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382</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
383      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
384      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
385      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
386      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
387      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Access Authentication Framework" href="#rfc.section.2">
388      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
389      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.4">
390      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.5">
391      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
392      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.7">
393      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.8" title="8 References">
394      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617" href="#rfc.section.A">
395      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.B">
396      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.C">
397      <link href="p6-cache.html" rel="prev">
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399      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
400      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
401      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Gettys, J.">
402      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Mogul, J.">
403      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Frystyk, H.">
404      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Masinter, L.">
405      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Leach, P.">
406      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Berners-Lee, T.">
407      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
408      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
409      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-18">
410      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2012-01-04">
411      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
412      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.">
413      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.">
414   </head>
415   <body>
416      <table class="header">
417         <tbody>
418            <tr>
419               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
420               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
421            </tr>
422            <tr>
423               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
424               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
425            </tr>
426            <tr>
427               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
428               </td>
429               <td class="right">J. Gettys</td>
430            </tr>
431            <tr>
432               <td class="left">Updates: <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">2617</a> (if approved)
433               </td>
434               <td class="right">Alcatel-Lucent</td>
435            </tr>
436            <tr>
437               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
438               <td class="right">J. Mogul</td>
439            </tr>
440            <tr>
441               <td class="left">Expires: July 7, 2012</td>
442               <td class="right">HP</td>
443            </tr>
444            <tr>
445               <td class="left"></td>
446               <td class="right">H. Frystyk</td>
447            </tr>
448            <tr>
449               <td class="left"></td>
450               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
451            </tr>
452            <tr>
453               <td class="left"></td>
454               <td class="right">L. Masinter</td>
455            </tr>
456            <tr>
457               <td class="left"></td>
458               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
459            </tr>
460            <tr>
461               <td class="left"></td>
462               <td class="right">P. Leach</td>
463            </tr>
464            <tr>
465               <td class="left"></td>
466               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
467            </tr>
468            <tr>
469               <td class="left"></td>
470               <td class="right">T. Berners-Lee</td>
471            </tr>
472            <tr>
473               <td class="left"></td>
474               <td class="right">W3C/MIT</td>
475            </tr>
476            <tr>
477               <td class="left"></td>
478               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
479            </tr>
480            <tr>
481               <td class="left"></td>
482               <td class="right">W3C</td>
483            </tr>
484            <tr>
485               <td class="left"></td>
486               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
487            </tr>
488            <tr>
489               <td class="left"></td>
490               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
491            </tr>
492            <tr>
493               <td class="left"></td>
494               <td class="right">January 4, 2012</td>
495            </tr>
496         </tbody>
497      </table>
498      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-18</span></p>
499      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
500      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
501         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the
502         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
503      </p>
504      <p>Part 7 defines the HTTP Authentication framework.</p>
505      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
506      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived
507         at &lt;<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/">http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/</a>&gt;.
508      </p>
509      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
510      </p>
511      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.17" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17">Appendix&nbsp;C.19</a>.
512      </p>
513      <div id="rfc.status">
514         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
515         <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
516         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
517            working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
518         </p>
519         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
520            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
521            in progress”.
522         </p>
523         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on July 7, 2012.</p>
524      </div>
525      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
526         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
527         <p>Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
528         <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
529            and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
530            text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
531            BSD License.
532         </p>
533         <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
534            10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
535            allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
536            controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
537            works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
538            it into languages other than English.
539         </p>
540      </div>
541      <hr class="noprint">
542      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
543      <ul class="toc">
544         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
545               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.conformance.and.error.handling">Conformance and Error Handling</a></li>
546               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a><ul>
547                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2.1">1.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></li>
548                  </ul>
549               </li>
550            </ul>
551         </li>
552         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#access.authentication.framework">Access Authentication Framework</a><ul>
553               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#challenge.and.response">Challenge and Response</a></li>
554               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protection.space">Protection Space (Realm)</a></li>
555               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry">Authentication Scheme Registry</a><ul>
556                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">Considerations for New Authentication Schemes</a></li>
557                  </ul>
558               </li>
559            </ul>
560         </li>
561         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
562               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></li>
563               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></li>
564            </ul>
565         </li>
566         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
567               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></li>
568               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></li>
569               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></li>
570               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></li>
571            </ul>
572         </li>
573         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
574               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registration">Authenticaton Scheme Registry</a></li>
575               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></li>
576               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
577            </ul>
578         </li>
579         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
580               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></li>
581            </ul>
582         </li>
583         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
584         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
585               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
586               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
587            </ul>
588         </li>
589         <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617</a></li>
590         <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
591         <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
592               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.C.1">Since RFC 2616</a></li>
593               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.2">C.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.C.2">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00</a></li>
594               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.3">C.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.C.3">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01</a></li>
595               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.4">C.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02</a></li>
596               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.5">C.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03</a></li>
597               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.6">C.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04</a></li>
598               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.7">C.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05</a></li>
599               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.8">C.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06</a></li>
600               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.9">C.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07</a></li>
601               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.10">C.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08</a></li>
602               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.11">C.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09</a></li>
603               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.12">C.12</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.10">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10</a></li>
604               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.13">C.13</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.11">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11</a></li>
605               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.14">C.14</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.12">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12</a></li>
606               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.15">C.15</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.13">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13</a></li>
607               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.16">C.16</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.14">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14</a></li>
608               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.17">C.17</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.15">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15</a></li>
609               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.18">C.18</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.16">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16</a></li>
610               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.19">C.19</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.17">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17</a></li>
611            </ul>
612         </li>
613         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
614         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
615      </ul>
616      <div id="introduction">
617         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
618         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It includes the relevant parts of <cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">RFC 2616</cite> with only minor changes, plus the general framework for HTTP authentication, as previously defined in "HTTP Authentication:
619            Basic and Digest Access Authentication" (<a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.1"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>).
