3986"/>),
230   plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename
231   safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding, with or without padding, but
232   excluding whitespace (<xref target="RFC4648"/>).
233</t>
234<t>
235   The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
236   to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response MUST
237   include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
238   challenge applicable to the requested resource.
239</t>
240<t>   
241   The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
242   challenge the authorization of a client and MUST include a Proxy-Authenticate
243   header field containing at least one challenge
244   applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
245</t>
246<figure><iref item="challenge" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="challenge"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
247  challenge   = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / #auth-param ) ]
248]]></artwork></figure>
249<t><list>
250  <t>
251     Note: User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
252     WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because they
253     can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is
254     provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself contain a
255     comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
256  </t>
257</list></t>
258<t><list>
259  <t>
260     Note: Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
261     schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported schemes
262     (such as "basic") first.<!-- see http://greenbytes.de/tech/tc/httpauth/#multibasicunknown2 -->
263  </t>
264</list></t>
265<t>
266   A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
267   — usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
268   — MAY do so by including an Authorization header field with the
269   request.
270</t>
271<t>   
272   A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy — usually,
273   but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
274   — MAY do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the
275   request.
276</t>
277<t>   
278   Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value
279   consist of credentials containing the authentication information of the
280   client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent MUST
281   choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
282   understands and request credentials from the user based upon that challenge.
283</t>
284<figure><iref item="credentials" primary="true"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="credentials"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
285  credentials = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / #auth-param ) ]
286]]></artwork></figure>
287<t>
288   If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
289   with a request, it SHOULD return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
290   response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
291   least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
292   resource.
293</t>
294<t>
295   If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
296   request, it SHOULD return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
297   response MUST include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
298   (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
299   resource.
300</t>
301<t>
302   The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
303   challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
304   mechanisms MAY be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
305   via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
306   specifying authentication information. However, such additional
307   mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
308</t>
309<t>
310   Proxies MUST forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers
311   unmodified and follow the rules found in <xref target="header.authorization"/>.
312</t>
313</section>
314
315<section title="Protection Space (Realm)" anchor="protection.space">
316  <iref item="Protection Space"/>
317  <iref item="Realm"/>
318<t>
319   The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication
320   schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.
321</t>
322<t>
323   A protection space is defined by the canonical root URI (the
324   scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
325   Section 5.5 of <xref target="Part1"/>) of the
326   server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present.
327   These realms allow the protected resources on a server to be
328   partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own
329   authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The realm value
330   is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have
331   additional semantics specific to the authentication scheme. Note that
332   there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but
333   different realms.
334</t>
335<t>
336   The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
337   be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized, the
338   same credentials MAY be reused for all other requests within that
339   protection space for a period of time determined by the
340   authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
341   otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
342   space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
343</t>
344<t>
345   For historical reasons, senders MUST only use the quoted-string syntax.
346   Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for
347   maximum interoperability with existing clients that have been accepting both
348   notations for a long time.
349</t>
350</section>
351
352<section title="Authentication Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registry">
353<t>
354  The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the
355  authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
356</t>
357<t>
358  Registrations MUST include the following fields:
359  <list style="symbols">
360    <t>Authentication Scheme Name</t>
361    <t>Pointer to specification text</t>
362    <t>Notes (optional)</t>
363  </list>
364</t>
365<t>
366  Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review
367  (see <xref target="RFC5226"/>, Section 4.1).
368</t>
369<t>
370  The registry itself is maintained at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
371</t>
372
373<section title="Considerations for New Authentication Schemes" anchor="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
374<t>
375  There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put
376  constraints on how new authentication schemes can work:
377</t>
378<t>
379  <list style="symbols">
380    <t>
381      HTTP authentication is presumed to be stateless: all of the information
382      necessary to authenticate a request MUST be provided in the request,
383      rather than be dependent on the server remembering prior requests.
