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382</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
383      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
384      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">
385      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
386      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
387      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Protocol Parameters" href="#rfc.section.2">
388      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Entity" href="#rfc.section.3">
389      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Content Negotiation" href="#rfc.section.4">
390      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.5">
391      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.6">
392      <link rel="Chapter" title="7 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.7">
393      <link rel="Chapter" title="8 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.8">
394      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.9" title="9 References">
395      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities" href="#rfc.section.A">
396      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Additional Features" href="#rfc.section.B">
397      <link rel="Appendix" title="C Compatibility with Previous Versions" href="#rfc.section.C">
398      <link rel="Appendix" title="D Collected ABNF" href="#rfc.section.D">
399      <link rel="Appendix" title="E Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.E">
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401      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
402      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
403      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Gettys, J.">
404      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Mogul, J.">
405      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Frystyk, H.">
406      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Masinter, L.">
407      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Leach, P.">
408      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Berners-Lee, T.">
409      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
410      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
411      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-10">
412      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2010-07-12">
413      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
414      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 3 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 3 defines HTTP message content, metadata, and content negotiation.">
415      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 3 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 3 defines HTTP message content, metadata, and content negotiation.">
416   </head>
417   <body>
418      <table class="header">
419         <tbody>
420            <tr>
421               <td class="left">HTTPbis Working Group</td>
422               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
423            </tr>
424            <tr>
425               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
426               <td class="right">Day Software</td>
427            </tr>
428            <tr>
429               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
430               </td>
431               <td class="right">J. Gettys</td>
432            </tr>
433            <tr>
434               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
435               <td class="right">Alcatel-Lucent</td>
436            </tr>
437            <tr>
438               <td class="left">Expires: January 13, 2011</td>
439               <td class="right">J. Mogul</td>
440            </tr>
441            <tr>
442               <td class="left"></td>
443               <td class="right">HP</td>
444            </tr>
445            <tr>
446               <td class="left"></td>
447               <td class="right">H. Frystyk</td>
448            </tr>
449            <tr>
450               <td class="left"></td>
451               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
452            </tr>
453            <tr>
454               <td class="left"></td>
455               <td class="right">L. Masinter</td>
456            </tr>
457            <tr>
458               <td class="left"></td>
459               <td class="right">Adobe Systems</td>
460            </tr>
461            <tr>
462               <td class="left"></td>
463               <td class="right">P. Leach</td>
464            </tr>
465            <tr>
466               <td class="left"></td>
467               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
468            </tr>
469            <tr>
470               <td class="left"></td>
471               <td class="right">T. Berners-Lee</td>
472            </tr>
473            <tr>
474               <td class="left"></td>
475               <td class="right">W3C/MIT</td>
476            </tr>
477            <tr>
478               <td class="left"></td>
479               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
480            </tr>
481            <tr>
482               <td class="left"></td>
483               <td class="right">W3C</td>
484            </tr>
485            <tr>
486               <td class="left"></td>
487               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
488            </tr>
489            <tr>
490               <td class="left"></td>
491               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
492            </tr>
493            <tr>
494               <td class="left"></td>
495               <td class="right">July 12, 2010</td>
496            </tr>
497         </tbody>
498      </table>
499      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-10</span></p>
500      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
501      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
502         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 3 of the
503         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part
504         3 defines HTTP message content, metadata, and content negotiation.
505      </p>
506      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
507      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues
508         list is at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
509      </p>
510      <p>The changes in this draft are summarized in <a href="#changes.since.09" title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-09">Appendix&nbsp;E.11</a>.
511      </p>
512      <div id="rfc.status">
513         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of This Memo</a></h1>
514         <p>This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.</p>
515         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
516            working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at <a href="http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a>.
517         </p>
518         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
519            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
520            in progress”.
521         </p>
522         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on January 13, 2011.</p>
523      </div>
524      <div id="rfc.copyrightnotice">
525         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
526         <p>Copyright © 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.</p>
527         <p>This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (<a href="http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a>) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
528            and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
529            text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
530            BSD License.
531         </p>
532         <p>This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November
533            10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to
534            allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s)
535            controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative
536            works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate
537            it into languages other than English.
538         </p>
539      </div>
540      <hr class="noprint">
541      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
542      <ul class="toc">
543         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
544               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#terminology">Terminology</a></li>
545               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></li>
546               <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a><ul>
547                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.3.1">1.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></li>
548                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.1.3.2">1.3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#abnf.dependencies">ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification</a></li>
549                  </ul>
550               </li>
551            </ul>
552         </li>
553         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a><ul>
554               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#character.sets">Character Sets</a><ul>
555                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1.1">2.1.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#missing.charset">Missing Charset</a></li>
556                  </ul>
557               </li>
558               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.codings">Content Codings</a><ul>
559                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.1">2.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.coding.registry">Content Coding Registry</a></li>
560                  </ul>
561               </li>
562               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#media.types">Media Types</a><ul>
563                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults">Canonicalization and Text Defaults</a></li>
564                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.2">2.3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#multipart.types">Multipart Types</a></li>
565                  </ul>
566               </li>
567               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#language.tags">Language Tags</a></li>
568            </ul>
569         </li>
570         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity">Entity</a><ul>
571               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.header.fields">Entity Header Fields</a></li>
572               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.body">Entity Body</a><ul>
573                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#type">Type</a></li>
574                     <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#entity.length">Entity Length</a></li>
575                  </ul>
576               </li>
577            </ul>
578         </li>
579         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.negotiation">Content Negotiation</a><ul>
580               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#server-driven.negotiation">Server-driven Negotiation</a></li>
581               <li><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#agent-driven.negotiation">Agent-driven Negotiation</a></li>
582            </ul>
583         </li>
584         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
585               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept">Accept</a></li>
586               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-charset">Accept-Charset</a></li>
587               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-encoding">Accept-Encoding</a></li>
588               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-language">Accept-Language</a></li>
589               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.5">5.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-encoding">Content-Encoding</a></li>
590               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.6">5.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-language">Content-Language</a></li>
591               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.7">5.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-location">Content-Location</a></li>
592               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.8">5.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-md5">Content-MD5</a></li>
593               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.9">5.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-type">Content-Type</a></li>
594            </ul>
595         </li>
596         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a><ul>
597               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#message.header.registration">Message Header Registration</a></li>
598               <li><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content.coding.registration">Content Coding Registry</a></li>
599            </ul>
600         </li>
601         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
602               <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#privacy.issues.connected.to.accept.headers">Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers</a></li>
603               <li><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition.issues">Content-Disposition Issues</a></li>
604            </ul>
605         </li>
606         <li><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
607         <li><a href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
608               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
609               <li><a href="#rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
610            </ul>
611         </li>
612         <li><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities">Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities</a><ul>
613               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.1">A.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#mime-version">MIME-Version</a></li>
614               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.2">A.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.to.canonical.form">Conversion to Canonical Form</a></li>
615               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.3">A.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.of.date.formats">Conversion of Date Formats</a></li>
616               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.4">A.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.content-encoding">Introduction of Content-Encoding</a></li>
617               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.5">A.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#no.content-transfer-encoding">No Content-Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
618               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.6">A.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.transfer-encoding">Introduction of Transfer-Encoding</a></li>
619               <li><a href="#rfc.section.A.7">A.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#mhtml.line.length">MHTML and Line Length Limitations</a></li>
620            </ul>
621         </li>
622         <li><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#additional.features">Additional Features</a><ul>
623               <li><a href="#rfc.section.B.1">B.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition">Content-Disposition</a></li>
624            </ul>
625         </li>
626         <li><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a><ul>
627               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2068">Changes from RFC 2068</a></li>
628               <li><a href="#rfc.section.C.2">C.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
629            </ul>
630         </li>
631         <li><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></li>
632         <li><a href="#rfc.section.E">E.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
633               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.1">E.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.E.1">Since RFC2616</a></li>
634               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.2">E.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.E.2">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-00</a></li>
635               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.3">E.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.E.3">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-01</a></li>
636               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.4">E.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-02</a></li>
637               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.5">E.5</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-03</a></li>
638               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.6">E.6</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-04</a></li>
639               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.7">E.7</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-05</a></li>
640               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.8">E.8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-06</a></li>
641               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.9">E.9</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-07</a></li>
642               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.10">E.10</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-08</a></li>
643               <li><a href="#rfc.section.E.11">E.11</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-09</a></li>
644            </ul>
645         </li>
646         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
647         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
648      </ul>
649      <div id="introduction">
650         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
651         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">This document defines HTTP/1.1 message payloads (a.k.a., content), the associated metadata header fields that define how the
652            payload is intended to be interpreted by a recipient, the request header fields that may influence content selection, and
653            the various selection algorithms that are collectively referred to as HTTP content negotiation.
654         </p>
655         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">This document is currently disorganized in order to minimize the changes between drafts and enable reviewers to see the smaller
656            errata changes. The next draft will reorganize the sections to better reflect the content. In particular, the sections on
657            entities will be renamed payload and moved to the first half of the document, while the sections on content negotiation and
658            associated request header fields will be moved to the second half. The current mess reflects how widely dispersed these topics
659            and associated requirements had become in <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
660         </p>
661         <div id="terminology">
662            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#terminology">Terminology</a></h2>
663            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles played by participants in, and objects of, the HTTP communication.</p>
664            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2"><span id="rfc.iref.c.1"></span> <dfn>content negotiation</dfn> 
665            </p>
666            <ul class="empty">
667               <li>The mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request. The representation of entities in any
668                  response can be negotiated (including error responses).
669               </li>
670            </ul>
671            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.3"><span id="rfc.iref.e.1"></span> <dfn>entity</dfn> 
672            </p>
673            <ul class="empty">
674               <li>The information transferred as the payload of a request or response. An entity consists of metadata in the form of entity-header
675                  fields and content in the form of an entity-body.
676               </li>
677            </ul>
678            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.4"><span id="rfc.iref.r.1"></span> <dfn>representation</dfn> 
679            </p>
680            <ul class="empty">
681               <li>An entity included with a response that is subject to content negotiation. There may exist multiple representations associated
682                  with a particular response status.
683               </li>
684            </ul>
685            <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.5"><span id="rfc.iref.v.1"></span> <dfn>variant</dfn> 
686            </p>
687            <ul class="empty">
688               <li>A resource may have one, or more than one, representation(s) associated with it at any given instant. Each of these representations
689                  is termed a "variant". Use of the term "variant" does not necessarily imply that the resource is subject to content negotiation.
690               </li>
691            </ul>
692         </div>
693         <div id="intro.requirements">
694            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.2">1.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></h2>
695            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
696               in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
697            </p>
698            <p id="rfc.section.1.2.p.2">An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the
699               protocols it implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements
700               for its protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the "MUST" level requirements but not
701               all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant".
702            </p>
703         </div>
704         <div id="notation">
705            <h2 id="rfc.section.1.3"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3">1.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#notation">Syntax Notation</a></h2>
706            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.1">This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#notation" title="Syntax Notation">Section 1.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> (which extends the syntax defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.1"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a> with a list rule). <a href="#collected.abnf" title="Collected ABNF">Appendix&nbsp;D</a> shows the collected ABNF, with the list rule expanded.
707            </p>
708            <p id="rfc.section.1.3.p.2">The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in <a href="#RFC5234" id="rfc.xref.RFC5234.2"><cite title="Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF">[RFC5234]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234#appendix-B.1">Appendix B.1</a>: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), HEXDIG
709               (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
710               and WSP (whitespace).
711            </p>
712            <div id="core.rules">
713               <h3 id="rfc.section.1.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3.1">1.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#core.rules">Core Rules</a></h3>
714               <p id="rfc.section.1.3.1.p.1">The core rules below are defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>:
715               </p>
716               <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a>  = &lt;quoted-string, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
717  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>          = &lt;token, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
718  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">word</a>           = &lt;word, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
719  <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>            = &lt;OWS, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.6"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#basic.rules" title="Basic Rules">Section 1.2.2</a>&gt;
720</pre></div>
721            <div id="abnf.dependencies">
722               <h3 id="rfc.section.1.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.1.3.2">1.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#abnf.dependencies">ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification</a></h3>
723               <p id="rfc.section.1.3.2.p.1">The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:</p>
724               <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a>   = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.7"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.6</a>&gt;
725  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> = &lt;Content-Length, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.8"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" title="Content-Length">Section 9.2</a>&gt;
726  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">header-field</a>   = &lt;header-field, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.9"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.fields" title="Header Fields">Section 3.2</a>&gt;
727  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">partial-URI</a>    = &lt;partial-URI, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.10"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#uri" title="Uniform Resource Identifiers">Section 2.6</a>&gt;
728  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">qvalue</a>         = &lt;qvalue, defined in <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.11"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 6.4</a>&gt;
729</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a>  = &lt;Last-Modified, defined in <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" title="Last-Modified">Section 6.6</a>&gt;
730</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>  = &lt;Content-Range, defined in <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>, <a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" title="Content-Range">Section 5.2</a>&gt;
731</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.5"></div><pre class="inline">  <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Expires</a>        = &lt;Expires, defined in <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.expires" title="Expires">Section 3.3</a>&gt;
732</pre></div>
733         </div>
734      </div>
735      <div id="protocol.parameters">
736         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#protocol.parameters">Protocol Parameters</a></h1>
737         <div id="character.sets">
738            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#character.sets">Character Sets</a></h2>
739            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">HTTP uses the same definition of the term "character set" as that described for MIME:</p>
740            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">The term "character set" is used in this document to refer to a method used with one or more tables to convert a sequence
741               of octets into a sequence of characters. Note that unconditional conversion in the other direction is not required, in that
742               not all characters may be available in a given character set and a character set may provide more than one sequence of octets
743               to represent a particular character. This definition is intended to allow various kinds of character encoding, from simple
744               single-table mappings such as US-ASCII to complex table switching methods such as those that use ISO-2022's techniques. However,
745               the definition associated with a MIME character set name <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> fully specify the mapping to be performed from octets to characters. In particular, use of external profiling information
746               to determine the exact mapping is not permitted.
747            </p>
748            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">
749               <p><b>Note:</b> This use of the term "character set" is more commonly referred to as a "character encoding." However, since HTTP and MIME
750                  share the same registry, it is important that the terminology also be shared.
751               </p> 
752            </div>
753            <div id="rule.charset">
754               <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4"> HTTP character sets are identified by case-insensitive tokens. The complete set of tokens is defined by the IANA Character
755                  Set registry (&lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets</a>&gt;).
756               </p>
757            </div>
758            <div id="rfc.figure.u.6"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span>  <a href="#rule.charset" class="smpl">charset</a> = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
759</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">Although HTTP allows an arbitrary token to be used as a charset value, any token that has a predefined value within the IANA
760               Character Set registry <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> represent the character set defined by that registry. Applications <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> limit their use of character sets to those defined by the IANA registry.
761            </p>
762            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">HTTP uses charset in two contexts: within an Accept-Charset request header (in which the charset value is an unquoted token)
763               and as the value of a parameter in a Content-Type header (within a request or response), in which case the parameter value
764               of the charset parameter may be quoted.
765            </p>
766            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">Implementors should be aware of IETF character set requirements <a href="#RFC3629" id="rfc.xref.RFC3629.1"><cite title="UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646">[RFC3629]</cite></a> <a href="#RFC2277" id="rfc.xref.RFC2277.1"><cite title="IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages">[RFC2277]</cite></a>.
767            </p>
768            <div id="missing.charset">
769               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1.1">2.1.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#missing.charset">Missing Charset</a></h3>
770               <p id="rfc.section.2.1.1.p.1">Some HTTP/1.0 software has interpreted a Content-Type header without charset parameter incorrectly to mean "recipient should
771                  guess." Senders wishing to defeat this behavior <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include a charset parameter even when the charset is ISO-8859-1 (<a href="#ISO-8859-1" id="rfc.xref.ISO-8859-1.1"><cite title="Information technology -- 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets -- Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1">[ISO-8859-1]</cite></a>) and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> do so when it is known that it will not confuse the recipient.
772               </p>
773               <p id="rfc.section.2.1.1.p.2">Unfortunately, some older HTTP/1.0 clients did not deal properly with an explicit charset parameter. HTTP/1.1 recipients <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> respect the charset label provided by the sender; and those user agents that have a provision to "guess" a charset <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> use the charset from the content-type field if they support that charset, rather than the recipient's preference, when initially
774                  displaying a document. See <a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults" title="Canonicalization and Text Defaults">Section&nbsp;2.3.1</a>.
