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385</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
386      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
387      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
388      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
389      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
390      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Cache Operation" href="#rfc.section.2">
391      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
392      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 History Lists" href="#rfc.section.4">
393      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.5">
394      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
395      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.7">
396      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.8" title="8 References">
397      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Changes from RFC 2616" href="#rfc.section.A">
398      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.B">
399      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.C">
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401      <link rel="schema.dct" href="">
402      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
403      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Gettys, J.">
404      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Mogul, J.">
405      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Frystyk, H.">
406      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Masinter, L.">
407      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Leach, P.">
408      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Berners-Lee, T.">
409      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
410      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Nottingham, M.">
411      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
412      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-16">
413      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2011-08-24">
414      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
415      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 6 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 6 defines requirements on HTTP caches and the associated header fields that control cache behavior or indicate cacheable response messages.">
416      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 6 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 6 defines requirements on HTTP caches and the associated header fields that control cache behavior or indicate cacheable response messages.">
417   </head>
418   <body>
419      <table class="header">
420         <tbody>
421            <tr>
422               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
423               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
424            </tr>
425            <tr>
426               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
427               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
428            </tr>
429            <tr>
430               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="">2616</a> (if approved)
431               </td>
432               <td class="right">J. Gettys</td>
433            </tr>
434            <tr>
435               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
436               <td class="right">Alcatel-Lucent</td>
437            </tr>
438            <tr>
439               <td class="left">Expires: February 25, 2012</td>
440               <td class="right">J. Mogul</td>
441            </tr>
442            <tr>
443               <td class="left"></td>
444               <td class="right">HP</td>
445            </tr>
446            <tr>
447               <td class="left"></td>
448               <td class="right">H. Frystyk</td>
449            </tr>
450            <tr>
451               <td class="left"></td>
452               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
453            </tr>
454            <tr>
455               <td class="left"></td>
456               <td class="right">L. Masinter</td>
457            </tr>
458            <tr>
459               <td class="left"></td>
460               <td class="right">Adobe</td>
461            </tr>
462            <tr>
463               <td class="left"></td>
464               <td class="right">P. Leach</td>
465            </tr>
466            <tr>
467               <td class="left"></td>
468               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
469            </tr>
470            <tr>
471               <td class="left"></td>
472               <td class="right">T. Berners-Lee</td>
473            </tr>
474            <tr>
475               <td class="left"></td>
476               <td class="right">W3C/MIT</td>
477            </tr>
478            <tr>
479               <td class="left"></td>
480               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
481            </tr>
482            <tr>
483               <td class="left"></td>
484               <td class="right">W3C</td>
485            </tr>
486            <tr>
487               <td class="left"></td>
488               <td class="right">M. Nottingham, Editor</td>
489            </tr>
490            <tr>
491               <td class="left"></td>
492               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
493            </tr>
494            <tr>
495               <td class="left"></td>
496               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
497            </tr>
498            <tr>
499               <td class="left"></td>
500               <td class="right">August 24, 2011</td>
501            </tr>
502         </tbody>
503      </table>
504      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-16</span></p>
505      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
506      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
507         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 6 of the
508         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.
509      </p>
510      <p>Part 6 defines requirements on HTTP caches and the associated header fields that control cache behavior or indicate cacheable
511         response messages.
512      </p>
513      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
514      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (, which is archived
515         at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
516      </p>
517      <p>The current issues list is at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
518      </p>
519      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.15" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-15">Appendix&nbsp;C.17</a>.
520      </p>
521      <div id="rfc.status">
522         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
523         <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
524         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
525            working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href=""></a>.
526         </p>
527         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
528            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
529            in progress”.
530         </p>
531         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on February 25, 2012.</p>
532      </div>
533      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
534         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
535         <p>Copyright © 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
536         <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href=""></a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
537            and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
538            text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
539            BSD License.
540         </p>
541         <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
542            10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
543            allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
544            controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
545            works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
546            it into languages other than English.
547         </p>
548      </div>
549      <hr class="noprint">
550      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
551      <ul class="toc">
552         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching">Introduction</a><ul>
553               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.purpose">Purpose</a></li>
554               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.terminology">Terminology</a></li>
555               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></li>
556               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.4">1.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a><ul>
557                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.4.1">1.4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></li>
558                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.4.2">1.4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abnf.dependencies">ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification</a></li>
559                  </ul>
560               </li>
561               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.5">1.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#delta-seconds">Delta Seconds</a></li>
562            </ul>
563         </li>
564         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching.overview">Cache Operation</a><ul>
565               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#response.cacheability">Response Cacheability</a></li>
566               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#constructing.responses.from.caches">Constructing Responses from Caches</a></li>
567               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#expiration.model">Freshness Model</a><ul>
568                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#calculating.freshness.lifetime">Calculating Freshness Lifetime</a></li>
569                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.2">2.3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#age.calculations">Calculating Age</a></li>
570                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.3">2.3.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#serving.stale.responses">Serving Stale Responses</a></li>
571                  </ul>
572               </li>
573               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#validation.model">Validation Model</a></li>
574               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.5">2.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions">Request Methods that Invalidate</a></li>
575               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.6">2.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching.authenticated.responses">Shared Caching of Authenticated Responses</a></li>
576               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.7">2.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#caching.negotiated.responses">Caching Negotiated Responses</a></li>
577               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.8">2.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#combining.responses">Combining Partial Content</a></li>
578               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.9">2.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#freshening.responses">Freshening Responses</a></li>
579            </ul>
580         </li>
581         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
582               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.age">Age</a></li>
583               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.cache-control">Cache-Control</a><ul>
584                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache-request-directive">Request Cache-Control Directives</a></li>
585                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache-response-directive">Response Cache-Control Directives</a></li>
586                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.3">3.2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.control.extensions">Cache Control Extensions</a></li>
587                  </ul>
588               </li>
589               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.expires">Expires</a></li>
590               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.pragma">Pragma</a></li>
591               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.vary">Vary</a></li>
592               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.6">3.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.warning">Warning</a></li>
593            </ul>
594         </li>
595         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#history.lists">History Lists</a></li>
596         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
597               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#cache.directive.registration">Cache Directive Registry</a></li>
598               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></li>
599            </ul>
600         </li>
601         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></li>
602         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></li>
603         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
604               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
605               <li><a href="#rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
606            </ul>
607         </li>
608         <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
609         <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
610         <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
611               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.C.1">Since RFC 2616</a></li>
612               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.2">C.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.C.2">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-00</a></li>
613               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.3">C.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.C.3">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-01</a></li>
614               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.4">C.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-02</a></li>
615               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.5">C.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-03</a></li>
616               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.6">C.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-04</a></li>
617               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.7">C.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-05</a></li>
618               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.8">C.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-06</a></li>
619               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.9">C.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-07</a></li>
620               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.10">C.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-08</a></li>
621               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.11">C.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-09</a></li>
622               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.12">C.12</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.10">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-10</a></li>
623               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.13">C.13</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.11">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-11</a></li>
624               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.14">C.14</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.12">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-12</a></li>
625               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.15">C.15</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.13">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-13</a></li>
626               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.16">C.16</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.14">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-14</a></li>
627               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.17">C.17</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.15">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-15</a></li>
628            </ul>
629         </li>
630         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
631         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
632      </ul>
633      <div id="caching">
634         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#caching">Introduction</a></h1>
635         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">HTTP is typically used for distributed information systems, where performance can be improved by the use of response caches.
636            This document defines aspects of HTTP/1.1 related to caching and reusing response messages.
637         </p>
638         <div id="intro.purpose">
639            <div id="rfc.iref.c.1"></div>
640            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.purpose">Purpose</a></h2>
641            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">An HTTP <dfn>cache</dfn> is a local store of response messages and the subsystem that controls its message storage, retrieval, and deletion. A cache
642               stores cacheable responses in order to reduce the response time and network bandwidth consumption on future, equivalent requests.
643               Any client or server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> employ a cache, though a cache cannot be used by a server that is acting as a tunnel.
644            </p>
645            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">The goal of caching in HTTP/1.1 is to significantly improve performance by reusing a prior response message to satisfy a current
646               request. A stored response is considered "fresh", as defined in <a href="#expiration.model" title="Freshness Model">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>, if the response can be reused without "validation" (checking with the origin server to see if the cached response remains
647               valid for this request). A fresh cache response can therefore reduce both latency and network transfers each time it is reused.
648               When a cached response is not fresh, it might still be reusable if it can be freshened by validation (<a href="#validation.model" title="Validation Model">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>) or if the origin is unavailable.
649            </p>
650         </div>
651         <div id="intro.terminology">
652            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.terminology">Terminology</a></h2>
653            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles played by participants in, and objects of, HTTP caching.</p>
654            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2"><span id="rfc.iref.c.2"></span> <dfn>cache</dfn>
655            </p>
656            <ul class="empty">
657               <li>A conformant implementation of a HTTP cache. Note that this implies an HTTP/1.1 cache; this specification does not define
658                  conformance for HTTP/1.0 caches.
659               </li>
660            </ul>
661            <div id="shared.and.non-shared.caches">
662               <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.3"><span id="rfc.iref.s.1"></span> <dfn>shared cache</dfn>
663               </p>
664               <ul class="empty">
665                  <li>A cache that stores responses to be reused by more than one user; usually (but not always) deployed as part of an intermediary.</li>
666               </ul>
667            </div>
668            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.4"><span id="rfc.iref.p.1"></span> <dfn>private cache</dfn>
669            </p>
670            <ul class="empty">
671               <li>A cache that is dedicated to a single user.</li>
672            </ul>
673            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.5"><span id="rfc.iref.c.3"></span> <dfn>cacheable</dfn>
674            </p>
675            <ul class="empty">
676               <li>A response is cacheable if a cache is allowed to store a copy of the response message for use in answering subsequent requests.
677                  Even when a response is cacheable, there might be additional constraints on whether a cache can use the stored copy to satisfy
678                  a particular request.
679               </li>
680            </ul>
681            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.6"><span id="rfc.iref.e.1"></span> <dfn>explicit expiration time</dfn>
682            </p>
683            <ul class="empty">
684               <li>The time at which the origin server intends that a representation no longer be returned by a cache without further validation.</li>
685            </ul>
686            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.7"><span id="rfc.iref.h.1"></span> <dfn>heuristic expiration time</dfn>
687            </p>
688            <ul class="empty">
689               <li>An expiration time assigned by a cache when no explicit expiration time is available.</li>
690            </ul>
691            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.8"><span id="rfc.iref.a.1"></span> <dfn>age</dfn>
692            </p>
693            <ul class="empty">
694               <li>The age of a response is the time since it was sent by, or successfully validated with, the origin server.</li>
695            </ul>
696            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.9"><span id="rfc.iref.f.1"></span> <dfn>first-hand</dfn>
697            </p>
698            <ul class="empty">
699               <li>A response is first-hand if the freshness model is not in use; i.e., its age is 0.</li>
700            </ul>
701            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.10"><span id="rfc.iref.f.2"></span> <dfn>freshness lifetime</dfn>
702            </p>
703            <ul class="empty">
704               <li>The length of time between the generation of a response and its expiration time.</li>
705            </ul>
706            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.11"><span id="rfc.iref.f.3"></span> <dfn>fresh</dfn>
707            </p>
708            <ul class="empty">
709               <li>A response is fresh if its age has not yet exceeded its freshness lifetime.</li>
710            </ul>
711            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.12"><span id="rfc.iref.s.2"></span> <dfn>stale</dfn>
712            </p>
713            <ul class="empty">
714               <li>A response is stale if its age has passed its freshness lifetime (either explicit or heuristic).</li>
715            </ul>
716            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.13"><span id="rfc.iref.v.1"></span> <dfn>validator</dfn>
717            </p>
718            <ul class="empty">
719               <li>A protocol element (e.g., an entity-tag or a Last-Modified time) that is used to find out whether a stored response is an
720                  equivalent copy of a representation. See <a href="p4-conditional.html#weak.and.strong.validators" title="Weak versus Strong">Section 2.1</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
721               </li>
722            </ul>
723            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.14"><span id="rfc.iref.s.3"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.v.2"></span> <dfn>strong validator</dfn>
724            </p>
725            <ul class="empty">
726               <li>A validator that is defined by the origin server such that its current value will change if the representation body changes;
727                  i.e., an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.etag" title="ETag">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a Last-Modified value that is strong in the sense defined by <a href="p4-conditional.html#lastmod.comparison" title="Comparison">Section 2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>.