384      Authentication based on, or bound to, the underlying connection is
385      outside the scope of this specification and inherently flawed unless
386      steps are taken to ensure that the connection cannot be used by any
387      party other than the authenticated user
388      (see Section 2.3 of <xref target="Part1"/>).
389    </t>
390    <t>
391      The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection
392      Spaces as defined in <xref target="protection.space"/>. New schemes
393      MUST NOT use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
394    </t>
395    <t>
396      The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing
397      authentication schemes and can only be used once per challenge/credentials.
398      New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because
399      otherwise future extensions will be impossible.
400    </t>
401    <t>
402      The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification,
403      and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes. When the auth-param
404      syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and
405      quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints ought to be defined on
406      the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is
407      necessary so that recipients can use a generic parser that applies to
408      all authentication schemes.
409    <vspace blankLines="1"/>
410      Note: the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter
411      is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be repeated
412      for new parameters.
413    </t>
414    <t>
415      Definitions of new schemes ought to define the treatment of unknown
416      extension parameters. In general, a "must-ignore" rule is preferable
417      over "must-understand", because otherwise it will be hard to introduce
418      new parameters in the presence of legacy recipients. Furthermore,
419      it's good to describe the policy for defining new parameters (such
420      as "update the specification", or "use this registry").
421    </t>
422    <t>
423      Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in
424      origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate), and/or
425      proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
426    </t>
427    <t>
428      The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to
429      the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect on HTTP caches as the
430      "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the
431      request they appear in.
432    <vspace blankLines="1"/>
433      Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry
434      credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly defined
435      header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of
436      either Cache-Control request directives (e.g., "no-store") or response
437      directives (e.g., "private").
438    </t>
439  </list>
440</t>
441</section>
442
443</section>
444
445</section>
446
447<section title="Status Code Definitions" anchor="status.code.definitions">
448<section title="401 Unauthorized" anchor="status.401">
449  <iref primary="true" item="401 Unauthorized (status code)"/>
450  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="401 Unauthorized"/>
451<t>
452   The request requires user authentication. The response MUST include a
453   WWW-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>) containing a challenge
454   applicable to the target resource. The client MAY repeat the
455   request with a suitable Authorization header field (<xref target="header.authorization"/>). If
456   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
457   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
458   credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
459   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
460   authentication at least once, then the user SHOULD be presented the
461   representation that was given in the response, since that representation might
462   include relevant diagnostic information.
463</t>
464</section>
465<section title="407 Proxy Authentication Required" anchor="status.407">
466  <iref primary="true" item="407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)"/>
467  <iref primary="true" item="Status Codes" subitem="407 Proxy Authentication Required"/>
468<t>
469   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
470   client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy MUST
471   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>) containing a
472   challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The
473   client MAY repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
474   header field (<xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>).
475</t>
476</section>
477</section>
478
479<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.field.definitions">
480<t>
481   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
482   related to authentication.
483</t>
484
485<section title="Authorization" anchor="header.authorization">
486  <iref primary="true" item="Authorization header field"/>
487  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Authorization"/>
488 
489<t>
490   The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate
491   itself with a server — usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
492   (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing
493   information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being
494   requested.
495</t>
496<figure><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Authorization"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
497  Authorization = credentials
498]]></artwork></figure>
499<t>
500   If a request is
501   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials SHOULD
502   be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that
503   the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such
504   as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
505   synchronized clocks).