620         </p>
621         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">HTTP provides several <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> challenge-response authentication mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to
622            provide authentication information. The "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes continue to be specified in <cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.2">RFC 2617</cite>.
623         </p>
624         <div id="intro.conformance.and.error.handling">
625            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.conformance.and.error.handling">Conformance and Error Handling</a></h2>
626            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
627               in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
628            </p>
629            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">This document defines conformance criteria for several roles in HTTP communication, including Senders, Recipients, Clients,
630               Servers, User-Agents, Origin Servers, Intermediaries, Proxies and Gateways. See <a href="p1-messaging.html#architecture" title="Architecture">Section 2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> for definitions of these terms.
631            </p>
632            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3">An implementation is considered conformant if it complies with all of the requirements associated with its role(s). Note that
633               SHOULD-level requirements are relevant here, unless one of the documented exceptions is applicable.
634            </p>
635            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.4">This document also uses ABNF to define valid protocol elements (<a href="#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section&nbsp;1.2</a>). In addition to the prose requirements placed upon them, Senders <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate protocol elements that are invalid.
636            </p>
637            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.5">Unless noted otherwise, Recipients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> take steps to recover a usable protocol element from an invalid construct. However, HTTP does not define specific error handling
638               mechanisms, except in cases where it has direct impact on security. This is because different uses of the protocol require
639               different error handling strategies; for example, a Web browser may wish to transparently recover from a response where the
640               Location header field doesn't parse according to the ABNF, whereby in a systems control protocol using HTTP, this type of
641               error recovery could lead to dangerous consequences.
642            </p>
643         </div>
644         <div id="notation">
645            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
646            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> (which extends the syntax defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with a list rule). <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;B</a> shows the collected ABNF, with the list rule expanded.
647            </p>
648            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
649               (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
650               character).
651            </p>
652            <div id="core.rules">
653               <h3 id="rfc.section.1.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2.1">1.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></h3>
654               <p id="rfc.section.1.2.1.p.1">The core rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
655               </p>
656               <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">BWS</a>           = &lt;BWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
657  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
658  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.rules" title="Common Field ABNF Rules">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
659  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.rules" title="Common Field ABNF Rules">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
660</pre></div>
661         </div>
662      </div>
663      <div id="access.authentication.framework">
664         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#access.authentication.framework">Access Authentication Framework</a></h1>
665         <div id="challenge.and.response">
666            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#challenge.and.response">Challenge and Response</a></h2>
667            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism that can be used by a server to challenge a client request
668               and by a client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible, case-insensitive token to identify the authentication
669               scheme, followed by additional information necessary for achieving authentication via that scheme. The latter can either be
670               a comma-separated list of parameters or a single sequence of characters capable of holding base64-encoded information.
671            </p>
672            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Parameters are name-value pairs where the name is matched case-insensitively, and each parameter name <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only occur once per challenge.
673            </p>
674            <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.a.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.a.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.b.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  auth-scheme    = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
675 
676  auth-param     = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">BWS</a> "=" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">BWS</a> ( <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> / <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> )
677
678  b64token       = 1*( <a href="#notation" class="smpl">ALPHA</a> / <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a> /
679                       "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="
680</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">The "b64token" syntax allows the 66 unreserved URI characters (<a href="#RFC3986" id="rfc.xref.RFC3986.1"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>), plus a few others, so that it can hold a base64, base64url (URL and filename safe alphabet), base32, or base16 (hex) encoding,
681               with or without padding, but excluding whitespace (<a href="#RFC4648" id="rfc.xref.RFC4648.1"><cite title="The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings">[RFC4648]</cite></a>).
682            </p>
683            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge applicable to the requested resource.
684            </p>
685            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">The 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to challenge the authorization of a client and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
686            </p>
687            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.c.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>  <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a>   = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-scheme</a> [ 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a> ( <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">b64token</a> / #<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-param</a> ) ]
688</pre><div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">
689               <p><b>Note:</b> User agents will need to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate and Proxy-Authenticate header field values because
690                  they can contain more than one challenge, or if more than one of each is provided, since the contents of a challenge can itself
691                  contain a comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
692               </p>
693            </div>
694            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.1.p.9">
695               <p><b>Note:</b> Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported
696                  schemes (such as "basic") first.