728               </li>
729            </ul>
730         </div>
731         <div id="intro.requirements">
732            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></h2>
733            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
734               in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
735            </p>
736            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.2">An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the
737               protocols it implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements
738               for its protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST" level requirements but not
739               all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant".
740            </p>
741         </div>
742         <div id="notation">
743            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.4"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4">1.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
744            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.1">This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> (which extends the syntax defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with a list rule). <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;B</a> shows the collected ABNF, with the list rule expanded.
745            </p>
746            <p id="rfc.section.1.4.p.2">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>, <a href="">Appendix B.1</a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
747               (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
748               and WSP (whitespace).
749            </p>
750            <div id="core.rules">
751               <h3 id="rfc.section.1.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4.1">1.4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></h3>
752               <p id="rfc.section.1.4.1.p.1">The core rules below are defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
753               </p>
754               <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>           = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
755  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.rules" title="Common Field ABNF Rules">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
756  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>         = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#field.rules" title="Common Field ABNF Rules">Section 3.2.3</a>&gt;
758            <div id="abnf.dependencies">
759               <h3 id="rfc.section.1.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.4.2">1.4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#abnf.dependencies">ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification</a></h3>
760               <p id="rfc.section.1.4.2.p.1">The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
761               <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">field-name</a>    = &lt;field-name, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
762  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>     = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="" title="Date/Time Formats: Full Date">Section 6.1</a>&gt;
763  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">port</a>          = &lt;port, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.7</a>&gt;
764  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">pseudonym</a>     = &lt;pseudonym, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.via" title="Via">Section 9.9</a>&gt;
765  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">uri-host</a>      = &lt;uri-host, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.7</a>&gt;
767         </div>
768         <div id="delta-seconds">
769            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.5"><a href="#rfc.section.1.5">1.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#delta-seconds">Delta Seconds</a></h2>
770            <p id="rfc.section.1.5.p.1">The delta-seconds rule specifies a non-negative integer, representing time in seconds.</p>
771            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span>  <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a>  = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
772</pre><p id="rfc.section.1.5.p.3">If an implementation receives a delta-seconds value larger than the largest positive integer it can represent, or if any of
773               its subsequent calculations overflows, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> consider the value to be 2147483648 (2<sup>31</sup>). Recipients parsing a delta-seconds value <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use an arithmetic type of at least 31 bits of range, and senders <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send delta-seconds with a value greater than 2147483648.
774            </p>
775         </div>
776      </div>
777      <div id="caching.overview">
778         <div id="rfc.iref.c.4"></div>
779         <div id="rfc.iref.c.5"></div>
780         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#caching.overview">Cache Operation</a></h1>
781         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">Proper cache operation preserves the semantics of HTTP transfers (<a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) while eliminating the transfer of information already held in the cache. Although caching is an entirely <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> feature of HTTP, we assume that reusing the cached response is desirable and that such reuse is the default behavior when
782            no requirement or locally-desired configuration prevents it. Therefore, HTTP cache requirements are focused on preventing
783            a cache from either storing a non-reusable response or reusing a stored response inappropriately.
784         </p>
785         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.2">Each <dfn>cache entry</dfn> consists of a cache key and one or more HTTP responses corresponding to prior requests that used the same key. The most common
786            form of cache entry is a successful result of a retrieval request: i.e., a 200 (OK) response containing a representation of
787            the resource identified by the request target. However, it is also possible to cache negative results (e.g., 404 not found),
788            incomplete results (e.g., 206 partial content), and responses to safe methods other than GET if the method's definition allows
789            such caching and defines something suitable for use as a cache key.
790         </p>
791         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.3">The default <dfn>cache key</dfn> consists of the request method and target URI. However, since HTTP caches in common use today are typically limited to caching
792            responses to GET, most implementations simply decline other methods and use only the URI as the key.
793         </p>
794         <p id="rfc.section.2.p.4">If a request target is subject to content negotiation, its cache entry might consist of multiple stored responses, each differentiated
795            by a secondary key for the values of the original request's selecting header fields (<a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.7</a>).
796         </p>
797         <div id="response.cacheability">
798            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#response.cacheability">Response Cacheability</a></h2>
799            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store a response to any request, unless:
800            </p>
801            <ul>
802               <li>The request method is understood by the cache and defined as being cacheable, and</li>
803               <li>the response status code is understood by the cache, and</li>
804               <li>the "no-store" cache directive (see <a href="#header.cache-control" id="rfc.xref.header.cache-control.1" title="Cache-Control">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) does not appear in request or response header fields, and
805               </li>
806               <li>the "private" cache response directive (see <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a> does not appear in the response, if the cache is shared, and
807               </li>
808               <li>the "Authorization" header field (see <a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" title="Authorization">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>) does not appear in the request, if the cache is shared, unless the response explicitly allows it (see <a href="#caching.authenticated.responses" title="Shared Caching of Authenticated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.6</a>), and
809               </li>
810               <li>the response either:
811                  <ul>
812                     <li>contains an Expires header field (see <a href="#header.expires" id="rfc.xref.header.expires.1" title="Expires">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>), or
813                     </li>
814                     <li>contains a max-age response cache directive (see <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>), or
815                     </li>
816                     <li>contains a s-maxage response cache directive and the cache is shared, or</li>
817                     <li>contains a Cache Control Extension (see <a href="#cache.control.extensions" title="Cache Control Extensions">Section&nbsp;3.2.3</a>) that allows it to be cached, or
818                     </li>
819                     <li>has a status code that can be served with heuristic freshness (see <a href="#heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">Section&nbsp;</a>).
820                     </li>
821                  </ul>
822               </li>
823            </ul>
824            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Note that any of the requirements listed above can be overridden by a cache-control extension; see <a href="#cache.control.extensions" title="Cache Control Extensions">Section&nbsp;3.2.3</a>.
825            </p>
826            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">In this context, a cache has "understood" a request method or a response status code if it recognizes it and implements any
827               cache-specific behavior.
828            </p>
829            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">Note that, in normal operation, most caches will not store a response that has neither a cache validator nor an explicit expiration
830               time, as such responses are not usually useful to store. However, caches are not prohibited from storing such responses.
831            </p>
832            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">A response message is considered complete when all of the octets indicated by the message framing (<a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) are received prior to the connection being closed. If the request is GET, the response status is 200 (OK), and the entire
833               response header block has been received, a cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store an incomplete response message-body if the cache entry is recorded as incomplete. Likewise, a 206 (Partial Content)
834               response <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be stored as if it were an incomplete 200 (OK) cache entry. However, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store incomplete or partial content responses if it does not support the Range and Content-Range header fields or if it does
835               not understand the range units used in those fields.
836            </p>
837            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">A cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> complete a stored incomplete response by making a subsequent range request (<a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>) and combining the successful response with the stored entry, as defined in <a href="#combining.responses" title="Combining Partial Content">Section&nbsp;2.8</a>. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use an incomplete response to answer requests unless the response has been made complete or the request is partial and specifies
838               a range that is wholly within the incomplete response. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send a partial response to a client without explicitly marking it as such using the 206 (Partial Content) status code.
839            </p>
840         </div>
841         <div id="constructing.responses.from.caches">
842            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#constructing.responses.from.caches">Constructing Responses from Caches</a></h2>
843            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">For a presented request, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return a stored response, unless:
844            </p>
845            <ul>
846               <li>The presented effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) and that of the stored response match, and
847               </li>
848               <li>the request method associated with the stored response allows it to be used for the presented request, and</li>
849               <li>selecting header fields nominated by the stored response (if any) match those presented (see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.7</a>), and
850               </li>
851               <li>the presented request and stored response are free from directives that would prevent its use (see <a href="#header.cache-control" id="rfc.xref.header.cache-control.2" title="Cache-Control">Section&nbsp;3.2</a> and <a href="#header.pragma" id="rfc.xref.header.pragma.1" title="Pragma">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>), and
852               </li>
853               <li>the stored response is either:
854                  <ul>
855                     <li>fresh (see <a href="#expiration.model" title="Freshness Model">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>), or
856                     </li>
857                     <li>allowed to be served stale (see <a href="#serving.stale.responses" title="Serving Stale Responses">Section&nbsp;2.3.3</a>), or
858                     </li>
859                     <li>successfully validated (see <a href="#validation.model" title="Validation Model">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>).
860                     </li>
861                  </ul>
862               </li>
863            </ul>
864            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.2">Note that any of the requirements listed above can be overridden by a cache-control extension; see <a href="#cache.control.extensions" title="Cache Control Extensions">Section&nbsp;3.2.3</a>.
865            </p>
866            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.3">When a stored response is used to satisfy a request without validation, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a single Age header field (<a href="#header.age" id="rfc.xref.header.age.1" title="Age">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>) in the response with a value equal to the stored response's current_age; see <a href="#age.calculations" title="Calculating Age">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>.
867            </p>
868            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> write through requests with methods that are unsafe (<a href="p2-semantics.html#safe.methods" title="Safe Methods">Section 7.1.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) to the origin server; i.e., a cache must not generate a reply to such a request before having forwarded the request and
869               having received a corresponding response.
870            </p>
871            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.5">Also, note that unsafe requests might invalidate already stored responses; see <a href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions" title="Request Methods that Invalidate">Section&nbsp;2.5</a>.
872            </p>
873            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.6">When more than one suitable response is stored, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the most recent response (as determined by the Date header field). It can also forward a request with "Cache-Control:
874               max-age=0" or "Cache-Control: no-cache" to disambiguate which response to use.
875            </p>
876            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.7">A cache that does not have a clock available <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use stored responses without revalidating them on every use. A cache, especially a shared cache, <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use a mechanism, such as NTP <a href="#RFC1305" id="rfc.xref.RFC1305.1"><cite title="Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation">[RFC1305]</cite></a>, to synchronize its clock with a reliable external standard.
877            </p>
878         </div>
879         <div id="expiration.model">
880            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#expiration.model">Freshness Model</a></h2>
881            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">When a response is "fresh" in the cache, it can be used to satisfy subsequent requests without contacting the origin server,
882               thereby improving efficiency.
883            </p>
884            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.2">The primary mechanism for determining freshness is for an origin server to provide an explicit expiration time in the future,
885               using either the Expires header field (<a href="#header.expires" id="rfc.xref.header.expires.2" title="Expires">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>) or the max-age response cache directive (<a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>). Generally, origin servers will assign future explicit expiration times to responses in the belief that the representation
886               is not likely to change in a semantically significant way before the expiration time is reached.
887            </p>
888            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">If an origin server wishes to force a cache to validate every request, it can assign an explicit expiration time in the past
889               to indicate that the response is already stale. Compliant caches will normally validate the cached response before reusing
890               it for subsequent requests (see <a href="#serving.stale.responses" title="Serving Stale Responses">Section&nbsp;2.3.3</a>).
891            </p>
892            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.4">Since origin servers do not always provide explicit expiration times, a cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> assign a heuristic expiration time when an explicit time is not specified, employing algorithms that use other header field
893               values (such as the Last-Modified time) to estimate a plausible expiration time. This specification does not provide specific
894               algorithms, but does impose worst-case constraints on their results.
895            </p>
896            <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div>
897            <p>The calculation to determine if a response is fresh is:</p><pre class="text">   response_is_fresh = (freshness_lifetime &gt; current_age)
898</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.6">The freshness_lifetime is defined in <a href="#calculating.freshness.lifetime" title="Calculating Freshness Lifetime">Section&nbsp;2.3.1</a>; the current_age is defined in <a href="#age.calculations" title="Calculating Age">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>.
899            </p>
900            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.7">Additionally, clients might need to influence freshness calculation. They can do this using several request cache directives,
901               with the effect of either increasing or loosening constraints on freshness. See <a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>.
902            </p>
903            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.8">Note that freshness applies only to cache operation; it cannot be used to force a user agent to refresh its display or reload
904               a resource. See <a href="#history.lists" title="History Lists">Section&nbsp;4</a> for an explanation of the difference between caches and history mechanisms.