506</t>
507<t>
508      When a shared cache (see Section 1.2 of <xref target="Part6"/>) receives a request
509      containing an Authorization field, it MUST NOT return the
510      corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one
511      of the following specific exceptions holds:
512</t>
513<t>
514  <list style="numbers">
515      <t>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control
516         directive, the cache MAY use that response in replying to a
517         subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has
518         passed) a proxy cache MUST first revalidate it with the origin
519         server, using the header fields from the new request to allow
520         the origin server to authenticate the new request. (This is the
521         defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
522         the proxy MUST always revalidate it before re-using
523         it.</t>
524
525      <t>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
526         directive, the cache MAY use that response in replying to a
527         subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
528         MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
529         header fields from the new request to allow the origin server
530         to authenticate the new request.</t>
531
532      <t>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive,
533         it MAY be returned in reply to any subsequent request.</t>
534  </list>
535</t>
536</section>
537
538<section title="Proxy-Authenticate" anchor="header.proxy-authenticate">
539  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authenticate header field"/>
540  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/>
541 
542<t>
543   The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that
544   indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy
545   for this effective request URI (Section 5.5 of <xref target="Part1"/>). It MUST be included as part
546   of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
547</t>
548<figure><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authenticate"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
549  Proxy-Authenticate = 1#challenge
550]]></artwork></figure>
551<t>
552   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to
553   the current connection and SHOULD NOT  be passed on to downstream
554   clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own
555   credentials by requesting them from the downstream client, which in
556   some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the
557   Proxy-Authenticate header field.
558</t>
559<t>
560   Note that the parsing considerations for WWW-Authenticate apply to this
561   header field as well; see <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/> for
562   details.
563</t>
564</section>
565
566<section title="Proxy-Authorization" anchor="header.proxy-authorization">
567  <iref primary="true" item="Proxy-Authorization header field"/>
568  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/>
569 
570<t>
571   The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to
572   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
573   authentication. Its value consists of
574   credentials containing the authentication information of the user
575   agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
576</t>
577<figure><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Proxy-Authorization"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
578  Proxy-Authorization = credentials
579]]></artwork></figure>
580<t>
581   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to
582   the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using the Proxy-Authenticate
583   field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the
584   Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first outbound
585   proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy MAY relay
586   the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is
587   the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively authenticate a given
588   request.
589</t>
590</section>
591
592<section title="WWW-Authenticate" anchor="header.www-authenticate">
593  <iref primary="true" item="WWW-Authenticate header field"/>
594  <iref primary="true" item="Header Fields" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/>
595 
596<t>
597   The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one
598   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
599   applicable to the effective request URI (Section 5.5 of <xref target="Part1"/>).
600</t>
601<t>   
602   It MUST be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and MAY be
603   included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials
604   (or different credentials) might affect the response.
605</t>
606<figure><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="WWW-Authenticate"/><artwork type="abnf2616"><![CDATA[
607  WWW-Authenticate = 1#challenge
608]]></artwork></figure>
609<t>
610   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate
611   field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
612   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
613   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
614   authentication parameters.
615</t>
616<figure>
617  <preamble>For instance:</preamble>
618  <artwork type="example"><![CDATA[
619  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
620                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
621]]></artwork>
622  <postamble>
623  This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme
624  with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters "type" and
625  "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of
626  "simple".
627</postamble></figure>
628<t><list>
629  <t>
630    Note: The challenge grammar production uses the list syntax as
631    well. Therefore, a sequence of comma, whitespace, and comma can be
632    considered both as applying to the preceding challenge, or to be an
633    empty entry in the list of challenges. In practice, this ambiguity
634    does not affect the semantics of the header field value and thus is
635    harmless.
636  </t>
637</list></t>
638</section>
639
640</section>
641
642<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
643
644<section title="Authenticaton Scheme Registry" anchor="authentication.scheme.registration">
645<t>
646  The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by
647  <xref target="authentication.scheme.registry"/> of this document.