697               </p>
698            </div>
699            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.10">A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server — usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401
700               (Unauthorized) — <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> do so by including an Authorization header field with the request.
701            </p>
702            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.11">A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy — usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy Authentication
703               Required) — <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> do so by including a Proxy-Authorization header field with the request.
704            </p>
705            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.12">Both the Authorization field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value consist of credentials containing the authentication
706               information of the client for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it understands and request credentials from the user based
707               upon that challenge.
708            </p>
709            <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.c.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a> = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-scheme</a> [ 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a> ( <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">b64token</a> / #<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-param</a> ) ]
710</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.14">If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent with a request, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested resource.
711            </p>
712            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.15">If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a request, it <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a (possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
713               resource.
714            </p>
715            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.16">The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
716               mechanisms <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be used, such as encryption at the transport level or via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields specifying
717               authentication information. However, such additional mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
718            </p>
719            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.17">Proxies <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> forward the WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers unmodified and follow the rules found in <a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.1" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>.
720            </p>
721         </div>
722         <div id="protection.space">
723            <div id="rfc.iref.p.1"></div>
724            <div id="rfc.iref.r.1"></div>
725            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#protection.space">Protection Space (Realm)</a></h2>
726            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">The authentication parameter realm is reserved for use by authentication schemes that wish to indicate the scope of protection.</p>
727            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">A <dfn>protection space</dfn> is defined by the canonical root URI (the scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see <a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) of the server being accessed, in combination with the realm value if present. These realms allow the protected resources
728               on a server to be partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with its own authentication scheme and/or authorization
729               database. The realm value is a string, generally assigned by the origin server, which can have additional semantics specific
730               to the authentication scheme. Note that there can be multiple challenges with the same auth-scheme but different realms.
731            </p>
732            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.3">The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can be automatically applied. If a prior request has been
733               authorized, the same credentials <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be reused for all other requests within that protection space for a period of time determined by the authentication scheme,
734               parameters, and/or user preference. Unless otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection space cannot
735               extend outside the scope of its server.
736            </p>
737            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.4">For historical reasons, senders <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> only use the quoted-string syntax. Recipients might have to support both token and quoted-string syntax for maximum interoperability
738               with existing clients that have been accepting both notations for a long time.
739            </p>
740         </div>
741         <div id="authentication.scheme.registry">
742            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registry">Authentication Scheme Registry</a></h2>
743            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for the authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.</p>
744            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.2">Registrations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
745            </p>
746            <ul>
747               <li>Authentication Scheme Name</li>
748               <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
749               <li>Notes (optional)</li>
750            </ul>
751            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review (<a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a>).
752            </p>
753            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.4">The registry itself is maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes</a>&gt;.
754            </p>
755            <div id="considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">
756               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#considerations.for.new.authentication.schemes">Considerations for New Authentication Schemes</a></h3>
757               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.1">There are certain aspects of the HTTP Authentication Framework that put constraints on how new authentication schemes can
758                  work:
759               </p>
760               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.2"></p>
761               <ul>
762                  <li>
763                     <p>Authentication schemes need to be compatible with the inherent constraints of HTTP; for instance, that messages need to keep
764                        their semantics when inspected in isolation, thus an authentication scheme can not bind information to the TCP session over
765                        which the message was received (see <a href="p1-messaging.html#message-orientation-and-buffering" title="Message Orientation and Buffering">Section 2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>).
766                     </p>
767                  </li>
768                  <li>
769                     <p>The authentication parameter "realm" is reserved for defining Protection Spaces as defined in <a href="#protection.space" title="Protection Space (Realm)">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>. New schemes <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use it in a way incompatible with that definition.
770                     </p>
771                  </li>
772                  <li>
773                     <p>The "b64token" notation was introduced for compatibility with existing authentication schemes and can only be used once per
774                        challenge/credentials. New schemes thus ought to use the "auth-param" syntax instead, because otherwise future extensions
775                        will be impossible.
776                     </p>
777                  </li>
778                  <li>
779                     <p>The parsing of challenges and credentials is defined by this specification, and cannot be modified by new authentication schemes.
780                        When the auth-param syntax is used, all parameters ought to support both token and quoted-string syntax, and syntactical constraints
781                        ought to be defined on the field value after parsing (i.e., quoted-string processing). This is necessary so that recipients
782                        can use a generic parser that applies to all authentication schemes.
783                     </p>
784                     <p><b>Note:</b> the fact that the value syntax for the "realm" parameter is restricted to quoted-string was a bad design choice not to be
785                        repeated for new parameters.
786                     </p>
787                  </li>
788                  <li>
789                     <p>Authentication schemes need to document whether they are usable in origin-server authentication (i.e., using WWW-Authenticate),
790                        and/or proxy authentication (i.e., using Proxy-Authenticate).
791                     </p>
792                  </li>
793                  <li>
794                     <p>The credentials carried in an Authorization header field are specific to the User Agent, and therefore have the same effect
795                        on HTTP caches as the "private" Cache-Control response directive, within the scope of the request they appear in.