905            </p>
906            <div id="calculating.freshness.lifetime">
907               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#calculating.freshness.lifetime">Calculating Freshness Lifetime</a></h3>
908               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.1">A cache can calculate the freshness lifetime (denoted as freshness_lifetime) of a response by using the first match of: </p>
909               <ul>
910                  <li>If the cache is shared and the s-maxage response cache directive (<a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>) is present, use its value, or
911                  </li>
912                  <li>If the max-age response cache directive (<a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>) is present, use its value, or
913                  </li>
914                  <li>If the Expires response header field (<a href="#header.expires" id="rfc.xref.header.expires.3" title="Expires">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>) is present, use its value minus the value of the Date response header field, or
915                  </li>
916                  <li>Otherwise, no explicit expiration time is present in the response. A heuristic freshness lifetime might be applicable; see <a href="#heuristic.freshness" title="Calculating Heuristic Freshness">Section&nbsp;</a>.
917                  </li>
918               </ul>
919               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.2">Note that this calculation is not vulnerable to clock skew, since all of the information comes from the origin server.</p>
920               <div id="heuristic.freshness">
921                  <h4 id="rfc.section."><a href="#rfc.section."></a>&nbsp;<a href="#heuristic.freshness">Calculating Heuristic Freshness</a></h4>
922                  <p id="rfc.section.">If no explicit expiration time is present in a stored response that has a status code whose definition allows heuristic freshness
923                     to be used (including the following in <a href="" title="Status Code Definitions">Section 8</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>: 200, 203, 206, 300, 301 and 410), a cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> calculate a heuristic expiration time. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use heuristics to determine freshness for responses with status codes that do not explicitly allow it.
924                  </p>
925                  <p id="rfc.section.">When a heuristic is used to calculate freshness lifetime, a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> attach a Warning header field with a 113 warn-code to the response if its current_age is more than 24 hours and such a warning
926                     is not already present.
927                  </p>
928                  <p id="rfc.section.">Also, if the response has a Last-Modified header field (<a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" title="Last-Modified">Section 2.2</a> of <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>), a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> use a heuristic expiration value that is more than some fraction of the interval since that time. A typical setting of this
929                     fraction might be 10%.
930                  </p>
931                  <div class="note" id="rfc.section.">
932                     <p><b>Note:</b> RFC 2616 (<a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>, <a href="">Section 13.9</a>) required that caches do not calculate heuristic freshness for URIs with query components (i.e., those containing '?'). In
933                        practice, this has not been widely implemented. Therefore, servers are encouraged to send explicit directives (e.g., Cache-Control:
934                        no-cache) if they wish to preclude caching.
935                     </p>
936                  </div>
937               </div>
938            </div>
939            <div id="age.calculations">
940               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.2">2.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#age.calculations">Calculating Age</a></h3>
941               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.1">HTTP/1.1 uses the Age header field to convey the estimated age of the response message when obtained from a cache. The Age
942                  field value is the cache's estimate of the amount of time since the response was generated or validated by the origin server.
943                  In essence, the Age value is the sum of the time that the response has been resident in each of the caches along the path
944                  from the origin server, plus the amount of time it has been in transit along network paths.
945               </p>
946               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.2">The following data is used for the age calculation:</p>
947               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.3"><dfn>age_value</dfn>
948               </p>
949               <ul class="empty">
950                  <li>The term "age_value" denotes the value of the Age header field (<a href="#header.age" id="rfc.xref.header.age.2" title="Age">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>), in a form appropriate for arithmetic operation; or 0, if not available.
951                  </li>
952               </ul>
953               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.4"><dfn>date_value</dfn>
954               </p>
955               <ul class="empty">
956                  <li>HTTP/1.1 requires origin servers to send a Date header field, if possible, with every response, giving the time at which the
957                     response was generated. The term "date_value" denotes the value of the Date header field, in a form appropriate for arithmetic
958                     operations. See <a href="" title="Date">Section 9.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> for the definition of the Date header field, and for requirements regarding responses without it.
959                  </li>
960               </ul>
961               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.5"><dfn>now</dfn>
962               </p>
963               <ul class="empty">
964                  <li>The term "now" means "the current value of the clock at the host performing the calculation". A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use NTP (<a href="#RFC1305" id="rfc.xref.RFC1305.2"><cite title="Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation">[RFC1305]</cite></a>) or some similar protocol to synchronize its clocks to a globally accurate time standard.
965                  </li>
966               </ul>
967               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.6"><dfn>request_time</dfn>
968               </p>
969               <ul class="empty">
970                  <li>The current value of the clock at the host at the time the request resulting in the stored response was made.</li>
971               </ul>
972               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.7"><dfn>response_time</dfn>
973               </p>
974               <ul class="empty">
975                  <li>The current value of the clock at the host at the time the response was received.</li>
976               </ul>
977               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.8">A response's age can be calculated in two entirely independent ways: </p>
978               <ol>
979                  <li>the "apparent_age": response_time minus date_value, if the local clock is reasonably well synchronized to the origin server's
980                     clock. If the result is negative, the result is replaced by zero.
981                  </li>
982                  <li>the "corrected_age_value", if all of the caches along the response path implement HTTP/1.1. A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> interpret this value relative to the time the request was initiated, not the time that the response was received.
983                  </li>
984               </ol>
985               <div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="text">  apparent_age = max(0, response_time - date_value);
987  response_delay = response_time - request_time;
988  corrected_age_value = age_value + response_delay; 
989</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div>
990               <p>These are combined as</p><pre class="text">  corrected_initial_age = max(apparent_age, corrected_age_value);
991</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.11">The current_age of a stored response can then be calculated by adding the amount of time (in seconds) since the stored response
992                  was last validated by the origin server to the corrected_initial_age.
993               </p>
994               <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="text">  resident_time = now - response_time;
995  current_age = corrected_initial_age + resident_time;
996</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.13">Additional rules for requirements on parsing and encoding of dates and other potential problems with date encodings include:</p>
997               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.14"></p>
998               <ul>
999                  <li>HTTP/1.1 clients and caches <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> assume that an RFC-850 date which appears to be more than 50 years in the future is in fact in the past (this helps solve
1000                     the "year 2000" problem).
1001                  </li>
1002                  <li>Although all date formats are specified to be case-sensitive, recipients <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> match day, week and timezone names case-insensitively.
1003                  </li>
1004                  <li>An HTTP/1.1 implementation <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> internally represent a parsed Expires date as earlier than the proper value, but <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> internally represent a parsed Expires date as later than the proper value.
1005                  </li>
1006                  <li>All expiration-related calculations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be done in GMT. The local time zone <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> influence the calculation or comparison of an age or expiration time.
1007                  </li>
1008                  <li>If an HTTP header field incorrectly carries a date value with a time zone other than GMT, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be converted into GMT using the most conservative possible conversion.
1009                  </li>
1010               </ul>
1011            </div>
1012            <div id="serving.stale.responses">
1013               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.3">2.3.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#serving.stale.responses">Serving Stale Responses</a></h3>
1014               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.1">A "stale" response is one that either has explicit expiry information or is allowed to have heuristic expiry calculated, but
1015                  is not fresh according to the calculations in <a href="#expiration.model" title="Freshness Model">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>.
1016               </p>
1017               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return a stale response if it is prohibited by an explicit in-protocol directive (e.g., by a "no-store" or "no-cache" cache
1018                  directive, a "must-revalidate" cache-response-directive, or an applicable "s-maxage" or "proxy-revalidate" cache-response-directive;
1019                  see <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>).
1020               </p>
1021               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.3">A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> return stale responses unless it is disconnected (i.e., it cannot contact the origin server or otherwise find a forward path)
1022                  or doing so is explicitly allowed (e.g., by the max-stale request directive; see <a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>).
1023               </p>
1024               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> append a Warning header field with the 110 warn-code (see <a href="#header.warning" id="rfc.xref.header.warning.1" title="Warning">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>) to stale responses. Likewise, a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> add the 112 warn-code to stale responses if the cache is disconnected.
1025               </p>
1026               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.3.p.5">If a cache receives a first-hand response (either an entire response, or a 304 (Not Modified) response) that it would normally
1027                  forward to the requesting client, and the received response is no longer fresh, the cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> forward it to the requesting client without adding a new Warning (but without removing any existing Warning header fields).
1028                  A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> attempt to validate a response simply because that response became stale in transit.
1029               </p>
1030            </div>
1031         </div>
1032         <div id="validation.model">
1033            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#validation.model">Validation Model</a></h2>
1034            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.1">When a cache has one or more stored responses for a requested URI, but cannot serve any of them (e.g., because they are not
1035               fresh, or one cannot be selected; see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.7</a>), it can use the conditional request mechanism <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a> in the forwarded request to give the origin server an opportunity to both select a valid stored response to be used, and to
1036               update it. This process is known as "validating" or "revalidating" the stored response.
1037            </p>
1038            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.2">When sending such a conditional request, a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> add an If-Modified-Since header field whose value is that of the Last-Modified header field from the selected (see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.7</a>) stored response, if available.
1039            </p>
1040            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.3">Additionally, a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> add an If-None-Match header field whose value is that of the ETag header field(s) from all responses stored for the requested
1041               URI, if present. However, if any of the stored responses contains only partial content, the cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> include its entity-tag in the If-None-Match header field unless the request is for a range that would be fully satisfied by
1042               that stored response.
1043            </p>
1044            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.4">A 304 (Not Modified) response status code indicates that the stored response can be updated and reused; see <a href="#freshening.responses" title="Freshening Responses">Section&nbsp;2.9</a>.
1045            </p>
1046            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.5">A full response (i.e., one with a response body) indicates that none of the stored responses nominated in the conditional
1047               request is suitable. Instead, a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use the full response to satisfy the request and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> replace the stored response(s).
1048            </p>
1049            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.6">If a cache receives a 5xx response while attempting to validate a response, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> either forward this response to the requesting client, or act as if the server failed to respond. In the latter case, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> return a previously stored response (see <a href="#serving.stale.responses" title="Serving Stale Responses">Section&nbsp;2.3.3</a>).
1050            </p>
1051         </div>
1052         <div id="invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions">
1053            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.5"><a href="#rfc.section.2.5">2.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions">Request Methods that Invalidate</a></h2>
1054            <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.1">Because unsafe request methods (<a href="p2-semantics.html#safe.methods" title="Safe Methods">Section 7.1.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>) such as PUT, POST or DELETE have the potential for changing state on the origin server, intervening caches can use them
1055               to keep their contents up-to-date.
1056            </p>
1057            <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> invalidate the effective Request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) as well as the URI(s) in the Location and Content-Location header fields (if present) when a non-error response to a request
1058               with an unsafe method is received.
1059            </p>
1060            <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.3">However, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> invalidate a URI from a Location or Content-Location header field if the host part of that URI differs from the host part
1061               in the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>). This helps prevent denial of service attacks.
1062            </p>
1063            <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.4">A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> invalidate the effective request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) when it receives a non-error response to a request with a method whose safety is unknown.
1064            </p>
1065            <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.5">Here, a "non-error response" is one with a 2xx or 3xx status code. "Invalidate" means that the cache will either remove all
1066               stored responses related to the effective request URI, or will mark these as "invalid" and in need of a mandatory validation
1067               before they can be returned in response to a subsequent request.
1068            </p>
1069            <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.6">Note that this does not guarantee that all appropriate responses are invalidated. For example, the request that caused the
1070               change at the origin server might not have gone through the cache where a response is stored.
1071            </p>
1072         </div>
1073         <div id="caching.authenticated.responses">
1074            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.6"><a href="#rfc.section.2.6">2.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#caching.authenticated.responses">Shared Caching of Authenticated Responses</a></h2>
1075            <p id="rfc.section.2.6.p.1">A shared cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a cached response to a request with an Authorization header field (<a href="p7-auth.html#header.authorization" title="Authorization">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#Part7" id="rfc.xref.Part7.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication">[Part7]</cite></a>) to satisfy any subsequent request unless a cache directive that allows such responses to be stored is present in the response.
1076            </p>
1077            <p id="rfc.section.2.6.p.2">In this specification, the following Cache-Control response directives (<a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>) have such an effect: must-revalidate, public, s-maxage.
1078            </p>
1079            <p id="rfc.section.2.6.p.3">Note that cached responses that contain the "must-revalidate" and/or "s-maxage" response directives are not allowed to be
1080               served stale (<a href="#serving.stale.responses" title="Serving Stale Responses">Section&nbsp;2.3.3</a>) by shared caches. In particular, a response with either "max-age=0, must-revalidate" or "s-maxage=0" cannot be used to satisfy
1081               a subsequent request without revalidating it on the origin server.