648</t>
649<t>
650   The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes"/>.
651</t>
652</section>
653
654<section title="Status Code Registration" anchor="status.code.registration">
655<t>
656   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes"/>
657   shall be updated with the registrations below:
658</t>
659
660<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-status-code-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
661<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.status.code.registration.table">
662   <ttcol>Value</ttcol>
663   <ttcol>Description</ttcol>
664   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
665   <c>401</c>
666   <c>Unauthorized</c>
667   <c>
668      <xref target="status.401"/>
669   </c>
670   <c>407</c>
671   <c>Proxy Authentication Required</c>
672   <c>
673      <xref target="status.407"/>
674   </c>
675</texttable>
676<!--(END)-->
677
678</section>
679
680<section title="Header Field Registration" anchor="header.field.registration">
681<t>
682   The Message Header Field Registry located at <eref target="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html"/> shall be updated
683   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
684</t>
685
686<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
687<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
688   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
689   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
690   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
691   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
692
693   <c>Authorization</c>
694   <c>http</c>
695   <c>standard</c>
696   <c>
697      <xref target="header.authorization"/>
698   </c>
699   <c>Proxy-Authenticate</c>
700   <c>http</c>
701   <c>standard</c>
702   <c>
703      <xref target="header.proxy-authenticate"/>
704   </c>
705   <c>Proxy-Authorization</c>
706   <c>http</c>
707   <c>standard</c>
708   <c>
709      <xref target="header.proxy-authorization"/>
710   </c>
711   <c>WWW-Authenticate</c>
712   <c>http</c>
713   <c>standard</c>
714   <c>
715      <xref target="header.www-authenticate"/>
716   </c>
717</texttable>
718<!--(END)-->
719
720<t>
721   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".
722</t>
723</section>
724</section>
725
726<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
727<t>
728   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
729   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
730   described by this document. The discussion does not include
731   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
732   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
733</t>
734
735<section title="Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients" anchor="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
736<t>
737   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
738   information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
739   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is
740   a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
741   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
742   application's security model include but are not limited to:
743  <list style="symbols">
744     <t>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
745        which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
746        user for credentials.</t>
747
748     <t>Applications which include a session termination indication
749        (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
750        the server side of the application "knows" that there is no
751        further reason for the client to retain the credentials.</t>
752  </list>
753</t>
754<t>
755   This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds
756   to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
757   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
758   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
759   problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
760   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
761   cached credentials under user control.
762</t>
763</section>
764</section>
765
766<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="acks">
767<t>
768  This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication
769  Framework, previously defined in RFC 2617.
770  We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence,
771  Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for their work
772  on that specification. See Section 6 of <xref target="RFC2617"/>
773  for further acknowledgements. 
774</t>
775<t>
776  See Section 9 of <xref target="Part1"/> for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
777</t>
778</section>
779</middle>
780
781<back>
782
783<references title="Normative References">
784
785<reference anchor="Part1">
786  <front>
787    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
788    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
789      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
790      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
791    </author>
792    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
793      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
794      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
795    </author>
796    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
797      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
798      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
799    </author>
800    <date month="March" year="2012"/>
801  </front>
802  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-19"/>
803 
804</reference>
805
806<reference anchor="Part6">
807  <front>
808    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
809    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
810      <organization abbrev="Adobe">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
811      <address><email>fielding@gbiv.com</email></address>
812    </author>
813    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
814      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
815      <address><email>ylafon@w3.org</email></address>
816    </author>
817    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="Mark Nottingham" role="editor">
818      <organization>Rackspace</organization>
819      <address><email>mnot@mnot.net</email></address>