796                     </p>
797                     <p>Therefore, new authentication schemes which choose not to carry credentials in the Authorization header (e.g., using a newly
798                        defined header) will need to explicitly disallow caching, by mandating the use of either Cache-Control request directives
799                        (e.g., "no-store") or response directives (e.g., "private").
800                     </p>
801                  </li>
802               </ul>
803            </div>
804         </div>
805      </div>
806      <div id="status.code.definitions">
807         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.definitions">Status Code Definitions</a></h1>
808         <div id="status.401">
809            <div id="rfc.iref.4.1"></div>
810            <div id="rfc.iref.s.1"></div>
811            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></h2>
812            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The request requires user authentication. The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a WWW-Authenticate header field (<a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>) containing a challenge applicable to the target resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a suitable Authorization header field (<a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.2" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>). If the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization has been
813               refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has
814               already attempted authentication at least once, then the user <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be presented the representation that was given in the response, since that representation might include relevant diagnostic
815               information.
816            </p>
817         </div>
818         <div id="status.407">
819            <div id="rfc.iref.4.2"></div>
820            <div id="rfc.iref.s.2"></div>
821            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></h2>
822            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy.
823               The proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1" title="Proxy-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>) containing a challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1" title="Proxy-Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>).
824            </p>
825         </div>
826      </div>
827      <div id="header.field.definitions">
828         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.definitions">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
829         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to authentication.</p>
830         <div id="header.authorization">
831            <div id="rfc.iref.a.3"></div>
832            <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
833            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></h2>
834            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">The "Authorization" header field allows a user agent to authenticate itself with a server — usually, but not necessarily,
835               after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of credentials containing information of the user agent
836               for the realm of the resource being requested.
837            </p>
838            <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span>  <a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a>
839</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise,
840               such as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized clocks).
841            </p>
842            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">When a shared cache (see <a href="p6-cache.html#shared.and.non-shared.caches">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) receives a request containing an Authorization field, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return the corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one of the following specific exceptions holds:
843            </p>
844            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5"></p>
845            <ol>
846               <li>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control directive, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use that response in replying to a subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has passed) a proxy cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> first revalidate it with the origin server, using the header fields from the new request to allow the origin server to authenticate
847                  the new request. (This is the defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0", the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> always revalidate it before re-using it.
848               </li>
849               <li>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control directive, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use that response in replying to a subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> first revalidate it with the origin server, using the header fields from the new request to allow the origin server to authenticate
850                  the new request.
851               </li>
852               <li>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be returned in reply to any subsequent request.
853               </li>
854            </ol>
855         </div>
856         <div id="header.proxy-authenticate">
857            <div id="rfc.iref.p.2"></div>
858            <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
859            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></h2>
860            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">The "Proxy-Authenticate" header field consists of a challenge that indicates the authentication scheme and parameters applicable
861               to the proxy for this effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>). It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included as part of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response.
862            </p>
863            <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span>  <a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> = 1#<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a>
864</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to the current connection and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be passed on to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own credentials by requesting
865               them from the downstream client, which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate
866               header field.
867            </p>
868         </div>
869         <div id="header.proxy-authorization">
870            <div id="rfc.iref.p.3"></div>
871            <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
872            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.3"><a href="#rfc.section.4.3">4.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></h2>
873            <p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.1">The "Proxy-Authorization" header field allows the client to identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires authentication.
874               Its value consists of credentials containing the authentication information of the user agent for the proxy and/or realm of
875               the resource being requested.
876            </p>
877            <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span>  <a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> = <a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a>
878</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.3.p.3">Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication
879               using the Proxy-Authenticate field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed
880               by the first outbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively
881               authenticate a given request.
882            </p>
883         </div>
884         <div id="header.www-authenticate">
885            <div id="rfc.iref.w.1"></div>
886            <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
887            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4.4">4.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></h2>
888            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.1">The "WWW-Authenticate" header field consists of at least one challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
889               applicable to the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>).
890            </p>
891            <p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.2">It <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be included in other response messages to indicate that supplying credentials (or different credentials) might affect the
892               response.
893            </p>
894            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> = 1#<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a>
895</pre><p id="rfc.section.4.4.p.4">User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate field value as it might contain more than one
896               challenge, or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the contents of a challenge itself can contain a
897               comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
898            </p>
899            <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div>
900            <p>For instance:</p><pre class="text">  WWW-Authenticate: Newauth realm="apps", type=1,
901                    title="Login to \"apps\"", Basic realm="simple"
902</pre><p>This header field contains two challenges; one for the "Newauth" scheme with a realm value of "apps", and two additional parameters
903               "type" and "title", and another one for the "Basic" scheme with a realm value of "simple".
904            </p>
905         </div>
906      </div>
907      <div id="IANA.considerations">
908         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
909         <div id="authentication.scheme.registration">
910            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#authentication.scheme.registration">Authenticaton Scheme Registry</a></h2>
911            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined by <a href="#authentication.scheme.registry" title="Authentication Scheme Registry">Section&nbsp;2.3</a> of this document.
912            </p>
913            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.2">The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes</a>&gt;.