775               </p>
776            </div>
777         </div>
778         <div id="content.codings">
779            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content.codings">Content Codings</a></h2>
780            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">Content coding values indicate an encoding transformation that has been or can be applied to an entity. Content codings are
781               primarily used to allow a document to be compressed or otherwise usefully transformed without losing the identity of its underlying
782               media type and without loss of information. Frequently, the entity is stored in coded form, transmitted directly, and only
783               decoded by the recipient.
784            </p>
785            <div id="rfc.figure.u.7"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span>  <a href="#content.codings" class="smpl">content-coding</a>   = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
786</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.3">All content-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses content-coding values in the Accept-Encoding (<a href="#header.accept-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.1" title="Accept-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>) and Content-Encoding (<a href="#header.content-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.1" title="Content-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.5</a>) header fields. Although the value describes the content-coding, what is more important is that it indicates what decoding
787               mechanism will be required to remove the encoding.
788            </p>
789            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.4">compress<span id="rfc.iref.c.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.c.3"></span> 
790            </p>
791            <ul class="empty">
792               <li>See <a href="p1-messaging.html#compress.coding" title="Compress Coding">Section 6.2.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.12"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
793               </li>
794            </ul>
795            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.5">deflate<span id="rfc.iref.d.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.c.4"></span> 
796            </p>
797            <ul class="empty">
798               <li>See <a href="p1-messaging.html#deflate.coding" title="Deflate Coding">Section 6.2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.13"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
799               </li>
800            </ul>
801            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.6">gzip<span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span><span id="rfc.iref.c.5"></span> 
802            </p>
803            <ul class="empty">
804               <li>See <a href="p1-messaging.html#gzip.coding" title="Gzip Coding">Section 6.2.2.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.14"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>.
805               </li>
806            </ul>
807            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.7">identity<span id="rfc.iref.i.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.c.6"></span> 
808            </p>
809            <ul class="empty">
810               <li>The default (identity) encoding; the use of no transformation whatsoever. This content-coding is used only in the Accept-Encoding
811                  header, and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be used in the Content-Encoding header.
812               </li>
813            </ul>
814            <div id="content.coding.registry">
815               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.1">2.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content.coding.registry">Content Coding Registry</a></h3>
816               <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.1">The HTTP Content Coding Registry defines the name space for the content coding names.</p>
817               <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.2">Registrations <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include the following fields:
818               </p>
819               <ul>
820                  <li>Name</li>
821                  <li>Description</li>
822                  <li>Pointer to specification text</li>
823               </ul>
824               <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.3">Names of content codings <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> overlap with names of transfer codings (<a href="p1-messaging.html#transfer.codings" title="Transfer Codings">Section 6.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.15"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>), unless the encoding transformation is identical (as it is the case for the compression codings defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#compression.codings" title="Compression Codings">Section 6.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.16"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>).
825               </p>
826               <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.4">Values to be added to this name space require expert review and a specification (see "Expert Review" and "Specification Required"
827                  in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226#section-4.1">Section 4.1</a> of <a href="#RFC5226" id="rfc.xref.RFC5226.1"><cite title="Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs">[RFC5226]</cite></a>), and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> conform to the purpose of content coding defined in this section.
828               </p>
829               <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.5">The registry itself is maintained at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters</a>&gt;.
830               </p>
831            </div>
832         </div>
833         <div id="media.types">
834            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#media.types">Media Types</a></h2>
835            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">HTTP uses Internet Media Types <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> in the Content-Type (<a href="#header.content-type" id="rfc.xref.header.content-type.1" title="Content-Type">Section&nbsp;5.9</a>) and Accept (<a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.1" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>) header fields in order to provide open and extensible data typing and type negotiation.
836            </p>
837            <div id="rfc.figure.u.8"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.6"></span>  <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">media-type</a> = <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">type</a> "/" <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">subtype</a> *( <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">parameter</a> )
838  <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">type</a>       = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
839  <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">subtype</a>    = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
840</pre><div id="rule.parameter">
841               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.3">   Parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> follow the type/subtype in the form of attribute/value pairs.
842               </p>
843            </div>
844            <div id="rfc.figure.u.9"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.7"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.8"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.9"></span>  <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">parameter</a>      = <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">attribute</a> "=" <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">value</a>
845  <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">attribute</a>      = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
846  <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">value</a>          = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">word</a>
847</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.5">The type, subtype, and parameter attribute names are case-insensitive. Parameter values might or might not be case-sensitive,
848               depending on the semantics of the parameter name. The presence or absence of a parameter might be significant to the processing
849               of a media-type, depending on its definition within the media type registry.
850            </p>
851            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.6">A parameter value that matches the <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> production may be transmitted as either a token or within a quoted-string. The quoted and unquoted values are equivalent.
852            </p>
853            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.7">Note that some older HTTP applications do not recognize media type parameters. When sending data to older HTTP applications,
854               implementations <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> only use media type parameters when they are required by that type/subtype definition.
855            </p>
856            <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.8">Media-type values are registered with the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). The media type registration process is
857               outlined in <a href="#RFC4288" id="rfc.xref.RFC4288.1"><cite title="Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures">[RFC4288]</cite></a>. Use of non-registered media types is discouraged.
858            </p>
859            <div id="canonicalization.and.text.defaults">
860               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.1">2.3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults">Canonicalization and Text Defaults</a></h3>
861               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.1">Internet media types are registered with a canonical form. An entity-body transferred via HTTP messages <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be represented in the appropriate canonical form prior to its transmission except for "text" types, as defined in the next
862                  paragraph.
863               </p>
864               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.2">When in canonical form, media subtypes of the "text" type use CRLF as the text line break. HTTP relaxes this requirement and
865                  allows the transport of text media with plain CR or LF alone representing a line break when it is done consistently for an
866                  entire entity-body. HTTP applications <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> accept CRLF, bare CR, and bare LF as being representative of a line break in text media received via HTTP. In addition, if
867                  the text is represented in a character set that does not use octets 13 and 10 for CR and LF respectively, as is the case for
868                  some multi-byte character sets, HTTP allows the use of whatever octet sequences are defined by that character set to represent
869                  the equivalent of CR and LF for line breaks. This flexibility regarding line breaks applies only to text media in the entity-body;
870                  a bare CR or LF <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be substituted for CRLF within any of the HTTP control structures (such as header fields and multipart boundaries).
871               </p>
872               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.3">If an entity-body is encoded with a content-coding, the underlying data <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be in a form defined above prior to being encoded.
873               </p>
874               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.1.p.4">The "charset" parameter is used with some media types to define the character set (<a href="#character.sets" title="Character Sets">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>) of the data. When no explicit charset parameter is provided by the sender, media subtypes of the "text" type are defined
875                  to have a default charset value of "ISO-8859-1" when received via HTTP. Data in character sets other than "ISO-8859-1" or
876                  its subsets <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be labeled with an appropriate charset value. See <a href="#missing.charset" title="Missing Charset">Section&nbsp;2.1.1</a> for compatibility problems.
877               </p>
878            </div>
879            <div id="multipart.types">
880               <h3 id="rfc.section.2.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3.2">2.3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#multipart.types">Multipart Types</a></h3>
881               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.1">MIME provides for a number of "multipart" types -- encapsulations of one or more entities within a single message-body. All
882                  multipart types share a common syntax, as defined in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-5.1.1">Section 5.1.1</a> of <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a boundary parameter as part of the media type value. The message body is itself a protocol element and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> therefore use only CRLF to represent line breaks between body-parts. Unlike in RFC 2046, the epilogue of any multipart message <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be empty; HTTP applications <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> transmit the epilogue (even if the original multipart contains an epilogue). These restrictions exist in order to preserve
883                  the self-delimiting nature of a multipart message-body, wherein the "end" of the message-body is indicated by the ending multipart
884                  boundary.
885               </p>
886               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.2">In general, HTTP treats a multipart message-body no differently than any other media type: strictly as payload. The one exception
887                  is the "multipart/byteranges" type (<a href="p5-range.html#internet.media.type.multipart.byteranges" title="Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges">Appendix A</a> of <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>) when it appears in a 206 (Partial Content) response.  In all other cases, an HTTP user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> follow the same or similar behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type. The MIME header fields within
888                  each body-part of a multipart message-body do not have any significance to HTTP beyond that defined by their MIME semantics.
889               </p>
890               <p id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.3">In general, an HTTP user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> follow the same or similar behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type. If an application receives
891                  an unrecognized multipart subtype, the application <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> treat it as being equivalent to "multipart/mixed".
892               </p>
893               <div class="note" id="rfc.section.2.3.2.p.4">
894                  <p><b>Note:</b> The "multipart/form-data" type has been specifically defined for carrying form data suitable for processing via the POST request
895                     method, as described in <a href="#RFC2388" id="rfc.xref.RFC2388.1"><cite title="Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data">[RFC2388]</cite></a>.
896                  </p> 
897               </div>
898            </div>
899         </div>
900         <div id="language.tags">
901            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#language.tags">Language Tags</a></h2>
902            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.1">A language tag, as defined in <a href="#RFC5646" id="rfc.xref.RFC5646.1"><cite title="Tags for Identifying Languages">[RFC5646]</cite></a>, identifies a natural language spoken, written, or otherwise conveyed by human beings for communication of information to
903               other human beings. Computer languages are explicitly excluded. HTTP uses language tags within the Accept-Language and Content-Language
904               fields.
905            </p>
906            <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.2">In summary, a language tag is composed of one or more parts: A primary language subtag followed by a possibly empty series
907               of subtags:
908            </p>
909            <div id="rfc.figure.u.10"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.10"></span>  <a href="#language.tags" class="smpl">language-tag</a> = &lt;Language-Tag, defined in <a href="#RFC5646" id="rfc.xref.RFC5646.2"><cite title="Tags for Identifying Languages">[RFC5646]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5646#section-2.1">Section 2.1</a>&gt;
910</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.4">White space is not allowed within the tag and all tags are case-insensitive. The name space of language subtags is administered
911               by the IANA (see &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry">http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry</a>&gt;).
912            </p>
913            <div id="rfc.figure.u.11"></div>
914            <p>Example tags include:</p><pre class="text">  en, en-US, es-419, az-Arab, x-pig-latin, man-Nkoo-GN
915</pre><p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.6">See <a href="#RFC5646" id="rfc.xref.RFC5646.3"><cite title="Tags for Identifying Languages">[RFC5646]</cite></a> for further information.
916            </p>
917         </div>
918      </div>
919      <div id="entity">
920         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity">Entity</a></h1>
921         <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">Request and Response messages <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> transfer an entity if not otherwise restricted by the request method or response status code. An entity consists of entity-header
922            fields and an entity-body, although some responses will only include the entity-headers.
923         </p>
924         <p id="rfc.section.3.p.2">In this section, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives
925            the entity.
926         </p>
927         <div id="entity.header.fields">
928            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity.header.fields">Entity Header Fields</a></h2>
929            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">Entity-header fields define metainformation about the entity-body or, if no body is present, about the resource identified
930               by the request.
931            </p>
932            <div id="rfc.figure.u.12"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.11"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.12"></span>  <a href="#entity.header.fields" class="smpl">entity-header</a>  = <a href="#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a>         ; <a href="#header.content-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.2" title="Content-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.5</a>
933                 / <a href="#header.content-language" class="smpl">Content-Language</a>         ; <a href="#header.content-language" id="rfc.xref.header.content-language.1" title="Content-Language">Section&nbsp;5.6</a>
934                 / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Content-Length</a>           ; <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.17"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="p1-messaging.html#header.content-length" title="Content-Length">Section 9.2</a>
935                 / <a href="#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a>         ; <a href="#header.content-location" id="rfc.xref.header.content-location.1" title="Content-Location">Section&nbsp;5.7</a>
936                 / <a href="#header.content-md5" class="smpl">Content-MD5</a>              ; <a href="#header.content-md5" id="rfc.xref.header.content-md5.1" title="Content-MD5">Section&nbsp;5.8</a>
937                 / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Content-Range</a>            ; <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a>, <a href="p5-range.html#header.content-range" title="Content-Range">Section 5.2</a>
938                 / <a href="#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a>             ; <a href="#header.content-type" id="rfc.xref.header.content-type.2" title="Content-Type">Section&nbsp;5.9</a>
939                 / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Expires</a>                  ; <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>, <a href="p6-cache.html#header.expires" title="Expires">Section 3.3</a>
940                 / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a>            ; <a href="#Part4" id="rfc.xref.Part4.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests">[Part4]</cite></a>, <a href="p4-conditional.html#header.last-modified" title="Last-Modified">Section 6.6</a>
941                 / <a href="#entity.header.fields" class="smpl">extension-header</a>
942 
943  <a href="#entity.header.fields" class="smpl">extension-header</a> = <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">header-field</a>
944</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">The extension-header mechanism allows additional entity-header fields to be defined without changing the protocol, but these
945               fields cannot be assumed to be recognizable by the recipient. Unrecognized header fields <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be ignored by the recipient and <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be forwarded by transparent proxies.
946            </p>
947         </div>
948         <div id="entity.body">
949            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity.body">Entity Body</a></h2>
950            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">The entity-body (if any) sent with an HTTP request or response is in a format and encoding defined by the entity-header fields.</p>
951            <div id="rfc.figure.u.13"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.13"></span>  <a href="#entity.body" class="smpl">entity-body</a>    = *<a href="#notation" class="smpl">OCTET</a>
952</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">An entity-body is only present in a message when a message-body is present, as described in <a href="p1-messaging.html#message.body" title="Message Body">Section 3.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.18"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>. The entity-body is obtained from the message-body by decoding any Transfer-Encoding that might have been applied to ensure
953               safe and proper transfer of the message.
954            </p>
955            <div id="type">
956               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.1">3.2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#type">Type</a></h3>
957               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.1">When an entity-body is included with a message, the data type of that body is determined via the header fields Content-Type
958                  and Content-Encoding. These define a two-layer, ordered encoding model:
959               </p>
960               <div id="rfc.figure.u.14"></div><pre class="text">  entity-body := Content-Encoding( Content-Type( data ) )
961</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.3">Content-Type specifies the media type of the underlying data. Any HTTP/1.1 message containing an entity-body <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> include a Content-Type header field defining the media type of that body, unless that information is unknown.
962               </p>
963               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.4">If the Content-Type header field is not present, it indicates that the sender does not know the media type of the data; recipients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> either assume that it is "application/octet-stream" (<a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.3"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046#section-4.5.1">Section 4.5.1</a>) or examine the content to determine its type.
964               </p>
965               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.5">In practice, currently-deployed servers sometimes provide a Content-Type header which does not correctly convey the intended
966                  interpretation of the content sent, with the result that some clients will examine the response body's content and override
967                  the specified type.
968               </p>
969               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.6">Client that do so risk drawing incorrect conclusions, which may expose additional security risks (e.g., "privilege escalation").
970                  Implementers are encouraged to provide a means of disabling such "content sniffing" when it is used.
971               </p>
972               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.1.p.7">Content-Encoding may be used to indicate any additional content codings applied to the data, usually for the purpose of data
973                  compression, that are a property of the requested resource. There is no default encoding.
974               </p>
975            </div>
976            <div id="entity.length">
977               <h3 id="rfc.section.3.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2.2">3.2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#entity.length">Entity Length</a></h3>
978               <p id="rfc.section.3.2.2.p.1">The entity-length of a message is the length of the message-body before any transfer-codings have been applied. <a href="p1-messaging.html#message.length" title="Message Length">Section 3.4</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.19"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> defines how the transfer-length of a message-body is determined.
979               </p>
980            </div>
981         </div>
982      </div>
983      <div id="content.negotiation">
984         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content.negotiation">Content Negotiation</a></h1>
985         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">HTTP responses include a representation which contains information for interpretation, whether by a human user or for further
986            processing. Often, the server has different ways of representing the same information; for example, in different formats,
987            languages, or using different character encodings.
988         </p>
989         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.2">HTTP clients and their users might have different or variable capabilities, characteristics or preferences which would influence
990            which representation, among those available from the server, would be best for the server to deliver. For this reason, HTTP
991            provides mechanisms for "content negotiation" -- a process of allowing selection of a representation of a given resource,
992            when more than one is available.