820    </author>
821    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
822      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
823      <address><email>julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</email></address>
824    </author>
825    <date month="March" year="2012"/>
826  </front>
827  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-19"/>
828 
829</reference>
830
831<reference anchor="RFC2119">
832  <front>
833    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
834    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
835      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
836      <address><email>sob@harvard.edu</email></address>
837    </author>
838    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
839  </front>
840  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
841  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
842</reference>
843
844<reference anchor="RFC5234">
845  <front>
846    <title abbrev="ABNF for Syntax Specifications">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</title>
847    <author initials="D." surname="Crocker" fullname="Dave Crocker" role="editor">
848      <organization>Brandenburg InternetWorking</organization>
849      <address>
850        <email>dcrocker@bbiw.net</email>
851      </address> 
852    </author>
853    <author initials="P." surname="Overell" fullname="Paul Overell">
854      <organization>THUS plc.</organization>
855      <address>
856        <email>paul.overell@thus.net</email>
857      </address>
858    </author>
859    <date month="January" year="2008"/>
860  </front>
861  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="68"/>
862  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5234"/>
863</reference>
864
865</references>
866
867<references title="Informative References">
868
869<reference anchor="RFC2616">
870  <front>
871    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
872    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
873      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
874      <address><email>fielding@ics.uci.edu</email></address>
875    </author>
876    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
877      <organization>W3C</organization>
878      <address><email>jg@w3.org</email></address>
879    </author>
880    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
881      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
882      <address><email>mogul@wrl.dec.com</email></address>
883    </author>
884    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
885      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
886      <address><email>frystyk@w3.org</email></address>
887    </author>
888    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
889      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
890      <address><email>masinter@parc.xerox.com</email></address>
891    </author>
892    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
893      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
894      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
895    </author>
896    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
897      <organization>W3C</organization>
898      <address><email>timbl@w3.org</email></address>
899    </author>
900    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
901  </front>
902  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
903</reference>
904
905<reference anchor="RFC2617">
906  <front>
907    <title abbrev="HTTP Authentication">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</title>
908    <author initials="J." surname="Franks" fullname="John Franks">
909      <organization>Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics</organization>
910      <address><email>john@math.nwu.edu</email></address>
911    </author>
912    <author initials="P.M." surname="Hallam-Baker" fullname="Phillip M. Hallam-Baker">
913      <organization>Verisign Inc.</organization>
914      <address><email>pbaker@verisign.com</email></address>
915    </author>
916    <author initials="J.L." surname="Hostetler" fullname="Jeffery L. Hostetler">
917      <organization>AbiSource, Inc.</organization>
918      <address><email>jeff@AbiSource.com</email></address>
919    </author>
920    <author initials="S.D." surname="Lawrence" fullname="Scott D. Lawrence">
921      <organization>Agranat Systems, Inc.</organization>
922      <address><email>lawrence@agranat.com</email></address>
923    </author>
924    <author initials="P.J." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
925      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
926      <address><email>paulle@microsoft.com</email></address>
927    </author>
928    <author initials="A." surname="Luotonen" fullname="Ari Luotonen">
929      <organization>Netscape Communications Corporation</organization>
930    </author>
931    <author initials="L." surname="Stewart" fullname="Lawrence C. Stewart">
932      <organization>Open Market, Inc.</organization>
933      <address><email>stewart@OpenMarket.com</email></address>
934    </author>
935    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
936  </front>
937  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2617"/>
938</reference>
939
940<reference anchor="RFC3864">
941  <front>
942    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
943    <author initials="G." surname="Klyne" fullname="G. Klyne">
944      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
945      <address><email>GK-IETF@ninebynine.org</email></address>
946    </author>
947    <author initials="M." surname="Nottingham" fullname="M. Nottingham">
948      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
949      <address><email>mnot@pobox.com</email></address>
950    </author>
951    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
952      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
953      <address><email>JeffMogul@acm.org</email></address>
954    </author>
955    <date year="2004" month="September"/>
956  </front>
957  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="90"/>
958  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3864"/>
959</reference>
960
961<reference anchor="RFC3986">
962 <front>
963  <title abbrev="URI Generic Syntax">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</title>