914            </p>
915         </div>
916         <div id="status.code.registration">
917            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.code.registration">Status Code Registration</a></h2>
918            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The HTTP Status Code Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes</a>&gt; shall be updated with the registrations below:
919            </p>
920            <div id="rfc.table.1">
921               <div id="iana.status.code.registration.table"></div>
922               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
923                  <thead>
924                     <tr>
925                        <th>Value</th>
926                        <th>Description</th>
927                        <th>Reference</th>
928                     </tr>
929                  </thead>
930                  <tbody>
931                     <tr>
932                        <td class="left">401</td>
933                        <td class="left">Unauthorized</td>
934                        <td class="left"><a href="#status.401" id="rfc.xref.status.401.1" title="401 Unauthorized">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>
935                        </td>
936                     </tr>
937                     <tr>
938                        <td class="left">407</td>
939                        <td class="left">Proxy Authentication Required</td>
940                        <td class="left"><a href="#status.407" id="rfc.xref.status.407.1" title="407 Proxy Authentication Required">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>
941                        </td>
942                     </tr>
943                  </tbody>
944               </table>
945            </div>
946         </div>
947         <div id="header.field.registration">
948            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
949            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">The Message Header Field Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; shall be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
950            </p>
951            <div id="rfc.table.2">
952               <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
953               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
954                  <thead>
955                     <tr>
956                        <th>Header Field Name</th>
957                        <th>Protocol</th>
958                        <th>Status</th>
959                        <th>Reference</th>
960                     </tr>
961                  </thead>
962                  <tbody>
963                     <tr>
964                        <td class="left">Authorization</td>
965                        <td class="left">http</td>
966                        <td class="left">standard</td>
967                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.3" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.1</a>
968                        </td>
969                     </tr>
970                     <tr>
971                        <td class="left">Proxy-Authenticate</td>
972                        <td class="left">http</td>
973                        <td class="left">standard</td>
974                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.2" title="Proxy-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.2</a>
975                        </td>
976                     </tr>
977                     <tr>
978                        <td class="left">Proxy-Authorization</td>
979                        <td class="left">http</td>
980                        <td class="left">standard</td>
981                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.proxy-authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.2" title="Proxy-Authorization">Section&nbsp;4.3</a>
982                        </td>
983                     </tr>
984                     <tr>
985                        <td class="left">WWW-Authenticate</td>
986                        <td class="left">http</td>
987                        <td class="left">standard</td>
988                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.2" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;4.4</a>
989                        </td>
990                     </tr>
991                  </tbody>
992               </table>
993            </div>
994            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
995         </div>
996      </div>
997      <div id="security.considerations">
998         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
999         <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
1000            as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
1001            make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
1002         </p>
1003         <div id="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
1004            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></h2>
1005            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide
1006               a method for a server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is a significant defect that requires further
1007               extensions to HTTP. Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the application's security model include
1008               but are not limited to:
1009            </p>
1010            <ul>
1011               <li>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt
1012                  the user for credentials.
1013               </li>
1014               <li>Applications which include a session termination indication (such as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which
1015                  the server side of the application "knows" that there is no further reason for the client to retain the credentials.
1016               </li>
1017            </ul>
1018            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.2">This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds to parts of this problem, and we encourage the
1019               use of password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other methods which mitigate the security problems inherent
1020               in this problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism
1021               for discarding cached credentials under user control.
1022            </p>
1023         </div>
1024      </div>
1025      <div id="acks">
1026         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1027         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP Authentication Framework, previously defined in <cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.3">RFC 2617</cite>. We thank John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott D. Lawrence, Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and
1028            Lawrence C. Stewart for their work on that specification. See <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617#section-6">Section 6</a> of <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.4"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a> for further acknowledgements.
1029         </p>
1030         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.2">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 11</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> for the Acknowledgments related to this document revision.
1031         </p>
1032      </div>
1033      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.8" href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a> References
1034      </h1>
1035      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1" id="rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a> Normative References
1036      </h2>
1037      <table>
1038         <tr>
1039            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1040            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-18">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-18 (work in progress), January&nbsp;2012.
1041            </td>
1042         </tr>
1043         <tr>
1044            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
1045            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net" title="Rackspace">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-18">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-18 (work in progress), January&nbsp;2012.
1046            </td>
1047         </tr>
1048         <tr>
1049            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1050            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1051            </td>
1052         </tr>
1053         <tr>
1054            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1055            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1056            </td>
1057         </tr>
1058      </table>
1059      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2" id="rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a> Informative References
1060      </h2>
1061      <table>
1062         <tr>
1063            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1064            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1065            </td>
1066         </tr>
1067         <tr>
1068            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2617">[RFC2617]</b></td>
1069            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:john@math.nwu.edu" title="Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics">Franks, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:pbaker@verisign.com" title="Verisign Inc.">Hallam-Baker, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:jeff@AbiSource.com" title="AbiSource, Inc.">Hostetler, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:lawrence@agranat.com" title="Agranat Systems, Inc.">Lawrence, S.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, Luotonen, A., and <a href="mailto:stewart@OpenMarket.com" title="Open Market, Inc.">L. Stewart</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2617, June&nbsp;1999.