1082            </p>
1083         </div>
1084         <div id="caching.negotiated.responses">
1085            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.7"><a href="#rfc.section.2.7">2.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#caching.negotiated.responses">Caching Negotiated Responses</a></h2>
1086            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.1">When a cache receives a request that can be satisfied by a stored response that has a Vary header field (<a href="#header.vary" id="rfc.xref.header.vary.1" title="Vary">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>), it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use that response unless all of the selecting header fields nominated by the Vary header field match in both the original
1087               request (i.e., that associated with the stored response), and the presented request.
1088            </p>
1089            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.2">The selecting header fields from two requests are defined to match if and only if those in the first request can be transformed
1090               to those in the second request by applying any of the following:
1091            </p>
1092            <ul>
1093               <li>adding or removing whitespace, where allowed in the header field's syntax</li>
1094               <li>combining multiple header fields with the same field name (see <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>)
1095               </li>
1096               <li>normalizing both header field values in a way that is known to have identical semantics, according to the header field's specification
1097                  (e.g., re-ordering field values when order is not significant; case-normalization, where values are defined to be case-insensitive)
1098               </li>
1099            </ul>
1100            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.3">If (after any normalization that might take place) a header field is absent from a request, it can only match another request
1101               if it is also absent there.
1102            </p>
1103            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.4">A Vary header field-value of "*" always fails to match, and subsequent requests to that resource can only be properly interpreted
1104               by the origin server.
1105            </p>
1106            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.5">The stored response with matching selecting header fields is known as the selected response.</p>
1107            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.6">If multiple selected responses are available, the most recent response (as determined by the Date header field) is used; see <a href="#constructing.responses.from.caches" title="Constructing Responses from Caches">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>.
1108            </p>
1109            <p id="rfc.section.2.7.p.7">If no selected response is available, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> forward the presented request to the origin server in a conditional request; see <a href="#validation.model" title="Validation Model">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>.
1110            </p>
1111         </div>
1112         <div id="combining.responses">
1113            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.8"><a href="#rfc.section.2.8">2.8</a>&nbsp;<a href="#combining.responses">Combining Partial Content</a></h2>
1114            <p id="rfc.section.2.8.p.1">A response might transfer only a partial representation if the connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or
1115               more Range specifiers (<a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>). After several such transfers, a cache might have received several ranges of the same representation. A cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> combine these ranges into a single stored response, and reuse that response to satisfy later requests, if they all share the
1116               same strong validator and the cache complies with the client requirements in <a href="p5-range.html#combining.byte.ranges" title="Combining Ranges">Section 4</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>.
1117            </p>
1118            <p id="rfc.section.2.8.p.2">When combining the new response with one or more stored responses, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>:
1119            </p>
1120            <ul>
1121               <li>delete any Warning header fields in the stored response with warn-code 1xx (see <a href="#header.warning" id="rfc.xref.header.warning.2" title="Warning">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>);
1122               </li>
1123               <li>retain any Warning header fields in the stored response with warn-code 2xx; and,</li>
1124               <li>use other header fields provided in the new response, aside from Content-Range, to replace all instances of the corresponding
1125                  header fields in the stored response.
1126               </li>
1127            </ul>
1128         </div>
1129         <div id="freshening.responses">
1130            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.9"><a href="#rfc.section.2.9">2.9</a>&nbsp;<a href="#freshening.responses">Freshening Responses</a></h2>
1131            <p id="rfc.section.2.9.p.1">When a cache receives a 304 (Not Modified) response and already has one or more stored 200 (OK) responses for the same cache
1132               key, the cache needs to identify which of the stored responses are updated by this new response and then update the stored
1133               response(s) with the new information provided in the 304 response.
1134            </p>
1135            <ul>
1136               <li>If the new response contains a strong validator, then that strong validator identifies the selected representation. All of
1137                  the stored responses with the same strong validator are selected. If none of the stored responses contain the same strong
1138                  validator, then this new response corresponds to a new selected representation and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> update the existing stored responses.
1139               </li>
1140               <li>If the new response contains a weak validator and that validator corresponds to one of the cache's stored responses, then
1141                  the most recent of those matching stored responses is selected.
1142               </li>
1143               <li>If the new response does not include any form of validator, there is only one stored response, and that stored response also
1144                  lacks a validator, then that stored response is selected.
1145               </li>
1146            </ul>
1147            <p id="rfc.section.2.9.p.2">If a stored response is selected for update, the cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em>:
1148            </p>
1149            <ul>
1150               <li>delete any Warning header fields in the stored response with warn-code 1xx (see <a href="#header.warning" id="rfc.xref.header.warning.3" title="Warning">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>);
1151               </li>
1152               <li>retain any Warning header fields in the stored response with warn-code 2xx; and,</li>
1153               <li>use other header fields provided in the 304 response to replace all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored
1154                  response.
1155               </li>
1156            </ul>
1157         </div>
1158      </div>
1159      <div id="header.fields">
1160         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
1161         <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to caching.</p>
1162         <div id="header.age">
1163            <div id="rfc.iref.a.2"></div>
1164            <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
1165            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.age">Age</a></h2>
1166            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">The "Age" header field conveys the sender's estimate of the amount of time since the response was generated or successfully
1167               validated at the origin server. Age values are calculated as specified in <a href="#age.calculations" title="Calculating Age">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>.
1168            </p>
1169            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span>  <a href="#header.age" class="smpl">Age</a> = <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a>
1170</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">Age field-values are non-negative integers, representing time in seconds (see <a href="#delta-seconds" title="Delta Seconds">Section&nbsp;1.5</a>).
1171            </p>
1172            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">The presence of an Age header field in a response implies that a response is not first-hand. However, the converse is not
1173               true, since HTTP/1.0 caches might not implement the Age header field.
1174            </p>
1175         </div>
1176         <div id="header.cache-control">
1177            <div id="rfc.iref.c.6"></div>
1178            <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
1179            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.cache-control">Cache-Control</a></h2>
1180            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">The "Cache-Control" header field is used to specify directives for caches along the request/response chain. Such cache directives
1181               are unidirectional in that the presence of a directive in a request does not imply that the same directive is to be given
1182               in the response.
1183            </p>
1184            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.2">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> obey the requirements of the Cache-Control directives defined in this section. See <a href="#cache.control.extensions" title="Cache Control Extensions">Section&nbsp;3.2.3</a> for information about how Cache-Control directives defined elsewhere are handled.
1185            </p>
1186            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">
1187               <p><b>Note:</b> HTTP/1.0 caches might not implement Cache-Control and might only implement Pragma: no-cache (see <a href="#header.pragma" id="rfc.xref.header.pragma.2" title="Pragma">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>).
1188               </p>
1189            </div>
1190            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.4">A proxy, whether or not it implements a cache, <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> pass cache directives through in forwarded messages, regardless of their significance to that application, since the directives
1191               might be applicable to all recipients along the request/response chain. It is not possible to target a directive to a specific
1192               cache.
1193            </p>
1194            <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>  <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a>   = 1#<a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-directive</a>
1196  <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-directive</a> = <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-request-directive</a>
1197     / <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-response-directive</a>
1199  <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-extension</a> = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> [ "=" ( <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> / <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> ) ]
1200</pre><div id="cache-request-directive">
1201               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#cache-request-directive">Request Cache-Control Directives</a></h3>
1202               <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span>  <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-request-directive</a> =
1203       "no-cache"
1204     / "no-store"
1205     / "max-age" "=" <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a>
1206     / "max-stale" [ "=" <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a> ]
1207     / "min-fresh" "=" <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a>
1208     / "no-transform"
1209     / "only-if-cached"
1210     / <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-extension</a>
1211</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.2"><dfn>no-cache</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.7"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.n.1"></span>
1212               </p>
1213               <ul class="empty">
1214                  <li>The no-cache request directive indicates that a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use a stored response to satisfy the request without successful validation on the origin server.
1215                  </li>
1216               </ul>
1217               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.3"><dfn>no-store</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.8"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.n.2"></span>
1218               </p>
1219               <ul class="empty">
1220                  <li>The no-store request directive indicates that a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store any part of either this request or any response to it. This directive applies to both private and shared caches. "<em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store" in this context means that the cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> intentionally store the information in non-volatile storage, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> make a best-effort attempt to remove the information from volatile storage as promptly as possible after forwarding it.
1221                  </li>
1222                  <li>This directive is NOT a reliable or sufficient mechanism for ensuring privacy. In particular, malicious or compromised caches
1223                     might not recognize or obey this directive, and communications networks might be vulnerable to eavesdropping.
1224                  </li>
1225                  <li>Note that if a request containing this directive is satisfied from a cache, the no-store request directive does not apply
1226                     to the already stored response.
1227                  </li>
1228               </ul>
1229               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.4"><dfn>max-age</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.9"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.m.1"></span>
1230               </p>
1231               <ul class="empty">
1232                  <li>The max-age request directive indicates that the client is unwilling to accept a response whose age is greater than the specified
1233                     number of seconds. Unless the max-stale request directive is also present, the client is not willing to accept a stale response.
1234                  </li>
1235               </ul>
1236               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.5"><dfn>max-stale</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.10"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.m.2"></span>
1237               </p>
1238               <ul class="empty">
1239                  <li>The max-stale request directive indicates that the client is willing to accept a response that has exceeded its expiration
1240                     time. If max-stale is assigned a value, then the client is willing to accept a response that has exceeded its expiration time
1241                     by no more than the specified number of seconds. If no value is assigned to max-stale, then the client is willing to accept
1242                     a stale response of any age.
1243                  </li>
1244               </ul>
1245               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.6"><dfn>min-fresh</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.11"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.m.3"></span>
1246               </p>
1247               <ul class="empty">
1248                  <li>The min-fresh request directive indicates that the client is willing to accept a response whose freshness lifetime is no less
1249                     than its current age plus the specified time in seconds. That is, the client wants a response that will still be fresh for
1250                     at least the specified number of seconds.
1251                  </li>
1252               </ul>
1253               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.7"><dfn>no-transform</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.12"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.n.3"></span>
1254               </p>
1255               <ul class="empty">
1256                  <li>The no-transform request directive indicates that an intermediary (whether or not it implements a cache) <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the Content-Encoding, Content-Range or Content-Type request header fields, nor the request representation.
1257                  </li>
1258               </ul>
1259               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.8"><dfn>only-if-cached</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.13"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.o.1"></span>
1260               </p>
1261               <ul class="empty">
1262                  <li>The only-if-cached request directive indicates that the client only wishes to obtain a stored response. If it receives this
1263                     directive, a cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> either respond using a stored response that is consistent with the other constraints of the request, or respond with a 504
1264                     (Gateway Timeout) status code. If a group of caches is being operated as a unified system with good internal connectivity,
1265                     a member cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> forward such a request within that group of caches.
1266                  </li>
1267               </ul>
1268            </div>
1269            <div id="cache-response-directive">
1270               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#cache-response-directive">Response Cache-Control Directives</a></h3>
1271               <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span>  <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-response-directive</a> =
1272       "public"
1273     / "private" [ "=" <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a> 1#<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">field-name</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a> ]
1274     / "no-cache" [ "=" <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a> 1#<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">field-name</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a> ]
1275     / "no-store"
1276     / "no-transform"
1277     / "must-revalidate"
1278     / "proxy-revalidate"
1279     / "max-age" "=" <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a>
1280     / "s-maxage" "=" <a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a>
1281     / <a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-extension</a>
1282</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.2"><dfn>public</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.14"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.p.2"></span>
1283               </p>
1284               <ul class="empty">
1285                  <li>The public response directive indicates that a response whose associated request contains an 'Authentication' header <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be stored (see <a href="#caching.authenticated.responses" title="Shared Caching of Authenticated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.6</a>).
1286                  </li>
1287               </ul>
1288               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.3"><dfn>private</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.15"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.p.3"></span>
1289               </p>
1290               <ul class="empty">
1291                  <li>The private response directive indicates that the response message is intended for a single user and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be stored by a shared cache. A private cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store the response.
1292                  </li>
1293                  <li>If the private response directive specifies one or more field-names, this requirement is limited to the field-values associated
1294                     with the listed response header fields. That is, a shared cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store the specified field-names(s), whereas it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> store the remainder of the response message.
1295                  </li>
1296                  <li><b>Note:</b> This usage of the word private only controls where the response can be stored; it cannot ensure the privacy of the message
1297                     content. Also, private response directives with field-names are often handled by implementations as if an unqualified private
1298                     directive was received; i.e., the special handling for the qualified form is not widely implemented.