993         </p>
994         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.3">This specification defines two patterns of content negotiation; "server-driven", where the server selects the representation
995            based upon the client's stated preferences, and "agent-driven" negotiation, where the server provides a list of representations
996            for the client to choose from, based upon their metadata. In addition, there are other patterns: some applications use an
997            "active content" pattern, where the server returns active content which runs on the client and, based on client available
998            parameters, selects additional resources to invoke. "Transparent Content Negotiation" (<a href="#RFC2295" id="rfc.xref.RFC2295.1"><cite title="Transparent Content Negotiation in HTTP">[RFC2295]</cite></a>) has also been proposed.
999         </p>
1000         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.4">These patterns are all widely used, and have trade-offs in applicability and practicality. In particular, when the number
1001            of preferences or capabilities to be expressed by a client are large (such as when many different formats are supported by
1002            a user-agent), server-driven negotiation becomes unwieldy, and may not be appropriate. Conversely, when the number of representations
1003            to choose from is very large, agent-driven negotiation may not be appropriate.
1004         </p>
1005         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.5">Note that in all cases, the supplier of representations has the responsibility for determining which representations might
1006            be considered to be the "same information".
1007         </p>
1008         <div id="server-driven.negotiation">
1009            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.1"><a href="#rfc.section.4.1">4.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#server-driven.negotiation">Server-driven Negotiation</a></h2>
1010            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.1">If the selection of the best representation for a response is made by an algorithm located at the server, it is called server-driven
1011               negotiation. Selection is based on the available representations of the response (the dimensions over which it can vary; e.g.,
1012               language, content-coding, etc.) and the contents of particular header fields in the request message or on other information
1013               pertaining to the request (such as the network address of the client).
1014            </p>
1015            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.2">Server-driven negotiation is advantageous when the algorithm for selecting from among the available representations is difficult
1016               to describe to the user agent, or when the server desires to send its "best guess" to the client along with the first response
1017               (hoping to avoid the round-trip delay of a subsequent request if the "best guess" is good enough for the user). In order to
1018               improve the server's guess, the user agent <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include request header fields (Accept, Accept-Language, Accept-Encoding, etc.) which describe its preferences for such a response.
1019            </p>
1020            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.3">Server-driven negotiation has disadvantages: </p>
1021            <ol>
1022               <li>It is impossible for the server to accurately determine what might be "best" for any given user, since that would require
1023                  complete knowledge of both the capabilities of the user agent and the intended use for the response (e.g., does the user want
1024                  to view it on screen or print it on paper?).
1025               </li>
1026               <li>Having the user agent describe its capabilities in every request can be both very inefficient (given that only a small percentage
1027                  of responses have multiple representations) and a potential violation of the user's privacy.
1028               </li>
1029               <li>It complicates the implementation of an origin server and the algorithms for generating responses to a request.</li>
1030               <li>It may limit a public cache's ability to use the same response for multiple user's requests.</li>
1031            </ol>
1032            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.4">HTTP/1.1 includes the following request-header fields for enabling server-driven negotiation through description of user agent
1033               capabilities and user preferences: Accept (<a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.2" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;5.1</a>), Accept-Charset (<a href="#header.accept-charset" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.1" title="Accept-Charset">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>), Accept-Encoding (<a href="#header.accept-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.2" title="Accept-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.3</a>), Accept-Language (<a href="#header.accept-language" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-language.1" title="Accept-Language">Section&nbsp;5.4</a>), and User-Agent (<a href="p2-semantics.html#header.user-agent" title="User-Agent">Section 9.9</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a>). However, an origin server is not limited to these dimensions and <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> vary the response based on any aspect of the request, including information outside the request-header fields or within extension
1034               header fields not defined by this specification.
1035            </p>
1036            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.4.1.p.5">
1037               <p><b>Note:</b> In practice, User-Agent based negotiation is fragile, because new clients might not be recognized.
1038               </p> 
1039            </div>
1040            <p id="rfc.section.4.1.p.6">The Vary header field (<a href="p6-cache.html#header.vary" title="Vary">Section 3.5</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.3"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) can be used to express the parameters the server uses to select a representation that is subject to server-driven negotiation.
1041            </p>
1042         </div>
1043         <div id="agent-driven.negotiation">
1044            <h2 id="rfc.section.4.2"><a href="#rfc.section.4.2">4.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#agent-driven.negotiation">Agent-driven Negotiation</a></h2>
1045            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.1">With agent-driven negotiation, selection of the best representation for a response is performed by the user agent after receiving
1046               an initial response from the origin server. Selection is based on a list of the available representations of the response
1047               included within the header fields or entity-body of the initial response, with each representation identified by its own URI.
1048               Selection from among the representations may be performed automatically (if the user agent is capable of doing so) or manually
1049               by the user selecting from a generated (possibly hypertext) menu.
1050            </p>
1051            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.2">Agent-driven negotiation is advantageous when the response would vary over commonly-used dimensions (such as type, language,
1052               or encoding), when the origin server is unable to determine a user agent's capabilities from examining the request, and generally
1053               when public caches are used to distribute server load and reduce network usage.
1054            </p>
1055            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.3">Agent-driven negotiation suffers from the disadvantage of needing a second request to obtain the best alternate representation.
1056               This second request is only efficient when caching is used. In addition, this specification does not define any mechanism
1057               for supporting automatic selection, though it also does not prevent any such mechanism from being developed as an extension
1058               and used within HTTP/1.1.
1059            </p>
1060            <p id="rfc.section.4.2.p.4">This specification defines the 300 (Multiple Choices) and 406 (Not Acceptable) status codes for enabling agent-driven negotiation
1061               when the server is unwilling or unable to provide a varying response using server-driven negotiation.
1062            </p>
1063         </div>
1064      </div>
1065      <div id="header.fields">
1066         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
1067         <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to the payload of messages.</p>
1068         <p id="rfc.section.5.p.2">For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who
1069            receives the entity.
1070         </p>
1071         <div id="header.accept">
1072            <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
1073            <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
1074            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept">Accept</a></h2>
1075            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">The "Accept" request-header field can be used by user agents to specify response media types that are acceptable. Accept headers
1076               can be used to indicate that the request is specifically limited to a small set of desired types, as in the case of a request
1077               for an in-line image.
1078            </p>
1079            <div id="rfc.figure.u.15"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.15"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.16"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.17"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.18"></span>  <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">Accept</a>   = "Accept" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">Accept-v</a>
1080  <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">Accept-v</a> = #( <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">media-range</a> [ <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">accept-params</a> ] )
1081 
1082  <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">media-range</a>    = ( "*/*"
1083                   / ( <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">type</a> "/" "*" )
1084                   / ( <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">type</a> "/" <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">subtype</a> )
1085                   ) *( <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">parameter</a> )
1086  <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">accept-params</a>  = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> "q=" <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">qvalue</a> *( <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">accept-ext</a> )
1087  <a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">accept-ext</a>     = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
1088                   [ "=" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">word</a> ]
1089</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.3">The asterisk "*" character is used to group media types into ranges, with "*/*" indicating all media types and "type/*" indicating
1090               all subtypes of that type. The media-range <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include media type parameters that are applicable to that range.
1091            </p>
1092            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.4">Each media-range <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be followed by one or more accept-params, beginning with the "q" parameter for indicating a relative quality factor. The first
1093               "q" parameter (if any) separates the media-range parameter(s) from the accept-params. Quality factors allow the user or user
1094               agent to indicate the relative degree of preference for that media-range, using the qvalue scale from 0 to 1 (<a href="p1-messaging.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 6.4</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.20"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>). The default value is q=1.
1095            </p>
1096            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.1.p.5">
1097               <p><b>Note:</b> Use of the "q" parameter name to separate media type parameters from Accept extension parameters is due to historical practice.
1098                  Although this prevents any media type parameter named "q" from being used with a media range, such an event is believed to
1099                  be unlikely given the lack of any "q" parameters in the IANA media type registry and the rare usage of any media type parameters
1100                  in Accept. Future media types are discouraged from registering any parameter named "q".
1101               </p> 
1102            </div>
1103            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.6">The example</p>
1104            <div id="rfc.figure.u.16"></div><pre class="text">  Accept: audio/*; q=0.2, audio/basic
1105</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.8"><em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be interpreted as "I prefer audio/basic, but send me any audio type if it is the best available after an 80% mark-down in
1106               quality."
1107            </p>
1108            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.9">If no Accept header field is present, then it is assumed that the client accepts all media types. If an Accept header field
1109               is present, and if the server cannot send a response which is acceptable according to the combined Accept field value, then
1110               the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send a 406 (Not Acceptable) response.
1111            </p>
1112            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.10">A more elaborate example is</p>
1113            <div id="rfc.figure.u.17"></div><pre class="text">  Accept: text/plain; q=0.5, text/html,
1114          text/x-dvi; q=0.8, text/x-c
1115</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.12">Verbally, this would be interpreted as "text/html and text/x-c are the preferred media types, but if they do not exist, then
1116               send the text/x-dvi entity, and if that does not exist, send the text/plain entity."
1117            </p>
1118            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.13">Media ranges can be overridden by more specific media ranges or specific media types. If more than one media range applies
1119               to a given type, the most specific reference has precedence. For example,
1120            </p>
1121            <div id="rfc.figure.u.18"></div><pre class="text">  Accept: text/*, text/html, text/html;level=1, */*
1122</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.15">have the following precedence: </p>
1123            <ol>
1124               <li>text/html;level=1</li>
1125               <li>text/html</li>
1126               <li>text/*</li>
1127               <li>*/*</li>
1128            </ol>
1129            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.16">The media type quality factor associated with a given type is determined by finding the media range with the highest precedence
1130               which matches that type. For example,
1131            </p>
1132            <div id="rfc.figure.u.19"></div><pre class="text">  Accept: text/*;q=0.3, text/html;q=0.7, text/html;level=1,
1133          text/html;level=2;q=0.4, */*;q=0.5
1134</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.18">would cause the following values to be associated:</p>
1135            <div id="rfc.table.u.1">
1136               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1137                  <thead>
1138                     <tr>
1139                        <th>Media Type</th>
1140                        <th>Quality Value</th>
1141                     </tr>
1142                  </thead>
1143                  <tbody>
1144                     <tr>
1145                        <td class="left">text/html;level=1</td>
1146                        <td class="left">1</td>
1147                     </tr>
1148                     <tr>
1149                        <td class="left">text/html</td>
1150                        <td class="left">0.7</td>
1151                     </tr>
1152                     <tr>
1153                        <td class="left">text/plain</td>
1154                        <td class="left">0.3</td>
1155                     </tr>
1156                     <tr>
1157                        <td class="left">image/jpeg</td>
1158                        <td class="left">0.5</td>
1159                     </tr>
1160                     <tr>
1161                        <td class="left">text/html;level=2</td>
1162                        <td class="left">0.4</td>
1163                     </tr>
1164                     <tr>
1165                        <td class="left">text/html;level=3</td>
1166                        <td class="left">0.7</td>
1167                     </tr>
1168                  </tbody>
1169               </table>
1170            </div>
1171            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.19"><b>Note:</b> A user agent might be provided with a default set of quality values for certain media ranges. However, unless the user agent
1172               is a closed system which cannot interact with other rendering agents, this default set ought to be configurable by the user.
1173            </p>
1174         </div>
1175         <div id="header.accept-charset">
1176            <div id="rfc.iref.a.2"></div>
1177            <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
1178            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.2"><a href="#rfc.section.5.2">5.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-charset">Accept-Charset</a></h2>
1179            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.1">The "Accept-Charset" request-header field can be used by user agents to indicate what response character sets are acceptable.
1180               This field allows clients capable of understanding more comprehensive or special-purpose character sets to signal that capability
1181               to a server which is capable of representing documents in those character sets.
1182            </p>
1183            <div id="rfc.figure.u.20"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.19"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.20"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-charset" class="smpl">Accept-Charset</a>   = "Accept-Charset" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>
1184          <a href="#header.accept-charset" class="smpl">Accept-Charset-v</a>
1185  <a href="#header.accept-charset" class="smpl">Accept-Charset-v</a> = 1#( ( <a href="#rule.charset" class="smpl">charset</a> / "*" )
1186                         [ <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> "q=" <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">qvalue</a> ] )
1187</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.3">Character set values are described in <a href="#character.sets" title="Character Sets">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>. Each charset <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be given an associated quality value which represents the user's preference for that charset. The default value is q=1. An
1188               example is
1189            </p>
1190            <div id="rfc.figure.u.21"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Charset: iso-8859-5, unicode-1-1;q=0.8
1191</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.5">The special value "*", if present in the Accept-Charset field, matches every character set (including ISO-8859-1) which is
1192               not mentioned elsewhere in the Accept-Charset field. If no "*" is present in an Accept-Charset field, then all character sets
1193               not explicitly mentioned get a quality value of 0, except for ISO-8859-1, which gets a quality value of 1 if not explicitly
1194               mentioned.
1195            </p>
1196            <p id="rfc.section.5.2.p.6">If no Accept-Charset header is present, the default is that any character set is acceptable. If an Accept-Charset header is
1197               present, and if the server cannot send a response which is acceptable according to the Accept-Charset header, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send an error response with the 406 (Not Acceptable) status code, though the sending of an unacceptable response is also allowed.
1198            </p>
1199         </div>
1200         <div id="header.accept-encoding">
1201            <div id="rfc.iref.a.3"></div>
1202            <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
1203            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.3"><a href="#rfc.section.5.3">5.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-encoding">Accept-Encoding</a></h2>
1204            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.1">The "Accept-Encoding" request-header field can be used by user agents to indicate what response content-codings (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>) are acceptable in the response.
1205            </p>
1206            <div id="rfc.figure.u.22"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.21"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.22"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.23"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">Accept-Encoding</a>    = "Accept-Encoding" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>
1207                     <a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">Accept-Encoding-v</a>
1208  <a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">Accept-Encoding-v</a>  =
1209                     #( <a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">codings</a> [ <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> "q=" <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">qvalue</a> ] )
1210  <a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">codings</a>            = ( <a href="#content.codings" class="smpl">content-coding</a> / "*" )
1211</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.3">Each codings value <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be given an associated quality value which represents the preference for that encoding. The default value is q=1.
1212            </p>
1213            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.4">Examples of its use are:</p>
1214            <div id="rfc.figure.u.23"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Encoding: compress, gzip
1215  Accept-Encoding:
1216  Accept-Encoding: *
1217  Accept-Encoding: compress;q=0.5, gzip;q=1.0
1218  Accept-Encoding: gzip;q=1.0, identity; q=0.5, *;q=0
1219</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.6">A server tests whether a content-coding is acceptable, according to an Accept-Encoding field, using these rules: </p>
1220            <ol>
1221               <li>If the content-coding is one of the content-codings listed in the Accept-Encoding field, then it is acceptable, unless it
1222                  is accompanied by a qvalue of 0. (As defined in <a href="p1-messaging.html#quality.values" title="Quality Values">Section 6.4</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.21"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, a qvalue of 0 means "not acceptable.")
1223               </li>
1224               <li>The special "*" symbol in an Accept-Encoding field matches any available content-coding not explicitly listed in the header
1225                  field.
1226               </li>
1227               <li>If multiple content-codings are acceptable, then the acceptable content-coding with the highest non-zero qvalue is preferred.</li>
1228               <li>The "identity" content-coding is always acceptable, unless specifically refused because the Accept-Encoding field includes
1229                  "identity;q=0", or because the field includes "*;q=0" and does not explicitly include the "identity" content-coding. If the
1230                  Accept-Encoding field-value is empty, then only the "identity" encoding is acceptable.
1231               </li>
1232            </ol>
1233            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.7">If an Accept-Encoding field is present in a request, and if the server cannot send a response which is acceptable according
1234               to the Accept-Encoding header, then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> send an error response with the 406 (Not Acceptable) status code.
1235            </p>
1236            <p id="rfc.section.5.3.p.8">If no Accept-Encoding field is present in a request, the server <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> assume that the client will accept any content coding. In this case, if "identity" is one of the available content-codings,
1237               then the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> use the "identity" content-coding, unless it has additional information that a different content-coding is meaningful to the
1238               client.
1239            </p>
1240            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.3.p.9">
1241               <p><b>Note:</b> If the request does not include an Accept-Encoding field, and if the "identity" content-coding is unavailable, then content-codings
1242                  commonly understood by HTTP/1.0 clients (i.e., "gzip" and "compress") are preferred; some older clients improperly display
1243                  messages sent with other content-codings. The server might also make this decision based on information about the particular
1244                  user-agent or client.