1070            </td>
1071         </tr>
1072         <tr>
1073            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1074            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1075            </td>
1076         </tr>
1077         <tr>
1078            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3986">[RFC3986]</b></td>
1079            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R.</a>, and <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">L. Masinter</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a>”, STD&nbsp;66, RFC&nbsp;3986, January&nbsp;2005.
1080            </td>
1081         </tr>
1082         <tr>
1083            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4648">[RFC4648]</b></td>
1084            <td class="top">Josefsson, S., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4648">The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings</a>”, RFC&nbsp;4648, October&nbsp;2006.
1085            </td>
1086         </tr>
1087         <tr>
1088            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1089            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1090            </td>
1091         </tr>
1092      </table>
1093      <div id="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1094         <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFCs 2616 and 2617</a></h1>
1095         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">The "realm" parameter isn't required anymore in general; consequently, the ABNF allows challenges without any auth parameters.
1096            (<a href="#access.authentication.framework" title="Access Authentication Framework">Section&nbsp;2</a>)
1097         </p>
1098         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">The "b64token" alternative to auth-param lists has been added for consistency with legacy authentication schemes such as "Basic".
1099            (<a href="#access.authentication.framework" title="Access Authentication Framework">Section&nbsp;2</a>)
1100         </p>
1101         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3">Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value. (<a href="#header.field.definitions" title="Header Field Definitions">Section&nbsp;4</a>)
1102         </p>
1103      </div>
1104      <div id="collected.abnf">
1105         <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1106         <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.authorization" class="smpl">Authorization</a> = credentials
1107
1108<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">BWS</a> = &lt;BWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1109
1110<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1111
1112<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" class="smpl">Proxy-Authenticate</a> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
1113 challenge ] )
1114<a href="#header.proxy-authorization" class="smpl">Proxy-Authorization</a> = credentials
1115
1116<a href="#header.www-authenticate" class="smpl">WWW-Authenticate</a> = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge
1117 ] )
1118
1119<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-param</a> = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
1120<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">auth-scheme</a> = token
1121
1122<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">b64token</a> = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" )
1123 *"="
1124
1125<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">challenge</a> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *(
1126 OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1127<a href="#challenge.and.response" class="smpl">credentials</a> = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( b64token / [ ( "," / auth-param )
1128 *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
1129
1130<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1131
1132<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1133</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div>
1134         <p>ABNF diagnostics:</p><pre class="inline">; Authorization defined but not used
1135; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
1136; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
1137; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
1138</pre></div>
1139      <div id="change.log">
1140         <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1141         <div>
1142            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.1"><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;Since RFC 2616
1143            </h2>
1144            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.1">Extracted relevant partitions from <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
1145            </p>
1146         </div>
1147         <div>
1148            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.2"><a href="#rfc.section.C.2">C.2</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00
1149            </h2>
1150            <p id="rfc.section.C.2.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1151            <ul>
1152               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35</a>&gt;: "Normative and Informative references"
1153               </li>
1154            </ul>
1155         </div>
1156         <div>
1157            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.3"><a href="#rfc.section.C.3">C.3</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01
1158            </h2>
1159            <p id="rfc.section.C.3.p.1">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
1160            </p>
1161            <ul>
1162               <li>Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from RFC2617.</li>
1163               <li>Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.</li>
1164            </ul>
1165         </div>
1166         <div id="changes.since.02">
1167            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.4"><a href="#rfc.section.C.4">C.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02</a></h2>
1168            <p id="rfc.section.C.4.p.1">Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40</a>&gt;):
1169            </p>
1170            <ul>
1171               <li>Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined in this document.</li>
1172            </ul>
1173         </div>
1174         <div id="changes.since.03">
1175            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.5"><a href="#rfc.section.C.5">C.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03</a></h2>
1176            <p id="rfc.section.C.5.p.1">None.</p>
1177         </div>
1178         <div id="changes.since.04">
1179            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.6"><a href="#rfc.section.C.6">C.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04</a></h2>
1180            <p id="rfc.section.C.6.p.1">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
1181            </p>
1182            <ul>
1183               <li>Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.</li>
1184               <li>Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").</li>
1185               <li>Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header field value format definitions.</li>
1186            </ul>
1187         </div>
1188         <div id="changes.since.05">
1189            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.7"><a href="#rfc.section.C.7">C.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05</a></h2>
1190            <p id="rfc.section.C.7.p.1">Final work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
1191            </p>
1192            <ul>
1193               <li>Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.</li>
1194            </ul>
1195         </div>
1196         <div id="changes.since.06">
1197            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.8"><a href="#rfc.section.C.8">C.8</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06</a></h2>
1198            <p id="rfc.section.C.8.p.1">None.</p>
1199         </div>
1200         <div id="changes.since.07">
1201            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.9"><a href="#rfc.section.C.9">C.9</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07</a></h2>
1202            <p id="rfc.section.C.9.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1203            <ul>
1204               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198</a>&gt;: "move IANA registrations for optional status codes"
1205               </li>
1206            </ul>
1207         </div>
1208         <div id="changes.since.08">
1209            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.10"><a href="#rfc.section.C.10">C.10</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08</a></h2>