1299                  </li>
1300               </ul>
1301               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.4"><dfn>no-cache</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.16"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.n.4"></span>
1302               </p>
1303               <ul class="empty">
1304                  <li>The no-cache response directive indicates that the response MUST NOT be used to satisfy a subsequent request without successful
1305                     validation on the origin server. This allows an origin server to prevent a cache from using it to satisfy a request without
1306                     contacting it, even by caches that have been configured to return stale responses.
1307                  </li>
1308                  <li>If the no-cache response directive specifies one or more field-names, this requirement is limited to the field-values associated
1309                     with the listed response header fields. That is, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> send the specified field-name(s) in the response to a subsequent request without successful validation on the origin server.
1310                     This allows an origin server to prevent the re-use of certain header fields in a response, while still allowing caching of
1311                     the rest of the response.
1312                  </li>
1313                  <li><b>Note:</b> Most HTTP/1.0 caches will not recognize or obey this directive. Also, no-cache response directives with field-names are often
1314                     handled by implementations as if an unqualified no-cache directive was received; i.e., the special handling for the qualified
1315                     form is not widely implemented.
1316                  </li>
1317               </ul>
1318               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.5"><dfn>no-store</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.17"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.n.5"></span>
1319               </p>
1320               <ul class="empty">
1321                  <li>The no-store response directive indicates that a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store any part of either the immediate request or response. This directive applies to both private and shared caches. "<em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> store" in this context means that the cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> intentionally store the information in non-volatile storage, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> make a best-effort attempt to remove the information from volatile storage as promptly as possible after forwarding it.
1322                  </li>
1323                  <li>This directive is NOT a reliable or sufficient mechanism for ensuring privacy. In particular, malicious or compromised caches
1324                     might not recognize or obey this directive, and communications networks might be vulnerable to eavesdropping.
1325                  </li>
1326               </ul>
1327               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.6"><dfn>must-revalidate</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.18"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.m.4"></span>
1328               </p>
1329               <ul class="empty">
1330                  <li>The must-revalidate response directive indicates that once it has become stale, a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> use the response to satisfy subsequent requests without successful validation on the origin server.
1331                  </li>
1332                  <li>The must-revalidate directive is necessary to support reliable operation for certain protocol features. In all circumstances
1333                     a cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> obey the must-revalidate directive; in particular, if a cache cannot reach the origin server for any reason, it <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> generate a 504 (Gateway Timeout) response.
1334                  </li>
1335                  <li>A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send the must-revalidate directive if and only if failure to validate a request on the representation could result in incorrect
1336                     operation, such as a silently unexecuted financial transaction.
1337                  </li>
1338               </ul>
1339               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.7"><dfn>proxy-revalidate</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.19"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.p.4"></span>
1340               </p>
1341               <ul class="empty">
1342                  <li>The proxy-revalidate response directive has the same meaning as the must-revalidate response directive, except that it does
1343                     not apply to private caches.
1344                  </li>
1345               </ul>
1346               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.8"><dfn>max-age</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.20"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.m.5"></span>
1347               </p>
1348               <ul class="empty">
1349                  <li>The max-age response directive indicates that the response is to be considered stale after its age is greater than the specified
1350                     number of seconds.
1351                  </li>
1352               </ul>
1353               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.9"><dfn>s-maxage</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.21"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.s.4"></span>
1354               </p>
1355               <ul class="empty">
1356                  <li>The s-maxage response directive indicates that, in shared caches, the maximum age specified by this directive overrides the
1357                     maximum age specified by either the max-age directive or the Expires header field. The s-maxage directive also implies the
1358                     semantics of the proxy-revalidate response directive.
1359                  </li>
1360               </ul>
1361               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.10"><dfn>no-transform</dfn> <span id="rfc.iref.c.22"></span> <span id="rfc.iref.n.6"></span>
1362               </p>
1363               <ul class="empty">
1364                  <li>The no-transform response directive indicates that an intermediary (regardless of whether it implements a cache) <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> change the Content-Encoding, Content-Range or Content-Type response header fields, nor the response representation.
1365                  </li>
1366               </ul>
1367            </div>
1368            <div id="cache.control.extensions">
1369               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.3">3.2.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#cache.control.extensions">Cache Control Extensions</a></h3>
1370               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.1">The Cache-Control header field can be extended through the use of one or more cache-extension tokens, each with an optional
1371                  value. Informational extensions (those that do not require a change in cache behavior) can be added without changing the semantics
1372                  of other directives. Behavioral extensions are designed to work by acting as modifiers to the existing base of cache directives.
1373                  Both the new directive and the standard directive are supplied, such that applications that do not understand the new directive
1374                  will default to the behavior specified by the standard directive, and those that understand the new directive will recognize
1375                  it as modifying the requirements associated with the standard directive. In this way, extensions to the cache-control directives
1376                  can be made without requiring changes to the base protocol.
1377               </p>
1378               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.2">This extension mechanism depends on an HTTP cache obeying all of the cache-control directives defined for its native HTTP-version,
1379                  obeying certain extensions, and ignoring all directives that it does not understand.
1380               </p>
1381               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.3">For example, consider a hypothetical new response directive called "community" that acts as a modifier to the private directive.
1382                  We define this new directive to mean that, in addition to any private cache, any cache that is shared only by members of the
1383                  community named within its value may cache the response. An origin server wishing to allow the UCI community to use an otherwise
1384                  private response in their shared cache(s) could do so by including
1385               </p>
1386               <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="text">  Cache-Control: private, community="UCI"
1387</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.5">A cache seeing this header field will act correctly even if the cache does not understand the community cache-extension, since
1388                  it will also see and understand the private directive and thus default to the safe behavior.
1389               </p>
1390               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.6">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> ignore unrecognized cache directives; it is assumed that any cache directive likely to be unrecognized by an HTTP/1.1 cache
1391                  will be combined with standard directives (or the response's default cacheability) such that the cache behavior will remain
1392                  minimally correct even if the cache does not understand the extension(s).
1393               </p>
1394               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.7">The HTTP Cache Directive Registry defines the name space for the cache directives.</p>
1395               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.8">A registration <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
1396               </p>
1397               <ul>
1398                  <li>Cache Directive Name</li>
1399                  <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
1400               </ul>
1401               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.9">Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review (<a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>, <a href="">Section 4.1</a>).
1402               </p>
1403               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.3.p.10">The registry itself is maintained at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
1404               </p>
1405            </div>
1406         </div>
1407         <div id="header.expires">
1408            <div id="rfc.iref.e.2"></div>
1409            <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
1410            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.expires">Expires</a></h2>
1411            <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.1">The "Expires" header field gives the date/time after which the response is considered stale. See <a href="#expiration.model" title="Freshness Model">Section&nbsp;2.3</a> for further discussion of the freshness model.
1412            </p>
1413            <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.2">The presence of an Expires field does not imply that the original resource will change or cease to exist at, before, or after
1414               that time.
1415            </p>
1416            <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.3">The field-value is an absolute date and time as defined by HTTP-date in <a href="" title="Date/Time Formats: Full Date">Section 6.1</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.18"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>; a sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the rfc1123-date format.
1417            </p>
1418            <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span>  <a href="#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a>
1419</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div>
1420            <p>For example</p><pre class="text">  Expires: Thu, 01 Dec 1994 16:00:00 GMT
1421</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.6">A cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> treat other invalid date formats, especially including the value "0", as in the past (i.e., "already expired").
1422            </p>
1423            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.3.3.p.7">
1424               <p><b>Note:</b> If a response includes a Cache-Control field with the max-age directive (see <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>), that directive overrides the Expires field. Likewise, the s-maxage directive overrides Expires in shared caches.
1425               </p>
1426            </div>
1427            <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.8">Historically, HTTP required the Expires field-value to be no more than a year in the future. While longer freshness lifetimes
1428               are no longer prohibited, extremely large values have been demonstrated to cause problems (e.g., clock overflows due to use
1429               of 32-bit integers for time values), and most caches will evict a response far sooner than that. Therefore, senders ought
1430               not produce them.
1431            </p>
1432         </div>
1433         <div id="header.pragma">
1434            <div id="rfc.iref.p.5"></div>
1435            <div id="rfc.iref.h.5"></div>
1436            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.pragma">Pragma</a></h2>
1437            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">The "Pragma" header field allows backwards compatibility with HTTP/1.0 caches, so that clients can specify a "no-cache" request
1438               that they will understand (as Cache-Control was not defined until HTTP/1.1). When the Cache-Control header is also present
1439               and understood in a request, Pragma is ignored.
1440            </p>
1441            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.2">In HTTP/1.0, Pragma was defined as an extensible field for implementation-specified directives for recipients. This specification
1442               deprecates such extensions to improve interoperability.
1443            </p>
1444            <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">Pragma</a>           = 1#<a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">pragma-directive</a>
1445  <a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">pragma-directive</a> = "no-cache" / <a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">extension-pragma</a>
1446  <a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">extension-pragma</a> = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> [ "=" ( <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> / <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> ) ]
1447</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.4">When the Cache-Control header is not present in a request, the no-cache request pragma-directive <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> have the same effect on caches as if "Cache-Control: no-cache" were present (see <a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>).
1448            </p>
1449            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.5">When sending a no-cache request, a client <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include both pragma and cache-control directives unless Cache-Control: no-cache is purposefully omitted to target other Cache-Control
1450               response directives at HTTP/1.1 caches. For example:
1451            </p>
1452            <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">GET / HTTP/1.1
1454Cache-Control: max-age=30
1455Pragma: no-cache
1457</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.7">will constrain HTTP/1.1 caches to serve a response no older than 30 seconds, while precluding implementations that do not
1458               understand Cache-Control from serving a cached response.
1459            </p>
1460            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.3.4.p.8">
1461               <p><b>Note:</b> Because the meaning of "Pragma: no-cache" in responses is not specified, it does not provide a reliable replacement for "Cache-Control:
1462                  no-cache" in them.
1463               </p>
1464            </div>
1465         </div>
1466         <div id="header.vary">
1467            <div id="rfc.iref.v.3"></div>
1468            <div id="rfc.iref.h.6"></div>
1469            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.5"><a href="#rfc.section.3.5">3.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.vary">Vary</a></h2>
1470            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.1">The "Vary" header field conveys the set of header fields that were used to select the representation.</p>
1471            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.2">Caches use this information, in part, to determine whether a stored response can be used to satisfy a given request; see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.7</a>. determines, while the response is fresh, whether a cache is permitted to use the response to reply to a subsequent request
1472               without validation; see <a href="#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section&nbsp;2.7</a>.
1473            </p>
1474            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.3">In uncacheable or stale responses, the Vary field value advises the user agent about the criteria that were used to select
1475               the representation.
1476            </p>
1477            <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span>  <a href="#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a> = "*" / 1#<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">field-name</a>
1478</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.5">The set of header fields named by the Vary field value is known as the selecting header fields.</p>
1479            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.6">A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Vary header field with any cacheable response that is subject to server-driven negotiation. Doing so allows a cache
1480               to properly interpret future requests on that resource and informs the user agent about the presence of negotiation on that
1481               resource. A server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include a Vary header field with a non-cacheable response that is subject to server-driven negotiation, since this might provide
1482               the user agent with useful information about the dimensions over which the response varies at the time of the response.
1483            </p>
1484            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.7">A Vary field value of "*" signals that unspecified parameters not limited to the header fields (e.g., the network address
1485               of the client), play a role in the selection of the response representation; therefore, a cache cannot determine whether this
1486               response is appropriate. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate the "*" value.
1487            </p>
1488            <p id="rfc.section.3.5.p.8">The field-names given are not limited to the set of standard header fields defined by this specification. Field names are
1489               case-insensitive.
1490            </p>
1491         </div>
1492         <div id="header.warning">
1493            <div id="rfc.iref.w.1"></div>
1494            <div id="rfc.iref.h.7"></div>
1495            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.6"><a href="#rfc.section.3.6">3.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.warning">Warning</a></h2>
1496            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.1">The "Warning" header field is used to carry additional information about the status or transformation of a message that might
1497               not be reflected in the message. This information is typically used to warn about possible incorrectness introduced by caching
1498               operations or transformations applied to the payload of the message.
1499            </p>
1500            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.2">Warnings can be used for other purposes, both cache-related and otherwise. The use of a warning, rather than an error status
1501               code, distinguishes these responses from true failures.
1502            </p>
1503            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.3">Warning header fields can in general be applied to any message, however some warn-codes are specific to caches and can only
1504               be applied to response messages.