1245               </p> 
1246            </div>
1247            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.3.p.10">
1248               <p><b>Note:</b> Most HTTP/1.0 applications do not recognize or obey qvalues associated with content-codings. This means that qvalues will
1249                  not work and are not permitted with x-gzip or x-compress.
1250               </p> 
1251            </div>
1252         </div>
1253         <div id="header.accept-language">
1254            <div id="rfc.iref.a.4"></div>
1255            <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
1256            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.4"><a href="#rfc.section.5.4">5.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.accept-language">Accept-Language</a></h2>
1257            <p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.1">The "Accept-Language" request-header field can be used by user agents to indicate the set of natural languages that are preferred
1258               in the response. Language tags are defined in <a href="#language.tags" title="Language Tags">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>.
1259            </p>
1260            <div id="rfc.figure.u.24"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.24"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.25"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.26"></span>  <a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">Accept-Language</a>   = "Accept-Language" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>
1261                    <a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">Accept-Language-v</a>
1262  <a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">Accept-Language-v</a> =
1263                    1#( <a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">language-range</a> [ <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> "q=" <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">qvalue</a> ] )
1264  <a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">language-range</a>    =
1265            &lt;language-range, defined in <a href="#RFC4647" id="rfc.xref.RFC4647.1"><cite title="Matching of Language Tags">[RFC4647]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4647#section-2.1">Section 2.1</a>&gt;
1266</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.3">Each language-range can be given an associated quality value which represents an estimate of the user's preference for the
1267               languages specified by that range. The quality value defaults to "q=1". For example,
1268            </p>
1269            <div id="rfc.figure.u.25"></div><pre class="text">  Accept-Language: da, en-gb;q=0.8, en;q=0.7
1270</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.5">would mean: "I prefer Danish, but will accept British English and other types of English." (see also <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4647#section-2.3">Section 2.3</a> of <a href="#RFC4647" id="rfc.xref.RFC4647.2"><cite title="Matching of Language Tags">[RFC4647]</cite></a>)
1271            </p>
1272            <p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.6">For matching, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4647#section-3">Section 3</a> of <a href="#RFC4647" id="rfc.xref.RFC4647.3"><cite title="Matching of Language Tags">[RFC4647]</cite></a> defines several matching schemes. Implementations can offer the most appropriate matching scheme for their requirements.
1273            </p>
1274            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.4.p.7">
1275               <p><b>Note:</b> The "Basic Filtering" scheme (<a href="#RFC4647" id="rfc.xref.RFC4647.4"><cite title="Matching of Language Tags">[RFC4647]</cite></a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4647#section-3.3.1">Section 3.3.1</a>) is identical to the matching scheme that was previously defined in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616#section-14.4">Section 14.4</a> of <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
1276               </p> 
1277            </div>
1278            <p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.8">It might be contrary to the privacy expectations of the user to send an Accept-Language header with the complete linguistic
1279               preferences of the user in every request. For a discussion of this issue, see <a href="#privacy.issues.connected.to.accept.headers" title="Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers">Section&nbsp;7.1</a>.
1280            </p>
1281            <p id="rfc.section.5.4.p.9">As intelligibility is highly dependent on the individual user, it is recommended that client applications make the choice
1282               of linguistic preference available to the user. If the choice is not made available, then the Accept-Language header field <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be given in the request.
1283            </p>
1284            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.4.p.10">
1285               <p><b>Note:</b> When making the choice of linguistic preference available to the user, we remind implementors of the fact that users are not
1286                  familiar with the details of language matching as described above, and should provide appropriate guidance. As an example,
1287                  users might assume that on selecting "en-gb", they will be served any kind of English document if British English is not available.
1288                  A user agent might suggest in such a case to add "en" to get the best matching behavior.
1289               </p> 
1290            </div>
1291         </div>
1292         <div id="header.content-encoding">
1293            <div id="rfc.iref.c.7"></div>
1294            <div id="rfc.iref.h.5"></div>
1295            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5.5">5.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-encoding">Content-Encoding</a></h2>
1296            <p id="rfc.section.5.5.p.1">The "Content-Encoding" entity-header field indicates what content-codings have been applied to the entity-body, and thus what
1297               decoding mechanisms must be applied in order to obtain the media-type referenced by the Content-Type header field. Content-Encoding
1298               is primarily used to allow a document to be compressed without losing the identity of its underlying media type.
1299            </p>
1300            <div id="rfc.figure.u.26"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.27"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.28"></span>  <a href="#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a>   = "Content-Encoding" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding-v</a>
1301  <a href="#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding-v</a> = 1#<a href="#content.codings" class="smpl">content-coding</a>
1302</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.5.p.3">Content codings are defined in <a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>. An example of its use is
1303            </p>
1304            <div id="rfc.figure.u.27"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Encoding: gzip
1305</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.5.p.5">The content-coding is a characteristic of the entity identified by the Effective Request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.22"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>). Typically, the entity-body is stored with this encoding and is only decoded before rendering or analogous usage. However,
1306               a non-transparent proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> modify the content-coding if the new coding is known to be acceptable to the recipient, unless the "no-transform" cache-control
1307               directive is present in the message.
1308            </p>
1309            <p id="rfc.section.5.5.p.6">If the content-coding of an entity is not "identity", then the response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a Content-Encoding entity-header (<a href="#header.content-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.3" title="Content-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.5</a>) that lists the non-identity content-coding(s) used.
1310            </p>
1311            <p id="rfc.section.5.5.p.7">If the content-coding of an entity in a request message is not acceptable to the origin server, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> respond with a status code of 415 (Unsupported Media Type).
1312            </p>
1313            <p id="rfc.section.5.5.p.8">If multiple encodings have been applied to an entity, the content codings <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be listed in the order in which they were applied. Additional information about the encoding parameters <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be provided by other entity-header fields not defined by this specification.
1314            </p>
1315         </div>
1316         <div id="header.content-language">
1317            <div id="rfc.iref.c.8"></div>
1318            <div id="rfc.iref.h.6"></div>
1319            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.6"><a href="#rfc.section.5.6">5.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-language">Content-Language</a></h2>
1320            <p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.1">The "Content-Language" entity-header field describes the natural language(s) of the intended audience for the entity. Note
1321               that this might not be equivalent to all the languages used within the entity-body.
1322            </p>
1323            <div id="rfc.figure.u.28"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.29"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.30"></span>  <a href="#header.content-language" class="smpl">Content-Language</a>   = "Content-Language" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.content-language" class="smpl">Content-Language-v</a>
1324  <a href="#header.content-language" class="smpl">Content-Language-v</a> = 1#<a href="#language.tags" class="smpl">language-tag</a>
1325</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.3">Language tags are defined in <a href="#language.tags" title="Language Tags">Section&nbsp;2.4</a>. The primary purpose of Content-Language is to allow a user to identify and differentiate entities according to the user's
1326               own preferred language. Thus, if the body content is intended only for a Danish-literate audience, the appropriate field is
1327            </p>
1328            <div id="rfc.figure.u.29"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Language: da
1329</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.5">If no Content-Language is specified, the default is that the content is intended for all language audiences. This might mean
1330               that the sender does not consider it to be specific to any natural language, or that the sender does not know for which language
1331               it is intended.
1332            </p>
1333            <p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.6">Multiple languages <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be listed for content that is intended for multiple audiences. For example, a rendition of the "Treaty of Waitangi," presented
1334               simultaneously in the original Maori and English versions, would call for
1335            </p>
1336            <div id="rfc.figure.u.30"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Language: mi, en
1337</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.8">However, just because multiple languages are present within an entity does not mean that it is intended for multiple linguistic
1338               audiences. An example would be a beginner's language primer, such as "A First Lesson in Latin," which is clearly intended
1339               to be used by an English-literate audience. In this case, the Content-Language would properly only include "en".
1340            </p>
1341            <p id="rfc.section.5.6.p.9">Content-Language <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be applied to any media type -- it is not limited to textual documents.
1342            </p>
1343         </div>
1344         <div id="header.content-location">
1345            <div id="rfc.iref.c.9"></div>
1346            <div id="rfc.iref.h.7"></div>
1347            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.7"><a href="#rfc.section.5.7">5.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-location">Content-Location</a></h2>
1348            <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.1">The "Content-Location" entity-header field is used to supply a URI for the entity in the message when it is accessible from
1349               a location separate from the requested resource's URI.
1350            </p>
1351            <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.2">A server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> provide a Content-Location for the variant corresponding to the response entity, especially in the case where a resource has
1352               multiple entities associated with it, and those entities actually have separate locations by which they might be individually
1353               accessed, the server <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> provide a Content-Location for the particular variant which is returned.
1354            </p>
1355            <div id="rfc.figure.u.31"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.31"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.32"></span>  <a href="#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a>   = "Content-Location" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>
1356                    <a href="#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location-v</a>
1357  <a href="#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location-v</a> =
1358                    <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a> / <a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">partial-URI</a>
1359</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.4">The Content-Location value is not a replacement for the Effective Request URI (<a href="p1-messaging.html#effective.request.uri" title="Effective Request URI">Section 4.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.23"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>); it is only a statement of the location of the resource corresponding to this particular entity at the time of the request.
1360               Future requests <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> may be addressed to the Content-Location URI if the desire is to identify the source of that particular entity.
1361            </p>
1362            <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.5"><a href="p2-semantics.html#identifying.response.associated.with.representation" title="Identifying the Resource Associated with a Representation">Section 6.1</a> of <a href="#Part2" id="rfc.xref.Part2.2"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics">[Part2]</cite></a> describes how clients may process the Content-Location header field.
1363            </p>
1364            <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.6">A cache cannot assume that an entity with a Content-Location different from the URI used to retrieve it can be used to respond
1365               to later requests on that Content-Location URI. However, the Content-Location can be used to differentiate between multiple
1366               entities retrieved from a single requested resource, as described in <a href="p6-cache.html#caching.negotiated.responses" title="Caching Negotiated Responses">Section 2.7</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>.
1367            </p>
1368            <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.7">If the Content-Location is a relative URI, the relative URI is interpreted relative to the Effective Request URI.</p>
1369            <p id="rfc.section.5.7.p.8">The meaning of the Content-Location header in requests is undefined; servers are free to ignore it in those cases.</p>
1370         </div>
1371         <div id="header.content-md5">
1372            <div id="rfc.iref.c.10"></div>
1373            <div id="rfc.iref.h.8"></div>
1374            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.8"><a href="#rfc.section.5.8">5.8</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-md5">Content-MD5</a></h2>
1375            <p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.1">The "Content-MD5" entity-header field, as defined in <a href="#RFC1864" id="rfc.xref.RFC1864.1"><cite title="The Content-MD5 Header Field">[RFC1864]</cite></a>, is an MD5 digest of the entity-body that provides an end-to-end message integrity check (MIC) of the entity-body. Note that
1376               a MIC is good for detecting accidental modification of the entity-body in transit, but is not proof against malicious attacks.
1377            </p>
1378            <div id="rfc.figure.u.32"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.33"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.34"></span>  <a href="#header.content-md5" class="smpl">Content-MD5</a>   = "Content-MD5" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.content-md5" class="smpl">Content-MD5-v</a>
1379  <a href="#header.content-md5" class="smpl">Content-MD5-v</a> = &lt;base64 of 128 bit MD5 digest as per <a href="#RFC1864" id="rfc.xref.RFC1864.2"><cite title="The Content-MD5 Header Field">[RFC1864]</cite></a>&gt;
1380</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.3">The Content-MD5 header field <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be generated by an origin server or client to function as an integrity check of the entity-body. Only origin servers or clients <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> generate the Content-MD5 header field; proxies and gateways <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> generate it, as this would defeat its value as an end-to-end integrity check. Any recipient of the entity-body, including
1381               gateways and proxies, <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> check that the digest value in this header field matches that of the entity-body as received.
1382            </p>
1383            <p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.4">The MD5 digest is computed based on the content of the entity-body, including any content-coding that has been applied, but
1384               not including any transfer-encoding applied to the message-body. If the message is received with a transfer-encoding, that
1385               encoding <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be removed prior to checking the Content-MD5 value against the received entity.
1386            </p>
1387            <p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.5">This has the result that the digest is computed on the octets of the entity-body exactly as, and in the order that, they would
1388               be sent if no transfer-encoding were being applied.
1389            </p>
1390            <p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.6">HTTP extends RFC 1864 to permit the digest to be computed for MIME composite media-types (e.g., multipart/* and message/rfc822),
1391               but this does not change how the digest is computed as defined in the preceding paragraph.
1392            </p>
1393            <p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.7">There are several consequences of this. The entity-body for composite types <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> contain many body-parts, each with its own MIME and HTTP headers (including Content-MD5, Content-Transfer-Encoding, and Content-Encoding
1394               headers). If a body-part has a Content-Transfer-Encoding or Content-Encoding header, it is assumed that the content of the
1395               body-part has had the encoding applied, and the body-part is included in the Content-MD5 digest as is -- i.e., after the application.
1396               The Transfer-Encoding header field is not allowed within body-parts.
1397            </p>
1398            <p id="rfc.section.5.8.p.8">Conversion of all line breaks to CRLF <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> be done before computing or checking the digest: the line break convention used in the text actually transmitted <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be left unaltered when computing the digest.
1399            </p>
1400            <div class="note" id="rfc.section.5.8.p.9">
1401               <p><b>Note:</b> While the definition of Content-MD5 is exactly the same for HTTP as in RFC 1864 for MIME entity-bodies, there are several
1402                  ways in which the application of Content-MD5 to HTTP entity-bodies differs from its application to MIME entity-bodies. One
1403                  is that HTTP, unlike MIME, does not use Content-Transfer-Encoding, and does use Transfer-Encoding and Content-Encoding. Another
1404                  is that HTTP more frequently uses binary content types than MIME, so it is worth noting that, in such cases, the byte order
1405                  used to compute the digest is the transmission byte order defined for the type. Lastly, HTTP allows transmission of text types
1406                  with any of several line break conventions and not just the canonical form using CRLF.
1407               </p> 
1408            </div>
1409         </div>
1410         <div id="header.content-type">
1411            <div id="rfc.iref.c.11"></div>
1412            <div id="rfc.iref.h.9"></div>
1413            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.9"><a href="#rfc.section.5.9">5.9</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.content-type">Content-Type</a></h2>
1414            <p id="rfc.section.5.9.p.1">The "Content-Type" entity-header field indicates the media type of the entity-body. In the case of responses to the HEAD method,
1415               the media type is that which would have been sent had the request been a GET.
1416            </p>
1417            <div id="rfc.figure.u.33"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.35"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.36"></span>  <a href="#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a>   = "Content-Type" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type-v</a>
1418  <a href="#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type-v</a> = <a href="#media.types" class="smpl">media-type</a>
1419</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.9.p.3">Media types are defined in <a href="#media.types" title="Media Types">Section&nbsp;2.3</a>. An example of the field is
1420            </p>
1421            <div id="rfc.figure.u.34"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-4
1422</pre><p id="rfc.section.5.9.p.5">Further discussion of methods for identifying the media type of an entity is provided in <a href="#type" title="Type">Section&nbsp;3.2.1</a>.