964  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
965    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
966    <address>
967       <email>timbl@w3.org</email>
968       <uri>http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</uri>
969    </address>
970  </author>
971  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding">
972    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
973    <address>
974      <email>fielding@gbiv.com</email>
975      <uri>http://roy.gbiv.com/</uri>
976    </address>
977  </author>
978  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
979    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems Incorporated</organization>
980    <address>
981      <email>LMM@acm.org</email>
982      <uri>http://larry.masinter.net/</uri>
983    </address>
984  </author>
985  <date month="January" year="2005"/>
986 </front>
987 <seriesInfo name="STD" value="66"/>
988 <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3986"/>
989</reference>
990
991<reference anchor="RFC4648">
992  <front>
993    <title>The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</title>
994    <author fullname="S. Josefsson" initials="S." surname="Josefsson"/>
995    <date year="2006" month="October"/>
996  </front>
997  <seriesInfo value="4648" name="RFC"/>
998</reference>
999
1000<reference anchor="RFC5226">
1001  <front>
1002    <title>Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</title>
1003    <author initials="T." surname="Narten" fullname="T. Narten">
1004      <organization>IBM</organization>
1005      <address><email>narten@us.ibm.com</email></address>
1006    </author>
1007    <author initials="H." surname="Alvestrand" fullname="H. Alvestrand">
1008      <organization>Google</organization>
1009      <address><email>Harald@Alvestrand.no</email></address>
1010    </author>
1011    <date year="2008" month="May"/>
1012  </front>
1013  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="26"/>
1014  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5226"/>
1015</reference>
1016
1017</references>
1018
1019<section title="Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1020<t>
1021  The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the
1022  ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1023  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1024</t>
1025<t>
1026  The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency
1027  with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1028  (<xref target="access.authentication.framework"/>)
1029</t>
1030<t>
1031  Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value.
1032  (<xref target="header.field.definitions"/>)
1033</t>
1034</section>
1035 
1036
1037<section title="Collected ABNF" anchor="collected.abnf">
1038<figure>
1039<artwork type="abnf" name="p7-auth.parsed-abnf"><![CDATA[
1040Authorization = credentials
1041
1042BWS = <BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1>
1043
1044OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1>
1045
1046Proxy-Authenticate = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1047 challenge ] )
1048Proxy-Authorization = credentials
1049
1050WWW-Authenticate = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1051 ] )
1052
1053auth-param = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1054auth-scheme = token
1055
1056b64token = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1057 *"="
1058
1059challenge = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1060 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1061credentials = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1062 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1063
1064quoted-string = <quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4>
1065
1066token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4>
1067]]></artwork>
1068</figure>
1069<figure><preamble>ABNF diagnostics:</preamble><artwork type="inline"><![CDATA[
1070; Authorization defined but not used
1071; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1072; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1073; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1074]]></artwork></figure></section>
1075
1076
1077<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
1078
1079<section title="Since RFC 2616">
1080<t>
1081  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
1082</t>
1083</section>
1084
1085<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
1086<t>
1087  Closed issues:
1088  <list style="symbols"> 
1089    <t>
1090      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35"/>:
1091      "Normative and Informative references"
1092    </t>
1093  </list>
1094</t>
1095</section>
1096
1097<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
1098<t>
1099  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1100  <list style="symbols"> 
1101    <t>
1102      Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.
1103    </t>
1104    <t>
1105      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
1106    </t>
1107  </list>
1108</t>
1109</section>
1110
1111<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
1112<t>
1113  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40"/>):
1114  <list style="symbols"> 
1115    <t>
1116      Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined
1117      in this document.
1118    </t>
1119  </list>
1120</t>
1121</section>
1122
1123<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
1124<t>
1125  None.
1126</t>
1127</section>
1128
1129<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
1130<t>
1131  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1132  <list style="symbols"> 
1133    <t>
1134      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1135    </t>
1136    <t>
1137      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1138      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1139    </t>
1140    <t>
1141      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
1142      header field value format definitions.
1143    </t>
1144  </list>
1145</t>
1146</section>
1147
1148<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05" anchor="changes.since.05">
1149<t>
1150  Final work on ABNF conversion (<eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36"/>):
1151  <list style="symbols"> 
1152    <t>
1153      Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.