1505            </p>
1506            <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span>  <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">Warning</a>       = 1#<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warning-value</a>
1508  <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warning-value</a> = <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-code</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-agent</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-text</a>
1509                                        [<a href="#notation" class="smpl">SP</a> <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-date</a>]
1511  <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-code</a>  = 3<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
1512  <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-agent</a> = ( <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">uri-host</a> [ ":" <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">port</a> ] ) / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">pseudonym</a>
1513                  ; the name or pseudonym of the server adding
1514                  ; the Warning header field, for use in debugging
1515  <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-text</a>  = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a>
1516  <a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-date</a>  = <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a> <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> <a href="#notation" class="smpl">DQUOTE</a>
1517</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.5">Multiple warnings can be attached to a response (either by the origin server or by a cache), including multiple warnings with
1518               the same code number, only differing in warn-text.
1519            </p>
1520            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.6">When this occurs, the user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> inform the user of as many of them as possible, in the order that they appear in the response.
1521            </p>
1522            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.7">Systems that generate multiple Warning header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> order them with this user agent behavior in mind. New Warning header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be added after any existing Warning headers fields.
1523            </p>
1524            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.8">Warnings are assigned three digit warn-codes. The first digit indicates whether the Warning is required to be deleted from
1525               a stored response after validation:
1526            </p>
1527            <ul>
1528               <li>1xx Warnings describe the freshness or validation status of the response, and so <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be deleted by a cache after validation. They can only be generated by a cache when validating a cached entry, and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be generated in any other situation.
1529               </li>
1530               <li>2xx Warnings describe some aspect of the representation that is not rectified by a validation (for example, a lossy compression
1531                  of the representation) and <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be deleted by a cache after validation, unless a full response is returned, in which case they <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be.
1532               </li>
1533            </ul>
1534            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.9">If an implementation sends a message with one or more Warning header fields to a receiver whose version is HTTP/1.0 or lower,
1535               then the sender <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include in each warning-value a warn-date that matches the Date header field in the message.
1536            </p>
1537            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.10">If a system receives a message with a warning-value that includes a warn-date, and that warn-date is different from the Date
1538               value in the response, then that warning-value <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be deleted from the message before storing, forwarding, or using it. (preventing the consequences of naive caching of Warning
1539               header fields.) If all of the warning-values are deleted for this reason, the Warning header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be deleted as well.
1540            </p>
1541            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.11">The following warn-codes are defined by this specification, each with a recommended warn-text in English, and a description
1542               of its meaning.
1543            </p>
1544            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.12"> 110 Response is stale </p>
1545            <ul class="empty">
1546               <li>A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include this whenever the returned response is stale.
1547               </li>
1548            </ul>
1549            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.13"> 111 Revalidation failed </p>
1550            <ul class="empty">
1551               <li>A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include this when returning a stale response because an attempt to validate the response failed, due to an inability to reach
1552                  the server.
1553               </li>
1554            </ul>
1555            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.14"> 112 Disconnected operation </p>
1556            <ul class="empty">
1557               <li>A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> b include this if it is intentionally disconnected from the rest of the network for a period of time.
1558               </li>
1559            </ul>
1560            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.15"> 113 Heuristic expiration </p>
1561            <ul class="empty">
1562               <li>A cache <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include this if it heuristically chose a freshness lifetime greater than 24 hours and the response's age is greater than 24
1563                  hours.
1564               </li>
1565            </ul>
1566            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.16"> 199 Miscellaneous warning </p>
1567            <ul class="empty">
1568               <li>The warning text can include arbitrary information to be presented to a human user, or logged. A system receiving this warning <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> take any automated action, besides presenting the warning to the user.
1569               </li>
1570            </ul>
1571            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.17"> 214 Transformation applied </p>
1572            <ul class="empty">
1573               <li><em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be added by a proxy if it applies any transformation to the representation, such as changing the content-coding, media-type,
1574                  or modifying the representation data, unless this Warning code already appears in the response.
1575               </li>
1576            </ul>
1577            <p id="rfc.section.3.6.p.18"> 299 Miscellaneous persistent warning </p>
1578            <ul class="empty">
1579               <li>The warning text can include arbitrary information to be presented to a human user, or logged. A system receiving this warning <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> take any automated action.
1580               </li>
1581            </ul>
1582         </div>
1583      </div>
1584      <div id="history.lists">
1585         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#history.lists">History Lists</a></h1>
1586         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">User agents often have history mechanisms, such as "Back" buttons and history lists, that can be used to redisplay a representation
1587            retrieved earlier in a session.
1588         </p>
1589         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.2">The freshness model (<a href="#expiration.model" title="Freshness Model">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>) does not necessarily apply to history mechanisms. I.e., a history mechanism can display a previous representation even if
1590            it has expired.
1591         </p>
1592         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.3">This does not prohibit the history mechanism from telling the user that a view might be stale, or from honoring cache directives
1593            (e.g., Cache-Control: no-store).
1594         </p>
1595      </div>
1596      <div id="IANA.considerations">
1597         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
1598         <div id="cache.directive.registration">
1599            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#cache.directive.registration">Cache Directive Registry</a></h2>
1600            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The registration procedure for HTTP Cache Directives is defined by <a href="#cache.control.extensions" title="Cache Control Extensions">Section&nbsp;3.2.3</a> of this document.
1601            </p>
1602            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.2">The HTTP Cache Directive Registry shall be created at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt; and be populated with the registrations below:
1603            </p>
1604            <div id="rfc.table.1">
1605               <div id="iana.cache.directive.registration.table"></div>
1606               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1607                  <thead>
1608                     <tr>
1609                        <th>Cache Directive</th>
1610                        <th>Reference</th>
1611                     </tr>
1612                  </thead>
1613                  <tbody>
1614                     <tr>
1615                        <td class="left">max-age</td>
1616                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>, <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1617                        </td>
1618                     </tr>
1619                     <tr>
1620                        <td class="left">max-stale</td>
1621                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>
1622                        </td>
1623                     </tr>
1624                     <tr>
1625                        <td class="left">min-fresh</td>
1626                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>
1627                        </td>
1628                     </tr>
1629                     <tr>
1630                        <td class="left">must-revalidate</td>
1631                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1632                        </td>
1633                     </tr>
1634                     <tr>
1635                        <td class="left">no-cache</td>
1636                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>, <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1637                        </td>
1638                     </tr>
1639                     <tr>
1640                        <td class="left">no-store</td>
1641                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>, <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1642                        </td>
1643                     </tr>
1644                     <tr>
1645                        <td class="left">no-transform</td>
1646                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>, <a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1647                        </td>
1648                     </tr>
1649                     <tr>
1650                        <td class="left">only-if-cached</td>
1651                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-request-directive" title="Request Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>
1652                        </td>
1653                     </tr>
1654                     <tr>
1655                        <td class="left">private</td>
1656                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1657                        </td>
1658                     </tr>
1659                     <tr>
1660                        <td class="left">proxy-revalidate</td>
1661                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1662                        </td>
1663                     </tr>
1664                     <tr>
1665                        <td class="left">public</td>
1666                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1667                        </td>
1668                     </tr>
1669                     <tr>
1670                        <td class="left">s-maxage</td>
1671                        <td class="left"><a href="#cache-response-directive" title="Response Cache-Control Directives">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>
1672                        </td>
1673                     </tr>
1674                     <tr>
1675                        <td class="left">stale-if-error</td>
1676                        <td class="left"><a href="#RFC5861" id="rfc.xref.RFC5861.1"><cite title="HTTP Cache-Control Extensions for Stale Content">[RFC5861]</cite></a>, <a href="">Section 4</a>
1677                        </td>
1678                     </tr>
1679                     <tr>
1680                        <td class="left">stale-while-revalidate</td>
1681                        <td class="left"><a href="#RFC5861" id="rfc.xref.RFC5861.2"><cite title="HTTP Cache-Control Extensions for Stale Content">[RFC5861]</cite></a>, <a href="">Section 3</a>
1682                        </td>
1683                     </tr>
1684                  </tbody>
1685               </table>
1686            </div>
1687         </div>
1688         <div id="header.field.registration">
1689            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.field.registration">Header Field Registration</a></h2>
1690            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The Message Header Field Registry located at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt; shall be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
1691            </p>
1692            <div id="rfc.table.2">
1693               <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
1694               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1695                  <thead>
1696                     <tr>
1697                        <th>Header Field Name</th>
1698                        <th>Protocol</th>
1699                        <th>Status</th>
1700                        <th>Reference</th>
1701                     </tr>
1702                  </thead>
1703                  <tbody>
1704                     <tr>
1705                        <td class="left">Age</td>
1706                        <td class="left">http</td>
1707                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1708                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.age" id="rfc.xref.header.age.3" title="Age">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>
1709                        </td>
1710                     </tr>
1711                     <tr>
1712                        <td class="left">Cache-Control</td>
1713                        <td class="left">http</td>
1714                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1715                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.cache-control" id="rfc.xref.header.cache-control.3" title="Cache-Control">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>
1716                        </td>
1717                     </tr>
1718                     <tr>
1719                        <td class="left">Expires</td>
1720                        <td class="left">http</td>
1721                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1722                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.expires" id="rfc.xref.header.expires.4" title="Expires">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>
1723                        </td>
1724                     </tr>
1725                     <tr>
1726                        <td class="left">Pragma</td>
1727                        <td class="left">http</td>
1728                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1729                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.pragma" id="rfc.xref.header.pragma.3" title="Pragma">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>
1730                        </td>
1731                     </tr>
1732                     <tr>
1733                        <td class="left">Vary</td>
1734                        <td class="left">http</td>
1735                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1736                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.vary" id="rfc.xref.header.vary.2" title="Vary">Section&nbsp;3.5</a>
1737                        </td>
1738                     </tr>
1739                     <tr>
1740                        <td class="left">Warning</td>
1741                        <td class="left">http</td>
1742                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1743                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.warning" id="rfc.xref.header.warning.4" title="Warning">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>
1744                        </td>
1745                     </tr>
1746                  </tbody>
1747               </table>
1748            </div>
1749            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1750         </div>
1751      </div>
1752      <div id="security.considerations">
1753         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
1754         <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">Caches expose additional potential vulnerabilities, since the contents of the cache represent an attractive target for malicious
1755            exploitation. Because cache contents persist after an HTTP request is complete, an attack on the cache can reveal information
1756            long after a user believes that the information has been removed from the network. Therefore, cache contents need to be protected
1757            as sensitive information.
1758         </p>
1759      </div>
1760      <div id="acks">
1761         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#acks">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1762         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">See <a href="p1-messaging.html#acks" title="Acknowledgments">Section 12</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.19"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
1763         </p>
1764      </div>
1765      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.8" href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a> References
1766      </h1>
1767      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.8.1" id="rfc.section.8.1">8.1</a> Normative References
1768      </h2>
1769      <table>
1770         <tr>
1771            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1772            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-16 (work in progress), August&nbsp;2011.
1773            </td>
1774         </tr>
1775         <tr>
1776            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1777            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-16 (work in progress), August&nbsp;2011.
1778            </td>
1779         </tr>
1780         <tr>
1781            <td class="reference"><b id="Part4">[Part4]</b></td>
1782            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-16 (work in progress), August&nbsp;2011.
1783            </td>
1784         </tr>
1785         <tr>
1786            <td class="reference"><b id="Part5">[Part5]</b></td>
1787            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-16 (work in progress), August&nbsp;2011.
1788            </td>
1789         </tr>
1790         <tr>
1791            <td class="reference"><b id="Part7">[Part7]</b></td>
1792            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-16 (work in progress), August&nbsp;2011.
1793            </td>
1794         </tr>
1795         <tr>
1796            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1797            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1798            </td>
1799         </tr>
1800         <tr>
1801            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1802            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1803            </td>
1804         </tr>
1805      </table>
1806      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.8.2" id="rfc.section.8.2">8.2</a> Informative References
1807      </h2>
1808      <table>
1809         <tr>
1810            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1305">[RFC1305]</b></td>
1811            <td class="top"><a href="" title="University of Delaware, Electrical Engineering Department">Mills, D.</a>, “<a href="">Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1305, March&nbsp;1992.
1812            </td>
1813         </tr>
1814         <tr>
1815            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1816            <td class="top"><a href="" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1817            </td>
1818         </tr>
1819         <tr>
1820            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1821            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1822            </td>
1823         </tr>
1824         <tr>
1825            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1826            <td class="top"><a href="" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1827            </td>
1828         </tr>
1829         <tr>
1830            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5861">[RFC5861]</b></td>
1831            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Yahoo! Inc.">Nottingham, M.</a>, “<a href="">HTTP Cache-Control Extensions for Stale Content</a>”, RFC&nbsp;5861, April&nbsp;2010.