1423            </p>
1424         </div>
1425      </div>
1426      <div id="IANA.considerations">
1427         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
1428         <div id="message.header.registration">
1429            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.1"><a href="#rfc.section.6.1">6.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#message.header.registration">Message Header Registration</a></h2>
1430            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.1">The Message Header Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html">http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html</a>&gt; should be updated with the permanent registrations below (see <a href="#RFC3864" id="rfc.xref.RFC3864.1"><cite title="Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields">[RFC3864]</cite></a>):
1431            </p>
1432            <div id="rfc.table.1">
1433               <div id="iana.header.registration.table"></div>
1434               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1435                  <thead>
1436                     <tr>
1437                        <th>Header Field Name</th>
1438                        <th>Protocol</th>
1439                        <th>Status</th>
1440                        <th>Reference</th>
1441                     </tr>
1442                  </thead>
1443                  <tbody>
1444                     <tr>
1445                        <td class="left">Accept</td>
1446                        <td class="left">http</td>
1447                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1448                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept" id="rfc.xref.header.accept.3" title="Accept">Section&nbsp;5.1</a> 
1449                        </td>
1450                     </tr>
1451                     <tr>
1452                        <td class="left">Accept-Charset</td>
1453                        <td class="left">http</td>
1454                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1455                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept-charset" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.2" title="Accept-Charset">Section&nbsp;5.2</a> 
1456                        </td>
1457                     </tr>
1458                     <tr>
1459                        <td class="left">Accept-Encoding</td>
1460                        <td class="left">http</td>
1461                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1462                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.3" title="Accept-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.3</a> 
1463                        </td>
1464                     </tr>
1465                     <tr>
1466                        <td class="left">Accept-Language</td>
1467                        <td class="left">http</td>
1468                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1469                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.accept-language" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-language.2" title="Accept-Language">Section&nbsp;5.4</a> 
1470                        </td>
1471                     </tr>
1472                     <tr>
1473                        <td class="left">Content-Disposition</td>
1474                        <td class="left">http</td>
1475                        <td class="left"></td>
1476                        <td class="left"><a href="#content-disposition" id="rfc.xref.content-disposition.1" title="Content-Disposition">Appendix&nbsp;B.1</a> 
1477                        </td>
1478                     </tr>
1479                     <tr>
1480                        <td class="left">Content-Encoding</td>
1481                        <td class="left">http</td>
1482                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1483                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.content-encoding" id="rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.4" title="Content-Encoding">Section&nbsp;5.5</a> 
1484                        </td>
1485                     </tr>
1486                     <tr>
1487                        <td class="left">Content-Language</td>
1488                        <td class="left">http</td>
1489                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1490                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.content-language" id="rfc.xref.header.content-language.2" title="Content-Language">Section&nbsp;5.6</a> 
1491                        </td>
1492                     </tr>
1493                     <tr>
1494                        <td class="left">Content-Location</td>
1495                        <td class="left">http</td>
1496                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1497                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.content-location" id="rfc.xref.header.content-location.2" title="Content-Location">Section&nbsp;5.7</a> 
1498                        </td>
1499                     </tr>
1500                     <tr>
1501                        <td class="left">Content-MD5</td>
1502                        <td class="left">http</td>
1503                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1504                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.content-md5" id="rfc.xref.header.content-md5.2" title="Content-MD5">Section&nbsp;5.8</a> 
1505                        </td>
1506                     </tr>
1507                     <tr>
1508                        <td class="left">Content-Type</td>
1509                        <td class="left">http</td>
1510                        <td class="left">standard</td>
1511                        <td class="left"><a href="#header.content-type" id="rfc.xref.header.content-type.3" title="Content-Type">Section&nbsp;5.9</a> 
1512                        </td>
1513                     </tr>
1514                     <tr>
1515                        <td class="left">MIME-Version</td>
1516                        <td class="left">http</td>
1517                        <td class="left"></td>
1518                        <td class="left"><a href="#mime-version" id="rfc.xref.mime-version.1" title="MIME-Version">Appendix&nbsp;A.1</a> 
1519                        </td>
1520                     </tr>
1521                  </tbody>
1522               </table>
1523            </div>
1524            <p id="rfc.section.6.1.p.2">The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet Engineering Task Force".</p>
1525         </div>
1526         <div id="content.coding.registration">
1527            <h2 id="rfc.section.6.2"><a href="#rfc.section.6.2">6.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content.coding.registration">Content Coding Registry</a></h2>
1528            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.1">The registration procedure for HTTP Content Codings is now defined by <a href="#content.coding.registry" title="Content Coding Registry">Section&nbsp;2.2.1</a> of this document.
1529            </p>
1530            <p id="rfc.section.6.2.p.2">The HTTP Content Codings Registry located at &lt;<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters">http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters</a>&gt; should be updated with the registration below:
1531            </p>
1532            <div id="rfc.table.2">
1533               <div id="iana.content.coding.registration.table"></div>
1534               <table class="tt full left" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
1535                  <thead>
1536                     <tr>
1537                        <th>Name</th>
1538                        <th>Description</th>
1539                        <th>Reference</th>
1540                     </tr>
1541                  </thead>
1542                  <tbody>
1543                     <tr>
1544                        <td class="left">compress</td>
1545                        <td class="left">UNIX "compress" program method</td>
1546                        <td class="left"><a href="p1-messaging.html#compress.coding" title="Compress Coding">Section 6.2.2.1</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.24"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> 
1547                        </td>
1548                     </tr>
1549                     <tr>
1550                        <td class="left">deflate</td>
1551                        <td class="left">"deflate" compression mechanism (<a href="#RFC1951" id="rfc.xref.RFC1951.1"><cite title="DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3">[RFC1951]</cite></a>) used inside the "zlib" data format (<a href="#RFC1950" id="rfc.xref.RFC1950.1"><cite title="ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3">[RFC1950]</cite></a>)
1552                        </td>
1553                        <td class="left"><a href="p1-messaging.html#deflate.coding" title="Deflate Coding">Section 6.2.2.2</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.25"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> 
1554                        </td>
1555                     </tr>
1556                     <tr>
1557                        <td class="left">gzip</td>
1558                        <td class="left">Same as GNU zip <a href="#RFC1952" id="rfc.xref.RFC1952.1"><cite title="GZIP file format specification version 4.3">[RFC1952]</cite></a></td>
1559                        <td class="left"><a href="p1-messaging.html#gzip.coding" title="Gzip Coding">Section 6.2.2.3</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.26"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a> 
1560                        </td>
1561                     </tr>
1562                     <tr>
1563                        <td class="left">identity</td>
1564                        <td class="left">No transformation</td>
1565                        <td class="left"><a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;2.2</a> 
1566                        </td>
1567                     </tr>
1568                  </tbody>
1569               </table>
1570            </div>
1571         </div>
1572      </div>
1573      <div id="security.considerations">
1574         <h1 id="rfc.section.7"><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
1575         <p id="rfc.section.7.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
1576            as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
1577            make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
1578         </p>
1579         <div id="privacy.issues.connected.to.accept.headers">
1580            <h2 id="rfc.section.7.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#privacy.issues.connected.to.accept.headers">Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers</a></h2>
1581            <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.1">Accept request-headers can reveal information about the user to all servers which are accessed. The Accept-Language header
1582               in particular can reveal information the user would consider to be of a private nature, because the understanding of particular
1583               languages is often strongly correlated to the membership of a particular ethnic group. User agents which offer the option
1584               to configure the contents of an Accept-Language header to be sent in every request are strongly encouraged to let the configuration
1585               process include a message which makes the user aware of the loss of privacy involved.
1586            </p>
1587            <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.2">An approach that limits the loss of privacy would be for a user agent to omit the sending of Accept-Language headers by default,
1588               and to ask the user whether or not to start sending Accept-Language headers to a server if it detects, by looking for any
1589               Vary response-header fields generated by the server, that such sending could improve the quality of service.
1590            </p>
1591            <p id="rfc.section.7.1.p.3">Elaborate user-customized accept header fields sent in every request, in particular if these include quality values, can be
1592               used by servers as relatively reliable and long-lived user identifiers. Such user identifiers would allow content providers
1593               to do click-trail tracking, and would allow collaborating content providers to match cross-server click-trails or form submissions
1594               of individual users. Note that for many users not behind a proxy, the network address of the host running the user agent will
1595               also serve as a long-lived user identifier. In environments where proxies are used to enhance privacy, user agents ought to
1596               be conservative in offering accept header configuration options to end users. As an extreme privacy measure, proxies could
1597               filter the accept headers in relayed requests. General purpose user agents which provide a high degree of header configurability <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> warn users about the loss of privacy which can be involved.
1598            </p>
1599         </div>
1600         <div id="content-disposition.issues">
1601            <h2 id="rfc.section.7.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition.issues">Content-Disposition Issues</a></h2>
1602            <p id="rfc.section.7.2.p.1"><a href="#RFC2183" id="rfc.xref.RFC2183.1"><cite title="Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header Field">[RFC2183]</cite></a>, from which the often implemented Content-Disposition (see <a href="#content-disposition" id="rfc.xref.content-disposition.2" title="Content-Disposition">Appendix&nbsp;B.1</a>) header in HTTP is derived, has a number of very serious security considerations. Content-Disposition is not part of the
1603               HTTP standard, but since it is widely implemented, we are documenting its use and risks for implementors. See <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2183#section-5">Section 5</a> of <a href="#RFC2183" id="rfc.xref.RFC2183.2"><cite title="Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header Field">[RFC2183]</cite></a> for details.
1604            </p>
1605         </div>
1606      </div>
1607      <div id="ack">
1608         <h1 id="rfc.section.8"><a href="#rfc.section.8">8.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
1609      </div>
1610      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.9" href="#rfc.section.9">9.</a> References
1611      </h1>
1612      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.9.1" id="rfc.section.9.1">9.1</a> Normative References
1613      </h2>
1614      <table>
1615         <tr>
1616            <td class="reference"><b id="ISO-8859-1">[ISO-8859-1]</b></td>
1617            <td class="top">International Organization for Standardization, “Information technology -- 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets -- Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1”, ISO/IEC&nbsp;8859-1:1998, 1998.</td>
1618         </tr>
1619         <tr>
1620            <td class="reference"><b id="Part1">[Part1]</b></td>
1621            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-10">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-10 (work in progress), July&nbsp;2010.
1622            </td>
1623         </tr>
1624         <tr>
1625            <td class="reference"><b id="Part2">[Part2]</b></td>
1626            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-10">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-10 (work in progress), July&nbsp;2010.
1627            </td>
1628         </tr>
1629         <tr>
1630            <td class="reference"><b id="Part4">[Part4]</b></td>
1631            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-10">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-10 (work in progress), July&nbsp;2010.
1632            </td>
1633         </tr>
1634         <tr>
1635            <td class="reference"><b id="Part5">[Part5]</b></td>
1636            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-10">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-10 (work in progress), July&nbsp;2010.
1637            </td>
1638         </tr>
1639         <tr>
1640            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
1641            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org" title="Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@mnot.net">Nottingham, M., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-10">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-10 (work in progress), July&nbsp;2010.
1642            </td>
1643         </tr>
1644         <tr>
1645            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1864">[RFC1864]</b></td>
1646            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:jgm+@cmu.edu" title="Carnegie Mellon University">Myers, J.</a> and <a href="mailto:mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us" title="Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.">M. Rose</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1864">The Content-MD5 Header Field</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1864, October&nbsp;1995.
1647            </td>
1648         </tr>
1649         <tr>
1650            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1950">[RFC1950]</b></td>
1651            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ghost@aladdin.com" title="Aladdin Enterprises">Deutsch, L.</a> and J-L. Gailly, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1950">ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1950, May&nbsp;1996.<br>RFC 1950 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference
1652               was present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>), therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also <a href="#BCP97" id="rfc.xref.BCP97.1"><cite title="Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents">[BCP97]</cite></a>.
1653            </td>
1654         </tr>
1655         <tr>
1656            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1951">[RFC1951]</b></td>
1657            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ghost@aladdin.com" title="Aladdin Enterprises">Deutsch, P.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1951">DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1951, May&nbsp;1996.<br>RFC 1951 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference
1658               was present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>), therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also <a href="#BCP97" id="rfc.xref.BCP97.2"><cite title="Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents">[BCP97]</cite></a>.
1659            </td>
1660         </tr>
1661         <tr>
1662            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1952">[RFC1952]</b></td>
1663            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ghost@aladdin.com" title="Aladdin Enterprises">Deutsch, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:gzip@prep.ai.mit.edu">Gailly, J-L.</a>, <a href="mailto:madler@alumni.caltech.edu">Adler, M.</a>, <a href="mailto:ghost@aladdin.com">Deutsch, L.</a>, and <a href="mailto:randeg@alumni.rpi.edu">G. Randers-Pehrson</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1952">GZIP file format specification version 4.3</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1952, May&nbsp;1996.<br>RFC 1952 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference
1664               was present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>), therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also <a href="#BCP97" id="rfc.xref.BCP97.3"><cite title="Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents">[BCP97]</cite></a>.
1665            </td>
1666         </tr>
1667         <tr>
1668            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2045">[RFC2045]</b></td>
1669            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2045">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2045, November&nbsp;1996.
1670            </td>
1671         </tr>
1672         <tr>
1673            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2046">[RFC2046]</b></td>
1674            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2046, November&nbsp;1996.
1675            </td>
1676         </tr>
1677         <tr>
1678            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
1679            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
1680            </td>
1681         </tr>
1682         <tr>
1683            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4647">[RFC4647]</b></td>
1684            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:addison@inter-locale.com" title="Yahoo! Inc.">Phillips, A., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:mark.davis@macchiato.com" title="Google">M. Davis, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4647">Matching of Language Tags</a>”, BCP&nbsp;47, RFC&nbsp;4647, September&nbsp;2006.
1685            </td>
1686         </tr>
1687         <tr>
1688            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5234">[RFC5234]</b></td>
1689            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:dcrocker@bbiw.net" title="Brandenburg InternetWorking">Crocker, D., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:paul.overell@thus.net" title="THUS plc.">P. Overell</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234">Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF</a>”, STD&nbsp;68, RFC&nbsp;5234, January&nbsp;2008.
1690            </td>
1691         </tr>
1692         <tr>
1693            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5646">[RFC5646]</b></td>
1694            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:addison@inter-locale.com" title="Lab126">Phillips, A., Ed.</a> and <a href="mailto:mark.davis@google.com" title="Google">M. Davis, Ed.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5646">Tags for Identifying Languages</a>”, BCP&nbsp;47, RFC&nbsp;5646, September&nbsp;2009.
1695            </td>
1696         </tr>
1697      </table>
1698      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.9.2" id="rfc.section.9.2">9.2</a> Informative References
1699      </h2>
1700      <table>
1701         <tr>
1702            <td class="reference"><b id="BCP97">[BCP97]</b></td>
1703            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:klensin+ietf@jck.com">Klensin, J.</a> and <a href="mailto:hartmans-ietf@mit.edu" title="MIT">S. Hartman</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4897">Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents</a>”, BCP&nbsp;97, RFC&nbsp;4897, June&nbsp;2007.
1704            </td>
1705         </tr>
1706         <tr>
1707            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC1945">[RFC1945]</b></td>
1708            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="MIT, Laboratory for Computer Science">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science">Fielding, R.</a>, and <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="W3 Consortium, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">H. Nielsen</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1945">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0</a>”, RFC&nbsp;1945, May&nbsp;1996.
1709            </td>
1710         </tr>
1711         <tr>
1712            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2049">[RFC2049]</b></td>
1713            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned@innosoft.com" title="Innosoft International, Inc.">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:nsb@nsb.fv.com" title="First Virtual Holdings">N. Borenstein</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2049">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Five: Conformance Criteria and Examples</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2049, November&nbsp;1996.
1714            </td>
1715         </tr>
1716         <tr>
1717            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2068">[RFC2068]</b></td>
1718            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Digital Equipment Corporation, Western Research Laboratory">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Nielsen, H.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2068, January&nbsp;1997.
1719            </td>
1720         </tr>
1721         <tr>
1722            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2076">[RFC2076]</b></td>
1723            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:jpalme@dsv.su.se" title="Stockholm University/KTH">Palme, J.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2076">Common Internet Message Headers</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2076, February&nbsp;1997.
1724            </td>
1725         </tr>
1726         <tr>
1727            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2183">[RFC2183]</b></td>
1728            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:rens@century.com" title="New Century Systems">Troost, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:sdorner@qualcomm.com" title="QUALCOMM Incorporated">Dorner, S.</a>, and <a href="mailto:moore@cs.utk.edu" title="Department of Computer Science">K. Moore</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2183">Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header Field</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2183, August&nbsp;1997.
1729            </td>
1730         </tr>
1731         <tr>
1732            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2277">[RFC2277]</b></td>
1733            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:Harald.T.Alvestrand@uninett.no" title="UNINETT">Alvestrand, H.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2277">IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages</a>”, BCP&nbsp;18, RFC&nbsp;2277, January&nbsp;1998.
1734            </td>
1735         </tr>
1736         <tr>
1737            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2295">[RFC2295]</b></td>
1738            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:koen@win.tue.nl" title="Technische Universiteit Eindhoven">Holtman, K.</a> and <a href="mailto:mutz@hpl.hp.com" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">A. Mutz</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2295">Transparent Content Negotiation in HTTP</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2295, March&nbsp;1998.
1739            </td>
1740         </tr>
1741         <tr>
1742            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2388">[RFC2388]</b></td>
1743            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Palo Alto Research Center">Masinter, L.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2388">Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2388, August&nbsp;1998.