1154    </t>
1155  </list>
1156</t>
1157</section>
1158
1159<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06" anchor="changes.since.06">
1160<t>
1161  None.
1162</t>
1163</section>
1164
1165<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07" anchor="changes.since.07">
1166<t>
1167  Closed issues:
1168  <list style="symbols"> 
1169    <t>
1170      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198"/>:
1171      "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1172    </t>
1173  </list>
1174</t>
1175</section>
1176
1177<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08" anchor="changes.since.08">
1178<t>
1179  No significant changes.
1180</t>
1181</section>
1182
1183<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09" anchor="changes.since.09">
1184<t>
1185  Partly resolved issues:
1186  <list style="symbols"> 
1187    <t>
1188      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196"/>:
1189      "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1190    </t>
1191  </list>
1192</t>
1193</section>
1194
1195<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10" anchor="changes.since.10">
1196<t>
1197  None.
1198</t>
1199</section>
1200
1201<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11" anchor="changes.since.11">
1202<t>
1203  Closed issues:
1204  <list style="symbols"> 
1205    <t>
1206      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130"/>:
1207      "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1208    </t>
1209    <t>
1210      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1211      "auth-param syntax"
1212    </t>
1213    <t>
1214      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224"/>:
1215      "Header Classification"
1216    </t>
1217    <t>
1218      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237"/>:
1219      "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1220    </t>
1221  </list>
1222</t>
1223<t>
1224  Partly resolved issues:
1225  <list style="symbols"> 
1226    <t>
1227      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141"/>:
1228      "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1229    </t>
1230  </list>
1231</t>
1232</section>
1233
1234<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12" anchor="changes.since.12">
1235<t>
1236  None.
1237</t>
1238</section>
1239
1240<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13" anchor="changes.since.13">
1241<t>
1242  Closed issues:
1243  <list style="symbols">
1244    <t>
1245      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276"/>:
1246      "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1247    </t>
1248  </list>
1249</t>
1250</section>
1251
1252<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14" anchor="changes.since.14">
1253<t>
1254  None.
1255</t>
1256</section>
1257
1258<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15" anchor="changes.since.15">
1259<t>
1260  Closed issues:
1261  <list style="symbols">
1262    <t>
1263      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78"/>:
1264      "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1265    </t>
1266    <t>
1267      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177"/>:
1268      "Realm required on challenges"
1269    </t>
1270    <t>
1271      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195"/>:
1272      "auth-param syntax"
1273    </t>
1274    <t>
1275      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257"/>:
1276      "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1277    </t>
1278    <t>
1279      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287"/>:
1280      "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1281    </t>
1282    <t>
1283      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309"/>:
1284      "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1285    </t>
1286  </list>
1287</t>
1288</section>
1289
1290<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16" anchor="changes.since.16">
1291<t>
1292  Closed issues:
1293  <list style="symbols"> 
1294    <t>
1295      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186"/>:
1296      "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1297    </t>
1298    <t>
1299      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320"/>:
1300      "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1301    </t>
1302  </list>
1303</t>
1304</section>
1305
1306<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17" anchor="changes.since.17">
1307<t>
1308  Closed issues:
1309  <list style="symbols"> 
1310    <t>
1311      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/314"/>:
1312      "allow unquoted realm parameters"
1313    </t>
1314    <t>
1315      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321"/>:
1316      "Repeating auth-params"
1317    </t>
1318  </list>
1319</t>
1320</section>
1321
1322<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-18" anchor="changes.since.18">
1323<t>
1324  Closed issues:
1325  <list style="symbols"> 
1326    <t>
1327      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/334"/>:
1328      "recipient behavior for new auth parameters"
1329    </t>
1330    <t>
1331      <eref target="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/342"/>:
1332      "WWW-Authenticate ABNF slightly ambiguous"
1333    </t>
1334  </list>
1335</t>
1336</section>
1337
1338</section>
1339
1340</back>
1341</rfc>
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