1832            </td>
1833         </tr>
1834      </table>
1835      <div id="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1836         <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h1>
1837         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">Make the specified age calculation algorithm less conservative. (<a href="#age.calculations" title="Calculating Age">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>)
1838         </p>
1839         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">Remove requirement to consider Content-Location in successful responses in order to determine the appropriate response to
1840            use. (<a href="#validation.model" title="Validation Model">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>)
1841         </p>
1842         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.3">Clarify denial of service attack avoidance requirement. (<a href="#invalidation.after.updates.or.deletions" title="Request Methods that Invalidate">Section&nbsp;2.5</a>)
1843         </p>
1844         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.4">Change ABNF productions for header fields to only define the field value. (<a href="#header.fields" title="Header Field Definitions">Section&nbsp;3</a>)
1845         </p>
1846         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.5">Do not mention RFC 2047 encoding and multiple languages in Warning header fields anymore, as these aspects never were implemented.
1847            (<a href="#header.warning" id="rfc.xref.header.warning.5" title="Warning">Section&nbsp;3.6</a>)
1848         </p>
1849      </div>
1850      <div id="collected.abnf">
1851         <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1852         <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.age" class="smpl">Age</a> = delta-seconds
1854<a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">Cache-Control</a> = *( "," OWS ) cache-directive *( OWS "," [ OWS
1855 cache-directive ] )
1857<a href="#header.expires" class="smpl">Expires</a> = HTTP-date
1859<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">HTTP-date</a> = &lt;HTTP-date, defined in [Part1], Section 6.1&gt;
1861<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1863<a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">Pragma</a> = *( "," OWS ) pragma-directive *( OWS "," [ OWS
1864 pragma-directive ] )
1866<a href="#header.vary" class="smpl">Vary</a> = "*" / ( *( "," OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name ]
1867 ) )
1869<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">Warning</a> = *( "," OWS ) warning-value *( OWS "," [ OWS warning-value ]
1870 )
1872<a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-directive</a> = cache-request-directive / cache-response-directive
1873<a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-extension</a> = token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]
1874<a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-request-directive</a> = "no-cache" / "no-store" / ( "max-age="
1875 delta-seconds ) / ( "max-stale" [ "=" delta-seconds ] ) / (
1876 "min-fresh=" delta-seconds ) / "no-transform" / "only-if-cached" /
1877 cache-extension
1878<a href="#header.cache-control" class="smpl">cache-response-directive</a> = "public" / ( "private" [ "=" DQUOTE *( ","
1879 OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name ] ) DQUOTE ] ) / (
1880 "no-cache" [ "=" DQUOTE *( "," OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS
1881 field-name ] ) DQUOTE ] ) / "no-store" / "no-transform" /
1882 "must-revalidate" / "proxy-revalidate" / ( "max-age=" delta-seconds
1883 ) / ( "s-maxage=" delta-seconds ) / cache-extension
1885<a href="#delta-seconds" class="smpl">delta-seconds</a> = 1*DIGIT
1887<a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">extension-pragma</a> = token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]
1889<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">field-name</a> = &lt;field-name, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2&gt;
1891<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">port</a> = &lt;port, defined in [Part1], Section 2.7&gt;
1892<a href="#header.pragma" class="smpl">pragma-directive</a> = "no-cache" / extension-pragma
1893<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">pseudonym</a> = &lt;pseudonym, defined in [Part1], Section 9.9&gt;
1895<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1897<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3&gt;
1899<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">uri-host</a> = &lt;uri-host, defined in [Part1], Section 2.7&gt;
1901<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-agent</a> = ( uri-host [ ":" port ] ) / pseudonym
1902<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-code</a> = 3DIGIT
1903<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-date</a> = DQUOTE HTTP-date DQUOTE
1904<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warn-text</a> = quoted-string
1905<a href="#header.warning" class="smpl">warning-value</a> = warn-code SP warn-agent SP warn-text [ SP warn-date
1906 ]
1907</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div>
1908         <p>ABNF diagnostics:</p><pre class="inline">; Age defined but not used
1909; Cache-Control defined but not used
1910; Expires defined but not used
1911; Pragma defined but not used
1912; Vary defined but not used
1913; Warning defined but not used
1915      <div id="change.log">
1916         <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
1917         <div>
1918            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.1"><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;Since RFC 2616
1919            </h2>
1920            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.1">Extracted relevant partitions from <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
1921            </p>
1922         </div>
1923         <div>
1924            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.2"><a href="#rfc.section.C.2">C.2</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-00
1925            </h2>
1926            <p id="rfc.section.C.2.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1927            <ul>
1928               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Trailer" (&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;)
1929               </li>
1930               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Invalidation after Update or Delete" (&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;)
1931               </li>
1932               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Normative and Informative references"
1933               </li>
1934               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Date reference typo"
1935               </li>
1936               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Connection header text"
1937               </li>
1938               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Informative references"
1939               </li>
1940               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "ISO-8859-1 Reference"
1941               </li>
1942               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Normative up-to-date references"
1943               </li>
1944               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "typo in 13.2.2"
1945               </li>
1946            </ul>
1947            <p id="rfc.section.C.2.p.2">Other changes: </p>
1948            <ul>
1949               <li>Use names of RFC4234 core rules DQUOTE and HTAB (work in progress on &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;)
1950               </li>
1951            </ul>
1952         </div>
1953         <div>
1954            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.3"><a href="#rfc.section.C.3">C.3</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-01
1955            </h2>
1956            <p id="rfc.section.C.3.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1957            <ul>
1958               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "rel_path not used"
1959               </li>
1960            </ul>
1961            <p id="rfc.section.C.3.p.2">Other changes: </p>
1962            <ul>
1963               <li>Get rid of duplicate BNF rule names ("host" -&gt; "uri-host") (work in progress on &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;)
1964               </li>
1965               <li>Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.</li>
1966            </ul>
1967         </div>
1968         <div id="changes.since.02">
1969            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.4"><a href="#rfc.section.C.4">C.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-02</a></h2>
1970            <p id="rfc.section.C.4.p.1">Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration (&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;):
1971            </p>
1972            <ul>
1973               <li>Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for header fields defined in this document.</li>
1974            </ul>
1975         </div>
1976         <div id="changes.since.03">
1977            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.5"><a href="#rfc.section.C.5">C.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-03</a></h2>
1978            <p id="rfc.section.C.5.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
1979            <ul>
1980               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Vary header classification"
1981               </li>
1982            </ul>
1983         </div>
1984         <div id="changes.since.04">
1985            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.6"><a href="#rfc.section.C.6">C.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-04</a></h2>
1986            <p id="rfc.section.C.6.p.1">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;):
1987            </p>
1988            <ul>
1989               <li>Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.</li>
1990               <li>Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").</li>
1991               <li>Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header field value format definitions.</li>
1992            </ul>
1993         </div>
1994         <div id="changes.since.05">
1995            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.7"><a href="#rfc.section.C.7">C.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-05</a></h2>
1996            <p id="rfc.section.C.7.p.1">This is a total rewrite of this part of the specification.</p>
1997            <p id="rfc.section.C.7.p.2">Affected issues: </p>
1998            <ul>
1999               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Definition of 1xx Warn-Codes"
2000               </li>
2001               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Placement of 13.5.1 and 13.5.2"
2002               </li>
2003               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "The role of Warning and Semantic Transparency in Caching"
2004               </li>
2005               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Methods and Caching"
2006               </li>
2007            </ul>
2008            <p id="rfc.section.C.7.p.3">In addition: Final work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;):
2009            </p>
2010            <ul>
2011               <li>Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.</li>
2012            </ul>
2013         </div>
2014         <div id="changes.since.06">
2015            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.8"><a href="#rfc.section.C.8">C.8</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-06</a></h2>
2016            <p id="rfc.section.C.8.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2017            <ul>
2018               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "base for numeric protocol elements"
2019               </li>
2020            </ul>
2021            <p id="rfc.section.C.8.p.2">Affected issues: </p>
2022            <ul>
2023               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Vary and non-existant headers"
2024               </li>
2025            </ul>
2026         </div>
2027         <div id="changes.since.07">
2028            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.9"><a href="#rfc.section.C.9">C.9</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-07</a></h2>
2029            <p id="rfc.section.C.9.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2030            <ul>
2031               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Definition of 1xx Warn-Codes"
2032               </li>
2033               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Content-Location on 304 responses"
2034               </li>
2035               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "private and no-cache CC directives with headers"
2036               </li>
2037               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "RFC2047 and warn-text"
2038               </li>
2039            </ul>
2040         </div>
2041         <div id="changes.since.08">
2042            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.10"><a href="#rfc.section.C.10">C.10</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-08</a></h2>
2043            <p id="rfc.section.C.10.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2044            <ul>
2045               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "serving negotiated responses from cache: header-specific canonicalization"
2046               </li>
2047               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Effect of CC directives on history lists"
2048               </li>
2049               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Cache Extensions can override no-store, etc."
2050               </li>
2051            </ul>
2052            <p id="rfc.section.C.10.p.2">Affected issues: </p>
2053            <ul>
2054               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: Status codes and caching
2055               </li>
2056            </ul>
2057            <p id="rfc.section.C.10.p.3">Partly resolved issues: </p>
2058            <ul>
2059               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Placement of 13.5.1 and 13.5.2"
2060               </li>
2061            </ul>
2062         </div>
2063         <div id="changes.since.09">
2064            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.11"><a href="#rfc.section.C.11">C.11</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-09</a></h2>
2065            <p id="rfc.section.C.11.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2066            <ul>
2067               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Age calculation"
2068               </li>
2069               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Clarify differences between / requirements for request and response CC directives"
2070               </li>
2071               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Caching authenticated responses"
2072               </li>
2073               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "IANA registry for cache-control directives"
2074               </li>
2075               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Heuristic caching of URLs with query components"
2076               </li>
2077            </ul>
2078            <p id="rfc.section.C.11.p.2">Partly resolved issues: </p>
2079            <ul>
2080               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Term for the requested resource's URI"
2081               </li>
2082            </ul>
2083         </div>
2084         <div id="changes.since.10">
2085            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.12"><a href="#rfc.section.C.12">C.12</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.10">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-10</a></h2>
2086            <p id="rfc.section.C.12.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2087            <ul>
2088               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Clarify entity / representation / variant terminology"
2089               </li>
2090               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "consider removing the 'changes from 2068' sections"
2091               </li>
2092               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Allowing heuristic caching for new status codes"
2093               </li>
2094               <li>Clean up TODOs and prose in "Combining Responses."</li>
2095            </ul>
2096         </div>
2097         <div id="changes.since.11">
2098            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.13"><a href="#rfc.section.C.13">C.13</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.11">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-11</a></h2>
2099            <p id="rfc.section.C.13.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2100            <ul>
2101               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Text about clock requirement for caches belongs in p6"
2102               </li>
2103            </ul>
2104         </div>
2105         <div id="changes.since.12">
2106            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.14"><a href="#rfc.section.C.14">C.14</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.12">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-12</a></h2>
2107            <p id="rfc.section.C.14.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2108            <ul>
2109               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Header Classification"
2110               </li>
2111               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Clarify 'public'"
2112               </li>
2113            </ul>
2114         </div>
2115         <div id="changes.since.13">
2116            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.15"><a href="#rfc.section.C.15">C.15</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.13">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-13</a></h2>
2117            <p id="rfc.section.C.15.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2118            <ul>
2119               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "untangle ABNFs for header fields"
2120               </li>
2121            </ul>
2122         </div>
2123         <div id="changes.since.14">
2124            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.16"><a href="#rfc.section.C.16">C.16</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.14">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-14</a></h2>
2125            <p id="rfc.section.C.16.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2126            <ul>
2127               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Mismatch Vary"
2128               </li>
2129               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Cache Invalidation only happens upon successful responses"
2130               </li>
2131               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Recommend minimum sizes for protocol elements"
2132               </li>
2133               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Proxies don't 'understand' methods"
2134               </li>
2135               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Cache Extensions can override no-store, etc."