1744            </td>
1745         </tr>
1746         <tr>
1747            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2557">[RFC2557]</b></td>
1748            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:jpalme@dsv.su.se" title="Stockholm University and KTH">Palme, F.</a>, <a href="mailto:alexhop@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Hopmann, A.</a>, <a href="mailto:Shelness@lotus.com" title="Lotus Development Corporation">Shelness, N.</a>, and <a href="mailto:stef@nma.com">E. Stefferud</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2557">MIME Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents, such as HTML (MHTML)</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2557, March&nbsp;1999.
1749            </td>
1750         </tr>
1751         <tr>
1752            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
1753            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
1754            </td>
1755         </tr>
1756         <tr>
1757            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3629">[RFC3629]</b></td>
1758            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fyergeau@alis.com" title="Alis Technologies">Yergeau, F.</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3629">UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</a>”, RFC&nbsp;3629, STD&nbsp;63, November&nbsp;2003.
1759            </td>
1760         </tr>
1761         <tr>
1762            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3864">[RFC3864]</b></td>
1763            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:GK-IETF@ninebynine.org" title="Nine by Nine">Klyne, G.</a>, <a href="mailto:mnot@pobox.com" title="BEA Systems">Nottingham, M.</a>, and <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="HP Labs">J. Mogul</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3864">Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</a>”, BCP&nbsp;90, RFC&nbsp;3864, September&nbsp;2004.
1764            </td>
1765         </tr>
1766         <tr>
1767            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4288">[RFC4288]</b></td>
1768            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:ned.freed@mrochek.com" title="Sun Microsystems">Freed, N.</a> and <a href="mailto:klensin+ietf@jck.com">J. Klensin</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4288">Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</a>”, BCP&nbsp;13, RFC&nbsp;4288, December&nbsp;2005.
1769            </td>
1770         </tr>
1771         <tr>
1772            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5226">[RFC5226]</b></td>
1773            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:narten@us.ibm.com" title="IBM">Narten, T.</a> and <a href="mailto:Harald@Alvestrand.no" title="Google">H. Alvestrand</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226">Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs</a>”, BCP&nbsp;26, RFC&nbsp;5226, May&nbsp;2008.
1774            </td>
1775         </tr>
1776         <tr>
1777            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC5322">[RFC5322]</b></td>
1778            <td class="top">Resnick, P., “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322">Internet Message Format</a>”, RFC&nbsp;5322, October&nbsp;2008.
1779            </td>
1780         </tr>
1781      </table>
1782      <div id="differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities">
1783         <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities">Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities</a></h1>
1784         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">HTTP/1.1 uses many of the constructs defined for Internet Mail (<a href="#RFC5322" id="rfc.xref.RFC5322.1"><cite title="Internet Message Format">[RFC5322]</cite></a>) and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>) to allow entities to be transmitted in an open variety of representations and with extensible mechanisms. However, RFC 2045
1785            discusses mail, and HTTP has a few features that are different from those described in RFC 2045. These differences were carefully
1786            chosen to optimize performance over binary connections, to allow greater freedom in the use of new media types, to make date
1787            comparisons easier, and to acknowledge the practice of some early HTTP servers and clients.
1788         </p>
1789         <p id="rfc.section.A.p.2">This appendix describes specific areas where HTTP differs from RFC 2045. Proxies and gateways to strict MIME environments <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be aware of these differences and provide the appropriate conversions where necessary. Proxies and gateways from MIME environments
1790            to HTTP also need to be aware of the differences because some conversions might be required.
1791         </p>
1792         <div id="mime-version">
1793            <div id="rfc.iref.m.1"></div>
1794            <div id="rfc.iref.h.10"></div>
1795            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.1"><a href="#rfc.section.A.1">A.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#mime-version">MIME-Version</a></h2>
1796            <p id="rfc.section.A.1.p.1">HTTP is not a MIME-compliant protocol. However, HTTP/1.1 messages <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> include a single MIME-Version general-header field to indicate what version of the MIME protocol was used to construct the
1797               message. Use of the MIME-Version header field indicates that the message is in full compliance with the MIME protocol (as
1798               defined in <a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.2"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a>). Proxies/gateways are responsible for ensuring full compliance (where possible) when exporting HTTP messages to strict MIME
1799               environments.
1800            </p>
1801            <div id="rfc.figure.u.35"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.37"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.38"></span>  <a href="#mime-version" class="smpl">MIME-Version</a>   = "MIME-Version" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#mime-version" class="smpl">MIME-Version-v</a>
1802  <a href="#mime-version" class="smpl">MIME-Version-v</a> = 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a> "." 1*<a href="#notation" class="smpl">DIGIT</a>
1803</pre><p id="rfc.section.A.1.p.3">MIME version "1.0" is the default for use in HTTP/1.1. However, HTTP/1.1 message parsing and semantics are defined by this
1804               document and not the MIME specification.
1805            </p>
1806         </div>
1807         <div id="conversion.to.canonical.form">
1808            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.2"><a href="#rfc.section.A.2">A.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.to.canonical.form">Conversion to Canonical Form</a></h2>
1809            <p id="rfc.section.A.2.p.1"><a href="#RFC2045" id="rfc.xref.RFC2045.3"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies">[RFC2045]</cite></a> requires that an Internet mail entity be converted to canonical form prior to being transferred, as described in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2049#section-4">Section 4</a> of <a href="#RFC2049" id="rfc.xref.RFC2049.1"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Five: Conformance Criteria and Examples">[RFC2049]</cite></a>. <a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults" title="Canonicalization and Text Defaults">Section&nbsp;2.3.1</a> of this document describes the forms allowed for subtypes of the "text" media type when transmitted over HTTP. <a href="#RFC2046" id="rfc.xref.RFC2046.4"><cite title="Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types">[RFC2046]</cite></a> requires that content with a type of "text" represent line breaks as CRLF and forbids the use of CR or LF outside of line
1810               break sequences. HTTP allows CRLF, bare CR, and bare LF to indicate a line break within text content when a message is transmitted
1811               over HTTP.
1812            </p>
1813            <p id="rfc.section.A.2.p.2">Where it is possible, a proxy or gateway from HTTP to a strict MIME environment <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> translate all line breaks within the text media types described in <a href="#canonicalization.and.text.defaults" title="Canonicalization and Text Defaults">Section&nbsp;2.3.1</a> of this document to the RFC 2049 canonical form of CRLF. Note, however, that this might be complicated by the presence of
1814               a Content-Encoding and by the fact that HTTP allows the use of some character sets which do not use octets 13 and 10 to represent
1815               CR and LF, as is the case for some multi-byte character sets.
1816            </p>
1817            <p id="rfc.section.A.2.p.3">Implementors should note that conversion will break any cryptographic checksums applied to the original content unless the
1818               original content is already in canonical form. Therefore, the canonical form is recommended for any content that uses such
1819               checksums in HTTP.
1820            </p>
1821         </div>
1822         <div id="conversion.of.date.formats">
1823            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.3"><a href="#rfc.section.A.3">A.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#conversion.of.date.formats">Conversion of Date Formats</a></h2>
1824            <p id="rfc.section.A.3.p.1">HTTP/1.1 uses a restricted set of date formats (<a href="p1-messaging.html#date.time.formats.full.date" title="Date/Time Formats: Full Date">Section 6.1</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.27"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>) to simplify the process of date comparison. Proxies and gateways from other protocols <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> ensure that any Date header field present in a message conforms to one of the HTTP/1.1 formats and rewrite the date if necessary.
1825            </p>
1826         </div>
1827         <div id="introduction.of.content-encoding">
1828            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.4"><a href="#rfc.section.A.4">A.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.content-encoding">Introduction of Content-Encoding</a></h2>
1829            <p id="rfc.section.A.4.p.1">RFC 2045 does not include any concept equivalent to HTTP/1.1's Content-Encoding header field. Since this acts as a modifier
1830               on the media type, proxies and gateways from HTTP to MIME-compliant protocols <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> either change the value of the Content-Type header field or decode the entity-body before forwarding the message. (Some experimental
1831               applications of Content-Type for Internet mail have used a media-type parameter of ";conversions=&lt;content-coding&gt;" to perform
1832               a function equivalent to Content-Encoding. However, this parameter is not part of RFC 2045).
1833            </p>
1834         </div>
1835         <div id="no.content-transfer-encoding">
1836            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.5"><a href="#rfc.section.A.5">A.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#no.content-transfer-encoding">No Content-Transfer-Encoding</a></h2>
1837            <p id="rfc.section.A.5.p.1">HTTP does not use the Content-Transfer-Encoding field of RFC 2045. Proxies and gateways from MIME-compliant protocols to HTTP <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> remove any Content-Transfer-Encoding prior to delivering the response message to an HTTP client.
1838            </p>
1839            <p id="rfc.section.A.5.p.2">Proxies and gateways from HTTP to MIME-compliant protocols are responsible for ensuring that the message is in the correct
1840               format and encoding for safe transport on that protocol, where "safe transport" is defined by the limitations of the protocol
1841               being used. Such a proxy or gateway <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> label the data with an appropriate Content-Transfer-Encoding if doing so will improve the likelihood of safe transport over
1842               the destination protocol.
1843            </p>
1844         </div>
1845         <div id="introduction.of.transfer-encoding">
1846            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.6"><a href="#rfc.section.A.6">A.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction.of.transfer-encoding">Introduction of Transfer-Encoding</a></h2>
1847            <p id="rfc.section.A.6.p.1">HTTP/1.1 introduces the Transfer-Encoding header field (<a href="p1-messaging.html#header.transfer-encoding" title="Transfer-Encoding">Section 9.7</a> of <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.28"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>). Proxies/gateways <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> remove any transfer-coding prior to forwarding a message via a MIME-compliant protocol.
1848            </p>
1849         </div>
1850         <div id="mhtml.line.length">
1851            <h2 id="rfc.section.A.7"><a href="#rfc.section.A.7">A.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#mhtml.line.length">MHTML and Line Length Limitations</a></h2>
1852            <p id="rfc.section.A.7.p.1">HTTP implementations which share code with MHTML <a href="#RFC2557" id="rfc.xref.RFC2557.1"><cite title="MIME Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents, such as HTML (MHTML)">[RFC2557]</cite></a> implementations need to be aware of MIME line length limitations. Since HTTP does not have this limitation, HTTP does not
1853               fold long lines. MHTML messages being transported by HTTP follow all conventions of MHTML, including line length limitations
1854               and folding, canonicalization, etc., since HTTP transports all message-bodies as payload (see <a href="#multipart.types" title="Multipart Types">Section&nbsp;2.3.2</a>) and does not interpret the content or any MIME header lines that might be contained therein.
1855            </p>
1856         </div>
1857      </div>
1858      <div id="additional.features">
1859         <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#additional.features">Additional Features</a></h1>
1860         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.1"><a href="#RFC1945" id="rfc.xref.RFC1945.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0">[RFC1945]</cite></a> and <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.4"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a> document protocol elements used by some existing HTTP implementations, but not consistently and correctly across most HTTP/1.1
1861            applications. Implementors are advised to be aware of these features, but cannot rely upon their presence in, or interoperability
1862            with, other HTTP/1.1 applications. Some of these describe proposed experimental features, and some describe features that
1863            experimental deployment found lacking that are now addressed in the base HTTP/1.1 specification.
1864         </p>
1865         <p id="rfc.section.B.p.2">A number of other headers, such as Content-Disposition and Title, from SMTP and MIME are also often implemented (see <a href="#RFC2076" id="rfc.xref.RFC2076.1"><cite title="Common Internet Message Headers">[RFC2076]</cite></a>).
1866         </p>
1867         <div id="content-disposition">
1868            <div id="rfc.iref.h.11"></div>
1869            <div id="rfc.iref.c.12"></div>
1870            <h2 id="rfc.section.B.1"><a href="#rfc.section.B.1">B.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#content-disposition">Content-Disposition</a></h2>
1871            <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.1">The "Content-Disposition" response-header field has been proposed as a means for the origin server to suggest a default filename
1872               if the user requests that the content is saved to a file. This usage is derived from the definition of Content-Disposition
1873               in <a href="#RFC2183" id="rfc.xref.RFC2183.3"><cite title="Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header Field">[RFC2183]</cite></a>.
1874            </p>
1875            <div id="rfc.figure.u.36"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.39"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.40"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.41"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.42"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.43"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.44"></span><span id="rfc.iref.g.45"></span>  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">content-disposition</a> = "Content-Disposition" ":" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a>
1876                        <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">content-disposition-v</a>
1877  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">content-disposition-v</a> = <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disposition-type</a>
1878                          *( <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> ";" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disposition-parm</a> )
1879  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disposition-type</a> = "attachment" / <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disp-extension-token</a>
1880  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disposition-parm</a> = <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">filename-parm</a> / <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disp-extension-parm</a>
1881  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">filename-parm</a> = "filename" "=" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a>
1882  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disp-extension-token</a> = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a>
1883  <a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disp-extension-parm</a> = <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> "=" <a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">word</a>
1884</pre><p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.3">An example is</p>
1885            <div id="rfc.figure.u.37"></div><pre class="text">  Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="fname.ext"
1886</pre><p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.5">The receiving user agent <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> respect any directory path information present in the filename-parm parameter, which is the only parameter believed to apply
1887               to HTTP implementations at this time. The filename <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be treated as a terminal component only.
1888            </p>
1889            <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.6">If this header is used in a response with the application/octet-stream content-type, the implied suggestion is that the user
1890               agent should not display the response, but directly enter a "save response as..." dialog.
1891            </p>
1892            <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.7">See <a href="#content-disposition.issues" title="Content-Disposition Issues">Section&nbsp;7.2</a> for Content-Disposition security issues.
1893            </p>
1894         </div>
1895      </div>
1896      <div id="compatibility">
1897         <h1 id="rfc.section.C"><a href="#rfc.section.C">C.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a></h1>
1898         <div id="changes.from.rfc.2068">
1899            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.1"><a href="#rfc.section.C.1">C.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2068">Changes from RFC 2068</a></h2>
1900            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.1">Transfer-coding and message lengths all interact in ways that required fixing exactly when chunked encoding is used (to allow
1901               for transfer encoding that may not be self delimiting); it was important to straighten out exactly how message lengths are
1902               computed. (<a href="#entity.length" title="Entity Length">Section&nbsp;3.2.2</a>, see also <a href="#Part1" id="rfc.xref.Part1.29"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing">[Part1]</cite></a>, <a href="#Part5" id="rfc.xref.Part5.4"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses">[Part5]</cite></a> and <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.5"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>).
1903            </p>
1904            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.2">Charset wildcarding is introduced to avoid explosion of character set names in accept headers. (<a href="#header.accept-charset" id="rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.3" title="Accept-Charset">Section&nbsp;5.2</a>)
1905            </p>
1906            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.3">Content-Base was deleted from the specification: it was not implemented widely, and there is no simple, safe way to introduce
1907               it without a robust extension mechanism. In addition, it is used in a similar, but not identical fashion in MHTML <a href="#RFC2557" id="rfc.xref.RFC2557.2"><cite title="MIME Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents, such as HTML (MHTML)">[RFC2557]</cite></a>.
1908            </p>
1909            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.4">A content-coding of "identity" was introduced, to solve problems discovered in caching. (<a href="#content.codings" title="Content Codings">Section&nbsp;2.2</a>)
1910            </p>
1911            <p id="rfc.section.C.1.p.5">The Alternates<span id="rfc.iref.a.5"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.12"></span>, Content-Version<span id="rfc.iref.c.13"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.13"></span>, Derived-From<span id="rfc.iref.d.2"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.14"></span>, Link<span id="rfc.iref.l.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.15"></span>, URI<span id="rfc.iref.u.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.16"></span>, Public<span id="rfc.iref.p.1"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.17"></span> and Content-Base<span id="rfc.iref.c.14"></span><span id="rfc.iref.h.18"></span> header fields were defined in previous versions of this specification, but not commonly implemented. See <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068#section-19.6.2">Section 19.6.2</a> of <a href="#RFC2068" id="rfc.xref.RFC2068.5"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2068]</cite></a>.