1210            <p id="rfc.section.C.10.p.1">No significant changes.</p>
1211         </div>
1212         <div id="changes.since.09">
1213            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.11"><a href="#rfc.section.C.11">C.11</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09</a></h2>
1214            <p id="rfc.section.C.11.p.1">Partly resolved issues: </p>
1215            <ul>
1216               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196</a>&gt;: "Term for the requested resource's URI"
1217               </li>
1218            </ul>
1219         </div>
1220         <div id="changes.since.10">
1221            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.12"><a href="#rfc.section.C.12">C.12</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.10">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10</a></h2>
1222            <p id="rfc.section.C.12.p.1">None.</p>
1223         </div>
1224         <div id="changes.since.11">
1225            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.13"><a href="#rfc.section.C.13">C.13</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.11">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11</a></h2>
1226            <p id="rfc.section.C.13.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1227            <ul>
1228               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130</a>&gt;: "introduction to part 7 is work-in-progress"
1229               </li>
1230               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195</a>&gt;: "auth-param syntax"
1231               </li>
1232               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/224</a>&gt;: "Header Classification"
1233               </li>
1234               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237</a>&gt;: "absorbing the auth framework from 2617"
1235               </li>
1236            </ul>
1237            <p id="rfc.section.C.13.p.2">Partly resolved issues: </p>
1238            <ul>
1239               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141</a>&gt;: "should we have an auth scheme registry"
1240               </li>
1241            </ul>
1242         </div>
1243         <div id="changes.since.12">
1244            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.14"><a href="#rfc.section.C.14">C.14</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.12">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12</a></h2>
1245            <p id="rfc.section.C.14.p.1">None.</p>
1246         </div>
1247         <div id="changes.since.13">
1248            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.15"><a href="#rfc.section.C.15">C.15</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.13">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-13</a></h2>
1249            <p id="rfc.section.C.15.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1250            <ul>
1251               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/276</a>&gt;: "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
1252               </li>
1253            </ul>
1254         </div>
1255         <div id="changes.since.14">
1256            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.16"><a href="#rfc.section.C.16">C.16</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.14">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-14</a></h2>
1257            <p id="rfc.section.C.16.p.1">None.</p>
1258         </div>
1259         <div id="changes.since.15">
1260            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.17"><a href="#rfc.section.C.17">C.17</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.15">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-15</a></h2>
1261            <p id="rfc.section.C.17.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1262            <ul>
1263               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/78</a>&gt;: "Relationship between 401, Authorization and WWW-Authenticate"
1264               </li>
1265               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/177</a>&gt;: "Realm required on challenges"
1266               </li>
1267               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195</a>&gt;: "auth-param syntax"
1268               </li>
1269               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/257</a>&gt;: "Considerations for new authentications schemes"
1270               </li>
1271               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/287</a>&gt;: "LWS in auth-param ABNF"
1272               </li>
1273               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/309</a>&gt;: "credentials ABNF missing SP (still using implied LWS?)"
1274               </li>
1275            </ul>
1276         </div>
1277         <div id="changes.since.16">
1278            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.18"><a href="#rfc.section.C.18">C.18</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.16">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16</a></h2>
1279            <p id="rfc.section.C.18.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1280            <ul>
1281               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/186</a>&gt;: "Document HTTP's error-handling philosophy"
1282               </li>
1283               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/320</a>&gt;: "add advice on defining auth scheme parameters"
1284               </li>
1285            </ul>
1286         </div>
1287         <div id="changes.since.17">
1288            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.19"><a href="#rfc.section.C.19">C.19</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.17">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-17</a></h2>
1289            <p id="rfc.section.C.19.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1290            <ul>
1291               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/314">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/314</a>&gt;: "allow unquoted realm parameters"
1292               </li>
1293               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/321</a>&gt;: "Repeating auth-params"
1294               </li>
1295            </ul>
1296         </div>
1297      </div>
1298      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
1299      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.B">B</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.S">S</a> <a href="#rfc.index.W">W</a>
1300      </p>
1301      <div class="print2col">
1302         <ul class="ind">
1303            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
1304                  <li>401 Unauthorized (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.401.1">5.2</a></li>
1305                  <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4.2"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.407.1">5.2</a></li>
1306               </ul>
1307            </li>
1308            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
1309                  <li><tt>auth-param</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.2"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1310                  <li><tt>auth-scheme</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1311                  <li>Authorization header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.3"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.3">5.3</a></li>
1312               </ul>
1313            </li>
1314            <li><a id="rfc.index.B" href="#rfc.index.B"><b>B</b></a><ul>
1315                  <li><tt>b64token</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.b.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1316               </ul>
1317            </li>
1318            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
1319                  <li><tt>challenge</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1320                  <li><tt>credentials</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.2"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1321               </ul>
1322            </li>
1323            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
1324                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1325                     <ul>
1326                        <li><tt>auth-param</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1327                        <li><tt>auth-scheme</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1328                        <li><tt>Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>4.1</b></a></li>
1329                        <li><tt>b64token</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1330                        <li><tt>challenge</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1331                        <li><tt>credentials</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