2136               </li>
2137               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Pragma"
2138               </li>
2139            </ul>
2140         </div>
2141         <div id="changes.since.15">
2142            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.17"><a href="#rfc.section.C.17">C.17</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.15">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-15</a></h2>
2143            <p id="rfc.section.C.17.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2144            <ul>
2145               <li>&lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;: "Motivate one-year limit for Expires"
2146               </li>
2147            </ul>
2148         </div>
2149      </div>
2150      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
2151      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.E">E</a> <a href="#rfc.index.F">F</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.N">N</a> <a href="#rfc.index.O">O</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.S">S</a> <a href="#rfc.index.V">V</a> <a href="#rfc.index.W">W</a>
2152      </p>
2153      <div class="print2col">
2154         <ul class="ind">
2155            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
2156                  <li>age&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.1">1.2</a></li>
2157                  <li>Age header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.age.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.age.2">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.2"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.age.3">5.2</a></li>
2158               </ul>
2159            </li>
2160            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
2161                  <li>cache&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.2">1.2</a></li>
2162                  <li>Cache Directives&nbsp;&nbsp;
2163                     <ul>
2164                        <li>max-age&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.9"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.20"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2165                        <li>max-stale&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.10"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2166                        <li>min-fresh&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.11"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2167                        <li>must-revalidate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.18"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2168                        <li>no-cache&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.7"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.16"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2169                        <li>no-store&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.8"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.17"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2170                        <li>no-transform&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.12"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.22"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2171                        <li>only-if-cached&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.13"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2172                        <li>private&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.15"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2173                        <li>proxy-revalidate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.19"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2174                        <li>public&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.14"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2175                        <li>s-maxage&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.21"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2176                     </ul>
2177                  </li>
2178                  <li>cache entry&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.4">2</a></li>
2179                  <li>cache key&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.5">2</a></li>
2180                  <li>Cache-Control header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.cache-control.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.cache-control.2">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.6"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.cache-control.3">5.2</a></li>
2181                  <li>cacheable&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.3">1.2</a></li>
2182               </ul>
2183            </li>
2184            <li><a id="rfc.index.E" href="#rfc.index.E"><b>E</b></a><ul>
2185                  <li>Expires header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.2">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.3">2.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.e.2"><b>3.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.4">5.2</a></li>
2186                  <li>explicit expiration time&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.e.1">1.2</a></li>
2187               </ul>
2188            </li>
2189            <li><a id="rfc.index.F" href="#rfc.index.F"><b>F</b></a><ul>
2190                  <li>first-hand&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.f.1">1.2</a></li>
2191                  <li>fresh&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.f.3">1.2</a></li>
2192                  <li>freshness lifetime&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.f.2">1.2</a></li>
2193               </ul>
2194            </li>
2195            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
2196                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
2197                     <ul>
2198                        <li><tt>Age</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
2199                        <li><tt>Cache-Control</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
2200                        <li><tt>cache-extension</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
2201                        <li><tt>cache-request-directive</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2202                        <li><tt>cache-response-directive</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2203                        <li><tt>delta-seconds</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>1.5</b></a></li>
2204                        <li><tt>Expires</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
2205                        <li><tt>extension-pragma</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
2206                        <li><tt>Pragma</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
2207                        <li><tt>pragma-directive</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
2208                        <li><tt>Vary</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.11"><b>3.5</b></a></li>
2209                        <li><tt>warn-agent</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.15"><b>3.6</b></a></li>
2210                        <li><tt>warn-code</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.14"><b>3.6</b></a></li>
2211                        <li><tt>warn-date</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.17"><b>3.6</b></a></li>
2212                        <li><tt>warn-text</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.16"><b>3.6</b></a></li>
2213                        <li><tt>Warning</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.12"><b>3.6</b></a></li>
2214                        <li><tt>warning-value</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.13"><b>3.6</b></a></li>
2215                     </ul>
2216                  </li>
2217               </ul>
2218            </li>
2219            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
2220                  <li>Header Fields&nbsp;&nbsp;
2221                     <ul>
2222                        <li>Age&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.age.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.age.2">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>3.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.age.3">5.2</a></li>
2223                        <li>Cache-Control&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.cache-control.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.cache-control.2">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>3.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.cache-control.3">5.2</a></li>
2224                        <li>Expires&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.2">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.3">2.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>3.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.expires.4">5.2</a></li>
2225                        <li>Pragma&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.pragma.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.pragma.2">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.5"><b>3.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.pragma.3">5.2</a></li>
2226                        <li>Vary&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.vary.1">2.7</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.6"><b>3.5</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.vary.2">5.2</a></li>
2227                        <li>Warning&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.1">2.3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.2">2.8</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.3">2.9</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.7"><b>3.6</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.4">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.5">A</a></li>
2228                     </ul>
2229                  </li>
2230                  <li>heuristic expiration time&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.1">1.2</a></li>
2231               </ul>
2232            </li>
2233            <li><a id="rfc.index.M" href="#rfc.index.M"><b>M</b></a><ul>
2234                  <li>max-age&nbsp;&nbsp;
2235                     <ul>
2236                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.m.5"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2237                     </ul>
2238                  </li>
2239                  <li>max-stale&nbsp;&nbsp;
2240                     <ul>
2241                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.2"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2242                     </ul>
2243                  </li>
2244                  <li>min-fresh&nbsp;&nbsp;
2245                     <ul>
2246                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.3"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2247                     </ul>
2248                  </li>
2249                  <li>must-revalidate&nbsp;&nbsp;
2250                     <ul>
2251                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.m.4"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2252                     </ul>
2253                  </li>
2254               </ul>
2255            </li>
2256            <li><a id="rfc.index.N" href="#rfc.index.N"><b>N</b></a><ul>
2257                  <li>no-cache&nbsp;&nbsp;
2258                     <ul>
2259                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.n.1"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.n.4"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2260                     </ul>
2261                  </li>
2262                  <li>no-store&nbsp;&nbsp;
2263                     <ul>
2264                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.n.2"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.n.5"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2265                     </ul>
2266                  </li>
2267                  <li>no-transform&nbsp;&nbsp;
2268                     <ul>
2269                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.n.3"><b>3.2.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.n.6"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2270                     </ul>
2271                  </li>
2272               </ul>
2273            </li>
2274            <li><a id="rfc.index.O" href="#rfc.index.O"><b>O</b></a><ul>
2275                  <li>only-if-cached&nbsp;&nbsp;
2276                     <ul>
2277                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.o.1"><b>3.2.1</b></a></li>
2278                     </ul>
2279                  </li>
2280               </ul>
2281            </li>
2282            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
2283                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">2.7</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.19">7</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
2284                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.4</a></li>
2285                        <li><em>Section 1.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.4.1</a></li>
2286                        <li><em>Section 2.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">1.4.2</a></li>
2287                        <li><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">2.7</a></li>
2288                        <li><em>Section 3.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.4.1</a></li>
2289                        <li><em>Section 4.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2.5</a></li>
2290                        <li><em>Section 6.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">1.4.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">3.3</a></li>
2291                        <li><em>Section 9.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2.3.2</a></li>
2292                        <li><em>Section 9.9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">1.4.2</a></li>
2293                        <li><em>Section 12</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.19">7</a></li>
2294                     </ul>
2295                  </li>
2296                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3"></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">2.5</a>, <a href="#Part2"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
2297                        <li><em>Section 7.1.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.4">2.5</a></li>
2298                        <li><em>Section 8</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.3"></a></li>
2299                     </ul>
2300                  </li>
2301                  <li><em>Part4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">1.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4"></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.5">2.4</a>, <a href="#Part4"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
2302                        <li><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">1.2</a></li>
2303                        <li><em>Section 2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.4"></a></li>
2304                        <li><em>Section 2.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.3">1.2</a></li>
2305                        <li><em>Section 2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">1.2</a></li>
2306                     </ul>
2307                  </li>
2308                  <li><em>Part5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.2">2.8</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.3">2.8</a>, <a href="#Part5"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
2309                        <li><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.3">2.8</a></li>
2310                     </ul>
2311                  </li>
2312                  <li><em>Part7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part7.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part7.2">2.6</a>, <a href="#Part7"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
2313                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part7.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part7.2">2.6</a></li>
2314                     </ul>
2315                  </li>
2316                  <li>Pragma header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.pragma.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.pragma.2">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.5"><b>3.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.pragma.3">5.2</a></li>
2317                  <li>private&nbsp;&nbsp;
2318                     <ul>
2319                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.3"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2320                     </ul>
2321                  </li>
2322                  <li>private cache&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.1">1.2</a></li>
2323                  <li>proxy-revalidate&nbsp;&nbsp;
2324                     <ul>
2325                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.4"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2326                     </ul>
2327                  </li>
2328                  <li>public&nbsp;&nbsp;
2329                     <ul>
2330                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.2"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2331                     </ul>
2332                  </li>
2333               </ul>
2334            </li>
2335            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
2336                  <li><em>RFC1305</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1305.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1305.2">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#RFC1305"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
2337                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.3</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>8.1</b></a></li>
2338                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"></a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>8.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">C.1</a><ul>
2339                        <li><em>Section 13.9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"></a></li>
2340                     </ul>
2341                  </li>
2342                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">5.2</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>8.2</b></a></li>
2343                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">3.2.3</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
2344                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">3.2.3</a></li>
2345                     </ul>
2346                  </li>
2347                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.4</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>8.1</b></a><ul>
2348                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.4</a></li>
2349                     </ul>
2350                  </li>
2351                  <li><em>RFC5861</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5861.1">5.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5861.2">5.1</a>, <a href="#RFC5861"><b>8.2</b></a><ul>
2352                        <li><em>Section 3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5861.2">5.1</a></li>
2353                        <li><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5861.1">5.1</a></li>
2354                     </ul>
2355                  </li>
2356               </ul>
2357            </li>
2358            <li><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul>
2359                  <li>s-maxage&nbsp;&nbsp;
2360                     <ul>
2361                        <li>Cache Directive&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.4"><b>3.2.2</b></a></li>
2362                     </ul>
2363                  </li>
2364                  <li>shared cache&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.1">1.2</a></li>
2365                  <li>stale&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.2">1.2</a></li>
2366                  <li>strong validator&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.3">1.2</a></li>
2367               </ul>
2368            </li>
2369            <li><a id="rfc.index.V" href="#rfc.index.V"><b>V</b></a><ul>
2370                  <li>validator&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.v.1">1.2</a><ul>
2371                        <li>strong&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.v.2">1.2</a></li>
2372                     </ul>
2373                  </li>
2374                  <li>Vary header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.vary.1">2.7</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.v.3"><b>3.5</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.vary.2">5.2</a></li>
2375               </ul>
2376            </li>
2377            <li><a id="rfc.index.W" href="#rfc.index.W"><b>W</b></a><ul>
2378                  <li>Warning header field&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.1">2.3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.2">2.8</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.3">2.9</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.w.1"><b>3.6</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.4">5.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.warning.5">A</a></li>
2379               </ul>
2380            </li>
2381         </ul>
2382      </div>
2383      <div class="avoidbreak">
2384         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
2385         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
2386            (editor)
2387            <br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2388         <p><b>Jim Gettys</b><br>Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs<br>21 Oak Knoll Road<br>Carlisle, MA&nbsp;01741<br>USA<br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2389         <p><b>Jeffrey C. Mogul</b><br>Hewlett-Packard Company<br>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group<br>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177<br>Palo Alto, CA&nbsp;94304<br>USA<br>Email: <a href=""></a></p>
2390         <p><b>Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>USA<br>Email: <a href=""></a></p>
2391         <p><b>Larry Masinter</b><br>Adobe Systems Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2392         <p><b>Paul J. Leach</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>Email: <a href=""></a></p>
2393         <p><b>Tim Berners-Lee</b><br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory<br>The Stata Center, Building 32<br>32 Vassar Street<br>Cambridge, MA&nbsp;02139<br>USA<br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2394         <p><b>Yves Lafon</b>
2395            (editor)
2396            <br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>W3C / ERCIM<br>2004, rte des Lucioles<br>Sophia-Antipolis, AM&nbsp;06902<br>France<br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2397         <p><b>Mark Nottingham</b>
2398            (editor)
2399            <br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2400         <p><b>Julian F. Reschke</b>
2401            (editor)
2402            <br>greenbytes GmbH<br>Hafenweg 16<br>Muenster, NW&nbsp;48155<br>Germany<br>Phone: <a href="tel:+492512807760">+49 251 2807760</a><br>Fax: <a href="fax:+492512807761">+49 251 2807761</a><br>Email: <a href=""></a><br>URI: <a href=""></a></p>
2403      </div>
2404   </body>
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