1912            </p>
1913         </div>
1914         <div id="changes.from.rfc.2616">
1915            <h2 id="rfc.section.C.2"><a href="#rfc.section.C.2">C.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h2>
1916            <p id="rfc.section.C.2.p.1">Clarify contexts that charset is used in. (<a href="#character.sets" title="Character Sets">Section&nbsp;2.1</a>)
1917            </p>
1918            <p id="rfc.section.C.2.p.2">Remove base URI setting semantics for Content-Location due to poor implementation support, which was caused by too many broken
1919               servers emitting bogus Content-Location headers, and also the potentially undesirable effect of potentially breaking relative
1920               links in content-negotiated resources. (<a href="#header.content-location" id="rfc.xref.header.content-location.3" title="Content-Location">Section&nbsp;5.7</a>)
1921            </p>
1922            <p id="rfc.section.C.2.p.3">Remove reference to non-existant identity transfer-coding value tokens. (<a href="#no.content-transfer-encoding" title="No Content-Transfer-Encoding">Appendix&nbsp;A.5</a>)
1923            </p>
1924         </div>
1925      </div>
1926      <div id="collected.abnf">
1927         <h1 id="rfc.section.D"><a href="#rfc.section.D">D.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#collected.abnf">Collected ABNF</a></h1>
1928         <div id="rfc.figure.u.38"></div><pre class="inline"><a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">Accept</a> = "Accept:" OWS Accept-v
1929<a href="#header.accept-charset" class="smpl">Accept-Charset</a> = "Accept-Charset:" OWS Accept-Charset-v
1930<a href="#header.accept-charset" class="smpl">Accept-Charset-v</a> = *( "," OWS ) ( ( charset / "*" ) [ OWS ";" OWS
1931 "q=" qvalue ] ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( ( charset / "*" ) [ OWS ";" OWS
1932 "q=" qvalue ] ) ] )
1933<a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">Accept-Encoding</a> = "Accept-Encoding:" OWS Accept-Encoding-v
1934<a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">Accept-Encoding-v</a> = [ ( "," / ( codings [ OWS ";" OWS "q=" qvalue ] )
1935 ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( codings [ OWS ";" OWS "q=" qvalue ] ) ] ) ]
1936<a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">Accept-Language</a> = "Accept-Language:" OWS Accept-Language-v
1937<a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">Accept-Language-v</a> = *( "," OWS ) ( language-range [ OWS ";" OWS "q="
1938 qvalue ] ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( language-range [ OWS ";" OWS "q="
1939 qvalue ] ) ] )
1940<a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">Accept-v</a> = [ ( "," / ( media-range [ accept-params ] ) ) *( OWS "," [
1941 OWS ( media-range [ accept-params ] ) ] ) ]
1942
1943<a href="#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding</a> = "Content-Encoding:" OWS Content-Encoding-v
1944<a href="#header.content-encoding" class="smpl">Content-Encoding-v</a> = *( "," OWS ) content-coding *( OWS "," [ OWS
1945 content-coding ] )
1946<a href="#header.content-language" class="smpl">Content-Language</a> = "Content-Language:" OWS Content-Language-v
1947<a href="#header.content-language" class="smpl">Content-Language-v</a> = *( "," OWS ) language-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS
1948 language-tag ] )
1949<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Content-Length</a> = &lt;Content-Length, defined in [Part1], Section 9.2&gt;
1950<a href="#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location</a> = "Content-Location:" OWS Content-Location-v
1951<a href="#header.content-location" class="smpl">Content-Location-v</a> = absolute-URI / partial-URI
1952<a href="#header.content-md5" class="smpl">Content-MD5</a> = "Content-MD5:" OWS Content-MD5-v
1953<a href="#header.content-md5" class="smpl">Content-MD5-v</a> = &lt;base64 of 128 bit MD5 digest as per [RFC1864]&gt;
1954<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Content-Range</a> = &lt;Content-Range, defined in [Part5], Section 5.2&gt;
1955<a href="#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type</a> = "Content-Type:" OWS Content-Type-v
1956<a href="#header.content-type" class="smpl">Content-Type-v</a> = media-type
1957
1958<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Expires</a> = &lt;Expires, defined in [Part6], Section 3.3&gt;
1959
1960<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">Last-Modified</a> = &lt;Last-Modified, defined in [Part4], Section 6.6&gt;
1961
1962<a href="#mime-version" class="smpl">MIME-Version</a> = "MIME-Version:" OWS MIME-Version-v
1963<a href="#mime-version" class="smpl">MIME-Version-v</a> = 1*DIGIT "." 1*DIGIT
1964
1965<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">OWS</a> = &lt;OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
1966
1967<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">absolute-URI</a> = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in [Part1], Section 2.6&gt;
1968<a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">accept-ext</a> = OWS ";" OWS token [ "=" word ]
1969<a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">accept-params</a> = OWS ";" OWS "q=" qvalue *accept-ext
1970<a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">attribute</a> = token
1971
1972<a href="#rule.charset" class="smpl">charset</a> = token
1973<a href="#header.accept-encoding" class="smpl">codings</a> = ( content-coding / "*" )
1974<a href="#content.codings" class="smpl">content-coding</a> = token
1975<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">content-disposition</a> = "Content-Disposition:" OWS
1976 content-disposition-v
1977<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">content-disposition-v</a> = disposition-type *( OWS ";" OWS
1978 disposition-parm )
1979
1980<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disp-extension-parm</a> = token "=" word
1981<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disp-extension-token</a> = token
1982<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disposition-parm</a> = filename-parm / disp-extension-parm
1983<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">disposition-type</a> = "attachment" / disp-extension-token
1984
1985<a href="#entity.body" class="smpl">entity-body</a> = *OCTET
1986<a href="#entity.header.fields" class="smpl">entity-header</a> = Content-Encoding / Content-Language / Content-Length
1987 / Content-Location / Content-MD5 / Content-Range / Content-Type /
1988 Expires / Last-Modified / extension-header
1989<a href="#entity.header.fields" class="smpl">extension-header</a> = header-field
1990
1991<a href="#content-disposition" class="smpl">filename-parm</a> = "filename=" quoted-string
1992
1993<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">header-field</a> = &lt;header-field, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2&gt;
1994
1995<a href="#header.accept-language" class="smpl">language-range</a> = &lt;language-range, defined in [RFC4647], Section 2.1&gt;
1996<a href="#language.tags" class="smpl">language-tag</a> = &lt;Language-Tag, defined in [RFC5646], Section 2.1&gt;
1997
1998<a href="#header.accept" class="smpl">media-range</a> = ( "*/*" / ( type "/*" ) / ( type "/" subtype ) ) *( OWS
1999 ";" OWS parameter )
2000<a href="#media.types" class="smpl">media-type</a> = type "/" subtype *( OWS ";" OWS parameter )
2001
2002<a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">parameter</a> = attribute "=" value
2003<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">partial-URI</a> = &lt;partial-URI, defined in [Part1], Section 2.6&gt;
2004
2005<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">quoted-string</a> = &lt;quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
2006<a href="#abnf.dependencies" class="smpl">qvalue</a> = &lt;qvalue, defined in [Part1], Section 6.4&gt;
2007
2008<a href="#media.types" class="smpl">subtype</a> = token
2009
2010<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">token</a> = &lt;token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
2011<a href="#media.types" class="smpl">type</a> = token
2012
2013<a href="#rule.parameter" class="smpl">value</a> = word
2014
2015<a href="#core.rules" class="smpl">word</a> = &lt;word, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2&gt;
2016</pre><div id="rfc.figure.u.39"></div>
2017         <p>ABNF diagnostics:</p><pre class="inline">; Accept defined but not used
2018; Accept-Charset defined but not used
2019; Accept-Encoding defined but not used
2020; Accept-Language defined but not used
2021; MIME-Version defined but not used
2022; content-disposition defined but not used
2023; entity-body defined but not used
2024; entity-header defined but not used
2025</pre></div>
2026      <div id="change.log">
2027         <h1 id="rfc.section.E"><a href="#rfc.section.E">E.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#change.log">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a></h1>
2028         <div>
2029            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.1"><a href="#rfc.section.E.1">E.1</a>&nbsp;Since RFC2616
2030            </h2>
2031            <p id="rfc.section.E.1.p.1">Extracted relevant partitions from <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.3"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
2032            </p>
2033         </div>
2034         <div>
2035            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.2"><a href="#rfc.section.E.2">E.2</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-00
2036            </h2>
2037            <p id="rfc.section.E.2.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2038            <ul>
2039               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/8">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/8</a>&gt;: "Media Type Registrations" (&lt;<a href="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#media-reg">http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#media-reg</a>&gt;)
2040               </li>
2041               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/14">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/14</a>&gt;: "Clarification regarding quoting of charset values" (&lt;<a href="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#charactersets">http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#charactersets</a>&gt;)
2042               </li>
2043               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/16">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/16</a>&gt;: "Remove 'identity' token references" (&lt;<a href="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#identity">http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#identity</a>&gt;)
2044               </li>
2045               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/25">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/25</a>&gt;: "Accept-Encoding BNF"
2046               </li>
2047               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35</a>&gt;: "Normative and Informative references"
2048               </li>
2049               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/46">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/46</a>&gt;: "RFC1700 references"
2050               </li>
2051               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55</a>&gt;: "Updating to RFC4288"
2052               </li>
2053               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/65">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/65</a>&gt;: "Informative references"
2054               </li>
2055               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/66">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/66</a>&gt;: "ISO-8859-1 Reference"
2056               </li>
2057               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/68">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/68</a>&gt;: "Encoding References Normative"
2058               </li>
2059               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86</a>&gt;: "Normative up-to-date references"
2060               </li>
2061            </ul>
2062         </div>
2063         <div>
2064            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.3"><a href="#rfc.section.E.3">E.3</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-01
2065            </h2>
2066            <p id="rfc.section.E.3.p.1">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
2067            </p>
2068            <ul>
2069               <li>Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.</li>
2070            </ul>
2071         </div>
2072         <div id="changes.since.02">
2073            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.4"><a href="#rfc.section.E.4">E.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.02">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-02</a></h2>
2074            <p id="rfc.section.E.4.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2075            <ul>
2076               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/67">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/67</a>&gt;: "Quoting Charsets"
2077               </li>
2078               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/105">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/105</a>&gt;: "Classification for Allow header"
2079               </li>
2080               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/115">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/115</a>&gt;: "missing default for qvalue in description of Accept-Encoding"
2081               </li>
2082            </ul>
2083            <p id="rfc.section.E.4.p.2">Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40</a>&gt;):
2084            </p>
2085            <ul>
2086               <li>Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers defined in this document.</li>
2087            </ul>
2088         </div>
2089         <div id="changes.since.03">
2090            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.5"><a href="#rfc.section.E.5">E.5</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.03">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-03</a></h2>
2091            <p id="rfc.section.E.5.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2092            <ul>
2093               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/67">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/67</a>&gt;: "Quoting Charsets"
2094               </li>
2095               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/113">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/113</a>&gt;: "language tag matching (Accept-Language) vs RFC4647"
2096               </li>
2097               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/121">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/121</a>&gt;: "RFC 1806 has been replaced by RFC2183"
2098               </li>
2099            </ul>
2100            <p id="rfc.section.E.5.p.2">Other changes: </p>
2101            <ul>
2102               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/68">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/68</a>&gt;: "Encoding References Normative" -- rephrase the annotation and reference <a href="#BCP97" id="rfc.xref.BCP97.4"><cite title="Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents">[BCP97]</cite></a>.
2103               </li>
2104            </ul>
2105         </div>
2106         <div id="changes.since.04">
2107            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.6"><a href="#rfc.section.E.6">E.6</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.04">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-04</a></h2>
2108            <p id="rfc.section.E.6.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2109            <ul>
2110               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/132">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/132</a>&gt;: "RFC 2822 is updated by RFC 5322"
2111               </li>
2112            </ul>
2113            <p id="rfc.section.E.6.p.2">Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
2114            </p>
2115            <ul>
2116               <li>Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.</li>
2117               <li>Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").</li>
2118               <li>Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header value format definitions.</li>
2119            </ul>
2120         </div>
2121         <div id="changes.since.05">
2122            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.7"><a href="#rfc.section.E.7">E.7</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.05">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-05</a></h2>
2123            <p id="rfc.section.E.7.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2124            <ul>
2125               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/118">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/118</a>&gt;: "Join "Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities"?"
2126               </li>
2127            </ul>
2128            <p id="rfc.section.E.7.p.2">Final work on ABNF conversion (&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36</a>&gt;):
2129            </p>
2130            <ul>
2131               <li>Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize ABNF introduction.</li>
2132            </ul>
2133            <p id="rfc.section.E.7.p.3">Other changes: </p>
2134            <ul>
2135               <li>Move definition of quality values into Part 1.</li>
2136            </ul>
2137         </div>
2138         <div id="changes.since.06">
2139            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.8"><a href="#rfc.section.E.8">E.8</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.06">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-06</a></h2>
2140            <p id="rfc.section.E.8.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2141            <ul>
2142               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/80">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/80</a>&gt;: "Content-Location isn't special"
2143               </li>
2144               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/155">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/155</a>&gt;: "Content Sniffing"
2145               </li>
2146            </ul>
2147         </div>
2148         <div id="changes.since.07">
2149            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.9"><a href="#rfc.section.E.9">E.9</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.07">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-07</a></h2>
2150            <p id="rfc.section.E.9.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2151            <ul>
2152               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/13">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/13</a>&gt;: "Updated reference for language tags"
2153               </li>
2154               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/110">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/110</a>&gt;: "Clarify rules for determining what entities a response carries"
2155               </li>
2156               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/154">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/154</a>&gt;: "Content-Location base-setting problems"
2157               </li>
2158               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/155">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/155</a>&gt;: "Content Sniffing"
2159               </li>
2160               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/188">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/188</a>&gt;: "pick IANA policy (RFC5226) for Transfer Coding / Content Coding"
2161               </li>
2162               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/189">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/189</a>&gt;: "move definitions of gzip/deflate/compress to part 1"
2163               </li>
2164            </ul>
2165            <p id="rfc.section.E.9.p.2">Partly resolved issues: </p>
2166            <ul>
2167               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/148">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/148</a>&gt;: "update IANA requirements wrt Transfer-Coding values" (add the IANA Considerations subsection)
2168               </li>
2169               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/149">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/149</a>&gt;: "update IANA requirements wrt Content-Coding values" (add the IANA Considerations subsection)
2170               </li>
2171            </ul>
2172         </div>
2173         <div id="changes.since.08">
2174            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.10"><a href="#rfc.section.E.10">E.10</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.08">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-08</a></h2>
2175            <p id="rfc.section.E.10.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2176            <ul>
2177               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/81">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/81</a>&gt;: "Content Negotiation for media types"
2178               </li>
2179               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/181">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/181</a>&gt;: "Accept-Language: which RFC4647 filtering?"