1332                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>4.2</b></a></li>
1333                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>4.3</b></a></li>
1334                        <li><tt>WWW-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>4.4</b></a></li>
1335                     </ul>
1336                  </li>
1337               </ul>
1338            </li>
1339            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
1340                  <li>Header Fields&nbsp;&nbsp;
1341                     <ul>
1342                        <li>Authorization&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>4.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.3">5.3</a></li>
1343                        <li>Proxy-Authenticate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.2">5.3</a></li>
1344                        <li>Proxy-Authorization&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>4.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.2">5.3</a></li>
1345                        <li>WWW-Authenticate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>4.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.2">5.3</a></li>
1346                     </ul>
1347                  </li>
1348               </ul>
1349            </li>
1350            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
1351                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">2.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">4.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">7</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1352                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.2</a></li>
1353                        <li><em>Section 1.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.2.1</a></li>
1354                        <li><em>Section 2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.1</a></li>
1355                        <li><em>Section 2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">2.3.1</a></li>
1356                        <li><em>Section 3.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">1.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">1.2.1</a></li>
1357                        <li><em>Section 4.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">4.4</a></li>
1358                        <li><em>Section 11</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">7</a></li>
1359                     </ul>
1360                  </li>
1361                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1362                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">4.1</a></li>
1363                     </ul>
1364                  </li>
1365                  <li>Protection Space&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.1">2.2</a></li>
1366                  <li>Proxy-Authenticate header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.2"><b>4.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.2">5.3</a></li>
1367                  <li>Proxy-Authorization header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.3"><b>4.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.2">5.3</a></li>
1368               </ul>
1369            </li>
1370            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
1371                  <li>Realm&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.r.1">2.2</a></li>
1372                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
1373                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">1</a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>8.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">C.1</a></li>
1374                  <li><em>RFC2617</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.2">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.3">7</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.4">7</a>, <a href="#RFC2617"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
1375                        <li><em>Section 6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.4">7</a></li>
1376                     </ul>
1377                  </li>
1378                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">5.3</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1379                  <li><em>RFC3986</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3986.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC3986"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1380                  <li><em>RFC4648</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4648.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC4648"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
1381                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
1382                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.3</a></li>
1383                     </ul>
1384                  </li>
1385                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
1386                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.2</a></li>
1387                     </ul>
1388                  </li>
1389               </ul>
1390            </li>
1391            <li><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul>
1392                  <li>Status Codes&nbsp;&nbsp;
1393                     <ul>
1394                        <li>401 Unauthorized&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.1"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.401.1">5.2</a></li>
1395                        <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.2"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.status.407.1">5.2</a></li>
1396                     </ul>
1397                  </li>
1398               </ul>
1399            </li>
1400            <li><a id="rfc.index.W" href="#rfc.index.W"><b>W</b></a><ul>
1401                  <li>WWW-Authenticate header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.w.1"><b>4.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.2">5.3</a></li>
1402               </ul>
1403            </li>
1404         </ul>
1405      </div>
1406      <div class="avoidbreak">
1407         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
1408         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
1409            (editor)
1410            <br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com">fielding@gbiv.com</a><br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
1411         <p><b>Jim Gettys</b><br>Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs<br>21 Oak Knoll Road<br>Carlisle, MA&nbsp;01741<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org">jg@freedesktop.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://gettys.wordpress.com/">http://gettys.wordpress.com/</a></p>
1412         <p><b>Jeffrey C. Mogul</b><br>Hewlett-Packard Company<br>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group<br>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177<br>Palo Alto, CA&nbsp;94304<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org">JeffMogul@acm.org</a></p>
1413         <p><b>Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com">henrikn@microsoft.com</a></p>
1414         <p><b>Larry Masinter</b><br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org">LMM@acm.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://larry.masinter.net/">http://larry.masinter.net/</a></p>
1415         <p><b>Paul J. Leach</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>Email: <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com">paulle@microsoft.com</a></p>
1416         <p><b>Tim Berners-Lee</b><br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory<br>The Stata Center, Building 32<br>32 Vassar Street<br>Cambridge, MA&nbsp;02139<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org">timbl@w3.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/">http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</a></p>
1417         <p><b>Yves Lafon</b>
1418            (editor)
1419            <br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>W3C / ERCIM<br>2004, rte des Lucioles<br>Sophia-Antipolis, AM&nbsp;06902<br>France<br>Email: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org">ylafon@w3.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></p>
1420         <p><b>Julian F. Reschke</b>
1421            (editor)
1422            <br>greenbytes GmbH<br>Hafenweg 16<br>Muenster, NW&nbsp;48155<br>Germany<br>Phone: <a href="tel:+492512807760">+49 251 2807760</a><br>Fax: <a href="fax:+492512807761">+49 251 2807761</a><br>Email: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</a><br>URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></p>
1423      </div>
1424   </body>
1425</html>
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