2180               </li>
2181            </ul>
2182         </div>
2183         <div id="changes.since.09">
2184            <h2 id="rfc.section.E.11"><a href="#rfc.section.E.11">E.11</a>&nbsp;<a href="#changes.since.09">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-09</a></h2>
2185            <p id="rfc.section.E.11.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
2186            <ul>
2187               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/143">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/143</a>&gt;: "IANA registry for content/transfer encodings"
2188               </li>
2189               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/155">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/155</a>&gt;: "Content Sniffing"
2190               </li>
2191               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/200">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/200</a>&gt;: "use of term "word" when talking about header structure"
2192               </li>
2193            </ul>
2194            <p id="rfc.section.E.11.p.2">Partly resolved issues: </p>
2195            <ul>
2196               <li>&lt;<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196">http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196</a>&gt;: "Term for the requested resource's URI"
2197               </li>
2198            </ul>
2199         </div>
2200      </div>
2201      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
2202      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.B">B</a> <a href="#rfc.index.C">C</a> <a href="#rfc.index.D">D</a> <a href="#rfc.index.E">E</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.I">I</a> <a href="#rfc.index.L">L</a> <a href="#rfc.index.M">M</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.U">U</a> <a href="#rfc.index.V">V</a> 
2203      </p>
2204      <div class="print2col">
2205         <ul class="ind">
2206            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
2207                  <li>Accept header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept.2">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>5.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept.3">6.1</a></li>
2208                  <li>Accept-Charset header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.2"><b>5.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.2">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.3">C.1</a></li>
2209                  <li>Accept-Encoding header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.2">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.3"><b>5.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.3">6.1</a></li>
2210                  <li>Accept-Language header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-language.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.4"><b>5.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-language.2">6.1</a></li>
2211                  <li>Alternates header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.a.5"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2212               </ul>
2213            </li>
2214            <li><a id="rfc.index.B" href="#rfc.index.B"><b>B</b></a><ul>
2215                  <li><em>BCP97</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.BCP97.1">9.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.BCP97.2">9.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.BCP97.3">9.1</a>, <a href="#BCP97"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.BCP97.4">E.5</a></li>
2216               </ul>
2217            </li>
2218            <li><a id="rfc.index.C" href="#rfc.index.C"><b>C</b></a><ul>
2219                  <li>Coding Format&nbsp;&nbsp;
2220                     <ul>
2221                        <li>compress&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.3">2.2</a></li>
2222                        <li>deflate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.4">2.2</a></li>
2223                        <li>gzip&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.5">2.2</a></li>
2224                        <li>identity&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.6">2.2</a></li>
2225                     </ul>
2226                  </li>
2227                  <li>compress (Coding Format)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.2">2.2</a></li>
2228                  <li>content negotiation&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.1">1.1</a></li>
2229                  <li>Content-Base header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.14"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2230                  <li>Content-Disposition header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.content-disposition.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.content-disposition.2">7.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.12"><b>B.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.extref.c.32">B.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.extref.c.50">D</a></li>
2231                  <li>Content-Encoding header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.7"><b>5.5</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.3">5.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.4">6.1</a></li>
2232                  <li>Content-Language header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-language.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.8"><b>5.6</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-language.2">6.1</a></li>
2233                  <li>Content-Location header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-location.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.9"><b>5.7</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-location.2">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-location.3">C.2</a></li>
2234                  <li>Content-MD5 header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-md5.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.10"><b>5.8</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-md5.2">6.1</a></li>
2235                  <li>Content-Type header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-type.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-type.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.c.11"><b>5.9</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-type.3">6.1</a></li>
2236                  <li>Content-Version header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.c.13"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2237               </ul>
2238            </li>
2239            <li><a id="rfc.index.D" href="#rfc.index.D"><b>D</b></a><ul>
2240                  <li>deflate (Coding Format)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.d.1">2.2</a></li>
2241                  <li>Derived-From header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.d.2"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2242               </ul>
2243            </li>
2244            <li><a id="rfc.index.E" href="#rfc.index.E"><b>E</b></a><ul>
2245                  <li>entity&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.e.1">1.1</a></li>
2246               </ul>
2247            </li>
2248            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
2249                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
2250                     <ul>
2251                        <li><tt>Accept</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.14"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
2252                        <li><tt>Accept-Charset</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.19"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
2253                        <li><tt>Accept-Charset-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.20"><b>5.2</b></a></li>
2254                        <li><tt>Accept-Encoding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.21"><b>5.3</b></a></li>
2255                        <li><tt>Accept-Encoding-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.22"><b>5.3</b></a></li>
2256                        <li><tt>accept-ext</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.18"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
2257                        <li><tt>Accept-Language</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.24"><b>5.4</b></a></li>
2258                        <li><tt>Accept-Language-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.25"><b>5.4</b></a></li>
2259                        <li><tt>accept-params</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.17"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
2260                        <li><tt>Accept-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.15"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
2261                        <li><tt>attribute</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.8"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
2262                        <li><tt>charset</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
2263                        <li><tt>codings</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.23"><b>5.3</b></a></li>
2264                        <li><tt>content-coding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
2265                        <li><tt>content-disposition</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.39"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2266                        <li><tt>content-disposition-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.40"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2267                        <li><tt>Content-Encoding</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.27"><b>5.5</b></a></li>
2268                        <li><tt>Content-Encoding-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.28"><b>5.5</b></a></li>
2269                        <li><tt>Content-Language</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.29"><b>5.6</b></a></li>
2270                        <li><tt>Content-Language-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.30"><b>5.6</b></a></li>
2271                        <li><tt>Content-Location</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.31"><b>5.7</b></a></li>
2272                        <li><tt>Content-Location-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.32"><b>5.7</b></a></li>
2273                        <li><tt>Content-MD5</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.33"><b>5.8</b></a></li>
2274                        <li><tt>Content-MD5-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.34"><b>5.8</b></a></li>
2275                        <li><tt>Content-Type</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.35"><b>5.9</b></a></li>
2276                        <li><tt>Content-Type-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.36"><b>5.9</b></a></li>
2277                        <li><tt>disp-extension-parm</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.45"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2278                        <li><tt>disp-extension-token</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.44"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2279                        <li><tt>disposition-parm</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.42"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2280                        <li><tt>disposition-type</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.41"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2281                        <li><tt>entity-body</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.13"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
2282                        <li><tt>entity-header</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.11"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
2283                        <li><tt>extension-header</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.12"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
2284                        <li><tt>filename-parm</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.43"><b>B.1</b></a></li>
2285                        <li><tt>language-range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.26"><b>5.4</b></a></li>
2286                        <li><tt>language-tag</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.10"><b>2.4</b></a></li>
2287                        <li><tt>media-range</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.16"><b>5.1</b></a></li>
2288                        <li><tt>media-type</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
2289                        <li><tt>MIME-Version</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.37"><b>A.1</b></a></li>
2290                        <li><tt>MIME-Version-v</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.38"><b>A.1</b></a></li>
2291                        <li><tt>parameter</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.7"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
2292                        <li><tt>subtype</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.6"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
2293                        <li><tt>type</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.5"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
2294                        <li><tt>value</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.9"><b>2.3</b></a></li>
2295                     </ul>
2296                  </li>
2297                  <li>gzip (Coding Format)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3">2.2</a></li>
2298               </ul>
2299            </li>
2300            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
2301                  <li>Headers&nbsp;&nbsp;
2302                     <ul>
2303                        <li>Accept&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept.2">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>5.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept.3">6.1</a></li>
2304                        <li>Accept-Charset&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>5.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.2">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-charset.3">C.1</a></li>
2305                        <li>Accept-Encoding&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.2">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>5.3</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-encoding.3">6.1</a></li>
2306                        <li>Accept-Language&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-language.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>5.4</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.accept-language.2">6.1</a></li>
2307                        <li>Alternate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.12"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2308                        <li>Content-Base&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.18"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2309                        <li>Content-Disposition&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.content-disposition.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.content-disposition.2">7.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.11"><b>B.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.extref.c.32">B.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.extref.c.50">D</a></li>
2310                        <li>Content-Encoding&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.5"><b>5.5</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.3">5.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-encoding.4">6.1</a></li>
2311                        <li>Content-Language&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-language.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.6"><b>5.6</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-language.2">6.1</a></li>
2312                        <li>Content-Location&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-location.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.7"><b>5.7</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-location.2">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-location.3">C.2</a></li>
2313                        <li>Content-MD5&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-md5.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.8"><b>5.8</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-md5.2">6.1</a></li>
2314                        <li>Content-Type&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-type.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-type.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.9"><b>5.9</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.header.content-type.3">6.1</a></li>
2315                        <li>Content-Version&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.13"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2316                        <li>Derived-From&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.14"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2317                        <li>Link&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.15"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2318                        <li>MIME-Version&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.mime-version.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.10"><b>A.1</b></a></li>
2319                        <li>Public&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.17"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2320                        <li>URI&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.h.16"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2321                     </ul>
2322                  </li>
2323               </ul>
2324            </li>
2325            <li><a id="rfc.index.I" href="#rfc.index.I"><b>I</b></a><ul>
2326                  <li>identity (Coding Format)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.i.1">2.2</a></li>
2327                  <li><em>ISO-8859-1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.ISO-8859-1.1">2.1.1</a>, <a href="#ISO-8859-1"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
2328               </ul>
2329            </li>
2330            <li><a id="rfc.index.L" href="#rfc.index.L"><b>L</b></a><ul>
2331                  <li>Link header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.l.1"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2332               </ul>
2333            </li>
2334            <li><a id="rfc.index.M" href="#rfc.index.M"><b>M</b></a><ul>
2335                  <li>MIME-Version header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.mime-version.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.m.1"><b>A.1</b></a></li>
2336               </ul>
2337            </li>
2338            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
2339                  <li><em>Part1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2.2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.19">3.2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.20">5.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.21">5.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.22">5.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.23">5.7</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.24">6.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.25">6.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.26">6.2</a>, <a href="#Part1"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.27">A.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.28">A.6</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.29">C.1</a><ul>
2340                        <li><em>Section 1.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.1">1.3</a></li>
2341                        <li><em>Section 1.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.2">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.3">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.4">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.5">1.3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.6">1.3.1</a></li>
2342                        <li><em>Section 2.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.7">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.10">1.3.2</a></li>
2343                        <li><em>Section 3.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.9">1.3.2</a></li>
2344                        <li><em>Section 3.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.18">3.2</a></li>
2345                        <li><em>Section 3.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.19">3.2.2</a></li>
2346                        <li><em>Section 4.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.22">5.5</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.23">5.7</a></li>
2347                        <li><em>Section 6.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.27">A.3</a></li>
2348                        <li><em>Section 6.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.15">2.2.1</a></li>
2349                        <li><em>Section 6.2.2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.12">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.24">6.2</a></li>
2350                        <li><em>Section 6.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.16">2.2.1</a></li>
2351                        <li><em>Section 6.2.2.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.13">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.25">6.2</a></li>
2352                        <li><em>Section 6.2.2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.14">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.26">6.2</a></li>
2353                        <li><em>Section 6.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.11">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.20">5.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.21">5.3</a></li>
2354                        <li><em>Section 9.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.8">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.17">3.1</a></li>
2355                        <li><em>Section 9.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part1.28">A.6</a></li>
2356                     </ul>
2357                  </li>
2358                  <li><em>Part2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">5.7</a>, <a href="#Part2"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
2359                        <li><em>Section 6.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.2">5.7</a></li>
2360                        <li><em>Section 9.9</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part2.1">4.1</a></li>
2361                     </ul>
2362                  </li>
2363                  <li><em>Part4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#Part4"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
2364                        <li><em>Section 6.6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.1">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part4.2">3.1</a></li>
2365                     </ul>
2366                  </li>
2367                  <li><em>Part5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.2">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.3">3.1</a>, <a href="#Part5"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.4">C.1</a><ul>
2368                        <li><em>Section 5.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.1">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.3">3.1</a></li>
2369                        <li><em>Appendix A</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part5.2">2.3.2</a></li>
2370                     </ul>
2371                  </li>
2372                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">4.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.4">5.7</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.5">C.1</a><ul>
2373                        <li><em>Section 2.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.4">5.7</a></li>
2374                        <li><em>Section 3.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">1.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.2">3.1</a></li>
2375                        <li><em>Section 3.5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.3">4.1</a></li>
2376                     </ul>
2377                  </li>
2378                  <li>Public header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.p.1"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2379               </ul>
2380            </li>
2381            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
2382                  <li>representation&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.r.1">1.1</a></li>
2383                  <li><em>RFC1864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1864.1">5.8</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1864.2">5.8</a>, <a href="#RFC1864"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
2384                  <li><em>RFC1945</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC1945"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1945.1">B</a></li>
2385                  <li><em>RFC1950</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1950.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#RFC1950"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
2386                  <li><em>RFC1951</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1951.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#RFC1951"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
2387                  <li><em>RFC1952</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC1952.1">6.2</a>, <a href="#RFC1952"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
2388                  <li><em>RFC2045</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2045"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.1">A</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.2">A.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2045.3">A.2</a></li>
2389                  <li><em>RFC2046</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.2">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.3">3.2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2046"><b>9.1</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.4">A.2</a><ul>
2390                        <li><em>Section 4.5.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.3">3.2.1</a></li>
2391                        <li><em>Section 5.1.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2046.2">2.3.2</a></li>
2392                     </ul>
2393                  </li>
2394                  <li><em>RFC2049</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2049"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2049.1">A.2</a><ul>
2395                        <li><em>Section 4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2049.1">A.2</a></li>
2396                     </ul>
2397                  </li>
2398                  <li><em>RFC2068</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.1">9.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.2">9.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.3">9.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2068"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.4">B</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.5">C.1</a><ul>
2399                        <li><em>Section 19.6.2</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2068.5">C.1</a></li>
2400                     </ul>
2401                  </li>
2402                  <li><em>RFC2076</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2076"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2076.1">B</a></li>
2403                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.2</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>9.1</b></a></li>
2404                  <li><em>RFC2183</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2183.1">7.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2183.2">7.2</a>, <a href="#RFC2183"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2183.3">B.1</a><ul>
2405                        <li><em>Section 5</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2183.2">7.2</a></li>
2406                     </ul>
2407                  </li>
2408                  <li><em>RFC2277</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2277.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2277"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
2409                  <li><em>RFC2295</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2295.1">4</a>, <a href="#RFC2295"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
2410                  <li><em>RFC2388</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2388.1">2.3.2</a>, <a href="#RFC2388"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
2411                  <li><em>RFC2557</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC2557"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2557.1">A.7</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2557.2">C.1</a></li>
2412                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">5.4</a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.3">E.1</a><ul>
2413                        <li><em>Section 14.4</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">5.4</a></li>
2414                     </ul>
2415                  </li>
2416                  <li><em>RFC3629</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3629.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC3629"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
2417                  <li><em>RFC3864</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC3864.1">6.1</a>, <a href="#RFC3864"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
2418                  <li><em>RFC4288</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4288.1">2.3</a>, <a href="#RFC4288"><b>9.2</b></a></li>
2419                  <li><em>RFC4647</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.1">5.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.2">5.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.3">5.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.4">5.4</a>, <a href="#RFC4647"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
2420                        <li><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.1">5.4</a></li>
2421                        <li><em>Section 2.3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.2">5.4</a></li>
2422                        <li><em>Section 3</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.3">5.4</a></li>
2423                        <li><em>Section 3.3.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC4647.4">5.4</a></li>
2424                     </ul>
2425                  </li>
2426                  <li><em>RFC5226</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.2.1</a>, <a href="#RFC5226"><b>9.2</b></a><ul>
2427                        <li><em>Section 4.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5226.1">2.2.1</a></li>
2428                     </ul>
2429                  </li>
2430                  <li><em>RFC5234</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.1">1.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.3</a>, <a href="#RFC5234"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
2431                        <li><em>Appendix B.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5234.2">1.3</a></li>
2432                     </ul>
2433                  </li>
2434                  <li><em>RFC5322</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#RFC5322"><b>9.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5322.1">A</a></li>
2435                  <li><em>RFC5646</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5646.1">2.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5646.2">2.4</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5646.3">2.4</a>, <a href="#RFC5646"><b>9.1</b></a><ul>
2436                        <li><em>Section 2.1</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC5646.2">2.4</a></li>
2437                     </ul>
2438                  </li>
2439               </ul>
2440            </li>
2441            <li><a id="rfc.index.U" href="#rfc.index.U"><b>U</b></a><ul>
2442                  <li>URI header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.u.1"><b>C.1</b></a></li>
2443               </ul>
2444            </li>
2445            <li><a id="rfc.index.V" href="#rfc.index.V"><b>V</b></a><ul>
2446                  <li>variant&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.v.1">1.1</a></li>
2447               </ul>
2448            </li>
2449         </ul>
2450      </div>
2451      <div class="avoidbreak">
2452         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
2453         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
2454            (editor)
2455            <br>Day Software<br>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280<br>Newport Beach, CA&nbsp;92660<br>USA<br>Phone: <a href="tel:+1-949-706-5300">+1-949-706-5300</a><br>Fax: <a href="fax:+1-949-706-5305">+1-949-706-5305</a><br>Email: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com">fielding@gbiv.com</a><br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
2456         <p><b>Jim Gettys</b><br>Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs<br>21 Oak Knoll Road<br>Carlisle, MA&nbsp;01741<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:jg@freedesktop.org">jg@freedesktop.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://gettys.wordpress.com/">http://gettys.wordpress.com/</a></p>
2457         <p><b>Jeffrey C. Mogul</b><br>Hewlett-Packard Company<br>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group<br>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177<br>Palo Alto, CA&nbsp;94304<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org">JeffMogul@acm.org</a></p>
2458         <p><b>Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com">henrikn@microsoft.com</a></p>
2459         <p><b>Larry Masinter</b><br>Adobe Systems, Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org">LMM@acm.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://larry.masinter.net/">http://larry.masinter.net/</a></p>
2460         <p><b>Paul J. Leach</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>Email: <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com">paulle@microsoft.com</a></p>
2461         <p><b>Tim Berners-Lee</b><br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory<br>The Stata Center, Building 32<br>32 Vassar Street<br>Cambridge, MA&nbsp;02139<br>USA<br>Email: <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org">timbl@w3.org</a><br>URI: <a href